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Name ID : M.

Areeb Shahid
ID: F2016054059
Section: C2
Business research and

• Research process

1- Define research problem

There are two types of research problem, viz., those
• relate to states of nature
• Relationship between variables.
Essentially two steps are involved in define research problem, viz….

• understanding the problem thoroughly and

• Rephrasing the same into meaningful terms from a point of view.
2- Review of Literature
Once the problem is define, a brief summary of it should be written down. It is
compulsory for a research worker writing a thesis for a Ph.D. degree to write a
synopsis of topic and submit it to necessary committee or the research board for

3- Formulate Hypothesis:
Formulate hypothesis is tentative assumption created so as to lengthen and
take a look at its logical or empirical consequences. Hypothesis ought to be
terribly specific and restricted to the piece of analysis in hand as a result of it is
to be tested. The role of the hypothesis is to guide the research worker by
delimiting the realm of analysis and to stay him on the correct track.
4- Preparing the Research Design:
He function of research design is to provide for the collection of relevant evidence
with minimal expenditure of effort, time and money. Research purpose may be
grouped into four categories, viz., e.g; Exploration, Description, Diagnosis,
5- Five Data collection:
Primary data can be collected through:
• By Observation: You can observe a lot by watching……
• Through personal interview: I have changed my mind about the interview. I
shall never give interviews…….
• Through telephone interview: Ali said in phone interview. We believe he can
play in a lot of markets…..
• By mailing of questionnaires: Any time I can get a consumer to join in on the
conversation, I feel like I’ve done a good job……..
• Through Schedules: ‘’ Monday to Friday ‘’

6- Data Analysis
The analysis of data requires a number of closely related operations such as
establishment of categories.
This stage mainly include:
• Coding: Talk is cheap show me the code………..
• Editing: To write is human, to edit is divine………..
• Tabulation: Editing, coding and tabulation of data……….

7- Interpretation and report writing:

Researcher has to prepare the report of what has been done by him. Writing of
report includes:
‘’ if the report is unclear and poorly written then we will have failed to add
value to the patients care’’………….
• The preliminary pages
• The main text, and
• The end matter.

• Applied research

1. What is Qualitative Research?

Qualitative analysis is far to achieve a deeper understanding of an
occurrence, organization or culture. Counting on what sort of development
you are learning, whereas ancient lab-based analysis appearance for a
selected “something” within the testing setting, qualitative analysis permits
which means, themes, or knowledge to emerge from the study.

2. Characteristics of Qualitative Research.

All of the different qualitative research methods have several characteristics:

 Findings are judged by whether they make sense and are consistent with the
collected data.
 Results are validated externally by how well they might be applicable to
other situations. This is tough to do; rich, detailed descriptions can help to
bolster external validity.
 Data is sometimes collected from little, specific and non-random samples.
Although qualitative analysis does not have an equivalent structure as a
proper lab-testing setting, there are bound necessities you want to meet so
as for your qualitative study to be referred to as analysis.

 Have a formulated research purpose:

For example, examine the lifestyles of Chinese immigrants.

 Be related to existing theories, published or unpublished:

You cannot just make up an idea that has no basic in current thinking. Why
do Italian immigrants prefer Pepsi?

 Be well-planned :
You cannot go into the jungle with no plan and no idea of how you are going
accomplish your goals.

 Be recorded carefully :
With notes and other media like film or voice recordings. If you do not take
careful notes, you could miss something of vital importance.

3. Types of Qualitative Research Methods.

Anthropologist believe that culture is a product of human evolution.

Culture from different places develop distinct culture.
Culture is regarded as the means of human adaptation to the world.
Explicit culture are those that people aware of and consciously recognize
e.g; shaking of hands when introduced.
Implicit culture it is not always recognize by people but it influence behavior
and people simply take them for granted and rarely think about it.

 Auto ethnography
 Critical Social Research.
 Ethical Inquiry
 Ethnographic Research
 Field Research
 Grounded Theory Research
 Naturalistic
 Phenomenology

4. Multi-Qualitative Research Method Approaches

Both qualitative and quantitative research methods have their limitations. There
is a recent trend towards a multi-method research approach, which uses both
types to:
1. Quantify phenomena and make sure it is statistically sound.
2. Paint a broader picture of the phenomena.

5. Quantitative Research Methods.

What is Quantitative Research?

Is term used loosely to refer to research whose findings are not subject to quantification
or quantitative analysis………..
Quantitative research could be used to examine the attitudes, feelings and motivations of
the heavy user, essentially how to communicate with them…………..

Still, data does not always naturally happen in a numerical way. You may want to answer
questions like:

 What do high school students think of their teachers?

 What is the general public opinion of health care reform?
 What do customers at a particular business think of customer service?
“I think that client service at this business is excellent.”
• Strongly Agree.
• Agree.
• No opinion.
• Disagree.
• Strongly disagree.

Elements of Quantitative Research Methods.

The crucial elements of quantitative research design are:
1- Research design:
Causal Research:
• Strength : Ability to establish a causal link
• Weaknesses : Time required , cost , control , secrecy

2- Choice of data collection instrument.

• Large sample 1433 School, College , Government

• Financial and human resource constraints
• An online survey is a convenient and cost – effective data collection method
• Access to check box…………………