Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 8

NAME Nokhomboyi M

Student no. 217231594


COURSE DESIGN PROJECT III
COURSE CODE DPRO3B1
TASK LITERATURE REVIEW
LECTURER MR MAGWA
DUE DATE SEPTERMBER 2018

1
SPEED CHECKER TO DETECT RASH DRIVING ON
HIGHWAYS

ABSTRACT

The aim of this project is to develop a device to detect rash driving on highways
and to alert the traffic authorities in case of any speed violation. Accidents due to
rash driving on highways are on the rise and people are losing their lives because
of others mistakes. In the present system, to detect rash driving the police has to
use a handheld radar gun and aim at the vehicle to record its speed. If the speed
of the vehicle exceeds the speed limit, nearest police station is informed to stop
the speeding vehicle. This is an ineffective process as after detecting one has to
inform the same and a lot of time is wasted. The proposed system will check on
rash driving by calculating the speed of a vehicle using the time taken to travel
between the two set points at a fixed distance. A set point consists of a pair of
sensors comprising of an IR transmitter and an IR receiver, each of which are
installed on either sides of the road. The speed limit is set by the police who use
the system depending upon the traffic at the very location. The time taken by the
vehicle to travel from one set point to the other is calculated by control circuit.
Based on that time it then calculates the speed and displays that on seven segment
displays. Moreover if the vehicle crosses the speed limit, a buzzer sounds alerting
the police.

This concept can be extended in future by integrating a camera with the system
which could capture the image of the number plate of the vehicle to sends that to
the traffic authorities.

INTRODUTION

Now-a-days we hear news about accidents on Highways very frequently. And in


most of the cases main reason of accident is over speed. Although all highways

2
do have signboards indicating maximum speed limit for the sake of driver’s
safety, but still people does not obey highway speed limit. The project
mentioned here is “Speed checker and over speed detector for Highways”. This
project is designed and developed by taking into consideration the problem
mentioned above. We have used two sensors in this project. These sensors
detect the vehicle speed. Condition is that, the two sensors should be installed
at a distance apart from one another. The seven segment is also connect to the
project to display speed of vehicle. It will also intimate user if vehicle speed
crossed the maximum speed limit or not. The project also has a Buzzer. Over
speed condition is indicated by turning on the Buzzer. Many analysts and policy
makers have argued that building more highways is an Ineffective response to
congestion: specifically, that it is infeasible to add enough highways. Capacity in
large urban areas to provide much relief. But this making of highways is just
showing the path for accidents because of no speed limits in these highways. In
order to overcome this problem we have designed equipment called as Speed
checker for highways. This project has been designed to give the time reading
and not KMPH reading.

THEORY

Principle of operation

The system basically comprises two laser transmitter-LR sensor pairs, which
are installed on the highway distance apart, with the transmitter and the LR
sensor of each pair on the opposite sides of the road. The system displays the
time taken by the vehicle in crossing this distance from one pair to the other
with a resolution of 0.01 second from which the speed of the vehicle can be
calculated as follows: Speed (kmph) = Distance/Time.

3
BLOCK DIAGRAM

This is the block diagram which consist of transformer, bridge, regulator,


decade counters, timers, two IR led sensors, nand gates, buzzer and 7-segment
display.

4
POWER SUPPLY

5
555 TIMER

The 555 Timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) implementing a variety of


timer and multivibrator applications

• Monostable mode: in this mode, the 555 functions as a "one-shot".


Applications include timers, missing pulse detection, switches, touch
switches, frequency divider, capacitance measurement, pulse-width
modulation (PWM) etc.

• Astable - free running mode: the 555 can operate as an oscillator. Uses
include LED and lamp flashers, pulse generation, logic clocks, tone
generation, security alarms, pulse position modulation, etc.

• Bistable mode or Schmitt trigger: the 555 can operate as a flip-flop, if the
DISPLAY pin is not connected and no capacitor is used. Uses include
bounce free latched switches, etc.

• Here one 555 Timer IC is used in astable mode and the others are used
in monostable mode

cd4026 decoder

• The count advances as the clock input becomes high (on the rising-
edge).
6
• The outputs a-g go high to light the appropriate segments of a common-
cathode 7-segment display as the count advances.

• The maximum output current is about 1mA with a 4.5V supply and 4mA
with a 9V supply.

• This is sufficient to directly drive many 7-segment LED displays.

IR SENSOR

 IR sensor can measure the heat of an object as well as detects the


motion.
 IR led emits ir rays hits on object and received by photodiode and thus
keeps IR high.

CD4011-NAND GATE

 NAND gate is the opposite of the digital AND gate, and behaves in a
manner that corresponds to the opposite of AND gate

7
 The NAND gate is significant because any Boolean function can be
implemented by using a combination of NAND gates. This property is
called functional completeness

SEVEN-SEGMENT DISPLAY

Two types of 7-segment displays are the LED and the LCD. Each of the
segments in an LED display uses a light-emitting diode to produce a colored
light when there is current through it and can be seen in the dark. An LCD or
liquid-crystal display operates by polarizing light so that when a segment is not
activated by a voltage, it reflects incident light and appears invisible against its
back ground; however, when a segment is activated, it does not reflect light
and appears black. The seven segments are arranged as a, b, c, d, e, f and g.

CONCLUSION

Since number of accidents on highways increases day by day so it is necessary


to check speed of the vehicles on highways so as to remove accident cases and
to provide a safe journey by controlling high speed of the vehicle. It also
minimizes the difficulties of traffic police department. The police can perform
their duties while sitting in control room and can provide their service. This
concept can be extended in future by integrating a camera with the system
which could capture the image of the number plate of the vehicle to sends that
to the traffic authorities

REFERENCE

www.google.com/speedchecker//m
Digital fundamentals eleventh edition by Thomas L. Floyd