Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 26

16.81016.810 (16.682)(16.682) EngineeringEngineering DesignDesign andand RapidRapid PrototypingPrototyping

Design Design and and Rapid Rapid Prototyping Prototyping Finite Element Method Instructor(s) Prof. Olivier de Weck

Finite Element MethodDesign Design and and Rapid Rapid Prototyping Prototyping Instructor(s) Prof. Olivier de Weck Dr. Il Yong Design Design and and Rapid Rapid Prototyping Prototyping Instructor(s) Prof. Olivier de Weck Dr. Il Yong

Instructor(s)

Prof. Olivier de Weck

Dr. Il Yong Kim

January 12, 2004

Rapid Prototyping Prototyping Finite Element Method Instructor(s) Prof. Olivier de Weck Dr. Il Yong Kim January
Plan for Today FEM Lecture (ca. 50 min) FEM fundamental concepts, analysis procedure Errors, Mistakes,

Plan for TodayFEM Lecture (ca. 50 min) FEM fundamental concepts, analysis procedure Errors, Mistakes, and Accuracy Cosmos FEM Lecture (ca. 50 min) FEM fundamental concepts, analysis procedure Errors, Mistakes, and Accuracy Cosmos

FEM Lecture (ca. 50 min)

FEM fundamental concepts, analysis procedure Errors, Mistakes, and Accuracy

Cosmos Introduction (ca. 30 min)

Follow along step-by-step

Conduct FEA of your part (ca. 90 min)

Work in teams of two First conduct an analysis of your CAD design You are free to make modifications to your original model

16.810 (16.682)

conduct an analysis of your CAD design You are free to make modifications to your original
conduct an analysis of your CAD design You are free to make modifications to your original

2

 
  Course Concept
  Course Concept

Course Concept

  Course Concept
  Course Concept
today
today

16.810 (16.682)

  Course Concept today 16.810 (16.682) 3

3

 
  Course Flow Diagram
  Course Flow Diagram

Course Flow Diagram

  Course Flow Diagram
  Course Flow Diagram

Learning/Review

Design Intro

CAD/CAM/CAE Intro

FEM/Solid Mechanics Overview

Manufacturing

Training

Structural Test “Training”

Design Optimization

Deliverables

Problem statement
Problem statement

Hand sketching

Hand sketching Design Sketch v1
Hand sketching Design Sketch v1

Design Sketch v1

Problem statement Hand sketching Design Sketch v1 CAD design Drawing v1 FEM analysis Analysis output v1
CAD design Drawing v1 FEM analysis Analysis output v1 today
CAD design
Drawing v1
FEM analysis
Analysis output v1
today

Produce Part 1

Produce Part 1
Produce Part 1 Part v1
Produce Part 1 Part v1

Part v1

Part v1
Analysis output v1 today Produce Part 1 Part v1 due today Wednesday Test Experiment data v1

due today

Wednesday

v1 today Produce Part 1 Part v1 due today Wednesday Test Experiment data v1 Optimization Design/Analysis

Test

Test
Test Experiment data v1
Test Experiment data v1

Experiment data v1

Experiment data v1
Part v1 due today Wednesday Test Experiment data v1 Optimization Design/Analysis output v2 Produce Part 2

Optimization

due today Wednesday Test Experiment data v1 Optimization Design/Analysis output v2 Produce Part 2 Part v2

Design/Analysis output v2

Experiment data v1 Optimization Design/Analysis output v2 Produce Part 2 Part v2 Test Experiment data v2

Produce Part 2

Produce Part 2
Produce Part 2 Part v2
Produce Part 2 Part v2

Part v2

Produce Part 2 Part v2

Test

Test Experiment data v2
Test Experiment data v2

Experiment data v2

Final Review
Final Review
Design/Analysis output v2 Produce Part 2 Part v2 Test Experiment data v2 Final Review 16.810 (16.682)

16.810 (16.682)

4

 
  Numerical Method
  Numerical Method

Numerical Method

  Numerical Method
  Numerical Method

Finite Element Method

Boundary Element Method

Finite Difference Method

Finite Volume Method

Meshless Method

16.810 (16.682)

Element Method Boundary Element Method Finite Difference Method Finite Volume Method Meshless Method 16.810 (16.682) 5
Element Method Boundary Element Method Finite Difference Method Finite Volume Method Meshless Method 16.810 (16.682) 5

5

 
  What is the FEM?
  What is the FEM?

