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ProMC 1

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ProMC Guide

Introduction to ProMC.....................................................................................................................2
GeoView / Initializing ProMC.........................................................................................................3
PWave Seismic Data Loading .........................................................................................................6
Horizon Import...............................................................................................................................11
Loading Converted PS-Wave Data................................................................................................14
Domain Conversion .......................................................................................................................17
Wavelet Extraction.........................................................................................................................18
Well Log Correlation .....................................................................................................................22
Synthetic Modeling........................................................................................................................35
Domain Conversion using Velocity Models..................................................................................40
Horizon Picking .............................................................................................................................46
Horizon Matching ..........................................................................................................................53
Vp/Vs Mapping..............................................................................................................................55
Joint Inversion................................................................................................................................57

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GUIDE TO PROMC
Introduction to ProMC

ProMC is a tool designed to aid in the analysis and interpretation of Multi Component (MC)
seismic data. Multi component seismic can help with fracture detection, imaging through gas
clouds, lithology definition and fluid identification. It can also improve time lapse interpretation
by helping to resolve non-uniqueness between pressure and saturation changes.

Historically, it has been difficult to interpret PP and PS seismic volumes consistently. These
difficulties are related to the different event times and frequencies on the PS data, together with
differences in PP and PS reflectivity.

ProMC has been developed to create an easy-to-use and intuitive work environment for the
interpretation and analysis of post-stack, migrated Multi Component data.

Analysis of MC data generally includes the following steps:


1) Modeling of PP and PS synthetic seismograms
2) Wavelet extraction from both the PP and the PS seismic
3) Well log correlation to the seismic data
4) Identification of key markers on the PP and PS data
5) Event picking of key seismic markers on the PP and PS volumes.
6) Event matching between the PP and PS seismic
7) Mapping of the Vp/Vs ratio throughout the 3D volume
8) Joint inversion of PP and PS data to create 3D volumes of P impedance, S impedance,
Vp/Vs ratio and density.

This tutorial takes you through an example of Multi Component data analysis through to Vp/Vs
mapping and joint inversion. The main window of ProMC software includes the following
features under the specified function key:

Data Manager: Facilitates input and organization of project data from SEGY and Seisworks
Display Domain: Allows the change of display from PP time to PS time or depth domain.
Domain Conversion: Options to use velocity tables, volumes, Strata Models or well logs for P
and S wave conversion.
Modeling: Allows creation of synthetics for PP, PS, SS wave modes from input logs.
Survey Regrid: Accommodates rebinning of multiple surveys to a common grid.
Event Matching: Matching PP and PS events.
Calibration: Frequency and Phase matching options.
Horizons: Facilitates picking and management of PP, PS and SS horizons.
Attributes: Calculation of standard and special attributes.
Map Utilities: Creates data slices and maps.
Strata Model: Facilitates the building and management of Density, P and S wave models.
Joint PP-PS Inversion: Model based inversion to estimate volumes of acoustic properties that
are consistent with the P and PS amplitude volumes.

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GeoView / Initializing ProMC

GeoView is a program that has been provided to you along with ProMC. GeoView serves two
purposes. One purpose is to read in and manage all well logs that are used by any Hampson-
Russell program, including ProMC. The second purpose is to launch other programs, such as
ProMC.

If you are on a Unix workstation, initialize GeoView by going to a command window and typing
in the command:

GeoView <RETURN>

If you are on a PC, double click on the GeoView icon or select GeoView under the Start menu.
Then open the directory containing the ProMC Guide dataset. GeoView will list any available
databases. Highlight Well_Database.wdb and select OK.

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The GeoView: Well Explorer window will open. Click on Well One and Display Well to see
the logs and Tops included in this well:

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Exit the log window and the Well Explorer window by selecting Exit under File or by clicking
the X in the upper right corner of the window. Then initiate the ProMC program by selecting
that option on the GeoView program launch window:

Start a New Project and give it a unique name:

The ProMC main window will open and the project name and active database are noted in red
at the bottom of the seismic window.

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Pwave Seismic Data Loading

Select the Data Manager/ Import Data/ Open Seismic/ from SEG-Y File… option from the
buttons on the left of the main ProMC window.

Once again, locate the directory containing the ProMC Guide dataset, select the Pwave SEGY
data and click Ok to move to the SEG-Y Seismic File Open menu.

