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# Exam Questions AQA

Trilogy
FORCES

## Markscheme at the end of all questions.

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Q1.
Forces can be classed as contact or non-contact forces.

## (a) Look at the table below.

Tick one box for each type of force to say whether it is a contact force or a non-contact force.

Non-contact
Type of force Contact force
force

Electrostatic

Friction

Gravity
(3)

## Tick two boxes.

Mass

Time

Velocity

Speed

Displacement

(2)

(c) A student does a practical to investigate the relationship between force and extension for
a spring.

## Figure 1 shows how he set up his experiment.

Figure 1

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What could the student do to improve the accuracy of his investigation?

## Use a stronger spring in the investigation

(1)

(d) The weight on the spring is the force applied to the spring.

## weight = mass × gravitational field strength

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

## Weight on spring = _________________ N

(3)

(e) The student plotted a graph of force applied and extension of the spring.

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Figure 2 shows his graph.

Figure 2

increases

## Extension is inversely proportional to force

(1)

(f) Use Figure 2 to determine the force needed to give an extension of 4.5 cm.

(1)

## (g) A different spring has a spring constant of 13.5 N / m.

Calculate the elastic potential energy stored in the spring when its extension is 12 cm.

## Use the correct equation from the Physics equation sheet.

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

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Elastic potential energy = _________________ J
(2)
(Total 13 marks)

Q2.
(a) Figure 1 shows the distance–time graph for a person walking to a bus stop.

Figure 1

Time in seconds

(i) Which one of the following statements describes the motion of the person between points
R and S on the graph?

Not moving

## Moving with increasing speed

(1)

(ii) Another person, walking at constant speed, travels the same distance to the bus stop in
200 seconds.

## Complete Figure 2 to show a distance–time graph for this person.

Figure 2

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Time in seconds
(1)

(b) A bus accelerates away from the bus stop at 2.5 m/s2.

## The total mass of the bus and passengers is 14 000 kg.

Calculate the resultant force needed to accelerate the bus and passengers.

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

## Resultant force = ____________________ N

(2)
(Total 4 marks)

Q3.
A student investigates rolling a marble down a track.

## The student lets go of the marble from different heights.

He records:

• the height from which he drops the marble (the drop height)

• the height the marble rolls up the other side (the roll height).

(a) What force causes the marble to fall down the track?

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Tick one box.

Air resistance

Friction

Gravity

Magnetism

(1)

(b) What is one variable the student should control in the investigation?

Length of ruler

Length of track

Mass of marble

Roll height

(1)

## Drop height Roll height in cm

in cm
Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Mean

20 15 14 14 14

40 29 33 32

60 47 19 46 46

80 65 61 63 63

## Tick one box.

Drop height

Length of track

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Mass of marble

Roll height

(1)

(d) Calculate the mean roll height of the marble when it is dropped from 40 cm.

___________________________________________________________________

## Mean roll height = _________________ cm

(1)

(e) The student calculated the mean roll height for a drop height of 60 cm.

## He did not include the result for Test 2 in his calculation.

Why did the student leave out the result for Test 2?

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________
(1)

(f) Describe how the drop height of the marble affects the roll height.

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________
(1)

(g) Why does the marble never roll up to the same height the student drops it from?

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________
(1)
(Total 7 marks)

Q4.
(a) Figure 1 shows the horizontal forces acting on a moving bicycle and cyclist.

Figure 1

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(i) What causes force A?

(1)

## (ii) What causes force B?

______________________________________________________________
(1)

(iii) In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information
clearly and using specialist terms where appropriate.

Figure 2 shows how the velocity of the cyclist changes during the first part of a journey along a
straight and level road. During this part of the journey the force applied by the cyclist to the
bicycle pedals is constant.

Figure 2

Time

Describe how and explain, in terms of the forces A and B, why the velocity of the cyclist
changes:

## • and between the points Y and Z, marked on the graph in Figure 2.

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

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______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

## Extra space ____________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________
(6)

(b) (i) The cyclist used the brakes to slow down and stop the bicycle.

## A constant braking force of 140 N stopped the bicycle in a distance of 24 m.

Calculate the work done by the braking force to stop the bicycle. Give the unit.

