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IP Application Guide

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Revision History

Product Version Document Version Document No. Reason for Revision


R1.0 First published

Author
Document Version Date Prepared by Reviewed by Approved by
R1.0 2010-06-09 Wu Zhiliang Chen Qi

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About This Document

Abstract
Chapter Description
1 Network Basic Knowledge Introduces the basic concepts and the network terminologies.
2 Service Networking Analyzes the typical service networking solutions, to provide a
reference for service deployment.
3 Network Management Network Introduces several types of network management network.
4 IP Application Introduces the IP planning methods for different types of networking.
5 IP Configurations in BSS Introduces the IP configurations in BSS.
6 Network Configuration Introduces the commonly used network commands and the typical
network devices.
7 Further Understanding of the Introduces the basic configurations in different network
Scenarios environments.
8 Troubleshooting Introduces the commonly used fault examination methods for
failures in one site and multiple sites.
9 New Functions in R9 Introduces the IP related functions in R9.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 NETWORK BASIC KNOWLEDGE...................................................................................1
1.1 ACRONYMS AND TERMS......................................................................................1
1.2 IP KNOWLEDGE......................................................................................................2
1.2.1 BASIC CONCEPT OF IP ADDRESS.............................................................2
1.2.2 IP ADDRESSES WITH SPECIAL PURPOSES..............................................3
1.2.3 PUBLIC IP ADDRESSES AND PRIVATE IP ADDRESSES...........................3
1.2.4 SUBNET MASK..............................................................................................4
1.3 UNDERSTANDING OF SWITCH ROUTING...........................................................6
1.3.1 L2 SWITCHING NETWORK..........................................................................6
1.3.2 L3 ROUTING NETWORK..............................................................................7
1.4 DETAIL INTRODUCTION OF DATA ROUTING.......................................................8
1.4.1 PRINCIPLES OF ROUTING..........................................................................8
1.4.2 ROUTING PROTOCOLS...............................................................................9
1.4.3 ROUTING ALGORITHMS............................................................................12
1.4.4 INTRODUCTION TO HSRP AND VRRP......................................................13

2 SERVICE NETWORKING...............................................................................................15
2.1 TYPICAL ABIS INTERFACE NETWORKING........................................................15
2.1.1 NETWORKING WITHOUT VLAN................................................................16
2.1.2 NETWORKING WITH VLAN........................................................................17
2.1.3 VRRP (HSRP) NETWORKING....................................................................19
2.2 TYPICAL A INTERFACE NETWORKING..............................................................21
2.3 TYPICAL GB INTERFACE NETWORKING...........................................................23
2.4 OMCB NETWORK ARCHITECTURE....................................................................23
2.4.1 OMCB NETWORK STRUCTURE................................................................23
2.4.2 OMCB ROUTING DESCRIPTION...............................................................24
2.5 IPOVERE1 NETWORKING...................................................................................26

3 NETWORK MANAGEMENT NETWORK.......................................................................27


3.1 RELATED INTERFACE BOARDS.........................................................................27
3.2 SUBNET PLANNING.............................................................................................28
3.2.1 OMCR SUBNET...........................................................................................28

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3.2.2 OMCB SUBNET...........................................................................................28


3.2.3 EMS SUBNET..............................................................................................29
3.3 MULTI-FUNCTIONAL MANAGEMENT NETWORK..............................................30

4 IP APPLICATION.............................................................................................................31
4.1 IP ADDRESS PLANNING......................................................................................31
4.1.1 SERVICE ADDRESS PLANNING................................................................31
4.1.2 NETWORK MANAGEMENT ADDRESS PLANNING..................................36
4.1.3 BASE STATION ADDRESS PLANNING......................................................36
4.1.4 IP OVER E1 ADDRESS PLANNING............................................................43
4.2 ROUTING CONFIGURATION................................................................................43
4.2.1 ABIS INTERFACE ROUTING......................................................................43
4.2.2 A INTERFACE ROUTING............................................................................44
4.2.3 GB INTERFACE ROUTING.........................................................................45
4.3 REMOTE LMT........................................................................................................46
4.4 CASE INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................46
4.4.1 TOPOLOGY OF THE SERVICE NETWORK...............................................47
4.4.2 TOPOLOGY OF THE MANAGEMENT NETWORK.....................................60

5 IP CONFIGURATIONS IN BSS.......................................................................................66
5.1 RPU CONFIGURATION.........................................................................................66
5.1.1 ABIS INTERFACE........................................................................................66
5.1.2 A INTERFACE..............................................................................................67
5.1.3 GB INTERFACE...........................................................................................69
5.2 INTERFACE BOARD CONFIGURATION..............................................................70
5.2.1 ABIS INTERFACE........................................................................................70
5.2.2 A INTERFACE..............................................................................................71
5.2.3 GB INTERFACE...........................................................................................72
5.3 ROUTE CONFIGURATION....................................................................................73
5.4 SDR CONFIGURATION.........................................................................................73
5.5 SEVERAL KEY POINTS........................................................................................78

6 NETWORK CONFIGURATION.......................................................................................80
6.1 NETWORK DEVICE INTRODUCTION..................................................................80
6.1.1 MAIN NETWORK DEVICES FROM CISCO................................................80
6.1.2 COMMONLY USED NETWORK DEVICES FROM ZTE..............................82
6.2 COMMONLY USED NETWORK COMMANDS IN WINDOWS.............................85

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6.2.1 PING.............................................................................................................85
6.2.2 NETSTAT......................................................................................................87
6.2.3 IPCONFIG....................................................................................................88
6.2.4 ARP..............................................................................................................89
6.2.5 TRACERT.....................................................................................................90
6.2.6 ROUTE.........................................................................................................90
6.3 COMMONLY USED NETWORK COMMANDS IN LINUX.....................................91
6.3.1 PING.............................................................................................................91
6.3.2 TRACEROUTE.............................................................................................91
6.3.3 IFCONFIG....................................................................................................91
6.4 COMMONLY USED COMMANDS IN SWITCHES................................................93
6.4.1 COMMANDS IN CISCO SWITCHES...........................................................93
6.4.2 COMMANDS IN ZTE 2000 SERIES OF SWITCHES..................................97
6.5 INTEGRATED CONFIGURATION.........................................................................98
6.5.1 NETWORKING CASE..................................................................................98
6.5.2 MAIN CONFIGURATION OF 6513..............................................................99

7 FURTHER UNDERSTANDING OF THE SCENARIOS.................................................102


7.1 SCENARIO 1 --- CONFIGURING THE L2 SWITCH............................................102
7.2 SCENARIO 2 --- VLAN APPLICATION................................................................105
7.3 SCENARIO 3 --- CONFIGURING A ROUTE........................................................110
7.4 SCENARIO 4 --- ROUTING BETWEEN VLANS..................................................111
7.5 SCENARIO 5 --- VRRP APPLICATION................................................................112

8 TROUBLESHOOTING...................................................................................................114
8.1 TROUBLESHOOTING FOR LINK TRANSMISSION FAULTS.............................114
8.2 TROUBLESHOOTING FOR COMMON NETWORK FAULTS.............................116
8.3 TROUBLESHOOTING FOR NETWORK DEVICE PROBLEMS..........................118

9 NEW FUNCTIONS IN R9...............................................................................................118


9.1 BSS VLAN............................................................................................................118
9.2 BSS LINK BINDING.............................................................................................123
9.3 BSS TRAIL PROTECTION..................................................................................126
9.4 BSS IP OAM.........................................................................................................126
9.5 BSS BFD..............................................................................................................128

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FIGURES
Figure 2-1 Networking Without VLAN............................................................................................16
Figure 2-2 Networking with VLAN..................................................................................................17
Figure 2-3 VRRP (HSRP) Networking...........................................................................................19
Fiture 2-4 A Interface Networking...................................................................................................21
Figure 2-5 OMCB Networking........................................................................................................23
Figure 2-6 OMCB Routed Networking...........................................................................................24
Figure 2-7 Networking Diagram.....................................................................................................27
Figure 3-1 OMCR Subnet..............................................................................................................28
Figure 3-2 OMCB Subnet..............................................................................................................28
Figure 3-3 EMS Subnet.................................................................................................................29
Figure 3-4 Use of VLAN to Segregate Subnets.............................................................................30
Figure 3-5 Multi-Functional Management Network........................................................................31
Figure 4-1 RPU Address................................................................................................................33
Figure 1-4 IP Address/RPU Address..............................................................................................36
Figure 4-5 Typical Base Station Networking-1...............................................................................37
Figure 4-6 Networking for Abis Interface Routing..........................................................................43
Figure 4-7 Networking for A Interface Routing...............................................................................44
Figure 4-8 Networking for Gb Interface Routing............................................................................45
Figure 4-9 Remote LMT Networking..............................................................................................46
Figure 4-10 Network Topology of the BMI Equipment Room.........................................................61
Figure 4-11 Core Switching Network for Interconnection of Two Equipment Rooms....................62
Figure 4-12 Interconnection Between BSC and RAN2950............................................................63
Figure 5-1 Configuration of Virtual Address for RPU on the Abis Interface...................................65
Figure 5-2 Configuration of Virtual Address for Control Plane RPU on the A Interface.................67
Figure 5-3 Configuration of Virtual Address for User Plane RPU on the A Interface.....................68
Figure 5-4 Configuration of Virtual Address for RPU on the Gb Interface.....................................69
Figure 5-5 Configuration of Real Address for IPBB Board on the Abis Interface..........................70
Figure 5-6 Configuration of Real Address for IPI Interface Board on the A Interface....................71
Figure 5-7 Configuration of Real Address for IPGB Interface Board on the Gb Interface.............72
Figure 6-3 Front Panel of ZXR10 3906/3206.................................................................................83
Figure 6-4 Front Panel of ZXR10 3952/3252.................................................................................83
Figure 6-5 Front Panel of ZXR10 3928/3228.................................................................................83

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Figure 6-6 Front Panel of ZXR10 5924..........................................................................................84


Figure 6-7 Front Panel of ZXR10 6908..........................................................................................84
Figure 6-8 Front Panel of ZXR10 8912..........................................................................................85

TABLES
Table 1-1 Frequently-usded Used Terms.........................................................................................1
Table 1-2 Class of IP Addresses......................................................................................................3
Table 1-3 Private IP Addresses........................................................................................................4
Table 1-4 Administrative Distances of Routing Protocols...............................................................12
Table 2-1 Main Configuration Requirements-1..............................................................................19
Table 2-2 Main Configuration Requirements-2..............................................................................21
Table 2-3 Configuration Requirements for Connection Between iBSC and the OMCB Server.....23
Table 4-1 Subnets and Number of Usable IP Addresses...............................................................41
Table 4-2 Routing of BSC-1...........................................................................................................44
Table 4-3 Routing of Router-1........................................................................................................44
Table 4-4 Routing of BSC-2...........................................................................................................45
Table 4-5 Routing of Router -2.......................................................................................................45
Table 4-6 Routing of BSC-3...........................................................................................................45
Table 4-7 Route Planning at the BSC............................................................................................53