What is the FEM?

  What is the FEM?
  What is the FEM?

FEM: Method for numerical solution of field problems.

Description

- FEM cuts a structure into several elements (pieces of the structure).

- Then reconnects elements at “nodes” as if nodes were pins or drops of glue that hold elements together.

- This process results in a set of simultaneous algebraic equations.

Number of degrees-of-freedom (DOF)

Continuum: Infinite

FEM: Finite (This is the origin of the name, Finite Element Method)

16.810 (16.682)

(DOF) Continuum: Infinite FEM: Finite (This is the origin of the name, Finite Element Method) 16.810
(DOF) Continuum: Infinite FEM: Finite (This is the origin of the name, Finite Element Method) 16.810

6

 
  Fundamental Concepts (1)
  Fundamental Concepts (1)

Fundamental Concepts (1)

  Fundamental Concepts (1)
  Fundamental Concepts (1)

Many engineering phenomena can be expressed by “governing equations” and “boundary conditions”

Elastic problems

Thermal problems

Fluid flow

Electrostatics

etc.

Governing Equation (Differential equation)

etc. Governing Equation (Differential equation) L () f 0 Boundary Conditions B () g 0 16.810

L () f 0

etc. Governing Equation (Differential equation) L () f 0 Boundary Conditions B () g 0 16.810

Boundary Conditions

B () g 0

16.810 (16.682)

etc. Governing Equation (Differential equation) L () f 0 Boundary Conditions B () g 0 16.810

7

Fundamental Concepts (2) Example: Vertical machining center Elastic deformation Thermal behavior etc. Governing

Fundamental Concepts (2)

Example: Vertical machining center

Elastic deformation Thermal behavior etc.

Governing

Equation:

Boundary

Conditions:

L () f 0

B ()

g 0

FEM

Boundary Conditions: L () f 0 B ( ) g 0 FEM Approximate! You know all

Approximate!

You know all the equations, but you cannot solve it by hand
You know all the equations, but
you cannot solve it by hand

Geometry is very complex!

A set of simultaneous algebraic equations

[ Ku]{ } {F}

16.810 (16.682)

it by hand Geometry is very complex! A set of simultaneous algebraic equations [ Ku ]{

8

Fundamental Concepts (3) [ Ku ]{ } { F } Property Action u KF {}

Fundamental Concepts (3)

[ Ku]{ } {F}

Fundamental Concepts (3) [ Ku ]{ } { F } Property Action u KF {} [
Property Action
Property
Action

u KF

{} [ ] {}

1

Behavior Unknown Property [ K ] Behavior {u} Action {F} Elastic stiffness displacement force Thermal
Behavior
Unknown
Property [ K ]
Behavior {u}
Action {F}
Elastic
stiffness
displacement
force
Thermal
conductivity
temperature
heat source
velocity
Fluid
viscosity
body force
Electrostatic
dialectri permittivity
electric potential
charge

16.810 (16.682)

Fluid viscosity body force Electrostatic dialectri permittivity electric potential charge 16.810 (16.682) 9
Fluid viscosity body force Electrostatic dialectri permittivity electric potential charge 16.810 (16.682) 9

9

 
  Fundamental Concepts (4)
  Fundamental Concepts (4)

Fundamental Concepts (4)

  Fundamental Concepts (4)
  Fundamental Concepts (4)

It is very difficult to make the algebraic equations for the entire domain Divide the domain into a number of small, simple elements

Divide the domain into a number of small, simple elements A field quantity is interpolated by
Divide the domain into a number of small, simple elements A field quantity is interpolated by

A field quantity is interpolated by a polynomial over an element

quantity is interpolated by a polynomial over an element Adjacent elements share the DOF at connecting

