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Experiment No.

5
Bernoulli’s Experiment

Aman Kumar | 1701CE03 | Fluid mechanics lab| 1th Oct 2018


I. OBJECTIVE:
To verify the Bernoulli’s theorem
II. MATERIAL REQUIRED:
1. A supply tank of water
2. A tapered inclined pipe fitted with six no. of piezometer tube point
3. Measuring tank
4. Scale
5. Stopwatch

III. THEORY:
Bernoulli’s theorem states that when there is a continues connection between the
particle of flowing mass fluid, the total energy of any sector of flow will remain same
provided there is no reduction or addition at any point.
The total head of following fluid consists of pressure head, velocity head
and elevation head. Hence

Where P, V and Z refer to the pressure, velocity and position of the relative to some
datum at any section.

IV. PROCEDURE:
1. Open the inlet valve slowly and allow the water to flow from the supply tank.
2. Now adjust the flow to get a constant head in the supply tank to make flow in
and out flow equal.
3. Under this condition the pressure head will become constant in the piezometer
tubes.
4. Note down the quantity of water collected in the measuring tank for a given
interval of time.
5. Compute the area of cross-section under the piezometer tube.
6. Compute the area of cross-section under the tube.
7. Change the inlet and outlet supply and note the reading.

Figure 1:1. diagram, 2. tube manometers (static pressures), 3. water supply, 4. valve, 5. Venturi nozzle, 6.
water outlet, 7. valve for water outlet, 8. Pitot tube, 9. single tube manometer (total pressure)

V. Working formula:
For Constant Head h:
p1/ρ +w12/2 = p2/ρ +w22/2 =constant
Taking into account the friction loss and conversion of pressure p 1 and p2 into static
heads (water column) h1 and h2 gives:
h1+w12/2g = h2 +w22/2g +hloss
velocity W was calculated from the measured dynamic pressure component using the
formula:
.∆ .
W= = 2. 𝑔. ℎ
where,
p1 = pressure at cross section A1
h1 = Height of water column at cross-section A1
w1 = flow velocity at cross-section A1

p2 = pressure at cross section A2


h2 = Height of water column at cross-section A2
w2 = flow velocity at cross-section A2

ρ = Density of medium = constant for incompressible fluids such as water


hloss = Head loss

VI. Observations and Calculations:


H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 T (sec.) Vol V(m3/s)
Hstat 298 272 0 80 105 135 Vi =3
2.374 x
Htotal 324 325 322 303 244 216 42.12 Vf =13
10-4
Hdyn 26 53 322 223 139 81 Vol=10
Figure 3: Table 1
H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 T (sec.) Vol V(m3/s)
Hstat 145 135 0 55 65 75 Vi = 3
0.136 x
Htotal 192.5 194 193 191 179 163 73.12 Vf = 13
10-3
Hdyn 47.5 59 193 136 114 88 Vol=10
Figure 4: Table 2
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6
Wmean 0.403 0.582 1.607 0.799 0.532 0.401
Wcal 0.96 1.07 1.945 1.633 1.49 1.3139
Figure 5: Table 3 for table 2
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6
Wmean 0.701 1.016 2.806 1.354 0.93 0.701
Wcal 0.714 1.019 2.513 2.09 1.65 1.26

Figure 6: Table 4 for table 1

Using above formula:


𝛥h1 = 324-216 = 108
𝛥p1 = 1059.48 Pa
𝛥h2 = 192.5-163 = 29.5
𝛥p2 = 289.395 Pa
VII. SAFETY & PRECAUTIONS:
Following are the safety-precautions taken while doing this experiment.
1. Apparatus should be in leveled condition.
2. When fluid is flowing, there is a fluctuation in the height of piezometer tubes,
note the mean position carefully.
3. Carefully keep some level of fluid in inlet and outlet supply tank.
4. There should not be any air bubble in the piezometer and in the perspex duct.
5. By closing the regulating value, open the control value slightly such that the
water level in the inlet supply tank reaches the overflow conditions. At this
stage check that pressure head in each piezometer tube is equal. If not adjust
the piezometers to bring it equal.

VIII.RESULT:
In this experiment we have measured static head with the help of that we
calculated dynamic head following Bernoulli’s principle. Then we compared
both experimental and theoretical reading on the above mentioned graph.
Same thing we have done for pressure profile for two different experiment.
IX. CONCLUSION:
the experiment on verification of Bernoulli’s theorem is done successfully. We
verified the theoretical values obtained with experimental values we get.
Finally, we conclude from this experiment that the energy of a flow is remains
constant throughout its flow rather it encounters large cross section area or
small it’s doesn’t matter. On large cross-section it slows down while at smaller
cross-section it speeds up.at small cross-section Velocity head (dynamic head)
increases while pressure head decreases to make total head constant. While
opposite for larger cross-section.