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1 Network Basic Knowledge

1.1 Acronyms and Terms

Table Network Basic Knowledge-1 Frequently-usded Used Terms

Term Description
It is short for Fast Ethernet.
BSC supports FE electrical interfaces. There are four FE interfaces led out
FE from RMNIC (the rear board of GIPI). The interfaces are in the type of
100Base-TX, which complies with the IEEE 802.3u standard.The RJ45
connector and CAT-5 Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable are used. The
longest transmission distance is 100m.
It is short for Gigabit Ethernet.
BSC supports GE electrical interface or GE optical interface. There is one GE
electrical interface led out from RGER (the rear board of GIPI), and one GE
optical interface led out from the front panel of another GIPI. One GIPI board
cannot provide both GE electrical interface and GE optical interface at the
same time.
GE The optical interface is in the type of 1000Base-LX, which complies with the
IEEE 802.3z standard. The SFP (LC) connector and 1310nm single-mode
fiber are used. The longest transmission distance is 10km (the output power
is from -9.5 to -3dBm, and the sensitivity is less than -20dBm).
The electrical interface is in the type of 1000Base-T, which complies with the
IEEE 802.3ab standard. The RJ45 connector and CAT-5 Unshielded Twisted
Pair (UTP) cable are used. The longest transmission distance is 100m.
It is short for Spanning Tree Protocal.
STP
It is used to prevent network loop in the L2 network.
NAT It is short for Network Address Translation.
It is the L2 switching network with only the equipment and terminals in L2
L2 Network
network.
L2 Port It is the port connected with the switch, that is, switchport.
L3 Network It is the L3 switching network with the equipment in L3 network.
L3 Port It is the port connected with the switch, that is, no switchport.
It refers to the physical interface of the network equipment. Unless otherwise
Port
specified in this document, interface and port have the same meaning.
External It usually refers to the external visible interface with one or multiple IP
Interface address(es).
It refers to the physical interface of a interface board, such as the FE interface
Real Interface
and the GE interface of the GIPI board.
It refers to the logical interface of an internal processing board, the virtual
Virtual
address of which should be disclosed, such as the logical interface configured
Interface
on RPU.

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1.2 IP Knowledge

1.2.1 Basic Concept of IP Address

IP is a short form of Internet Protocol. An IP address is a binary value of 32 bits , such as


“11000000101010000000100001010000”. Of course, it is very difficult to remember so
many 1s and 0s. Therefore, in order to make it easier to write and memorize, we convert
this binary value into a decimal number by grouping eight bits into a unit (that is, a byte)
and separating different units with dots. This is called dotted decimal notation. An IP
address has 32 bits, and every 8 bits are grouped into a unit; therefore, an IP address
can be divided into 4 units. Take the above IP address as an example. We convert it into
a binary value unit by unit. The first unit is 11000000, and its binary form is as follows:

1×27+1×26+0×25+0×24+0×23+0×22+0×21+0×20=192

The following three units can be converted in the same method as that of the first one.
Their corresponding binary values are as follows:

1×27+0×26+1×25+0×24+1×23+0×22+0×21+0×20=168

0×27+0×26+0×25+0×24+1×23+0×22+0×21+0×20=8

0×27+1×26+0×25+1×24+0×23+0×22+0×21+0×20=80

Therefore, in the format of the dotted decimal notation, the above IP address should be
192.168.8.80, which is much easier to be read and written than the string of 0s and 1s.

Besides, IP address must be in a range. For each unit of an IP address is one byte (8
bits), the value of each unit must be in the range between 0 and 255 (including 0 and
255). That is, when the 8 bits are all 0, the unit has the minimum value 0; when the 8 bits
are all 1, the unit has the maximum value 255. Therefore, each IP address must be in
the range between 0.0.0.0 and 255.255.255.255.

An IP address is divided into two parts: network identifier (address) and host identifier
(address). The network identifier is used to identify a specific network, and the host
identifier is used to identify a specific host in this network. To make it easier to
understand, we can say that the network identifier is like the area code, and the host
identifier is like user’s phone number.

Classification of the network identifier and the host identifier can be fixed, but if we fix
certain digits of the IP address as the network identifier or host identifier when assigning
IP addresses, the following two problems may occur:
1. Due to network expansion or upgrade, there may be too many hosts in the network.
As a result, the assigned IP addresses may be insufficient.

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2. There may be only some hosts in the network, for example, just less than twenty
computers in the network, but are assigned with several thousand host addresses.
This is apparently a waste of IP addresses.

To solve the above problems and efficiently utilize the limited IP addresses, we classify
IP addresses into the following five classes according to their first several digits:

Note: This is mainly applicable to IPv4. IPv4 is the fourth version of the IP protocol. In
this version, addresses are coded with 32 bits.

Table Network Basic Knowledge-2 Class of IP Addresses

Class Range of IP Address Network Identifer Host Identifer


A 1.0.0.0 - 126.255.255.255 1 - 126 0.0.0 - 255.255.255
B 128.0.0.0 - 191.255.255.255 128.0 - 192.255 0.0 - 255.255
192.0.0 -
C 192.0.0.0 - 223.255.255.255 0 - 255
223.255.255
D 224.0.0.0 - 239.255.255.255
E 240.0.0.0 - 255.255.255.255

1.2.2 IP Addresses with Special Purposes

Not all the IP addresses mentioned above are available. Some IP addresses are
reserved for special purposes.

 Network address: It refers to the IP address whose digits in the host ID are all
0. For example, 202.206.0.0 is a network address in Class B.
 Broadcasting address: It refers to the IP address whose digits in the host ID are
all 1. For example, 202.206.255.255 is a broadcasting address of Class B.
 Reserved address: Network ID cannot start with 127 in decimal form. For
addresses of Class A, 127 is reserved for network diagonosis. For example,
127.0.0.1 is used for loop test. Meanwhile, the first eight bits of a network ID
cannot be set to all 0s, otherwise it refers to the local network. IP addresses
whose network ID is composed of all 0s and 1s are reserved.

Therefore, the number of hosts in a network should be less than 2 n. If we exclude IP


addresses whose host ID is composed of (binary) all 0s or 1s, the number of hosts in a
network must be 2n-2.

1.2.3 Public IP Addresses and Private IP Addresses

IP addresses that can route globally are called public IP addresses, and dedicated IP
addresses are called private IP addresses. Not all the IP addresses can be used in the
Internet. Normally, those IP addresses that can be used in the Internet are called public
IP addresses, while the other IP addresses are called private IP addresses. Internet

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Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) reserves part of Class A, B, and C addresses as


private IP addresses that are used in private networks (such as enterprise Intranet and
campus network) only. Routing devices are connected with the WAN network, and when
the routing devices use the NAT protocol, they will automatically isolate signals of this
segment and confine them to the LAN only. Therefore, you don’t need to worry IP
addresses of different LANs conflict with each other when they are the same. Network
management can select the proper private network address segments to set the IP
addresses in their LANs based on their own requirements (i.e., the number of hosts and
devices in the network). Routers or gateways will automatically confine these IP
addresses to the LAN, but not route them to the public network. Therefore, even if two
LANs use the same private IP address segment, there will be no conflict between them.

Table Network address: It refers to the IP address whose digits in the host ID are all 0. For
example, 202.206.0.0 is a network address in Class B. -3 Private IP Addresses

Class Range of IP Address Network ID Network Quantity


A 10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255 10 1
B 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255 172.16 - 172.31 16
C 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255 192.168.0 - 192.168.255 256

The subnet that Microsoft Windows APIPA (Automatic Private Internet Protocol
Addressing) uses to automatically assign IP addresses is 169.254.0.0 -
169.254.255.255.

1.2.4 Subnet Mask

1.2.4.1 Concept of Subnet Mask

A subnet mask is a 32-bit address. It shields part of an IP address to differentiate the


network ID from the host ID, and it also indicates whether an IP address is in a LAN or a
remote network.

1.2.4.2 Defining the Subnet Mask

The number of digits in a subnet mask is contingent on the potential number of subnets
and the number of hosts in each subnet. Therefore, before defining a subnet mask, we
must know clearly the number of subnets and hosts.

The steps to define a subnet mask are as follows:


1. Fix the IP addresses that we can use. For example, the network number we got is
“210.73.a.b”, which is an IP address of Class C. In this IP address, the network ID
is “210.73”, and the host ID is “a.b”.
2. Use some bits of the host to define the subnet mask, based on the number of
currently required subnets and the number of potential subnets in the future. For

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example, we may need 12 subnets now, but may expand that to 16 in the future. In
this case, we use the first four bits of the third byte to define the subnet mask, and
set them to “1” (that is, take the latter four bits of the third byte as the host bits.
Actually, there is a simple rule here: if the first n bits of the host ID are set to “1”, the
original network will be separated into 2n networks. In this case, the original network
is separated into 24 (16) subnets). So, the third byte becomes “11110000”, and we
call it a new binary subnet mask.
3. Set the bits of the original network ID to “1”. In this case, we set the first two bytes
to “1” and the fourth byte to “0”; the dotted binary format of the subnet mask
becomes: “11111111.11111111.11110000.00000000”.
4. Convert this number to the dotted decimal format, and it becomes “255.255.240.0”.

This dotted decimal number is the subnet mask of the network.

1.2.4.3 Notation of IP Masks


 Notation for IP addresses without subnets

For IP addresses without subnets, we can notate the mask with 0 as its host ID.
Take IP address 210.73.140.5 as an example; its mask is 255.255.255.0. Or
you can use the default mask and only enter the IP address.
 Notation for IP addresses with subnets

When there are subnets, the IP address and the mask must be consistent.
Take addresses of Class C as an example:
i. The first three bytes in an IP address form the network ID; the latter one
indicates both the subnet ID and the host ID, and it can also indicate whether
the two IP addresses are in the same subnet. If they are in the same subnet,
no router needs to be involved in the information exchange between the two
addresses. If they are not in the same subnet, that is, their subnet IDs are
different, information exchange between the two addresses must be
performed through a router. For example, for a host whose IP address is
210.73.140.5, its host ID is 00000101; and for a host whose IP address is
210.73.140.16, its host ID is 00010000. The first three bits in both host IDs
are 000, which indicates that the two IP addresses are in the same subnet
and information exchange between the two hosts does not need to be
conducted through the router. The host ID of 210.73.60.1 is 00000001, and
the host ID of 210.73.60.252 is 11111100; the two host IDs vary in the first
three bits; this indicates that the two IP addresses are in different subnets,
and their information exchange needs to be conducted through the router;
and their host IDs in the subnets are 1 and 252 respectively.
ii. The mask is to used to indicate the existence and quantity of subnets. But
the quantity of subnets can only be shown as a range, but not a specific
number. Mask does not convey the specific subnet ID, but it has the subnet
mask format (for addresses of Class C).

