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Fracture Detection by Using Full Azimuth P Wave Attributes

Fracture Detection by Using Full Azimuth P Wave Attributes


Qu Shouli *, Ji Yuxin, Wang Xin, (Geophysical Research Insititute of Shengli oil field limited Company)

Summary If we have data collected in more than three azimuth angles,


This paper presents a new method of acoustic impedance
it should be a super-determinant problem and can be
variation with azimuth (IPVA) which is an improvement on
the existing fracture detection methods. IPVA recognize regarded as the gather of many positive determinant
distribution, strike and density of fracture using the study problems. The unique solution of A, B and θ can be
of velocity variation with azimuth (VVA) and amplitude obtained through the fitting of many estimated exact
variation with azimuth (AVA) from full azimuth P wave
solutions. Thus, the azimuth and density of fracture growth
data at different CMP positions. In order to verify the
method, a full 3D P wave seismic data set over nearly 70 at any point can be achieved.
km2 was acquired and processed, leading to a IPVA data IPVA Method
volume ,By comparing the results with well data, IPVA It has been found that the AVA and VVA methods have
method is a quantitative detection method for parallel
their own advantages and disadvantages,The VVA method
fractures with high angle.
Introduction is relatively stable, but can only recognize large set of
In recent years, geophysicists have paid more and more reservoir fractures.Its resolution to recognize fractures in
attention to the use of the seismic method to detect rock thin reservoirs is not high enough. The AVA method has the
anisotropy. Most of the azimuth anisotropy of rock is ability to detect fractures of thin reservoirs, but it is
formed due to the existence of one or more groups of influenced by noises,In order to improve the resolution and
directional fractures . reliability, this paper proposes the new method of acoustic
While now, successful tests in using P wave data to detect impedance variation with azimuth (IPVA). As is well
vertical fractures have been completed using AVA and known, acoustic impedance (IP) is the product of velocity
VVA methods.On the basis of this study, a new IPVA
and density, i.e.
method is proposed which has overcome the disadvantages
in the existing methods. IP = ρ v (3)
where ρ is density; v is velocity.
P Wave AVA and VVA
In an anisotropic medium, whose velocity is a function of
Recent studies (Mallick and Frazer, 1991; Mallick et al., azimuth; acoustic impedance is certainly also a function of
1996, Craft et al., 1997) show that it is possible.to detect azimuth, satisfying relation similar to (1) and (2):
IP = Aip + Bip ⅹ COS 2 θ (4)
fractures from P wave reflection amplitude or velocity
variation with azimuth and offset. Using AVA and The acoustic impedance (IP) varies with azimuth can be
VVA ,one can determine the strike and density of fractures. estimated through the inversion of azimuth velocity and
The method uses cyclic variation of P wave amplitude and azimuth amplitude. Similarly, if we have data in three more
velocity with azimuth to estimate the strike and density of azimuths, it will be a super-determinant problem and again
fractures. When the P wave propagates through a fractured can be regarded as the gather of many positive determinant
medium, for fixed offset, the reflection amplitude and problems. The unique solution of A, B and θ can be
velocity varies with azimuth is a function of 2θand can be obtained through the fitting of many exact solutions
represented as: estimates.Thus, the strike and density of fractures can be
R = Ar + BrⅹCOS 2 θ (1) acquired.
Real data examples
V = AV + BV ⅹ COS 2 θ (2)
Mudstone layer is located in the fourth set of oil shale of
where R is amplitude; V is velocity; Ar and AV are partial San-3 interval.The analysis of core data in the well Luo42
factors; Br and BV are tune factors; θ is the angle between area shows that the physical property characterized by low
shoting direction and fracture strike; B/A is the density porosity and moderate-high permeability, and controlled by
function of fracture growth. both lithofacies and structure fractures.

SEG Int'l Exposition and 72nd Annual Meeting * Salt Lake City, Utah * October 6-11, 2002
Fracture Detection by Using Full Azimuth P Wave Attributes