The first menu will specify Geometry Type. Click Next>>.

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ProMC must know the input data type and the vertical domain of the seismic volume in order to
correctly convert the data. The Pwave seismic file contains the vertical component data volume
in standard two way travel time. The parameters are correct as shown below. Click Next>> to
open the Format page.

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Update the Start Byte location number for Inline and Xline information. The first Inline byte
for this data is 9 and the first byte for Xlines is 13. More information about the input data can be
stipulated in the Detail Specification menus. In this example, no more details need be given so
press Next>>.

Choose Yes on this menu. The scan will only take place the first time you load a dataset. After
that, the geometry and header information will be stored along with the SEG Y file for use in any
subsequent projects.

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This menu contains summary geometry information, obtained from the trace headers, for the
SEG Y data being loaded. It is correct as shown above. Press OK on the menu above and again
on the information bulletin shown below.

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ProMC can map the seismic data between various domains (standard PP time, PS time, etc). The
mapping process requires velocity information to operate. The defaults in ProMC are a Vp/Vs
ratio of 2.0 and a constant P wave velocity of 3000 ms. The program only converts the data to
the maximum time and to the sample rate of the first volume. If these defaults should be
changed, you can do so on the Domain Conversion menu.

The first data volume is now loaded into the main ProMC window and the Well location
information linked to this data is summarized in the Well To Seismic Map Menu. Click OK on
this menu to see the loaded Pwave data:

A Base Map of the seismic grid with Well One indicated within the volume is available under
the View/Base Map option. Double click on the Base Map at the well position. This will jump
the seismic view to the new location at Inline 307. The Pwave log is shown at Xline 332. A red
line on the Base Map illustrates the aerial location of the active data shown in the seismic
window.

Click the X in the upper corner of the Base Map to close it.

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Horizon Import

In most cases where MC data is available, the P wave interpretation has already been completed.
This interpretation can be imported into ProMC. Later in this guide we will pick horizons on the
converted PS-wave data.

Use Data Manager/Import Data/Horizon/From File option stream on the ProMC main window
sidebar to import the horizons for this dataset.

Once again locate the Guide directory and in the ProMC_Guide_Data sub directory, select the
Horizons_PP.hrz file, as shown below.

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On the first Pick File Format menu, begin by activating the file Display option. A Notepad
window will open displaying the first selected file. The file has four columns indicating Xline,
Inline and the time picks for two horizon files.

Since there are Multiple Horizons in this file, select Yes on that option and go to the next menu.

Since there are Multiple Horizons in this file, select Yes on that option and go to the next menu.
On the menu below, specify that there are two horizons in the pick file and then go on to the last
File Format menu:

Using the displayed pick file as a guide, update the information below. It is important to choose
a color other than red or blue for the horizons to avoid confusion during later Horizon Matching
processes. After selecting the appropriate colors and filling in the required fields as shown
below, press OK and close the Notepad window containing the pick file.

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This information box indicates how many of the available picks were useable. Click OK:

The two P wave horizons, HRZ0 and HRZ4 are now displayed on the seismic Pwave data.

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Loading Converted PS-Wave Data:

The radial component data can now be loaded into the project. Select Data Manager/Import
Data/Open Seismic/ From SEG-Y File again. The program will open the directory from which
the last file loaded into this project was retrieved. Add the PSwave.sgy file.

The PSwave SEG Y contains PS data stored in the PS Time domain. These values must be
correctly identified in the Seismic File Open menu. Continue the data loading process in the
same sequence as the Pwave data, remembering to indicate the correct Inline and Xline Start
Byte locations as shown below:

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Click Next>> and allow the program to scan the PS data.

This is the correct geometry for the PSwave data. Click OK to accept it as it is. The
information menu shown below is important to consider when loading data into ProMC. In all
cases, ProMC assumes a peak represents an increase in P and S impedance for both the PP and
PS data. In the Guide example, this assumption is correct. Press OK on this information box.

In all cases ProMC assumes PP and PS seismic data is processed


with a peak representing an increase in both P and S impedance.

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The PS data is now displayed in the seismic window and the blue bar at the top of the window
indicates that both the Pwave and the PSwave data are open and available for processing within
this window. In processes that require comparison or calibration, both datasets must be made
available within a single window. Display the Pwave data again by clicking on the eye icon to
access the display parameters.