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iii. Use the /N notation. N ranges from 0 to 32. Mapping between this notation
and the above notations are as follows:
Number of Available IP
Subnet Mask Short Form Addresses
255.255.255.252 /30 2
255.255.255.248 /29 6
255.255.255.240 /28 14
255.255.255.224 /27 30
255.255.255.192 /26 62
255.255.255.128 /25 126
255.255.255.0 /24 254
255.255.254.0 /23 510
255.255.252.0 /22 1022
255.255.248.0 /21 2046
255.255.240.0 /20 …
255.255.224.0 /19 …
255.255.192.0 /18 …
255.255.128.0 /17 …
255.255.0.0 /16 …
… /N  2(32-N)-2

For each subnet, we need to exclude a network address and a broadcast


address. Therefore, the maximum value of N is 30.

1.3 Understanding of Switch Routing

1.3.1 L2 Switching Network

1.3.1.1 HUB

HUB physically connects several terminals together, but it cannot segregate broadcast
domains from collision domains. Currently, we seldom see HUB in the market, and the
so-called HUB is actually a PBX (Private Branch eXchange).

1.3.1.2 Switch

A switch works in the second layer, which is the link layer in the OSI model. It forwards
frames to provide transparent communication between the networks it connects. Before
a switch forwards a frame, it judges whether the frame should be forwarded and which
port the frame should be forwarded to, according to the source address and destination
address in the frame. The addresses in the frame are called MAC addresses or
“hardware” addresses, and they are normally the addresses carried by the network
adapter.

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The switch is used to interconnect two or multiple networks and provide transparent
communication. Devices on the networks will not notice the existence of the switch, and
the communication between them is as convenient as that in one network. Because a
switch only forwards frames, it can only connect identical or similar networks (the frames
are in the same or similar structures). For example, it can connect different Ethernets, or
Ethernet and token ring. For networks of different types (with different frame structures),
such as Ethernet and X.25, the switch is useless.

Switches can expand network size and improve network performance, which brings a lot
of convenience for network application. In the previous networks, switches were widely
used. But switch interconnection has also brought some problems: one of them is
broadcasting strom. Switches do not block broadcast messages in the network. If the
network is big (several switches, and multiple Ethernet segments), they may cause
broadcasting strom. In that case, the whole network will be crammed with broadcast
messages, or even collapse. The second problem is that when connecting with the
external network, switches will take the internal network and the external network as a
whole; and both the internal and the external network will automatically open their
network resources to each other, which is apparently unacceptable. The root cause of
the problems is that switches only facilitate network communication, and they do not
care about what information is transmitted.

Switches cannot forward data between different subnets. They only provide
communication for devices under the same subnet.

1.3.2 L3 Routing Network

Router interconnection is related to the network protocols, and the description below is
only limited to the TCP/IP network.

A router works in the third layer of the OSI model, that is, the network layer. It uses the
“logical” network address (i.e. IP address) defined in the network layer to distinguish
different networks, and realize the interconnection and segregation of the networks so as
to maintain the independence of each network. A router does not forward broadcast
messages; instead, it will confine the broadcast messages to their own networks. Before
data is sent to another network, it will first be sent to the router, and then forwarded by
the router.

IP routers only forward IP packets, and will block other packets (including the broadcast)
and confine them to their own networks, so as to maintain the relative independence of
each network. In this way, a large network with multiple subnets connected with each
other will be formed. This interconnection is on the network layer. So, routers can
conveniently connect networks of different types, as long as they all use the IP protocol
on the network layer.

Devices in the network use their network addresses (IP addresses in the TCP/IP
network) to communicate with each other. IP addresses are “logical” addresses, which is
irrelevant to hardware addresses. Routers forward data based on the IP address. An IP

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address has two parts: one part defines the network ID, and the other part defines the
host ID within a network. Currently, Internet uses the subnet mask to distinguish the
network ID and the host ID in an IP address. A subnet mask has 32 bits, which is the
same as an IP address; and the 32 bits in the subnet maks are one-to-one mapped to
the 32 bits in the IP address. As specified by the rule, for bits in the subnet mask whose
values are all “1”, their corresponding part in the IP address is the network ID; for bits in
the subnet mask whose values are all “0”, their corresponding part in the IP address is
the host ID. The network ID and the host ID together constitute an IP address. For IP
addresses of hosts in the same network, their network IDs must be the same, and this
network is called an IP subnet.

Communication can only be conducted between IP addresses that have the same
network ID. To communicate with a host of another IP subnet, the current host must
send its data to a router or gateway in the same network first. IP addresses with different
network IDs cannot communicate directly with each other, even if they are connected
together.

A router has multiple ports used to connect multiple IP subnets. The network ID in the IP
address of each port must be the same as the network ID of the IP subnet it connects to.
Different ports have different network IDs, and connect with different IP subnets. In this
way, hosts of different subnets can send IP packets to the router via their IP addresses.

Routers enable data forwarding between different subnets. Therefore, the interface IP
addresses must be in different subnets.

1.4 Detail Introduction of Data Routing

1.4.1 Principles of Routing

When a host in an IP subnet sends an IP packet to another host in the same IP subnet, it
will directly send the IP packet to the network, and the target host will receive it. But if
this host wants to send the IP packet to a host in another IP subnet, it must select a
router that can reach the target subnet and send the packet to this router first, and the
router will send the IP packet to the destination. If such a router is not found, the host will
send the IP packet to a router called “default gateway”. “Default gateway” is a
configuration parameter in each host; it is an IP address connected with a port of a
router in the same network.

When a router forwards an IP packet, it will select an appropriate port only based on the
network ID of the target IP address, and then send out the IP packet. The same as the
host, the router will also judge whether the port connects to the target subnet. If the port
does connect to the target subnet, the router will directly send the packet to the network
through the port; otherwise, the router will let the next router transmit the packet. A router
also has its default gateway used to transmit IP packets with unknown destinations. In
this way, IP packets with clear destinations will be correctly forwarded by the router; IP

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packets with unknown destinations will be sent to the default gateway. After levels of
transmission, IP packets will finally reach the destination; packets that cannot reach the
destination will be discarded by the network.

Current TCP/IP networks are all connected by routers. Internet is an international


network composed of thousands of IP subnets that are interconnected by routers. This
kind of network is called router based network, which is an internet with routers as nodes
in it. In an internet, routers not only forward IP packets, but also communicate with other
routers, to jointly determine the routing and maintain the routing table for the internet.

The routing action includes two basic activities: routing and forwarding. Routng means to
find the best route to the destination, and it is realized by the routing algorithm. Routing
involves different routing protocols and routing algorithms, so it is more complicated. To
find the best route, the routing algorithm must be started and the routing table that
contains the route information must be maintained. The route information may differ with
different routing algorithms. The routing algorithm inputs the collected information into
the routing table, and it will tell the router the relationship between the destination
network and the next hop according to the routing table. Different routers communicate
with each other to update the routes and the routing table, so that the routing table can
correctly reflect the network topology changes. Then the router will determine the best
route based on some measures. This is the routing protocol, such as the Routing
Information Protocol (RIP), the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol, and the
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).

Forwarding means to transmit packets along the best route that has been found. The
router will first search in the routing table, to see whether there is a route to send the
packet to the next hop (router or host). If the router does not know how to send the
packet, normally it will discard this packet; otherwise, it will send the packet to the next
hop according to the corresponding entries in the routing table. If the destination network
is directly connected with the router, the router will directly send the packet to the
corresponding port. This is the routed protocol.

The routed protocol and the routing protocol are two associated but independent
concepts. The former one uses the routing table maintained by the latter one;
meanwhile, the latter one needs to use functions provided by the former one to release
the data packets.

1.4.2 Routing Protocols

There are two typical routing methods: static routing and dynamic routing.

 Static routing means to set a stationary routing table in the router. Unless the
network administrator interferes, the static routing will not change. Because
static routing cannot react to network changes, it is normally used in networks
with small size and fixed topology structure. The advantages of static routing lie
in its simplicity, high efficiency, and good reliability. Among all types of routing

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methods, static routing has the highest priority. When dynamic routing conflicts
with static routing, static routing comes first.
 Dynamic routing refers to the process in which routers communicate with each
other to transfer route information and use the received route information to
update the routing table. It can adapt to network structure changes in real time.
If the route update information indicates that the network change occurs, the
routing software will re-calculate the routes and send the new route update
information. This information will pass through every network. Consequently, all
routers concerned will restart their routing algorithms and update their routing
tables, to dynamically reflect network topology changes. Dynamic routing
applies to networks with big size and complicated topology structure. However,
all dynamic routing protocols will occupy network bandwidth and CPU
resources to different extent.

Static routing and dynamic routing have their unique features and applicable scopes.
Therefore, dynamic routing is often used as a complement to static routing. When a
packet is routed in the router, the router will first search for a static route. If a static route
is found, it will forward the packet along this static route; otherwise, it will search for a
dynamic route.

Based on whether the dynamic routing is used within one autonomous domain or not,
the dynamic routing protocols can be divided into Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) and
Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP). Hereby the autonomous domain refers to a network
with a common governance entity and routing policy. Routing protocols used in an
autonomous domain are called Interior Gateway Protocols, and the frequently-used ones
are RIP and OSPF. The Exterior Gateway Protocol is mainly used in the routing among
multiple autonomous domains, and the frequently-used ones are BGP and BGP-4. The
following sections will describe them one by one.

1.4.2.1 RIP Protocol

The RIP protocol was first designed for the Xerox parc general protocol of the Xerox
network system, and it is now the most frequently-used routing protocol in the Internet.
RIP adopts the distance vector algorithm, that is, the router selects the route according
to the distance. Therefore, this protocol is also called the Distance Vector Protocol. The
router collects different paths that can reach a destination, and saves the paths with the
minimum number of hops for each destination. Except for the optimal path to a
destination, all the other information will be discarded. Meanwhile, the router will use the
RIP protocol to inform its neighboring routers of the route information it has collected.
Thus, the correct route information will gradually spread to the whole network.