Adjacent elements share the DOF at connecting nodes

an element Adjacent elements share the DOF at connecting nodes Finite element: Small piece of structure
an element Adjacent elements share the DOF at connecting nodes Finite element: Small piece of structure

Finite element: Small piece of structure

16.810 (16.682)

an element Adjacent elements share the DOF at connecting nodes Finite element: Small piece of structure

10

 
  Fundamental Concepts (5)
  Fundamental Concepts (5)

Fundamental Concepts (5)

  Fundamental Concepts (5)
  Fundamental Concepts (5)

Obtain the algebraic equations for each element (this is easy!)

the algebraic equations for each element (this is easy!) Put all the element equations together E

Put all the element equations together

E E E [ Ku ]{ } F { } E E E [ Ku
E
E
E
[
Ku
]{
}
F
{
}
E
E
E
[
Ku ]{
}
{ F
}
E
E
E
[
Ku ]{
}
{ F

}

[

E E Ku ]{ } F {
E
E
Ku
]{
}
F
{

E

}

[

Ku

E

]{

E

}

{

F

E

}

} { F } [ E E Ku ]{ } F { E } [ Ku

[

[ { F } [ E E Ku ]{ } F { E } [ Ku E

{ F } [ E E Ku ]{ } F { E } [ Ku E
E E E Ku ]{ } F { } E E E [ Ku ]{
E
E
E
Ku
]{
}
F
{
}
E
E
E
[
Ku ]{
}
{ F

[ Ku]{ } {F}

Ku E ]{ E } { F E } [ [ E E E Ku ]{

16.810 (16.682)

}

11

 
  Fundamental Concepts (6)
  Fundamental Concepts (6)

Fundamental Concepts (6)

  Fundamental Concepts (6)
  Fundamental Concepts (6)

Solve the equations, obtaining unknown variables at nodes.

[ Ku]{ } {F}

(6) Solve the equations, obtaining unknown variables at nodes. [ Ku ]{ } { F }

16.810 (16.682)

(6) Solve the equations, obtaining unknown variables at nodes. [ Ku ]{ } { F }
(6) Solve the equations, obtaining unknown variables at nodes. [ Ku ]{ } { F }
(6) Solve the equations, obtaining unknown variables at nodes. [ Ku ]{ } { F }
(6) Solve the equations, obtaining unknown variables at nodes. [ Ku ]{ } { F }

u KF

{} [ ] {}

1

(6) Solve the equations, obtaining unknown variables at nodes. [ Ku ]{ } { F }

12

 
  Concepts - Summary
  Concepts - Summary

Concepts - Summary

  Concepts - Summary
  Concepts - Summary

- FEM uses the concept of piecewise polynomial interpolation.

- By connecting elements together, the field quantity becomes interpolated over the entire structure in piecewise fashion.

- A set of simultaneous algebraic equations at nodes.

[ Ku]{ } {F}

algebraic equations at nodes. [ Ku ]{ } { F } Property Behavior Action K: Stiffness

Property

Behavior

equations at nodes. [ Ku ]{ } { F } Property Behavior Action K: Stiffness matrix

Action

K: Stiffness matrix x: Displacement F: Load

16.810 (16.682)

Ku ]{ } { F } Property Behavior Action K: Stiffness matrix x: Displacement F: Load
Ku ]{ } { F } Property Behavior Action K: Stiffness matrix x: Displacement F: Load
Ku ]{ } { F } Property Behavior Action K: Stiffness matrix x: Displacement F: Load

K x = F

K

x

F

13

 
  Brief History
  Brief History

Brief History

  Brief History
  Brief History

- The term finite element was first coined by clough in 1960. In the early 1960s, engineers used the method for approximate solutions of problems in stress analysis, fluid flow, heat transfer, and other areas.

- The first book on the FEM by Zienkiewicz and Chung was published in

1967.

- In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the FEM was applied to a wide variety of engineering problems.

- Most commercial FEM software packages originated in the 1970s. (Abaqus, Adina, Ansys, etc.)