On the pull down menu for Trace Data Volume you will see that you have the choice of
displaying the PS or the PP data. Since PS was the data most recently loaded, it is currently
actively displayed. Choose the PP: Pwave data now and click OK at the bottom of the menu.

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Domain Conversion

The Domain Conversion of the PS data to PP time is initially defaulted to a Vp/Vs ratio of 2.
Since this ratio does not represent the actual velocity structure, the converted PS data will not
properly align with the PP data. We will correlate the P and PS well logs to the seismic recorded
in each of those domains in the next step of the Guide and use the well velocities to correctly
define the relationship between the two datasets to bring them into alignment at the well location.
Click the Domain Conversion button to view the available options:

If well logs are correlated prior to use in this project, they could be selected here for Domain
Conversion. Alternative conversion options such as import of velocity files or velocity tables are
also accessed from this menu.

Since the Guide uses a relatively small volume of data, change the Time-Depth Block Size to 2
meters. On larger datasets the default parameter may needed to facilitate faster processing.

The Display Domain and Range is another important parameter. Maximum Time will be used
in all PS and PP seismic display windows and processing menus. The default is set according to
the maximum time of the first seismic data imported to the project. Set it to 2000 for this dataset.
The depth sample rate should be 2 m. Set the Time-Depth Block size to 2 meters. Click OK.

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Modeling/Wavelet Extraction

Modeling is the next phase of analysis. We will begin with Wavelet Extraction for the Pwave
synthetic. Select the Modeling button on sidebar of the main ProMC window.

Two new windows will appear. The main modeling window is behind the Select Well Menu
shown below. Since we have only one well available in our database, it is already selected for
you, so click Open.

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Select the Statistical Wavelet Extraction option under Wavelet in the ProMC Modeling
Window:

On the following menu set the design to use every other trace. Then press Next>> and set the
time window on the next menu.

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The time window selected should be from 300 to 800 ms.

Give the wavelet a unique name that identifies it as the PP statistical wavelet. Use a 10 ms taper
on a 100 ms wavelet. The resulting wavelet is shown below.

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The active PP wavelet will always be indicated by a red name on the tab. Click on the
Frequency and History tabs on the side of your wavelet display to obtain more information on
the wavelet. Wave0, indicated in green is presently the default wavelet for the PS data.

The wavelet display can be closed by clicking File/Exit or by clicking on the X on the right hand
corner of the window.

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Well log Correlation

Select the Correlate option on the Modeling window sidebar:

The first menu specifies the seismic data to be used in the correlation. Click OK:

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The blue trace beside the Pwave seismic is the synthetic zero-offset Pwave response calculated
from the log. The red trace beside the seismic is an average of the 9 nearest traces surrounding
well location.

The cross correlation report at the base of the window shows that the current correlation between
the synthetic and the seismic pilot trace is only -0.055 at the current alignment. However, it also
shows a much larger correlation occurs at a shift of 61 ms. Press Apply Shift. After the shift, the
display should look like the one below.

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The correlation now shows the shift should be -7 ms, even though the major peak at
approximately 550 ms is aligned. This is because the correlation window (shown in the
horizontal yellow lines) has not moved with the synthetic. Click parameters to adjust the
correlation window position to include from 300 to 600 ms as shown below.

Click Apply and the correlation display will change as shown below. The lower correlation
occurs because the larger window now contains two major events and the difference in timing
between the log and seismic does not allow both events to be aligned within the same window.
This highlights the need to apply a stretch so the average velocity of the sonic log and the
seismic will agree.

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Using the left mouse button to click on the strong peak near the end of the synthetic trace and
then click again on the strong peak of the duplicate red trace at HRZ4. Then click on the trough
at HRZ0 of both the seismic and synthetic traces. The display will look like the one below. Then
click the Stretch button and two new menus will appear.

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There are several options available for the type of stretch that can be used to drift correct the
sonic log. The best choice is to only Change the depth-time curve so that the fit to the seismic
will be improved without changing the sonic log velocities. Press Apply on the first menu and
Ok on the second. Then we can QC the final correlation. Click Apply Shift to apply residual
shift then select the Parameters button on the bottom of the correlation window. It should like
the one below.