RIP is widely used. It is simple, reliable, and easy to configure. But RIP only applies to
small homogeneous networks. The maximum number of hops it allows is 15; therefore,
any destination with more than 15 hops will be marked with “unreachable”. Besides,
RIP’s route information broadcast will repeat every 30 seconds, which is a major element
that causes broadcast storm.

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1.4.2.2 OSPF Protocol

In the mid 1980s, RIP could not adapt to the interconnection of large heterogeneous
networks, and OSPF came into being consequently. It is a routing protocol developed by
the IGP work group of the Internet Engeneering Task Force (IETF) for IP networks.

OSPF is a routing protocol based on the link status, and each router needs to send link
status broadcast to all the other routers in the same management domain. The OSPF
link status broadcast contains all the interface information, all the measures, and some
variables. Routers adopting OSPF must collect related link status information first, and
then calculate the shortest path to each node based on certain algorithms. For routing
protocols based on the distance vector, routers send route updates only to their
neighboring routers.

Different from RIP, OSPF further divides an autonomous domain into areas.
Consequently, there are two types of routing: when the source and the destination are in
the same area, intra-area routing is adopted; when the source and the destination are in
different areas, inter-area routing is adopted. This has greatly reduced the network
overhead and increased network stability. In case a router in one area fails, routers in
other areas of the autonomous domain can still work. This also brings convenience for
network management and maintenance.

1.4.2.3 BGP and BGP-4 Protocols

BGP is an exterior gateway protocol designed for the TCP/IP Internet. It is used among
multiple autonomous domains. It is based on neither the pure link status algorithm, nor
the pure distance vector algorithm. Its main function is to exchange network accessibility
information with BGP of other autonomous domains. Different autonomous domains can
run different interior gateway protocols. The BGP updates contain the paired information
of network ID/autonomous domain path. The autonomous domain path specifies the
string of intermediate autonomous domains before a packet reaches the destination
network. The updates are transmitted via TCP, to ensure the reliability of transmission.

To meet the requirements of the expanding Internet, BGP is also under continuous
development. In the latest BGP4, similar routes can be merged into one route.

1.4.2.4 Priorities of Routing Table Entries

In one router, the static routing and one or more types of dynamic routing can be
configured at the same time. Their routing tables are all provided to the forwarding
program. But the routing table entries may conflict with each other. To solve this problem,
you can configure the priorities of each routing table. The priorities are measured by
administrative distances. The shorter the administrative distance is, the higher the
priority becomes.

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Table Network address: It refers to the IP address whose digits in the host ID are all 0. For
example, 202.206.0.0 is a network address in Class B. -4 Administrative Distances of Routing
Protocols

Routing Protocol Administrative Distance


Static 1
EIGRP summary route 5
EBGP 20
EIGRP(internal) 90
IGRP 100
OSPF 110
IS-IS 115
RIP 120
EIGRP(external) 170
iBGP(external) 200

Besides, the administrative distance of direct connection is 0, and the priority is the
highest.

1.4.3 Routing Algorithms

The routing algorithm plays a critical role in a routing protocol. The algorithm adopted
can often determine the routing result. Therefore, the routing algorithms must be
selected carefully. Normally, the following design objectives need to be considered:

 Optimality: The algorithm should have the ability to select the optimal route.
 Conciseness: The algorithm should be concise, using the minimum number of
software and overhead, but providing the most effective functions.
 Stability: The routing algorithm should work normally in exceptional or
unexpected environment, such as hardware failure, overload, and
misoperations. Routers are distributed on the connecting points of the network;
so if they fail, several problems will be caused. Good routing algorithms can
work normally for a long time, and can be proved reliable in different network
environments.
 Fast convergence: Convergence is the process in which all routers come to the
same conclusion in terms of the optimal route selection. When a network event
triggers the route selection, the router will send the update information. The
updates will spread to the whole network, and trigger re-calculation of the
optimal route. Finally all routers will get to the same conclusion in terms of the
optimal route selection. Slowly convergent routing algorithms will cause routing
loops or network disconnection.
 Flexiblity: The routing algorithm can quickly and correctly adapt to various
network environment. For example, when a subnet fails, the routing algorithm

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should quickly detect this failure, and select another optimal route for all routers
that use this subnet.

Routing algorithms can be divided into the following types: static and dynamic, single
route and multiple routes, equal and hierarchical, source routing and transparent routing,
intra-domain and inter-domain, as well as link status and distance vector. Here we will
focus on the link status and the distance vector algorithms.

In the link status algorithm (also called the shortest path algorithm), routers will send the
route information to all the nodes in the Internet. But each router only sends the part in
its routing table that describes its own link status. The distance vector algorithm (also
called the Bellman-Ford algorithm) requires each router to send all or part of the
information in its routing table, to the neighboring nodes only. Therefore, the link status
algorithm sends a small portion of update information to the entire network, while the
distance vector algorithm sends a large portion of update information to the neighboring
routers.

For the link status algorithm converges more quickly, to some extent, it has lower
possibility to cause routing loops than the distance vector algorithm. But on the other
hand, the link status algorithm requires stronger CPU capabilities and more memory
spaces than the distance vector algorithm. So, the link status algorithm is more
expensive in implementation. Except these differences, the two algorithms can both work
well in most environments.

The last point to be noted is that routing algorithms use mnay different measures to
determine the optimal route. A complex routing algorithm may use multiple measures to
select the route; it will combine these measures into a composite measure through
weighted calculations, and then input it into the routing table as the routing criteria. The
commonly used measures include: length of the path, reliability, delay, bandwidth, load,
and communication cost.

1.4.4 Introduction to HSRP and VRRP


 Definition of HSRP
HSRP --- Hot Standby Router Protocol
Its function is to make one or more routers as the backup. “Hot standby” means
that when the router being used fails, the standby router can smoothly replace
it without being noticed.
 Purpose of HSRP
Normally, a host in the network will be configured with a default route that refers
to a Router R in the subnet of the host. Thus, packets sent by the host whose
destinations are not in this subnet will be sent to Router R via the default route,
to realize communication with the external network. In this case, if Router R
fails, all hosts that take Router R as the next hop in their default route will lose
communication with the external. For example, if Host A accesses Host B via

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the default gateway (Router A), once Router A fails, Host A cannot access Host
B.
HSRP can solve the above problem. Multiple routers compose a standby group
(Router A and Router B). From Host A’s perspective, this standby group is a
virtual router with a virtual IP address of its own. Host A uses this virtual router
as the gateway (set with a virtual IP address). In the standby group, there is an
active router (for example, Router A), and it does the work for the virtual router,
such as forwarding the data packets that the host sends to the virtual router;
and Router B acts as the backup router. When Router A fails, backup Router B
will take over the work of the active router and forward data packets that the
host sends to the virtual router. This process is transparent to Host A, because
Host A only sees the virtual router.
The HSRP protocol sets the working mechanism for the standby group, to
realize the above backup function.
HSRP applies to LANs with multicast or broadcast capabilities (such as the
Ethernet).
HSRP is used for router hot standby in broadcast or multicast LANs, and it suits
for static route configuration. Actually, what HSRP targets at is exactly the
problem that equipment cannot dynamically adapt to route changes.
 Implementation of HSRP
When HSRP is used, what users can see is a virtual router. This virtual router
has its own virtual IP address and virtual MAC address. It consists of a group of
routers, which is called a standby group. The standby group includes an active
router, a backup router, and the other member routers. Once the active router
fails, the backup router will become the active router, and another router in the
standby group will be selected as the new backup router.
Routers in the standby group judge whether the active router is working well by
receiving the HELLO packet periodically sent by the active router. If the backup
router R has not received the active router’s HELLO packet in a certain period,
it will suppose that the active router fails. In this case, the backup router
becomes the new active router. The backup router is also generated in this
way. Thus, there will always be an active router and a backup router in the
standby group.
 HSRP and VRRP
HSRP and VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol) are both router
standby protocols, and most of their functions are the same. From users’
perspective, they mainly differ in the following ways:

 HSRP is a private protocol of CISCO, so it supports a few router


manufacturers. VRRP is a standard protocol (RFC2338) defined by
IETF;

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 HSRP does not support the setting of the real interface address as the
virtual gateway (virtual router) address, but VRRP does. Thus, VRRP
only needs two IP addresses at the minimum, while HSRP needs three
IP addresses at the minimum. An HSRP group containing two members
must use three addresses: each router has an actual IP address, and the
HSRP group has a virtual IP address; however, a VRRP group
containing two members only needs two IP addresses: the interface IP
address of the master device is the virtual IP address of the VRRP
group; when the master device is down, the backup device will take over
this IP address. But of course, VRRP can also use three IP addresses,
just the same as HSRP: two actual addresses, and one virtual address,
that is, the interface IP address of the master device differs from the
virtual IP address. For VRRP, only when the virtual IP address is the
same as the interface IP address of the master device, can ARP queries
made to the virtual IP address be responded to; therefore, when the
virtual IP address is different from the interface IP address of the master
device, the virtual IP address cannot be pinged through. However, for
HSRP, the virtual IP address of the HSRP group can be pinged through.

 HSRP takes the UDP packet as the bearer for its own packets, while
VRRP normally takes the TCP packet as the bearer. VRRP can provide
the traffic load sharing function. Although HSRP can assign different
subnets to different HSRP groups through planning, and define the
master router in each HSRP group by using different priorities for the two
switches or routers to share the traffic between the two routers. It cannot
realize traffic load sharing in one subnet (that is, in one HSRP group). On
the contrary, VRRP can realize this function.

2 Service Networking

2.1 Typical Abis Interface Networking


Based on different site conditions, there are three scenarios of networking: The first two
are networking with VLAN configuration and networking without VLAN configuration,
based on the VLAN division of the transmission network; the third scenario applies to
networking that requires switch backup and high redundancy.

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2.1.1 Networking Without VLAN

Figure Service Networking-1 Networking Without VLAN

Description of the figure is as follows:

1. The L2 switching network is a L2 network provided by the primary carrier. It


can be regarded as a transparent channel, converging traffic from different
BTSs to move it to the L2 switch at the equipment room side of the BSC. Its
function is the same as the L2 switch, that is, to connect BTS and BSC and
act as a bridge between them.
2. The L2 switch is connected with two GIPI borads of the BSC. GIPIs in the
backup mode must be in the same frame.
3. The gateway address of the base station is the interface address of GIPI. When
there are multiple subnets, the different interfaces configured correspond to
gateways of different subnets.
4. The above figure is only a schematic drawing, and it does not represent
connection of any port in practice.

