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Prinsip Dasar Manajemen Risiko


O L E H: H E N DRA

Outline
1. Definition
2. Risk Management Process

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Definisi

Risiko = the likelihood of an unfavorable outcome that could range from


minor to severe.

Management = taking measures to minimize the unfavorable outcome or


accepting the unfavorable outcome.

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Definisi Risk Management


 Risk management can be defined as:
 The management processes by which the probable
gains and associated with an activity are
identified, evaluated and controlled.
“The process involved with
 The application of management policies and identifying, analyzing, and
procedure s for maximizing opportunity and responding to risk. It includes
minimizing loss. maximizing the results of positive
risks and minimizing the
 Management is a climate of uncertainty
consequences of negative events”
 The systematic application of management
policies, procedures, and practices to the risk of
identifying, analyzing, evaluating, treating and
monitoring risk.

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Why Manage Risk? – The Objectives of Risk Management


 Risk management is proactive rather than reactive management.

 Problems are foreseen and action taken to minimize losses.

 In some areas, particularly those relating to planning and safety, risk


identification, evaluation and control is required by law.

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Why Manage Risk? – The Objectives of Risk Management


 Benefits of Managing Risk
 More effective strategic planning as a result of increased knowledge and understanding
of key risk exposures.

 No costly surprise because you are preventing what is undesirable from occurring.

 Better outcomes in terms of program effectiveness and efficiency.

 Greater openness and transparency in decision making and ongoing management


processes.

 A better preparedness for a facilitation of positive outcomes from internal and external
review and audit processes.

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Risk Management Process


 The systematic application of management policies, procedures and practices to the tasks
of communicating, establishing the context, identifying, analyzing, evaluating, treating,
monitoring and reviewing risk

Risk management process (based on ISO 31000)

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Risk Management Process

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Risk Management Process


(a) Communicate and consult
 Communicate and consult with internal and external stakeholders as appropriate at each
stage of the risk management process and concerning the process as a whole.
(b) Establish the context
 Establish the external, internal and risk management context in which the rest of the
process will take place. Criteria against which risk will be evaluated should be
established and the structure of the analysis defined.
(c) Identify risks
 Identify where, when, why and how events could prevent, degrade, delay or enhance
the achievement of the objectives.

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Risk Management Process


(d) Analyse risks
 Identify and evaluate existing controls. Determine consequences and likelihood and
hence the level of risk. This analysis should consider the range of potential
consequences and how these could occur.
(e) Evaluate risks
 Compare estimated levels of risk against the pre-established criteria and consider the
balance between potential benefits and adverse outcomes. This enables decisions to be
made about the extent and nature of treatments required and about priorities.
(f) Treat risks
 Develop and implement specific cost-effective strategies and action plans for increasing
potential benefits and reducing potential costs.

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Risk Management Process


(g) Monitor and review
 It is necessary to monitor the effectiveness of all steps of the risk management process.
This is important for continuous improvement.

 Risks and the effectiveness of treatment measures need to be monitored to ensure


changing circumstances do not alter priorities.

Risk management can be applied at many levels in an organization. It can be applied


at a strategic level and at tactical and operational levels. It may be applied to
specific projects, to assist with specific decisions or to manage specific recognized
risk areas.

For each stage of the process records should be kept to enable decisions to be
understood as part of a process of continual improvement.

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Risk Management Process - detail

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The Steps of Risk Management


 Establish the context
 Risk Identification
 Risk Analysis
 Risk Evaluation
 Risk Treatment

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Identifikasi Bahaya dan Risiko


 Identifikasi bahaya dan risiko merupakan langkah awal dan penting
dalam penerapan K3
 Dengan melakukan identifikasi bahaya dan risiko di tempat kerja akan
membantu dalam menyusun dan mengembangkan program K3 yang
diperlukan

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Hal-hal yang diperhatikan


 Jenis pekerjaan
 Bahan-bahan yang digunakan
 Mesin dan peralatan yang digunakan
 Jumlah pekerja
 Karakteristik bangunan dan gedung
 Cara dan pola kerja
 dll

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Information for identifying risks


 Good quality information is important in identifying risks.
 Some examples include:
 Local or overseas experience.
 Expert judgment.
 Structured interviews.
 Focus group discussions.
 Strategic and business plans including SWOT analysis and environmental scanning.
 Insurance claims reports.
 Post event reports.
 Personal experience or past organizational experience.
 Results and reports from audits, inspections and site visits.
 Surveys and questionnaires.
 Checklists.
 Historical records, incident databases and analysis of failures and previous risk registers if they
exist.