- Klaus-Jurgen Bathe in ME at MIT

Reference [2] 16.810 (16.682)

in the 1970s . (Abaqus, Adina, Ansys, etc.) - Klaus-Jurgen Bathe in ME at MIT Reference
in the 1970s . (Abaqus, Adina, Ansys, etc.) - Klaus-Jurgen Bathe in ME at MIT Reference

14

 
  Advantages of the FEM
  Advantages of the FEM

Advantages of the FEM

  Advantages of the FEM
  Advantages of the FEM

Can readily handle very complex geometry:

- The heart and power of the FEM

Can handle a wide variety of engineering problems

- Solid mechanics

- Fluids

- Dynamics

- Electrostatic problems

- Heat problems

Can handle complex restraints

- Indeterminate structures can be solved.

Can handle complex loading

- Nodal load (point loads)

- Element load (pressure, thermal, inertial forces)

- Time or frequency dependent loading

16.810 (16.682)

(point loads) - Element load (pressure, thermal, inertial forces) - Time or frequency dependent loading 16.810
(point loads) - Element load (pressure, thermal, inertial forces) - Time or frequency dependent loading 16.810

15

 
  Disadvantages of the FEM
  Disadvantages of the FEM

Disadvantages of the FEM

  Disadvantages of the FEM
  Disadvantages of the FEM

A general closed-form solution, which would permit one to examine system response to changes in various parameters, is not produced.

The FEM obtains only "approximate" solutions.

The FEM has "inherent" errors.

Mistakes by users can be fatal.

16.810 (16.682)

solutions. The FEM has "inherent" errors. Mistakes by users can be fatal. 16.810 (16.682) 16
solutions. The FEM has "inherent" errors. Mistakes by users can be fatal. 16.810 (16.682) 16

16

Typical FEA Procedure by Commercial Software User Computer User 16.810 (16.682) Preprocess Process Postprocess Build

Typical FEA Procedure by

Commercial Software

User

Computer

User

16.810 (16.682)

Preprocess

Software User Computer User 16.810 (16.682) Preprocess Process Postprocess Build a FE model Conduct numerical

Process

User Computer User 16.810 (16.682) Preprocess Process Postprocess Build a FE model Conduct numerical analysis See

Postprocess

Build a FE model

Conduct numerical analysis

See results

Computer User 16.810 (16.682) Preprocess Process Postprocess Build a FE model Conduct numerical analysis See results
Computer User 16.810 (16.682) Preprocess Process Postprocess Build a FE model Conduct numerical analysis See results

17

 
  Preprocess (1)
  Preprocess (1)

Preprocess (1)

  Preprocess (1)
  Preprocess (1)

[1] Select analysis type

[2] Select element type

[3] Material properties

- Structural Static Analysis

- Modal Analysis

- Transient Dynamic Analysis

- Buckling Analysis

- Contact

- Steady-state Thermal Analysis

- Transient Thermal Analysis

- Steady-state Thermal Analysis - Transient Thermal Analysis 2 - D 3-D Linear Quadratic E ,,

2-D

3-D

Thermal Analysis - Transient Thermal Analysis 2 - D 3-D Linear Quadratic E ,, , ,

Linear

Quadratic

E ,, , ,

Thermal Analysis 2 - D 3-D Linear Quadratic E ,, , , 16.810 (16.682) Truss B

16.810 (16.682)

Thermal Analysis 2 - D 3-D Linear Quadratic E ,, , , 16.810 (16.682) Truss B
Thermal Analysis 2 - D 3-D Linear Quadratic E ,, , , 16.810 (16.682) Truss B

Truss

Beam

Shell

Plate

Solid

Thermal Analysis 2 - D 3-D Linear Quadratic E ,, , , 16.810 (16.682) Truss B

18

Preprocess (2) [4] Make nodes
Preprocess (2)
[4] Make nodes

[5] Build elements by assigning connectivity

[6] Apply boundary conditions and loads

[4] Make nodes [5] Build elements by assigning connectivity [6] Apply boundary conditions and loads 16.810
[4] Make nodes [5] Build elements by assigning connectivity [6] Apply boundary conditions and loads 16.810

16.810 (16.682)

[4] Make nodes [5] Build elements by assigning connectivity [6] Apply boundary conditions and loads 16.810