When the Abis interface uses the L2 switch to connect with the L2 switching network,
GIPI adopts the backup mode. The main configuration requirements are as follows:
Item Configuration Requirement
BSC Board The resource frame should be configured with GIPI boards with the
Configuration Abis interface, and the GIPI boards are in the backup mode.
The active and the standby GIPI boards should be connected with
Cable Connection
the same switch.

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Item Configuration Requirement


(1) When BSC is connected with the switch via the FE electrical
interface, both sides should be set to the forced 100Mbps full-
duplex mode.
(2) When BSC is connected with the switch via the GE electrical
interface, both sides should be set to the adaptive negotiation
Physical Interface mode.
Configuration
(3) When BSC is connected with the switch via the GE optical
interface, both sides should be set to the forced 1000Mbps full-
duplex mode.
Ports of the switch that are connected with BSC should be all set to
L2 ports.
STP It is suggested that you enable STP on the switch.
In L2 switching, the switch should not be configured with an IP
IP Address address. Interfaces that are in the same subnet as the GIPI active
and standby boards should be configured with the same IP address.
There is no need for the routing configuration (for this is L2 switching
Routing Configuration
in the same subnet).

2.1.2 Networking with VLAN

Figure Service Networking-2 Networking with VLAN

Description of the figure is as follows:

1. The L2 switching network is an L2 network provided by the primary carrier. It


can be regarded as a transparent channel, and sends VLAN packets to the L3
switch at the equipment room side of BSC via transparent transmission.
2. Static routing is enabled between the L3 switch and BSC.
3. The gateway address of the base station is the IP address of the VLAN sub-
interface on the L3 switch. One VLAN corresponds to one VLAN sub-interface.
4. The above figure is only a schematic drawing, and it does not represent
connection of any port in practice.

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When the network between BTS and BSC has VLANs, the switch connecting the L2
switching network and BSC is an L3 switch. GIPIs are in the load sharing mode. The
typical networking is as shown above. The main configuration requirements are as
follows:
Item Configuration Requirement
The resource frame should be configured with GIPI boards of the
BSC Board Abis interface, and the GIPI boards are in the load sharing mode. (If
Configuration they adopt the backup mode, it is mandatory to use the networking
described in “2.1.3VRRP (HSRP) Networking”.)
Each resource frame must be connected with two switches at the
Cable Connection
same time.
(1) When BSC is connected with the switch via the FE electrical
interface, both sides should be set to the forced 100Mbps full-
duplex mode.
(2) When BSC is connected with the switch via the GE electrical
interface, both sides should be set to the adaptive negotiation
mode.
(3) When BSC is connected with the switch via the GE optical
Physical Interface interface, both sides should be set to the forced 1000Mbps full-
Configuration duplex mode.
Ports of the switch that are connected with BSC should be all set to
L3 ports (no switchport).
Ports of the switch that are connected with BTS should be all set to
the trunk mode (dot1q encapsulation). VLAN IDs can be configured
as per the actual requirements. To realize traffic balance, it is
suggested that each port create two VLANs.
VLAN Interface
Create a VLAN interface for each VLAN.
Configuration
Ports on the switch that are connected with BSC should be
configured with different subnet IP addresses, and they cannot be in
the same subnets with the ports that are connected with BTS. The
IP Address suggested subnet mask is 255.255.255.252.
The IP address of a VLAN interface should be the gateway address
of the BTS within this VLAN.
Static routes to all BTSs should be configured on BSC. The routing
entries should be concise; subnets that can be merged should be
merged into one big subnet routing entry.
Downlink Route For each destination IP address (routed to BTS) on BSC, the next
Configuration hop of its static route should be the IP address of the interface on the
switch. If the number of interfaces on the switch is N, the number of
next hops with the same priority should also be N (that is, downlink
packets can pass through any active GIPI to the switch).
The switch should be configured with static routes to the following
addresses: BSC service IP address and signaling IP address. For the
Uplink Route
same destination IP address, the next hops configured on each
Configuration
switch should include the interfae IP addresses of all GIPIs that are
directly connected with it.

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2.1.3 VRRP (HSRP) Networking

Figure Service Networking-3 VRRP (HSRP) Networking

Description of the figure is as follows:

1. Between the L2 switching network and BSC, two L3 switches are used. They
are mutual backups for each other in terms of VLAN communication. (Suppose
there are four VLANs in the network, and we configure two VLAN sub-
interfaces as the gateways of the base station for both switch 1 and switch 2.
When switch 1 fails, the two gateway addresses on it will shift to switch 2.
Therefore, the traffic of two VLANs that was previously forwarded by switch 1
will then be forwarded by switch 2, and vice versa.)
2. Between the L3 switches and BSC, static routing is enabled.
3. Between the two switches, dynamic routing protocol is enabled (the OSPF
protocol is recommended). When the link between one switch and BSC breaks,
this switch will forward its data to the other switch through the Channel path,
and let the other switch forward the data to BSC, thus enhancing network
reliability.
4. The above figure is only a schematic drawing, and it does not represent
connection of any port in practice.

Table Service Networking-5 Main Configuration Requirements-1

Item Configuration Requirement


BSC Board The resource frame should be configured with GIPI boards with the
Configuration Abis interface.
If each resource frame is configured with the GIPI boards (in pair),
Cable Connection each resource frame must be connected with two switches at the
same time.

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(1) When BSC is connected with the switch via the FE electrical
interface, both sides should be set to the forced 100Mbps full-duplex
mode.
(2) When BSC is connected with the switch via the GE electrical
interface, both sides should be set to the adaptive negotiation mode.
(3) When BSC is connected with the switch via the GE optical
Physical Interface interface, both sides should be set to the forced 1000Mbps full-
Configuration duplex mode.
Ports of the switch that are connected with BSC should be all set to
L3 ports (no switchport).
Ports of the switch that are connected with BTS should be all set to
the trunk mode (dot1q encapsulation). VLAN IDs can be configured
as per the actual requirements. To realize traffic balance, it is
suggested that each port create two VLANs.
VLAN Interface Set the virtual interface of the VLAN to the HSRP virtual address (or
Configuration VRRP).
Channels should be created between the two switches via multiple
FE/GE interfaces. The multiple FE/GE interfaces form link
Channel aggregation, so the usable bandwidth is increased.
Set the channel interface as the L3 interface.
Each VLAN interface should be configured with an IP address.
Different VLAN interfaces use different IP subnet addresses. The
BTS-side VLAN subnet mask is determined by the number of BTSs.
IP Address
The Channel interface of two switches should be configured with an
IP address, and it should occupy a 255.255.255.252 subnet of its
own.
To connect to the VLAN of BTS, two switches should create the
corresponding HSRP group or VRRP group. Different HSRP groups
HSRP (or VRRP)
should have different priority configuration policies, to allocate all the
VLAN traffic evenly to the two switches at the same time.
Static routes to all BTSs should be configured on BSC. The routing
entries should be concise; subnets that can be merged should be
merged into one big subnet routing entry.
For each destination IP address (routed to BTS) on BSC, the next
hop of its static route should be the IP address of the interface on the
switch. If the number of interfaces on the switch is N, the number of
Downlink Route next hops with the same priority should also be N (that is, downlink
Configuration packets can pass through any active GIPI to the switch).
It is not necessary to configure static routes to all BTSs on the
switch, because they can directly reach each other.
Between the two switches, OSPF learning should be enabled. It is
only necessary to create an area 0, which corresponds to the subnet
where the Channel interface resides.
On BTS, the virtual IP address of VRRP for the VLAN is its default
gateway.
Two switches should be configured with static routes to the following
addresses: BSC service IP address and signaling IP address. Do not
Uplink Route merge routing entries to different resource frames, and they should
Configuration be configured separately. These routes should be evenly shared
between the two switches. Therefore, for the same destination IP
address, the next hops configured on each switch should include the
interfae IP addresses of all GIPIs that are directly connected with it.
(Do not configure this item in case of non-direct connection, because
OSPF can learn this information.)

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Note: When the redundancy requirement on the switch is not high, you can
adopt the networking with only one L3 switch in it. In this case, the VRRP
(HSRP) protocol is not used, which simplifies the network configuration.

2.2 Typical A Interface Networking

Fiture Service Networking-4 A Interface Networking

Description of the figure is as follows:

1. The GIPI boards of BSC are connected with two switches. If there are four
interface boards with the A interface, each switch will be connected with two of
them.
2. Static routing is configured between BSC and the L3 switches.
3. A channel is configured between the two switches for inter-connection.
4. The dynamic routing protocol is enabled between the two L3 switches. It is
recommended to use the OSPF protocol.
5. The above figure is only a schematic drawing, and it does not represent
connection of any port in practice.

Table Service Networking-6 Main Configuration Requirements-2

Item Configuration Requirement


BSC Board Each resource frame should be configured with GIPI boards with the
Configuration A interface, and these boards should be in the load sharing mode.

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Item Configuration Requirement


(1) When BSC is connected with the switch via the FE electrical
interface, both sides should be set to the forced 100Mbps full-
duplex mode;
(2) When BSC is connected with the switch via the GE electrical
interface, both sides should be set to the adaptive negotiation
Physical Interface mode;
Configuration
(3) When BSC is connected with the switch via the GE optical
interface, both sides should be set to the forced 1000Mbps full-
duplex mode.
Ports of the switch that are connected with BSC should be all set to
L3 ports (no switchport).
Channels should be created between the two switches via multiple
FE/GE interfaces. The multiple FE/GE interfaces form link
Channel aggregation, so the usable bandwidth is increased.
Set the channel interface as the L3 interface.
Ports on the switch that are connected with BSC should be
configured with IP addresses of different subnets, and they cannot be
in the same subnets as the ports connected with CN. The suggested
IP Address subnet mask is 255.255.255.252.
The Channel interface of two switches should be configured with an
IP address, and it should occupy a 255.255.255.252 subnet of its
own.
Static routes to all CN IP addresses should be configured on BSC.
The routing entries should be concise; subnets that can be merged
should be merged into one big subnet routing entry.
For each destination IP address (routed to CN) on BSC, the next hop
of its static route should be the IP address of the interface on the
switch. If the number of interfaces on the switch is N, the number of
next hops with the same priority should also be N (that is, downlink
packets can pass through any active GIPI to the switch).
Uplink Route Static routes to all CN IP addresses should also be configured on the
Configuration switch. The routing entries should be concise; subnets that can be
merged should be merged into one big subnet routing entry.

