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Guided By, Ajay soman (04)

Mrs. Karthika Venugopal Jijith K J (24)
Nayana Krishnan (27)
Rakendu (30)

1. Introduction
2. Literature review

In today's energy generation scenario, the extensive uses of conventional energy

sources are causing lot of environmental issues. It is necessary that humankind should come
up with a strategy to produce clean energy. Even though we cannot completely stop relying on
non-renewable sources of energy, lot of re-search is happening to find the ideal substitute for
conventional sources of energy and also for migrating towards renewable energy sources from
conventional sources. It is gaining popularity because of the fact that availability of fossil fuels
are reducing at an alarming rate. Thus, these research works will aid in producing clean energy
and also make the existing systems more efficient. A better substitution would be to design a
machine which would use less conventional sources of energy and gives required output. Thus
it is necessary to come up with a new technology which would success the above stated
requirements. The proposed project is an novel idea aimed at designing an alternator which has
higher power output at lower RPM when compared to conventional alternators. This model
rends application in automobiles, WECS, Aerospace, hybrid vehicles in the near future.
Literature Review

Modeling of Contra-Rotating PMSM for a Wind Power Generation (R.

Janakiraman,S. Paramasivam)

According to Albert Betz' s wind energy conversion theory, the maximum efficiency of
wind energy conversion to electrical energy is 59%.However, in practice, the wind turbines are
convert the wind energy into the electrical energy is less than 40%.Hence, near about 60% of
the wind energy without harnessed and being escaped. A contra rotating permanent magnet
generator direct drive wind turbines that using a parametric finite element model, the magnetic
design and pole-slot combination are optimized to meet the application requirements of high
specific torque, low starting torque, and high efficiency. The PMSM is a rotating electrical
machine, where the stator has a three phase winding like that of an induction motor and the
rotor has surface mounted permanent magnets. The use of permanent magnet to generate a
substantial air gap magnetic flux makes it possible to design highly different machine.
Generally similar to synchronous machines (i.e.,) operating at synchronous speed, a single
phase or poly phase source armature windings, a power limit above which operation at
synchronous speed is unstable. Rotor l consists of field magnet and Rotor 2 consists of armature
winding. Both of them are mounted on separate shaft arrangements, which are in the same axis.
These two rotors are placed in the minimum air gap position for maximum flux linkagesWT1
is connected in the left side of the machine, which is connected to the field portion of (say rotor
1) of the machine. WT 2 is connected in the right side of the machine, which is connected to
the armature portion of (say rotor 2) of the machine. When the wind blows to enter in to the
WT1, which is up wind and the escaping wind enter in to the WT2 of the machine is down
wind. When the up wind blows, to the wind turbine WT1- rotor R1 assembly and rotate in the
clock wise direction. When the down wind blows, to the wind turbine WT2- rotor R2 assembly
and rotate in the counter-clock wise direction. Thus, both of the rotations, the flux cutting will
be twice in the machine. According to the generator principle, the electro-motive-force (emf)
generation is twice that of single rotor generator. Therefore, this model is efficient than the
conventional generators.
Contra-Rotating Modular Wound Permanent Magnet Generator for a Wind
Turbine (R. Wrobel*, D. Drury*, P.D. Mellor*, J.D. Booker)

Renewable energy generation requires alternative high efficiency, torque-dense electrical

machine solutions. For good aerodynamic performance, wind and tidal turbines need to operate
at very low speeds. One method for reducing the size of the electrical generator is to employ a
pair of contra-rotating turbines that are configured to rotate the PM array and windings in
opposite directions, thereby effectively doubling the air-gap speed for a given turbine speed.
Whilst this is not suited to all applications, field tests have demonstrated that the use of a contra-
rotating wind turbine could increase energy conversion efficiency by between 25% and 40%
over that of a conventional, single rotor turbine. The unit comprises two overhung rotors borne
on shafts that are coupled to contra- rotating wind turbines. The principal factors used in the
final selection of this pole and slot number were;
i. High torque density
ii. High efficiency at full and part load
iii. Low starting torque
iv. Low phase inductance for good output regulation

Several combinations of pole and slot numbers were considered for which the winding factor
is greatest and torque ripple is minimal. A 30 pole 36 slot combination was considered to be
optimum. This pole-slot combination has the maximum winding factor (0.966) for a single
layer concentrated winding and the highest torque per volume of active material of the
topologies considered. A key feature of a wind turbine generator design is that it should have
a low starting torque and therefore any cogging effects should be minimal (cogging torque less
than 0.5% of rated torque). To reduce eddy currents losses the permanent magnets were sub-
divided into 18 laminates in the axial direction. The cooling of the generator is achieved via air
ducted through slots in the frame. The generator three phase output was rectified using a
sixdiode bridge rectifier and connected to a variable DC load. This DC load was provided by a
Ward-Leonardset connected to the laboratory AC mains supply. The mechanical input and
electrical output quantities were monitored using an in-line torque transducer and a high
bandwidth three-phase power analyser respectively. The temperature of the armature was
monitored through eight thermocouples embedded in the winding coils.