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The final correlation of the Pwave data is better than 80%. Click Close to close the correlation
coefficient display, then Click Ok to save the correlated Pwave. The output default name, shown
below is a good choice:

Do Not Update the Domain Conversion for the seismic window using this correlated log at this
point. Click No when the Pop Up menu appears.

The Wavelet Extraction and correlation steps must now be repeated with the PS data and the
PSwave log. The first step is to activate the PSwave data in its own time domain in the Modeling
Window. Select Domain and P-S:

Click the Correlate button to activate the correlation window.

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Click Ok and then select the Wavelet/Extract Wavelet/Statistical option.

Again use every other trace for the wavelet design. Apply the design to a target zone from 300
to 1500 ms:

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Use the same taper and length as was used for the PP wavelet and be sure to use a unique
descriptive Wavelet Name.

Now the current PS wavelet is green, the current PP wavelet is still red and any inactive wavelets
will be indicated in other colors on the name tab.

In the case of the P wave correlation, we used a zero offset synthetic to correlate with the data.
However, there is no PS response at zero offset. Therefore, the synthetic is generated assuming
an incident angle of 20 degrees by default. To change the default angle response, click on the
“eyeball” icon as shown below.

Select the Synthetics tab to review the synthetic generation options.

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For this dataset, the default is adequate. Click OK to return to the correlation window. Click the

icon to reduce the vertical scale of the correlation display and use the scroll bar to move the
display until it looks like the one below.

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This time the major event at the base of the log is not included in the active correlation window
so the optimum time shift has not been computed correctly. Click the Parameters button and set
the correlation window as shown below:

The correlation display shows that the optimum correlation now occurs at a shift of 173 ms. This
larger shift is because the sonic log velocity at the top of the log has been extrapolated to surface,
while in reality the S wave velocity of the near surface is much lower than the velocity at the top
of the log.

Press Apply Shift on the log correlation window. Note that the correlation window has been re-
set with the shift. Reset the correlation window to end at 1200 and press apply. The correlation
function should now look as shown.

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The correlation is already extremely good but a minor adjustment in the depth time curve will
improve it just a little more. Select the correlation picks as shown and Stretch. Change only the
depth time curve again on the sonic change menus. Note that the stretch is only applied to
Swave portion of the travel path. The Vp/Vs ratio shown on the drift curve display indicates that
the correlation is consistent between the P and the PS data.

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Update and Apply the parameters to start at 700 and search a lag of 100 ms in the Check Shot
Analysis window.

Click Apply Shift to adjust the final static. The final well tie should look like the one below.

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The PS correlation is clearly very good, appearing almost zero phase. Select Ok on the PSwave
correlation window and save the output log with the following name. Again, do not update the
Domain conversion with this log:

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Synthetic Modeling

Next we will create pre-stack synthetics. Our first synthetics will represent the PS (converted
wave) response. Choose the Synthetic/Zoeppritz option from the modeling window.

Change the Output Synthetic Name, the Depth range and the Uniform Range parameters.
This will model 10 offsets ranging from 0 to 400 meters. The time window should be set from 0
-1500 ms and for this synthetic, turn on the PS Synthetic modeling option. Click Next.

The last page in this and most other process menu series shows a summary of the options
requested. The PS wavelet has been automatically chosen for the generation of this synthetic.
Click Ok.

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Once again we are warned that the program is making polarity convention assumptions:

In all cases: ProMC assumes a peak represents an increase in P


and S impedance.

The PS pre-stack synthetic will appear in a seismic window and in the modeling window as
shown below. The first trace has no amplitude because there is no conversion at 0 offset.

Next we will create a standard P wave Zoeprittz synthetic. Most of the parameters remain exactly
the same for the generation of this synthetic. Change only the Output name, the Wavelet and
remove the PS Synthetic option:

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This is the PP synthetic:

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The most useful way to look at the synthetic displays is to put them together with the
corresponding seismic in the same window. Close the Synthetic displays and return to the main
Modeling window. Select the eye icon on the Modeling window and choose the Seismic Views
tab at the top:

Add all four seismic datasets and click Ok:

Using the seismic annotation box at the bottom of each data set, drag and drop the displays into
the order shown below:

This display can be viewed in PS, PP, SS or Vertical Depth by simply changing the selection on
the Domain button:

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Close the Modeling window and return to the main ProMC processing window.