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

(3)

## (ii) Complete the following sentences.

When the brakes are used, the bicycle slows down. The kinetic energy of the

bicycle ______________________________ .

## At the same time, the ______________________________ of the brakes

increases.
(2)

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(Total 13 marks)

Q5.
The figure below shows an ice skater standing on the ice.

Mass
70 kg

(a) Write down the equation that links acceleration, change in velocity and time.

___________________________________________________________________
(1)

(b) As the skater pushes away across the ice there is a small frictional force.

## After pushing, the skater starts to move with a velocity of 5 m / s.

He slows to 3 m / s in 6 seconds.

## Calculate the acceleration of the skater.

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

Acceleration = _________________ m / s2
(2)

(c) Write down the equation that links acceleration, force and mass.

___________________________________________________________________
(1)

## (d) Friction reduces the speed of the skater.

Calculate the frictional force acting on the skater to slow him down.

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

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___________________________________________________________________

(2)

## He throws his bag to a friend.

As he throws his bag forwards, the skater moves backwards across the ice.

## Use the idea of conservation of momentum to explain why he moves backwards.

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________
(4)
(Total 10 marks)

Q6.

3.3 m / s

3.3 × 102 m / s

3.3 × 103 m / s

3.3 × 106 m / s

(1)

## (b) Figure 1 shows a distance–time graph of a car.

Figure 1

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Explain what Figure 1 shows about the motion of the car between point A and point E.

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________
(4)

(c) The kinetic energy of a moving car depends on the car’s mass and speed.

Write down the equation that links kinetic energy, mass and speed.

___________________________________________________________________
(1)

## (d) A car has a mass of 1 650 kg.

The table below shows the kinetic energy of the car moving at 11 m / s.

1 650 11 99 825

1 650 30

## Calculate the missing value in the table above.

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___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

(2)

## (e) A man is driving his car at a constant speed on a wet road.

He sees a fallen tree on the wet road and tries to stop quickly to prevent an accident.

Figure 2

## Explain why the man may not be able to stop in time.

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

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___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________
(6)
(Total 14 marks)

Q7.
The figure below shows a skateboarder jumping forwards off his skateboard.

## (a) The skateboard moves backwards as the skateboarder jumps forwards.

Explain, using the idea of momentum, why the skateboard moves backwards.

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________
(3)

(b) The mass of the skateboard is 1.8 kg and the mass of the skateboarder is 42 kg.

Calculate the velocity at which the skateboard moves backwards if the skateboarder jumps
forwards at a velocity of 0.3 m / s.

___________________________________________________________________

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___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

## Velocity of skateboard = ____________________ m / s

(3)
(Total 6 marks)

Q8.
The diagram shows the stages of an extreme sport called ‘human catapult’.

## • A person lies in a cradle which is held to the ground.

• The person is launched vertically into the air by an elastic rope.
• The person then parachutes back to the ground.

## Describe the energy transfers from position A, through position B, to position C.

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

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___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________
(3)

(b) In the last few metres of his descent during the parachute stage, the person travels at a
terminal velocity.

Explain why.

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________
(2)

(c) When stretched in position A, the elastic rope stores 25 000 joules.

The elastic rope behaves like a spring, with a spring constant of 125 N/m

## Use the Physics Equations Sheet.

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

## Extension of elastic rope = ____________________ m

(4)

(d) The vertical velocity of the person at position B in the diagram is 26 m/s

## The vertical velocity at position C is 0 m/s

Calculate the distance between position B and position C. Ignore the effect of air resistance.

Page 17 of 27
Use the Physics Equations Sheet.

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

Distance = ____________________ m
(4)
(Total 13 marks)

Q9.
The diagram below shows a person using a device called a jetpack. Water is forced downwards
from the jetpack and produces an upward force on the person.

(a) State the condition necessary for the person to be able to remain stationary in mid-air.

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________
(1)

(b) The person weighs 700 N and the jetpack weighs 140 N.

(i) Calculate the combined mass of the person and the jetpack.

## Gravitational field strength = 10 N/kg

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______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

## Combined mass = ___________ kg

(2)

(ii) Increasing the upward force to 1850 N causes the person to accelerate upwards.