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Tujuan Identifikasi Bahaya dan Risiko


• Untuk mengetahui jenis bahaya dan risiko
• Untuk mengetahui sumber bahaya dan risiko
• Untuk mengetahui pekerja yang terpajan bahaya dan risiko
• Untuk mengetahui besaran bahaya dan tingkat risiko
• Untuk mengetahui pengendalian yang sudah dilakukan
• Untuk mengetahui program yang diperlukan

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Metode Identifikasi Bahaya dan Risiko


Checklists Stressor Analysis
Past data Analysis of past failure
Audits Even t trees
HAZOPS Fault trees
FMEA Human Error Analysis
What –If Analysis Critical Incident Analysis
Job safety analysis Preliminary survey
Walk through survey Spot sampling
Employee notification dll

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Risk Identification form - example

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Pengukuran
 Untuk mengetahui besaran bahaya dan risiko tertentu diperlukan
pengukuran dengan menggunakan alat ukur menurut jenis bahaya
dan risiko yang ada

 Contoh:
Tingkat kebisingan, getaran, radiasi, pencahayaan, temperatur
Konsentrasi gas/uap kimia di udara lingkungan kerja
dll

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Risk Analysis
The purpose of risk analysis is to gain a better understanding of risks so
as to be able to reduce adverse consequences.

The magnitude of risk depends on the severity of an outcome and the


likelihood that the outcome will happen.

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ANALYSE RISK
Determine Existing Controls
Monitor
and
Determine Determine review
Likelihood Consequences

Establish Level of Risk

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Types of analysis
• Qualitative analysis
• Qualitative analysis uses words to describe the magnitude of potential consequences and
the likelihood that those consequences will occur. These scales can be adapted or
adjusted to suit the circumstances, and different descriptions may be used for different
risks.

• Qualitative analysis may be used:


• as an initial screening activity to identify risks which require more detailed analysis;
• where this kind of analysis is appropriate for decisions; or
• where the numerical data or resources are inadequate for a quantitative analysis.

• Qualitative analysis should be informed by factual information and data where available.

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Types of analysis
• Semi-quantitative analysis
• The objective is to produce a more expanded ranking scale than is usually
achieved in qualitative analysis, not to suggest realistic values for risk such as is
attempted in quantitative analysis.

• Care must be taken with the use of semi-quantitative analysis because the
numbers chosen may not properly reflect relativities and this can lead to
inconsistent, anomalous or inappropriate outcomes

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Types of analysis
 Quantitative analysis
 Quantitative analysis uses numerical values (rather than the descriptive scales
used in qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis) for both consequences and
likelihood using data from a variety of sources

 The quality of the analysis depends on the accuracy and completeness of the
numerical values and the validity of the models used

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Qualitative analysis is used:


 To prioritize a range of risks
 When there is insufficient data for a quantitative analysis
 When the risk does not warrant the expenditure necessary for a detailed
quantitative analysis
 When good decision can be made on the basis of the qualitative analysis

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Severity Categories
Category Degree Description
I Minor Functional failure of part of machine or process –
no potential for injury
II Critical Failure will probably occur without major damage
to system or serious injury
III Major Major damage to system and/or serious injury
potential to personnel
IV Catastrophic Failure cause complete system loss and/or potential
for fatal injury

(from US Military standard)

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Likelihood Categories
Level Description Individual Failure Mode
A Frequent Likely to occur frequently
B Probable Will occur several times in the life of an item
C Occasional Likely to occur some time in life of an item
D Remote Unlikely but possible
E Improbable So unlikely that occurrence may not be experienced

(from US Military standard)

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Risk Chart
A
High Risk
B
Probability Level

Priority 1
C
Medium
Risk
D
Low Risk Priority 2
E
Priority 3

I II III IV
Severity Category
(from US Military standard)

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Qualitative measures of likelihood

Level Descriptor Description


A Almost Certain The even is expected to occur in most circumstances
B Likely The event will probably occur in most circumstances
C Moderate The event should occur at some time
D Unlikely The event could occur
E Rare The event will only occur in unlikely circumstances

Australian Standard 4360 Risk Management

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Qualitative measures of consequences


Level Descriptor Description
1 Insignificant No injuries, low financial loss
2 Minor First aid required, on site release immediately contained,
medium financial loss
3 Moderate Medical treatment required, on site release contained with
outside assistance, high financial loss
4 Major Extensive injuries, loss of production capability, off site
release but no detrimental consequences, major financial loss
5 Catastrophic Death, toxic release off site, huge financial loss

Australian Standard 4360 Risk Management

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Risk Chart
Australian Standard 4360 Risk Management

Consequences
Insignificant Minor Moderate Major Catastrophic
Likelihood 1 2 3 4 5