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Domain conversion using velocity models:

During the log correlation process the overall domain conversion function is set to use Time-
Velocity Tables. The domain conversion can be improved by using a velocity model that is
constructed from the previously correlated well log.

This velocity model can be constrained to follow structural horizons by selecting Strata Model/
Build Model as shown below. By default, these models are built using P and S time depth
functions from all correlated wells and the currently active P wave horizons. If different
horizons, interpolation options or active wells are desired, this can be set by selecting Change
Model Parameters after the models are built.

Use the default settings as shown in the following series of Model Building menus:

Click Next to accept the defaults for each menu.

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Press OK to build the models.

When the model is built, a new window will open which shows the new P wave velocity model.

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The new velocity model is currently displayed, but it is still not used in domain conversion.
Close the window showing the P wave velocity model.

Next, go to the seismic window showing the seismic data. To modify the domain conversion,
click Domain Conversion on the main seismic window side bar menu. Next click Use Strata
Model and click OK to assign activate the interpolated model in domain conversion.

Then click the eye icon to access the Seismic View Parameter Menu and choose to display the
VP/VS ratio.

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We will also change the log insert in the seismic to show the synthetic Pwave trace and show the
log Tops. Select the Insert tab.

The optional placing of logs or synthetic traces onto the seismic display is enabled here. Select
the Synthetic Trace P from the Insert Curve pull down menu and change the color to red.

Next, click on the Tops tab. Choose All Tops and under Annotation, Names on the Left.
Click Apply and OK.

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The resulting window should look like the one shown above. This display shows that the P
wave horizon picks correctly follow the events on the P wave section. Next we will display the

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PS data converted to P wave travel time to see if the velocity model adequately captures the
Vp/Vs ratio information necessary to change the data to the new domain.

To display the PS data, click on the “eye” icon to access the display parameter menu. Next set
the Trace Data Volume to PSwave and remove the Color Data Volume as shown below.

Obviously, the Synthetic Trace P would not match the PS data in this display. In order to show
the PS synthetic, click the Inset tab on the Seismic View Parameter Menu. Set the Curve Color
on the same menu as shown below. Then click OK to display the data.

The resulting seismic view should look like the one shown below:

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Horizon Picking

Obviously, the PP seismic horizons do not match the PS data anywhere but at the well location.
This indicates that the Vp/Vs ratio is changing laterally and the current velocity model is not
adequate to match the data. However, now that we have matched the events at the well, we can
easily identify the correct horizons to track on the PS seismic. Next we will pick key markers on
the PS data and then use the ProMC horizon matching feature to improve the PS to PP domain
conversion.

Choose the Pick Horizons option under Horizons:

Assign a unique PS data name for the first Horizon and choose a new color for the picks display.

Allow a map of the picks, these are usually a very good guide to help interpretation.

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A new set of options will appear on the bottom of the screen. Change the picking Mode to Left
& Right Repeat and set the Snap to Zero Crossing.

Place one pick at the zero crossing on Well One at Top T0 and the program will pick across the
rest of the line.

Change the display to Xline 258 and place a pick on the zero crossing pick identified from the
first Inline pick.

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Pick two or three more Xline locations, especially in the area of Xlines 300, 328 and 337 where
the picks may need some additional control.

Next, allow the Automatic Picking option in the program to pick the rest of the shallow PS
horizon:

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The default options in automatic picking will work well on this data. Click Ok and the Horizon
Map on the left below will appear. During picking, the program map displays the horizons in PP
time but once the horizon has been saved, the picks will be stored in PS time as shown in the
map on the right. Click Ok on the picking menu.

When the polarity of the PP and PS events are the same, cross-correlation can be used to pick the
PS events using the PP horizons as a reference. We will use this option to pick the HRZ4 event
on the PS data. Click Calibration/Cross Correlation/Calculate Cross Correlation as shown
below. Then fill in the Cross Correlation Process menus as shown.

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Fill in the first menu as shown below and press Next>>.

Update the Cross Correlation Parameters and click OK:

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When the Cross Correlation process is completed, two new map displays will appear. The first is
the cross-correlation coefficient between the PP and PS data calculated on a bin by bin basis. The
second is a map of the time shifts that are necessary (in addition to domain conversion) to shift
the PP horizon time to match the PS events.

The horizon map for the PS HRZ4 event can be displayed by choosing Horizons / Display
Horizon. Choose PS_HRZ4_shft and click OK, the map should appear like the one shown
below.