Acquisition Analysis of Fracture Prediction


In order to investigate the fracture detection methodology Well Luo 67 is the only well, in which FMI imaging well
by means of full 3D seismic dataset, full azimuth 3D P logging and core analysis were conducted.The fracture-
wave acquisition we needed over about 70 km2 with the developed interval is located between 2530-2605 ms. FMI
fracture zone in the Luo42 area. The wide azimuth 3D logging data and core analysis show that two groups of
acquisition configuration means that large and small offsets open fractures with high angle and strikes of N30o ~ 40o
are distributed homogeneously in all azimuths within each and N150o ~ 160o were developed in the borehole interval.
CMP bin, that the ratio of inline to crossline spread distance The fracture density is low and is fully filled. The solution
not less than o.5,that the inline and crossline fold is erosion was not developed. Thus only two tons of oil were
basically equivalent.The offset distribution is mainly obtained during well testing. It can be clearly seen from the
dependent on inline fold and the length of the receiving structure map of the target layer and the coherently analysis
spread; the azimuth distribution is mainly dependent on the map along the layer that the strike of the fracture in the well
crossline fold and the width of the receiving spread. The coincides with the strike of the dominant fault.
crossline fold is the dominant factor to influence the The fracture azimuth and density maps at the location of
azimuth distribution. Based on this principle, a block of full Well Luo 67 were estimated using IPVA (Figure 4). In
azimuth 3D data was designed , the shooting geometry is a Figure 4, two groups of fractures with strikes at about 30o
ten lines,256 shots, brick wall method with fixed spreads and 150o were detected in the target interval between 2500-
and firing the shots midpoint between spreads(Figure 1) 2600 ms, which has very good coincidence with the
Preprocessing of the full azimuth 3D data imaging well logging data and the strike of the fault system
The preprocessing flow for the 3D data is essentially at the area. Figure 3 illustrates that the fracture density
similar to conventional processing.It should be noted that
special use should be given to static correction, wavelet
Azim
consistent processing and amplitude processing.In addition, Azimu
th
attenuation of random and coherent noises is important.
The requirement for processing of P wave AVO fracture
detection data is different from conventional seismic data
processing. In full 3D attribute preprocessing, some
adaptive processing such as single trace deconvolution and
spectrum whitening should be avoided in pre-stack
processing, but surface consistent processing is used to
guarantee the relative amplitude relation. The key
processing techniques applied mainly include: single
exponent gain, surface consistent statics, statistical wavelet
deconvolution, removal of noise before stack, azimuth
velocity analysis, azimuth NMO correction and stack.
IPVA processing
All seismic data was seperated into 9 azimuths and
processed in identical flows. Then the 9 poststack seismic
data have been inversed. Figure 2 shows the inline
inversion results in different azimuth.Then ,the 9 azimuthal Figure4 Fracture azimuth and fracture density near Well
inversion data become the input of IPVA program, the Luo 67 (The target formation between 2500-2600 ms)
fracture strike and density data volume was achieved.
Figure3 shows the fracture density distribution map of (near faults and some distance from faults) is high and the
target reservoir. development of fractures is the mainly controlled by the

SEG Int'l Exposition and 72nd Annual Meeting * Salt Lake City, Utah * October 6-11, 2002
Fracture Detection by Using Full Azimuth P Wave Attributes

structure.The result is significant for the selection of


further exploration targets.

Figure 1 Luo 42 shoting geometry

Figure 2 top:inversion result for the N200 aimuth line


Bottom:inversion result for the N1000 aimuth line

Figure3 The fracture density map at the target reservoir

SEG Int'l Exposition and 72nd Annual Meeting * Salt Lake City, Utah * October 6-11, 2002
Fracture Detection by Using Full Azimuth P Wave Attributes

Conclusions

Our study indicates that it is possible to recognize fracture


strike and density quantitatively using full azimuth P wave
attributes and that the cost for acquisition and processing of
multiple azimuths P wave data is lower than that of multi-
components data. Fracture azimuth and density maps tell
that the solution of the improved IPVA method has the
advantages of stability and high resolution as compared
with the AVA and VVA methods.
The keys to success in fracture detection using full azimuth
P wave seismic attributes are:
1. Reasonable acquisition design;
2. Fine and high fidelity preprocessing;
3. Reliable azimuth velocity analysis and azimuth AVO
stack;
4. Azimuth seismic inversion;
5. Fine fracture attribute fitting.
Additional research is in progress to address the remaining
technical problems in azimuthal P wave fracture detection
methodology.

References

Alford, R.M., 1986, Shear data in the presence of


azimuthal anisotropy, Dilly, Texas: 56th Ann. Internat
Mtg., Soc. Expl. Geophys., Expanded Abstracts, 476 ~
479.
Mallick, S., Craft, K.L ,Meister, L.J., and Van Dok, R.,
1997, Azimuthal anisotropy analysis from P wave
seismic travel time data: 67th Ann. Internat Mtg., Soc.
Expl. Geophys., Expanded Abstracts, 1214 ~ 1217.
Mallick S., and Frazer, L.N., 1991, Reflection/transmission
coefficients and azimuthal anisotropy in marine
seismic studies: Geophys. J. Internet., 105, 241 ~ 252.

SEG Int'l Exposition and 72nd Annual Meeting * Salt Lake City, Utah * October 6-11, 2002