Almost Certain A S S H H H

Likely B M S S H H

Moderate C L M S H H

Unlikely D L L M S H

Rare E L L M S S

H = High Risk , detailed research and management planning required at senior level
S = Significant risk, Senior management attention needed
M = Moderate Risk, management responsibility must be specified
L = Low Risk, manage by routine procedures

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Semi Quantitative- Consequences Category


Consequences = possible outcomes of event
Category Description Ranking
Catastrophe Multiple fatalities damage over $ 1 million, closure of activity, 100
permanent extensive damage environmental
Disaster Fatality, permanent local damage to environment, loss $ 50
500,000 - $ 1,000,000
Very Serious Permanent disability/ill health, non permanent environmental 25
damage $ 50,000 - $ 500,000 loss
Serious Serious but non permanent injury or ill health adverse effect 15
on environment $5,000 - $50,000 loss
Important Medical attention needed, off site emission but no damage. 5
$500 - $5,000 loss
Noticeable Minor cuts and bruises or sickness, minor damage < $500 1
short loss of production, small loss of containment no off site
consequences

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Semi Quantitative - Exposure Category

Exposure = frequency of exposure to the hazard


Category Description Ranking
Continuously Many times daily 10
Frequently Approximately once daily 6
Occasionally Once a week to once a month 3
Infrequent Once a month to once a year 2
Rare Has been known to occur 1
Very Rare Not known to have occurred 0,5

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Semi Quantitative - Likelihood Category


Likelihood = likelihood the particular consequence follows the event

Category Description Ranking


Almost Certain The most likely outcome if the event occurs 10
Likely Not unusual perhaps 50-50 chance 6
Unusual but possible 3
Remotely Possible A possible coincidence 1
Conceivable Has never happened in years of exposure but 0,5
is possible
Practically impossible Not to knowledge ever happened anywhere 0,1

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Semi quantitative level of risk


Risk = Consequences x Exposure x Likelihood
R = CxExL

Risk Level Comment Action


> 350 Very High Stop activity until risk reduced
180 – 350 Priority 1 Deal with immediately
70 – 180 Substantial Correction required
20 – 70 Priority 3 Attention indicated
< 20 Acceptable Make as low as reasonable practical

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Evaluasi Bahaya dan Risiko


Evaluasi risiko dilakukan sebagai tindak lanjut dari proses analisis risiko
untuk memutuskan tindakan selanjutnya (Pengendalian Risiko)
Tindak lanjut dapat berupa:
◦ Apakah risiko yang ada memerlukan pengendalian.
◦ Tindakan apa saja yang harus dilakukan.
◦ Prioritas risiko yang akan dikendalikan.

Nilai risiko yang diperoleh dari hasil analisis dibandingkan dengan kriteria
yang ditetapkan tentang batasan risiko yang bisa ditolerir dan tidak.

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Tujuan Evaluasi Bahaya dan Risiko


 Untuk mengetahui level dan prioritas bahaya dan risiko di tempat kerja
 Mengetahui tindakan pengendalian/program K3 yang diperlukan
 The purpose of risk evaluation is to make decisions, based on the outcomes of risk
analysis, about which risks need treatment and treatment priorities.

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Kriteria
Dalam melakukan evaluasi terhadap bahaya dan risiko diperlukan
kriteria untuk menentukan prioritas

Tingkat risiko yang bisa di terima (tolerable risk) merupakan salah satu
kriteria yang umum digunakan dalam mengevaluasi bahaya dan risiko

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Judgment dalam evaluasi


Judgment terhadap bahaya dan risiko sangat dipengaruhi oleh:
◦ an individual’s familiarity with the risk,
◦ their trust in the effectiveness of exiting risk controls, and
◦ their perceptions of the risks and benefits of the activity.

The same risk may seem negligible to one person and very high to another.

The criteria should therefore try to represent an objective view, taking


account of the needs of all those affected, and also the people actually
subjected to the risk.

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Risk Evaluation Methods


Economic Evaluation
◦ Estimating the expected health benefits and anticipated cost of control associated with
varying degrees of reduction in risk, using monetary criteria

Social Evaluation
◦ Characterizing the social issues that reflect value judgments and societal preference, as
well as the factors that influence political perceptions of equity and fairness

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Risk Treatment - Hirarki


1. Eliminate the hazard altogether.
For example – get rid of the dangerous machine.

2. Substitute the hazard with a safer alternative.


For example – replace the machine with a safer one.

3. Isolate the hazard from anyone who could be harmed.


For example – keep the machine in a closed room and operate it remotely.

4. Use engineering controls to reduce the risk.


For example – attach guards to the machine to protect users.

5. Use administrative controls to reduce the risk.


For example – train workers how to use the machine safely.

6. Use personal protective equipment (PPE).


For example – wear gloves and goggles when using the machine.

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Risk Treatment Options

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Risk Treatment

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Terima Kasih

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