For the two switches, the number of configured static routes is the
same, but their next hops are different. Their next hops are the IP
addresses of their peer equipment respectively.
OSPF dynamic route learning should be enabled between the two
switches. It is only necessary to create an area 0, which corresponds
to the subnet where the Channel interface resides.
CN should be configured with routes to the following addresses: BSC
service IP address and signaling IP address. These routes should be
evenly shared between the two switches.
Two switches should be configured with static routes to the following
addresses: BSC service IP address and signaling IP address. Do not
Downlink Route merge routing entries to different resource frames, and they should
Configuration be configured separately. These routes should be evenly shared
between the two switches. Therefore, for the same destination IP
address, the next hops configured on each switch should include the
interfae IP addresses of all GIPIs that are directly connected with it.
(Do not configure this item in case of non-direct connection, because
OSPF can learn this information.)

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Note: When the redundancy requirement on the router is not high, you can
adopt the networking with only one router/L3 switch in it. In this case, no
dynamic routing protocol needs to be used between the routers, which
simplifies the network configuration.

2.3 Typical Gb Interface Networking


Please refer to the A interface networking configuration.

2.4 OMCB Network Architecture

2.4.1 OMCB Network Structure

Figure Service Networking-5 OMCB Networking

As shown in the figure above, the base station is connected with iBSC via a switching
network. For information of this networking structure, please refer to the configuration in
“2.1Typical Abis Interface Networking”.

The IPBB board connected with the OMCB server is normally a rear board with 100M.
(The data flow in operation and maintenance is comparatively low, and the OMCB server
currently uses the SBCX board that is integrated within iBSC, which only has 100M
electrical interfaces, so it is not necessary to use the 1000M IPBB rear board.)

Table Service Networking-7 Configuration Requirements for Connection Between iBSC and the
OMCB Server

Item Configuration Requirement


The GIPI rear boards connected with the OMCB server
BSC Board Configuration
should be in the backup mode.
The active and standby GIPI rear boards connected with the
Cable Connection OMCB server should connect to a LAN (can be a switch),
and the OMCB server should also connect to this LAN.
Physical Interface Configuration (1) When BSC is connected with the switch via the FE

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Item Configuration Requirement


electrical interface, both sides should be set to the
forced 100Mbp full-duplex mode;
(2) When BSC is connected with the switch via the GE
electrical interface, both sides should be set to the
adaptive negotiation mode;
(3) When BSC is connected with the switch via the GE
optical interface, both sides should be set to the forced
1000Mbps full-duplex mode.

2.4.2 OMCB Routing Description

Figure Service Networking-6 OMCB Routed Networking

1. Route Analysis
(1) SDR—→OMCB_Server: When SDR sends data to the OMCB server,
first the CC lower layer will encapsulate the IP packets into IPinIP
packets. Then the packets pass through the switching network and reach
the IPBB board that has the Abis interface. The IPBB board resolves and
decapsulate the IPinIP packets. Then the packets are forwarded to the
OMCB server through the IPBB board connected with the server.
(2) OMCB_Server—→SDR: When the OMCB server sends data to SDR, the
data will first be sent to the IPBB board connected with the OMCB server
in the form of normal IP packets. Then the IPBB board analyzes the
source address of the packets. When the board detects that the source
address is the IP address of the OMCB server, it will encapsulate the IP
packets into IPinIP packets. Then the packets are forwarded to SDR by
the IPBB board that has the Abis interface. After SDR receives the
packets, the CC board will decapsulates them. Last, the packets will be
forwarded to the VxWorks protocol stack by the BRS protocol stack.
2. Differences Between brsping and ping
(1) The CPU of CC has two Universal Communication Controllers (UCC1
and UCC2). The two UCCs are both connected with the switch chip of
the CC board.

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 UCC1 mainly processes Abis interface signaling (by using the SCTP
protocol, it completes the configuration of radio parameters, which are
used for connection between GSPS and iBSC, as well as the signaling
process in calls). It runs the BRS protocol stack;

 UCC2 mainly processes the internal data flows of BBU (RUDP


communication inside BBU, and communication between PC and
CC/UBPG/FS boards via the debug interface). It runs the VxWorks
protocol stack.
(2) LMT is the local maintenance tool. It communicates with CPU of CC
through the VxWorks protocol stack. That is, the LMT tool running on the
PC and the OAM module running on the CC realize local maintenance
through the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).
(3) Communication between OMCB and the base station leverages the
transparent channel of iBSC. The packets between OMCB and iBSC are
common IP packets. They are encapsulated into IPinIP packets on the
interface board of iBSC. Then these packets pass through the Abis
interface and reach CC. When the CC lower layer receives the IPinIP
packets, it removes the external IP header of the packets and turns them
into common IP packets. Then the packets are forwarded to the VxWorks
protocol stack by the BRS protocol stack. Configuration parameters and
standard packets from OMCB to the base station are all transmitted to
CC in this way.
In the opposite direction, for example, if OMCB is to reversely construct the
configurations on CC, the common IP packets are first encapsulated into
IPinIP packets by the CC lower layer. Then the packets are sent to the Abis
interface through UCC1. When they reach the iBSC interface board, the
external IP header will be removed and they are turned into common IP
packets and then forwarded to OMCB. OMCB proactively establishes the
link with the base station to set up its operation and maintenance channel.
Establishment of the operation and maintenance channel between OMCB
and the base station has nothing to do with the SCTP link on the Abis
interface, even though the two links use the same IP address on the base
station (now you can also set them to two different IP addresses).
If you only configure the IP parameters and the OMCB parameters for the
base station and do not configure the SCTP parameters, OMCB still can
establish a link with the base station. In this case, OMCB can also reversely
construct the foreground data or send configurations to the foreground.

(4) The ping command is processed by the Vxworks protocol stack.


Therefore, peer ends that communicate with the VxWorks protocol stack
can all be pinged through.

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The brsping command is processed by the BRS protocol stack. Therefore,


peer ends that communicate with the BRS protocol can all be connected by
using the brsping command.
If you ping “OMCB IP” on CC, this ICMP packet will be encapsulated into an
IPinIP packet when it comes out from CC. Then it passes through the Abis
interface and reaches the iBSC interface board. On the interface board, the
external IP header will be removed and the packet is forwarded to OMCB.
When OMCB responds, the response packet is also a common IP packet.
When the packet reaches the iBSC interface board, it is encapsulated into
an IPinIP packet. Then the packet passes through the Abis interface and
reaches CC, where the CC lower layer removes its external IP header and
forwards it to the VxWorks protocol stack.
If you brsping “iBSC Abis virtual address/RPU address” on CC, this packet
will remain a common IP packet, and it will be processed directly on the
iBSC interface board or forwarded to RPU for processing.

(5) To establish connection between OMCB and the base station, routing to
the base station must be configured on OMCB, and OMCB parameters
must be configured on the base station. Thus, the route to OMCB can be
added on the base station, and the base station can know the
encapsulated external IP. You can use the routeShow command on the
base station to view the route information, and the ifShow command to
view the IP interface information of the VxWorks protocol stack.
(6) After you add the route to the base station on OMCB, if you do not
configure OMCB parameters on the base station, the base station cannot
be pinged through from OMCB, because the base station does not know
how to encapsulate a common packet into an IPinIP packet, and thus
does not know how to respond to the packet. After you configure the
OMCB parameters on the base station, the base station can be pinged
through from OMCB.
After you add the route to the base station on OMCB, if you do not configure
OMCB parameters on the base station, OMCB cannot be pinged through
from the base station, either, because the base station does not know how to
encapsulate a common packet into an IPinIP packet, and thus will not
forward the ping packet from the Abis interface.
After you add the OMCB parameter configuration on the base station, you
still cannot ping through OMCB from the base station. But at this time, if you
ping the base station first from OMCB, and after you get a positive result,
ping OMCB again from the base station. At this time, the OMCB can be
pinged through. This is because the base station must be configured with
OMCB parameters and the link between OMCB and the base station is
initiated by OMCB.

(7) Once OMCB establishes a link with the base station, the ping command
can be executed successfully in both directions.

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2.5 IPoverE1 Networking


Access method: E1/T1

Access board: DTB (BSC side), SA (SDR side)

Networking prerequisite: The base station side must use SDR; the BSC side needs an
EUIP board for protocol conversion.

Figure Service Networking-7 Networking Diagram

Precautions:

1. Connections of different types, such as connection between OMP and OMCR,


connection between OMCB and IPBB, and connection between SDR and EUIP,
should be configured with different subnets, and the subnets cannot include or
overlap with each other.
2. There is a one-to-one relationship between SDR and its corresponding EUIP
port. Each site should be configured to the same subnet as its corresponding
EUIP. Addresses of different EUIP ports under the same iBSC cannot share the
same subnet.
3. Routes to SDR subnets should be added on OMCB. The added subnets should
include all SDR sites, but this configuration cannot span too widely, either. It is
suggested that you observe the following address configuration rule: when the
number of sites does not exceed 254, you only need to add the route to the
118.BSCID.0.0 subnet; when that number is between 254 and 512, you need to
add the routes to the 118.BSCID.0.0 and 118.(100+BSCID).0.0 subnet.
4. For an IPOE site, you do not need to configure a virtual address as the address
of the OMCB Channel. Use RPU_IPAbis instead.

3 Network Management Network

3.1 Related Interface Boards


In the network management network, all interface boards are rear boards.

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 OMP: Communicate with the background, that is, the OMCR subnet
 SBCX: Use three ports (OMP1, OMC1, and OMC2)

 OMP1: Communicate with the foreground, that is, the OMCR subnet.

 OMC1: It is used for maintenance of the external network, that is, the
EMS subnet.

 OMC2: Connect with the OMCB subnet.


 GIPI: Connect with the OMCB subnet.

3.2 Subnet Planning


The OMCR, OMCB, and EMS subnets will be described separately in the following text.

3.2.1 OMCR Subnet

The OMCR subnet is where OMP and the OMCR server reside.

Figure Network Management Network-8 OMCR Subnet

OMP and the OMCR server can connect with each other through an L2 switching
network (consisting of switches). IP addresses of the interfaces must be in the same
subnet. For example, the IP address of OMP is 10.5.5.1/29, and the address of the
OMCR server is 10.5.5.2/29. Other IP addresses cannot overlap with this subnet.

3.2.2 OMCB Subnet

The OMCB subnet is where IPBB and the OMCB server reside. This IPBB only forwards
data from the OMCB channel.

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Figure Network Management Network-9 OMCB Subnet

IPBB and the OMCB server can connect with each other through an L2 switching
network (consisting of switches). IP addresses of the interfaces must be in the same
subnet. For example, the IP address of IPBB is 10.5.5.9/29, and the IP address of the
OMCB server is 10.5.5.10/29. Other IP addresses cannot overlap with this subnet.

3.2.3 EMS Subnet

The EMS subnet is where the EMS server (that is, the Minos server) resides. Terminals
for background operation and maintenance can log into the EMS server through this
subnet.