19

Process and Postprocess [7] Process - Solve the boundary value problem [8] Postprocess - See

Process and Postprocess [7] Process - Solve the boundary value problem [8] Postprocess - See the results 16.810
Process and Postprocess

[7] Process - Solve the boundary value problem

[8] Postprocess

- See the results

16.810 (16.682)

Displacement Stress Strain Natural frequency Temperature Time history

- See the results 16.810 (16.682) Displacement Stress Strain Natural frequency Temperature Time history 20
- See the results 16.810 (16.682) Displacement Stress Strain Natural frequency Temperature Time history 20

20

Responsibility of the user 200 mm Fancy, colorful contours can be produced by any model,
Responsibility of the user
200 mm
Fancy, colorful contours can
be produced by any model,
good or bad!!

1 ms pressure pulse

BC: Hinged supports

Load: Pressure pulse

Unknown: Lateral mid point displacement in the time domain

Results obtained from ten reputable FEM codes and by users regarded as expert can differ greatly.*

* R. D. Cook, Finite Element Modeling for Stress Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, 1995

16.810 (16.682)

greatly .* * R. D. Cook, Finite Element Modeling for Stress Analysis, John Wiley & Sons,
greatly .* * R. D. Cook, Finite Element Modeling for Stress Analysis, John Wiley & Sons,

21

Errors Inherent in FEM Formulation - Geometry is simplified. Approximated Domain domain FEM - Field

Errors Inherent in FEM Formulation- Geometry is simplified. Approximated Domain domain FEM - Field quantity is assumed to be - Geometry is simplified. Approximated Domain domain FEM - Field quantity is assumed to be

- Geometry is simplified.

Approximated Domain domain FEM
Approximated
Domain
domain
FEM

- Field quantity is assumed to be a polynomial over an element. (which is not true)

to be a polynomial over an element. (which is not true) True deformation FEM Linear element
to be a polynomial over an element. (which is not true) True deformation FEM Linear element
to be a polynomial over an element. (which is not true) True deformation FEM Linear element
to be a polynomial over an element. (which is not true) True deformation FEM Linear element
to be a polynomial over an element. (which is not true) True deformation FEM Linear element

True deformation

over an element. (which is not true) True deformation FEM Linear element Quadratic element Cubic element

FEM

Linear element

(which is not true) True deformation FEM Linear element Quadratic element Cubic element - Use very

Quadratic element

true) True deformation FEM Linear element Quadratic element Cubic element - Use very simple integration techniques

Cubic element

FEM Linear element Quadratic element Cubic element - Use very simple integration techniques (Gauss
FEM Linear element Quadratic element Cubic element - Use very simple integration techniques (Gauss
FEM Linear element Quadratic element Cubic element - Use very simple integration techniques (Gauss

- Use very simple integration techniques (Gauss Quadrature)

Use very simple integration techniques (Gauss Quadrature) -1 1 16.810 (16.682) f(x) x Area: 1 1
Use very simple integration techniques (Gauss Quadrature) -1 1 16.810 (16.682) f(x) x Area: 1 1
Use very simple integration techniques (Gauss Quadrature) -1 1 16.810 (16.682) f(x) x Area: 1 1
Use very simple integration techniques (Gauss Quadrature) -1 1 16.810 (16.682) f(x) x Area: 1 1
Use very simple integration techniques (Gauss Quadrature) -1 1 16.810 (16.682) f(x) x Area: 1 1
Use very simple integration techniques (Gauss Quadrature) -1 1 16.810 (16.682) f(x) x Area: 1 1
Use very simple integration techniques (Gauss Quadrature) -1 1 16.810 (16.682) f(x) x Area: 1 1
Use very simple integration techniques (Gauss Quadrature) -1 1 16.810 (16.682) f(x) x Area: 1 1
Use very simple integration techniques (Gauss Quadrature) -1 1 16.810 (16.682) f(x) x Area: 1 1
Use very simple integration techniques (Gauss Quadrature) -1 1 16.810 (16.682) f(x) x Area: 1 1
Use very simple integration techniques (Gauss Quadrature) -1 1 16.810 (16.682) f(x) x Area: 1 1
Use very simple integration techniques (Gauss Quadrature) -1 1 16.810 (16.682) f(x) x Area: 1 1
Use very simple integration techniques (Gauss Quadrature) -1 1 16.810 (16.682) f(x) x Area: 1 1
Use very simple integration techniques (Gauss Quadrature) -1 1 16.810 (16.682) f(x) x Area: 1 1
Use very simple integration techniques (Gauss Quadrature) -1 1 16.810 (16.682) f(x) x Area: 1 1
Use very simple integration techniques (Gauss Quadrature) -1 1 16.810 (16.682) f(x) x Area: 1 1

