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Fall 2018 In Class Problems Date: September 11th 2018

Total: 8 points (2 points to Final Grade)

1. Explain fatigue and how is it caused? (2 pt)

Solution: Fatigue is caused when the total strain an object experiences during loading/unloading
exceeds the fatigue threshold. It is created when micro cracks turning into macro cracks.

 Micro cracks (tiny deformations that cannot be seen by the naked eye), All of it heals, if
there is enough rest-time, it will come back to its original shape.

 Macro cracks (large deformations that are visible by the human eye). Does not heal,
change in Shape and form.

2. Maintaining consistency is expensive. Explain whether it is cost-effective to lower


variability? (Hint: Bell curves) (2 pt)
Solution:

 The bell curve represents the distribution of results.


 The vertical line represents the desired target value for strength of the aggregate.
 The wider the bell curve the more expensive it is to shift the bell curve to the right so that
more sample results will fall above the target value.
 The narrower the bell curve the less expensive it is to shift the bell curve to the right so
that more sample results will fall above the target value.
 The lesser the variability in results, the lesser the expense to obtain more results above
the desired target value.
 Typical industry standard is that 5-10% of the sample results fall below the target value
of strength.
3. Draw the strain response of a visco-elastic-plastic material to the following stress input.
Label and explain all relevant components clearly during loading and the recovery. (2 pt)
Solution:

εE = Elastic Strain

εP = Plastic Strain

εve = Visco-elastic Strain (will return over time, will gain over time)

εvp = Visco-plastic Strain (Won’t come back, will gain over time)

Note – elastic and plastic strains are time independent.

Note – visco elastic and plastic strains are time dependent.

4. List all the types of Variability.(2 pt)


Solution:
 Material Variability
 User Variability
 Equipment Variability
 Environmental Variability
 Construction Variability

5. What steps (list at least two) would you take to ensure that your lab results are precise?
(2 pt)

Solution:
 Minimize Material Variability (obtain material from same source)
 Minimize User variability (ensure personnel are certified and continuously trained)
6. What steps you will have to take to determine if your lab results are accurate? (2 pt)
Solution:
 Minimize Equipment variability (send results to other labs to verify results)

7. Calculate stiffness within the linear portion of stress-strain plot. (2 pt)

Solution: Find slope of the linear portion (will solve with them in lab)

8. List two examples of static loading and two examples of dynamic Loading (2 pt)
Solution: They will refer textbook

9. What is the percentage risk of being above or below the average value of a bell curve
from three samples? (2 pt)
Solution: I will go through this problem in lab. Answer is 50% risk.

10. Plot (Schematic) stress-strain curve for mild steel, cement concrete, pencil eraser (2 pt)
Solution: Straightforward from textbook