Figure Network Management Network-10 EMS Subnet

The EMS client, the OMM server, and the EMS server can connect with each other
through an L2 switching network (consisting of switches). IP addresses of the interfaces
must be in the same subnet. For example, the IP address of OMM Server1 is
172.22.16.1/24; the IP address of OMM Server2 is 172.22.16.2/24; the IP address of the
EMS server is 172.22.16.3/24. Addresses of EMS clients range from 172.22.16.10/24 to
172.22.16.250/24; other IP addresses cannot overlap with this subnet. This subnet can
also be used by other applications. For example, the alarm box can also use IP
addresses in this subnet.

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The above describes the address configurations of the three subnets separately, and
logically gives a rough account of the basic networking methods. In actual physical
networking, we can integrate the three networks, and use VLANs to segregate the
subnets, as shown in Figure Network Management Network-11.

Figure Network Management Network-11 Use of VLAN to Segregate Subnets

OMCR, OMCB, and EMS subnets match VLAN1, VLAN2, and VLAN3 respectively, and
they are connected to the same L2 switching network. Here you can use one L2 switch
(VLANs can be configured on it) to construct the simplest L2 switching network.

3.3 Multi-Functional Management Network


A multi-functional management network includes the EMS subnet, OMCR subnet, OMCB
subnet, and network equipment management subnet. BSC, application servers,
application clients, and monitoring devices can all connect to this network. Besides,
management networks of different products can be integrated in one network. For
reference, see the case in Figure Network Management Network-12.

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Figure Network Management Network-12 Multi-Functional Management Network

4 IP Application

4.1 IP Address Planning

4.1.1 Service Address Planning

Service address refers to site IP addresses, RPU addresses of various interfaces on


BSC, board interface addresses, and addresses of the corresponding network.

4.1.1.1 Addresses of the Abis Interface

 RPU Address
RPU address is the destination address for SCTP link establishment of the
base stations under BSC. The subnet mask is 255.255.255.255. RPU address
cannot be used by other allocated subnet.
(For RPU addresses, the subnet mask must be 255.255.255.255.)
 Interface Address of the IPBB Board
Load sharing mode: The IP address configured for each IPBB board should be
in the same subnet as the interface IP address of the corresponding router. The
subnet mask is 255.255.255.252. For example:
IPBB1: 10.1.1.1/30 ←→Interface IP address 1 of the corresponding router:
10.1.1.2/30

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IPBB2: 10.1.1.5/30 ←→Interface IP address 2 of the corresponding router:


10.1.1.6/30
Backup mode: For a pair of IPBB boards that are in the backup mode, it is only
necessary to configure the IP address on the active board. At this time, the
active board and the standby board are treated as one unit. If the active board
is at Slot 11 of Frame 1 in Rack 1 (1/1/11), and the standby board is at Slot 12
of Frame 1 in Rack 1 (1/1/12), logically the position of the standby board can be
regarded as 1/1/11. When the board is used as the standby board, it is in the
inactive status. But if the IPBB interface address is configured as the gateway
address of the base station, each interface address must be in a different
subnet.

4.1.1.2 Addresses of the A Interface

 RPU Address
User plane address: It is the IP address for setting the UDP port of DSP on
AIPB as shown in Figure IP Application-13.

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Figure IP Application-13 RPU Address

If there are N AIPB boards, it is necessary to configure N user plane IP


addresses, which should be in the same RPU. As shown in Error: Reference
source not found, four user plane IP addresses are configured in one RPU, and
their subnet masks are all 255.255.255.255.

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Figure IP Application-1 Subnet Mask

Control plane address: It is the local IP address in the SCTP association and
ASP configuration of the A interface.
As shown in , four control plane addresses are configured. Each IP address is
corresponding to an MSC and is configured with four local ports, forming four
virtual link channels.

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Figure IP Application-2 Control Plane Address

 Interface Address of the IPI Board


Normally IPI boards are configured as load sharing mode. The IP address
configured for each IPI board is in the same subnet as the interface IP address
of the corresponding router. The subnet mask is 255.255.255.252. For
example:
IPI1: 10.2.2.1/30 ←→Interface IP address 1 of the corresponding router:
10.2.2.2/30
IPI2: 10.2.2.5/30 ←→Interface IP address 2 of the corresponding router:
10.2.2.6/30

4.1.1.3 Addresses of the Gb Interface

 RPU Address
The IP address in IPGB Endpoint configuration is the RPU address, as shown
in
Figure IP Application-14.

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Figure IP Application-14 IP Address/RPU Address

If there are N IPGB boards, it is necessary to create N NSVC links and


configure N IP addresses. These IP addresses should be in the same RPU.
Each NSVC link has a one-to-one relationship with the IPGB link.
 Interface Address of the IPGB Board
Normally IPGB boards are configured as load sharing mode. The IP address
configured for each IPGB board is in the same subnet as the interface IP
address of the corresponding router. The subnet mask is 255.255.255.252. For
example:
IPI1: 10.3.3.1/30 ←→Interface IP address 1 of the corresponding router:
10.3.3.2/30
IPI2: 10.3.3.5/30 ←→Interface IP address 2 of the corresponding router:
10.3.3.6/30

4.1.2 Network Management Address Planning

Please refer to “3.2Subnet Planning”.

4.1.3 Base Station Address Planning

Base station address planning varies with the method of networking between the base
station and BSC. The following text will introduce base station address planning in two
typical networking scenarios.

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Figure IP Application-15 Typical Base Station Networking-1

4.1.3.1 Networking Without VLAN

When L2 network is adopted and VLAN is not configured, the interface IP address of
IPBB is used as the gateway address of the base station. In this case, the address
planning can be conducted in this way:

1. 100M platform (BIPI used as physical board of IPBB, and RMNIC as rear board
of IPBB).
The following configuration suggestions are based on the assumption that: site
ID starts from 1; the total number of sites does not exceed 508, and BSCID
does not exceed 392.
Four FE ports should be provided. If the actual processing capacity of each port
is 60M, and the average bandwidth of each site is 3M, the number of sites
connected with one FE port should not exceed 20.
Each FE port can be configured with four addresses of different subnets at the
maximum. But in practice, it is suggested that each FE port be configured with
one address only.
It is suggested to configure the FE port address as 10.BSCID.xxy.254,
where xx means the xxth IPBB board on the BSC (from the main rack to the
extension rack; in the same rack, from the higher frame to the lower frame,
from the slot on the left to the slot on the right)., “y” means the yth interface of
IPBB.
 The SDR whose site number is smaller than 16 can be connected to the first
port of the first board, and is allocated to subnet 10.BSCID.11.0.

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 The SDR address can be configured as 10.BSCID.11.


(SITEID*4)/24.

 The gateway address is the corresponding IPBB port address:


10.BSCID.11.254.

 The SDR whose site number is in the range of “16-32” can be connected to the
second port of the first board, and is allocated to subnet 10.BSCID.12.0.

 The SDR address can be configured as 10.BSCID.12.


(SITEID*4)/24.

 The gateway address is the corresponding IPBB port address:


10.BSCID.12.254.

 The SDR whose site number is in the range of “32- 48”can be connected to the
third port of the first board, and is allocated to subnet 10.BSCID.13.0.

 The SDR address can be configured as 10.BSCID.13.(SITEID*4)/24;

 The gateway address is the corresponding IPBB port address:


10.BSCID.13.254.

 The SDR whose site number is in the range of “48-64” can be connected to the
fourth port of the first board, and is allocated to subnet 10.BSCID.14.0.

 The SDR address can be configured as 10.BSCID.14.


(SITEID*4)/24.

 The gateway address is the corresponding IPBB port address:


10.BSCID.14.254.

 The SDR whose site number is in the range of “64-80” can be connected to the
first port of the second IPBB board, and is allocated to subnet
10.BSCID.21.0.

 The SDR address can be configured as 10.BSCID.21.((SITEID-


63)*4)/24.

 The gateway address is the corresponding IPBB port address:


10.BSCID.21.254.

 The SDR whose site number is in the range of “80-96” can be connected to the
second port of the second IPBB board, and is allocated to 10.BSCID.22.0.

 The SDR address can be configured as 10.BSCID.22.((SITEID-


63)*4)/24.

 The gateway address is the corresponding IPBB port address:


10.BSCID.22.254.

2. Gigabyte platform (BIPI used as physical board of IPBB, and RMNIC as rear
board of IPBB)

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One GE port should be provided. If the actual processing capacity of the port is
600M, and the average bandwidth of each site is 3M, the number of sites
connected with one GE port should not exceed 200.
Each GE port can be configured with four addresses of different subnets at the
maximum. But in practice, it is suggested that each GE port be configured with
three addresses, according to the IP planning rules below.
It is suggested to configure the GE port address as 10.BSCID.xxy.254,
where xx refers to the xxth IPBB board on the BSC (from the main rack to the
extension rack; in the same rack, from the higher frame to the lower frame,
from the slot on the left to the slot on the right), y means the yth address of
IPBB.
 SDR whose site ID is smaller than or equal to 63 can be connected to the first
address of the first IPBB board, and is allocated to subnet 10.BSCID.11.0.

 The site IP is 10.BSCID.11.SITEID*4/24.

 The gateway address is the corresponding GIPI port address, that is,
10.BSCID.11.254.

 SDR whose site number is in the range of “64-128” can be connected to the
second address of the first IPBB board, and is allocated to 10.BSCID.12.0.

 The site IP is 10.BSCID.12. (SITEID-63)*4/24.

 The gateway address is the corresponding GIPI port address, that is,
10.BSCID.12.254.

 SDR whose site number is in the range of “128-196” can be connected to the
third address of the first IPBB board, and is allocated to subnet
10.BSCID.13.0.

 The site IP is 10.BSCID.13.(SITEID-127)*4/24.

 The gateway address is the corresponding GIPI port address, that is,
10.BSCID.13.254.

 SDR whose site number is in the range of “196-254” can be connected to the
first address of the second IPBB board, and is allocated to subnet
10.BSCID.21.0.

 The site IP is 10.BSCID.21.(SITEID-195)*4/24.

 The gateway address is the corresponding GIPI port address, that is,
10.BSCID.21.254.

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4.1.3.2 Networking with VLAN

Each site is connected with BSC through the IP network, and its gateway is normally
configured on the router that is directly connected with BSC. Besides, broadcast sto rm in
L2 network can be effectively reduced by using VLAN segregation.