Calculate the acceleration of the person and the jetpack. Give the unit.

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

## Acceleration = ___________ Unit ___________

(3)
(Total 6 marks)

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Mark schemes

Q1.
(a)
contact non-contact

Electrostatic ✔

Friction ✔

Gravity ✔
one mark for each correct tick
3

(b) Velocity
1

Displacement
1

## (c) Use a pointer from the spring to measure the length

1

(d) 25 g = 0.025 kg
1

## weight = 0.025 × 9.8

1

= 0.25 (N)
1
allow 0.25 with no working shown for 3 marks

1

## (f) 1.125 (N)

allow values between 1.12 and 1.15
1

## (g) elastic potential energy = 0.5 × 13.5 × (0.12)2

1

= 0.097 (J)
allow 0.097 with no working shown for 2 marks
1
[13]

Q2.
(a) (i) not moving
1

Page 20 of 27
(ii) straight line from origin to (200,500)
ignore a horizontal line after (200,500)
1

(b) 35 000
allow 1 mark for correct substitution, ie 14 000 × 2.5 provided no subsequent step
an answer of 87 500 indicates acceleration (2.5) has been squared and so scores
zero
2
[4]

Q3.
(a) Gravity
1

1

1

(d) 31 (cm)
1

## (e) the result was anomalous

allow the result was too different from the other values
1

1

## (g) energy losses (due to friction)

allow air resistance, friction, drag
1
[7]

Q4.
(a) (i) friction
1

## (ii) air resistance

accept drag
friction is insufficient
1

(iii) Marks awarded for this answer will be determined by the Quality of Written
Communication (QWC) as well as the standard of the scientific response. Examiners
should also refer to the information on page 5, and apply a ‘best-fit’ approach to the
marking.

0 marks
No relevant content.

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Level 1 (1–2 marks)
There is an attempt to explain in terms of forces A and B why the velocity of the cyclist
changes between any two points
or
a description of how the velocity changes between any two points.

## Level 2 (3–4 marks)

There is an explanation in terms of forces A and B of how the velocity changes between X
and Y and between Y and Z
or
a complete description of how the velocity changes from X to Z.
or
an explanation and description of velocity change for either X to Y or Y to Z

## Level 3 (5–6 marks)

There is a clear explanation in terms of forces A and B of how the velocity changes
between X and Z
and
a description of the change in velocity between X and Z.

## examples of the points made in the response

extra information
X to Y
• at X force A is greater than force B
• cyclist accelerates
• and velocity increases
• as cyclist moves toward Y, force B (air resistance)
increases (with increasing velocity)
• resultant force decreases
• cyclist continues to accelerate but at a smaller value
• so velocity continues to increase but at a lower rate
Y to Z
• from Y to Z force B (air resistance) increases
• acceleration decreases
• force B becomes equal to force A
• resultant force is now zero
• acceleration becomes zero
• velocity increases until…
• cyclist travels at constant / terminal velocity
accept speed for velocity throughout
6

## (b) (i) 3360

allow 1 mark for correct substitution,
ie 140 × 24 provided no subsequent step
accept 3400 for 2 marks if correct substitution is shown
2

joule / J
do not accept j
do not accept Nm
1

Page 22 of 27
(ii) decreases
accept an alternative word / description for decrease
do not accept slows down
1

temperature
accept thermal energy
accept heat
1
[13]

Q5.
(a) acceleration = change in velocity / time taken
allow a = Δv / t
1

(b)
1

–0.33 (m / s2)
1
allow 0.33 m / s with no working shown for 2 marks
2

## (c) force = mass × acceleration

allow F = m a
1

(d) 70 × 0.33
allow ecf from 4.3
1

23.1 (N)
allow 23.1 with no working shown for 2 marks
1

(e) before throwing the bag the momentum of the skater and bag is zero
1

1

1

## the skater has equal backwards momentum so will move backwards

1
[10]

Q6.
(a) 3.3 × 102 m / s
1

Page 23 of 27
(b) Level 2 (3–4 marks):
A detailed and coherent explanation of the shape of the graph and what it says about the motion
of the car between each point is given. Values from the graph are clearly referred
in a logical and consistent way.