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To display the picked horizon on the seismic display, you must force a re-draw of the seismic
display by going to another line, change the display back to Inline 307. When you have done
this, the horizon picks should follow the PS event like the display shown below:

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Horizon Matching

The key horizons above and below the reservoir interval are now tracked over the entire 3D
volume. These horizons can be used to match event times between the PP and PS seismic data
and determine the spatial changes in VpVs ratio.

Select Horizon Matching under the Event Matching button in the main ProMC window.

Using the Input Horizon windows, match the PP HRZ0 with the PS:PS HZ0 and then press
Link Selected Horizons. The pair will be listed under Linked Horizons. Then match
PP:HRZ4_shift with PS:HRZ4_shift and press the link button again. Both linked pairs will be
listed. Select Ok.

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After the horizon matching is applied, the PS and PP data should have the same structure, as
shown below.

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Vp/Vs Mapping

Matching the times of the PP and PS events also provides a 3D model of Vp/Vs ratio. In our next
step in this analysis we will use the horizon information to create maps of the Vp/Vs ratio from
surface to the top of the reservoir and in the reservoir interval. The option is Vp/Vs Attributes
and is found under Attributes on the main window.

Choose a name for your slice, fill in the options below and create the Vp/Vs maps:

The resulting Interval Vp/Vs ratio map shows the spatial variation of the velocity ratio across the
survey area. This map is computed from the PP and PS travel times at the top and base of the
reservoir interval. In this case, lower Vp/Vs ratios correspond to the cleanest reservoir sands.

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The Average Vp/Vs ratio map, shown above, provides the spatial distribution of Vp/Vs ratio
from surface to the top of the reservoir. This map is dominated by the highly variable S wave
velocities in the near surface geology.

Close all maps using the Escape key.

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Joint Inversion

The next step in the data analysis will be a Joint Inversion of the PP and PS seismic volumes.
This Joint Inversion will use an initial Low Frequency Model created from the extrapolated well
log, updated by the horizon matching performed in Domain Conversion. Then the Model Based
inversion will update this initial model to create new models of P Impedance, S impedance,
VpVs ratio and density that are consistent with the PP and PS seismic amplitude volumes.

In preparation for Joint Inversion, we need to create the PS statistical wavelet in the PP time
domain. Extract the Statistical Wavelet using these options under the Process pulldown:

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Fill in the wavelet options as shown and give the wavelet an identifiable name:

With the PS wavelet available in PP time, we are now ready to launch the Joint PP-PS Inversion

Select the Pwave and PSwave seismic and the P and PS wavelets in PP time:

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Most of the default parameters are fine for this data but select a smaller processing time range.
Click Next to continue to the parameters menu.

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Click Well data cross plot.

When the cross plot panel appears, click <<auto fit as shown below to derive the background
trend coefficients that relate P impedance, S impedance and density.

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Autofitting will update the cross plot windows as shown below. Click OK and Save regression
coefficients to transfer the required parameters to the main inversion menu.

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The cross plot coefficients will transfer to the menu as shown below. Click off Update Density to
disable this option as there are not enough angles to get a good density estimate. Click Next to
accept parameters on the next two menus.

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Select Inline 307 and set the Time Domain from 300 to 600 ms to calculate the Scaler and click
Next>:

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Click OK.

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Two windows will update the progress of the Inversion application. When the process is
complete, close the Joint PP-PS Inversion Status window and the Inversion output will appear.

The window initially shows the synthetic PS volume calculated from inversion. Click the eyeball
icon to change the display.

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Select Inverted Zp for the Color Volume and select None for Trace Data. Then click Color Key,
select Data Range and set the range from 3000 to 8000.

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To display the Inverted Zs data, click the eye icon again and select the trace and color data
volumes as shown:

Click Insert and Data Range to set these values:

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To display the Inverted VpVs data, click the eye icon again and select the trace and color data
volumes as shown:

Click Insert and Data Range to set these values:

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These inverted volumes can be used to extract maps of P impedance, S impedance or Vp/Vs
using Attributes/Horizon attributes. They can also be used for cross plot based interpretations
using Calibration/ Volume Cross plot.

Click File/ Exit Project as shown to save the project and exit the program.

Close the ProMC program by selecting the exit door icon.

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This concludes the ProMC tutorial.

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