-1

1

16.810 (16.682)

f(x)

x

Area:

1

1

f x dx

(

)

f

1 3
1
3
simple integration techniques (Gauss Quadrature) -1 1 16.810 (16.682) f(x) x Area: 1 1 f x

f

1 3
1
3

22

 
  Errors Inherent in Computing
  Errors Inherent in Computing

Errors Inherent in Computing

  Errors Inherent in Computing
  Errors Inherent in Computing

- The computer carries only a finite number of digits.

- The computer carries only a finite number of digits . e.g.) 2 1.41421356, 3.14159265 -

e.g.) 2 1.41421356, 3.14159265

- Numerical Difficulties e.g.) Very large stiffness difference

 

u

1

u

2

 
       
   
       
 
   

1

2

2

   
 

k 1

k 2

kk

12

[(

k

1

k

2

)

,

k 0

2

ku ]

22

P

P

1 k 2 kk 12 [( k 1 k 2 ) , k 0 2 ku

P

P

u

2

k

2

0

16.810 (16.682)

1 k 2 kk 12 [( k 1 k 2 ) , k 0 2 ku
1 k 2 kk 12 [( k 1 k 2 ) , k 0 2 ku

23

Mistakes by Users - Elements are of the wrong type e.g) Shell elements are used

Mistakes by Users

- Elements are of the wrong type e.g) Shell elements are used where solid elements are needed

- Distorted elements

- Supports are insufficient to prevent all rigid-body motions

- Inconsistent units (e.g. E=200 GPa, Force = 100 lbs)

- Too large stiffness differences Numerical difficulties

16.810 (16.682)

units (e.g. E=200 GPa, Force = 100 lbs) - Too large stiffness differences Numerical difficulties 16.810
units (e.g. E=200 GPa, Force = 100 lbs) - Too large stiffness differences Numerical difficulties 16.810

24

Plan for Today FEM Lecture (ca. 50 min) FEM fundamental concepts, analysis procedure Errors, Mistakes,

Plan for TodayFEM Lecture (ca. 50 min) FEM fundamental concepts, analysis procedure Errors, Mistakes, and Accuracy Cosmos FEM Lecture (ca. 50 min) FEM fundamental concepts, analysis procedure Errors, Mistakes, and Accuracy Cosmos

FEM Lecture (ca. 50 min)

FEM fundamental concepts, analysis procedure Errors, Mistakes, and Accuracy

Cosmos Introduction (ca. 30 min)

Follow along step-by-step

Conduct FEA of your part (ca. 90 min)

Work in teams of two First conduct an analysis of your CAD design You are free to make modifications to your original model

16.810 (16.682)

conduct an analysis of your CAD design You are free to make modifications to your original
conduct an analysis of your CAD design You are free to make modifications to your original

25

 

References

 
 
 
 
 
 

Glaucio H. Paulino, Introduction to FEM (History, Advantages and Disadvantages), http://cee.ce.uiuc.edu/paulino

Robert Cook et al., Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, 1989

Robert Cook, Finite Element Modeling For Stress Analysis, John Wiley & Sons,

1995

Introduction to Finite Element Method, http://210.17.155.47 (in Korean)

J. Tinsley Oden et al., Finite Elements – An Introduction, Prentice Hall, 1981

16.810 (16.682)

(in Korean) J. Tinsley Oden et al., Finite Elements – An Introduction , Prentice Hall, 1981
(in Korean) J. Tinsley Oden et al., Finite Elements – An Introduction , Prentice Hall, 1981

26