## Level 1 (1–2 marks):

An attempt at an explanation of the motion of the car is given, which may be incomplete
or not in a logical sequence. Values from the graph may not be referred to or referred to
incorrectly.

0 marks:
No relevant content.

Indicative content
• between A and B car is moving from origin
• the gradient of the line shows it’s moving at a constant speed
• speed between these points is 250 / 20 = 12.5 m / s
• between B and C car is stationary / not moving
• because between these points the graph is flat
• showing that the car’s speed is 0 m / s
• between C and D car is moving further from origin
• at a constant speed
• speed is 250 / 20 = 12.5 m / s
• movement between these points is the same as at A–B
• because the gradient is the same
• between D and E moves towards origin
• at a constant speed
• speed is 500 / 30 = 16.7 m / s
• gradient between D and E shows that car moves faster or at a greater speed than
between any other points
4

allow Ek = ½ mv2
1

## (d) ½ × 1 650 × 302

1

= 742.5 (kJ)
answer must be in kJ for mark
1
allow 742.5 with no working shown for 2 marks

## (e) Level 3 (5–6 marks):

A detailed and coherent explanation is given of why the man may not be able to stop in time,
clearly and logically linking factors that could affect the braking in the situation given

## Level 2 (3–4 marks):

An explanation is given, with an attempt at linking factors affecting braking distance to
the situation given. Links made between factors and explanation may not be complete
and the logic may be unclear.

## Level 1 (1–2 marks):

Page 24 of 27
to explanations of how they are relevant in the situation given

0 marks:
No relevant content.

Indicative content
• overall stopping distance related to thinking distance and braking distance
• factors affecting thinking distance:
◦ driver could be distracted
◦ driver could be tired
◦ driver could be on medication that affects thinking (eg make drowsy)
◦ driver could have drunk alcohol
◦ mean that reaction time will be longer so will not brake as quickly
• factors that affect braking distance:
◦ condition of car (eg worn brakes means can’t stop as quickly, wear on
◦ speed car is travelling (faster means more kinetic energy)
◦ condition of the road (eg the road is wet so friction between tyres and
6
[14]

Q7.
(a) momentum before (jumping) = momentum after (jumping)
accept momentum (of the skateboard and skateboarder) is conserved
1

## before (jumping) momentum of skateboard and skateboarder is zero

accept before (jumping) momentum of skateboard is zero
accept before (jumping) total momentum is zero
1

after (jumping) skateboarder has momentum (forwards) so skateboard must have (equal)
momentum (backwards)
answers only in terms of equal and opposite forces are insufficient
1

(b) 7
accept –7 for 3 marks
allow 2 marks for momentum of skateboarder equals 12.6
or
0 = 42 × 0.3 + (1.8 × –v)
or
allow 1 mark for stating use of conservation of momentum
3
[6]

Q8.
(a) between A and B (the elastic store decreases and) the kinetic and gravitational stores
increase

Page 25 of 27
1

between B and C the kinetic store decreases and the gravitational store increases
1

## the internal energy store of the surroundings increases

allow either
some energy is dissipated to the surroundings
or
some energy is dissipated as heat / sound
1

(b) the weight and air resistance are equal and opposite
1

1

## (c) 25 000 = ½ × 125 × e2

1

e = 20 (m)
an answer of 20 (m) scores 4 marks
1

## (d) acceleration = (–)9.8(m/s2)

1

02 – 262 = 2 × (–9.8) × s
1

s = 34 (m)
allow any correct rounding of 34.489...
an answer of 34 (m) scores 4 marks
1
[13]

Q9.
(a) resultant force = zero
or

Page 26 of 27
upward force = downward force
accept forces are balanced
accept weight for downward force
1

(b) (i) 84
allow 1 mark for correct substitution ie 840 = m × 10
2

(ii) 12
accept 12.02 for both marks
or
1010 ÷ their (b)(i) correctly calculated
a resultant force of 1010 (N) gains 1 mark
an answer 22(.02) gains 1 mark
2

m/s2
accept m/s/s
1
[17]

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