Each physical site is normally allocated with eight IP addresses. One BBU corresponds
to two IP addresses: one service IP address and one operation & maintenance IP
address (separated service IP and operation & maintenance IP is supported). It is
estimated that each site has three BBUs at the most (this number depends on the actual
situation; it is only necessary to add the number of reserved IP addresses). For the
remaining two IP addresses, one is used for the management of the switch connected,
and the other is the PC IP address used for debugging.

8IP=2IP*3 (BBU) + 1IP (switch management) + 1IP (PC)

Address and subnet planning of the base station:

 “24/" Subnet Segregation


Each subnet is defined based on the address of class C, as shown below:

 Subnet 1: 10.9.1.0/24 (subnet mask: 255.255.255.0)


Address range for the base station: 10.9.1.1-10.9.1.253 (253 IP addresses in
total)
Gateway address: 10.9.1.254
VLAN ID: 1

 Subnet 2: 10.9.2.0/24 (subnet mask: 255.255.255.0)


Address range for the base station: 10.9.2.1-10.9.2.253 (253 IP addresses in
total)
Gateway address: 10.9.2.254
VLAN ID: 2

 Subnet N: 10.9.N.254 (0≤N≤255)

 Subnet 2: 10.9.N.0/24 (subnet mask: 255.255.255.0)


Address range for the base station: 10.9.N.1-10.9.N.253 (253 IP addresses
in total)
Gateway address: 10.9.N.254
VLAN ID: N

If one site is allocated with eight IPs, there are 31 sites in a subnet.
Advantage: This segregation is simple and easy to understand.
Disadvantage: The subnet is too large. There is a large number of sites in one
VLAN, thus, it is difficult to control broadcast storm.

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This segregation applies to offices with simple network structure and a small
number of sites.
 Custom Subnets
We can change the size of a subnet by changing subnet mask, so as to suit
different on-site scenarios.
For subnets with the same features, the size and the number of usable IP
addresses are fixed.

Table IP Application-8 Subnets and Number of Usable IP Addresses

Number of Usable IP
Subnet Mask Simplified
Addresses
255.255.255.252 /30 2
255.255.255.248 /29 6
255.255.255.240 /28 14
255.255.255.224 /27 30
255.255.255.192 /26 62
255.255.255.128 /25 126
255.255.255.0 /24 254

As shown in the above table, different subnet masks determine different


numbers of usable IP addresses.
During the selection of subnet mask, it is necessary to deduct the number of
gateway IPs from the quantity of available IPs. If dual-server backup is
adopted, three IPs should be deducted.
In the above table, the last line displays the “24/” subnet segregation method
described in the previous section. The “24/” subnet segregation method is a
special case of custom subnet.
If eight IP addresses are allocated to each site, “/28” is selected as the subnet
mask. After one gateway address is deducted, there are still 13 addresses
reserved. The subnet segregation is as follows:

 Subnet 1: 10.9.1.0/28 (subnet mask: 255.255.255.240)


Address range for the base station: 10.9.1.1-10.9.1.13
Gateway address: 10.9.1.14
VLAN ID: 1

 Subnet 2: 10.9.1.16/28 (subnet mask: 255.255.255.240)


Address range for the base station: 10.9.1.17-10.9.1.29
Gateway address: 10.9.1.30
VLAN ID: 2

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In this way, when a class C subnet is fully occupied, a new class C subnet can
be used, such as 10.9.2.0/28.
If this method is difficult to understand and there is no special requirement for
IP address planning on site, it is feasible to set a class C subnet for each SDR
and reserve 253 IPs for each SDR (gateway excluded).
Advantage: One site corresponding to one VLAN can effectively control
broadcast storm.
Disadvantage: Each site has a different gateway, increasing the load of the
router bearing the gateway.
This kind of segregation applies to scenarios with small number of sites.
 Creation of supervlan and subvlan
The subnet for sites can be defined according to the first kind of segregation for
subnets class C. Sites in the same subnet of class C use the same gateway,
and this subnet of class C corresponds to one supervlan; N subvlans are
created in one supervlan, where N is the number of sites in the supervlan. The
subvlan ID is configured on the site.
The size of each subnet is defined based on the address of class C, as shown
below:

 Subnet 1: 10.9.1.0/24 (subnet mask: 255.255.255.0)


Address range for the base station: 10.9.1.1-10.9.1.253 (253 IP addresses in
total)
Gateway address: 10.9.1.254
VLAN ID: 1 (supervlan)

 Subnet 2: 10.9.2.0/24 (subnet mask: 255.255.255.0)


Address range for the base station: 10.9.2.1-10.9.2.253 (253 IP addresses in
total)
Gateway address: 10.9.2.254
VLAN ID: 2 (supervlan)

 Subnet N: 10.9.N.254 (0≤N≤255)

 Subnet 2: 10.9.N.0/24 (subnet mask: 255.255.255.0)


Address range for the base station: 10.9.N.1~10.9.N.253 (253 IP addresses
in total)
Gateway address: 10.9.N.254
VLAN ID: N (supervlan)

If one site is allocated with eight IP addresses, there will be 31 sites in one
subnet.

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Therefore, 31 subvlans are created under each supervlan; each subvlan


corresponds to one site and eight IP addresses.
Advantage: For the layer-2 network of SDR, because each SDR is isolated in
one SUBVLAN, the broadcast storm can be effectively controlled. In addition,
as the SUPERVLAN has convergence effect on the SUBVLANs, all SDRs in a
class C subnet can share a gateway, thus, the load of the router is reduced,
and the gateway management is enhanced.
This kind of segregation applies to scenarios with complex network structure
and a large number of sites, especially when 2G and 3G coexist in one site.

4.1.4 IP over E1 Address Planning

IP over E1
Information Table of Sites.xls

4.2 Routing Configuration

4.2.1 Abis Interface Routing

Figure IP Application-16 Networking for Abis Interface Routing

As shown in the above figure, the subnet of the sites is 10.1.1.0/24; the address of
interface A on the router is 10.1.1.254, which is the gateway of the sites; the address
of interface B on the router is 20.1.1.1, which is in the same subnet as IPBB interface
address 20.1.1.2. The RPU address on the Abis interface of BSC is 30.1.1.1.

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 Routing of BSC

Table IP Application-9 Routing of BSC-1

Destination Subnet Subnet Mask Next Hop Address


10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 20.1.1.1

 Routing of Router

Table IP Application-10 Routing of Router-1

Destination Address Subnet Mask Next Hop Address


30.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 20.1.1.2

 Routing of Base Station


It is not necessary to add a static route on the base station, only the
corresponding gateway need be configured. After the configuration, a default
route will be created automatically, which points to the gateway address.

4.2.2 A Interface Routing

Figure IP Application-17 Networking for A Interface Routing

As shown in the above figure, the interface address 20.1.1.2 of IPI board on the BSC
is in the same subnet as the address (20.1.1.1) of interface B on the router. The
address (10.1.1.2) of interface board on the MSC is in the same subnet as the
address (10.1.1.1) of interface C on the router. The RPU (A interface) address of BSC
is 30.1.1.1. The virtual address of MSC is 50.1.1.1.

 Routing of BSC

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Table IP Application-11 Routing of BSC-2

Destination Address Subnet Mask Next Hop Address


50.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 20.1.1.1

 Routing of Router

Table IP Application-12 Routing of Router -2

Destination Address Subnet Mask Next Hop Address


50.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 10.1.1.2
30.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 20.1.1.2

 Routing of BSC

Table IP Application-13 Routing of BSC-3

Destination Address Subnet Mask Next Hop Address


30.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 10.1.1.1

4.2.3 Gb Interface Routing

Figure IP Application-18 Networking for Gb Interface Routing

The configuration here is the same as the configuration for A interface routing.

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4.3 Remote LMT

Figure IP Application-19 Remote LMT Networking

As shown in the above figure, connect the LMT client to the OMCB subnet with the
network adapter that is in the same subnet as the OMCB server, then configure the route
to the base station on the client, with the route pointing to the interface address of the
IPBB board (in the same subnet as the OMCB server).

Run the LMT software and type the service IP address of the base station, and then the
remote base station through can be managed with LMT, just like the debugging of local
base station.

If the remote LMT client has two network adapters, connect the other network adapter to
the EMS subnet, then the EMS client can connect to the LMT client through remote
desktop, and run the LMT software, to manage base station.

4.4 Case Introduction


This section takes a successful case as an example, and describes the networking
structures of its service network and management network, as well as its address
planning.

4.4.1 Topology of the Service Network

The above is the topology of a 2G service network. BSC devices are placed in two
equipment rooms: BMI and BPO.

The following part details the architecture of the service network from the aspects of
communications on the Abis interface, A interface, and Gb interface, and between the
two equipment rooms.

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4.4.1.1 Abis Interface

 Network Topology
Ten BSCs are placed in two equipment rooms, and they are connected to the
L2 network through L3 switches (6513). This L2 network is provided by four
operators. All 2G base stations access this L2 network and establish links with
BSCs through ZTE’s switch 2818. In each equipment room, there are two L3
switches (6513) connected with the BSCs. The HSRP protocol is used between
the two 6513 switches, and the two switches are mutual backup for each other.
 Information Routing Analysis

Take 10 sites as a group. VLAN segregation and the HSRP between switches
6513 can be used to plan routes for data from each group of sites.
As shown above, for the first group of 10 sites, the uplink data passes through
the L2 network, and then is forwarded to the GIPI board of BSC through
RAN6513-11. The operation & maintenance data is forwarded to the GIPI
board of BSC through RAN6513-12. Thus, the service channel and the
operation & maintenance channel are separated. Although the uplink channels
are unidirectional, the service channel and the operation & maintenance
channel will automatically switch to each other when either of them fails.
Therefore, the two channels are mutual backup for each other. As for the
downlink data, the BSC forwards them to two 6513 switches through two GIPI
boards, to realize multi-channel transmission and load sharing of the downlink
data.
 Address Planning for GIPI Boards of iBSC

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ZBSC11
GIPI 10.9.4.101/30
Abis
Subnet 10.9.4.48/29 GIPI 10.9.4.105/30

GIPI 10.9.4.109/30
GIPI 10.9.4.113/30

ZBSC12
GIPI 10.9.5.101/30
Abis
Subnet 10.9.5.48/29

GIPI 10.9.5.105/30

ZBSC13
GIPI 10.9.6.101/30
Abis RAN6513-11
Subnet 10.9.6.48/29 GIPI 10.9.6.105/30

GIPI 10.9.6.109/30
GIPI 10.9.6.113/30

ZBSC14
GIPI 10.9.7.101/30
Abis
Subnet 10.9.7.48/29 RAN6513-12

GIPI 10.9.7.105/30

ZBSC15
GIPI 10.9.8.101/30
Abis
Subnet 10.9.8.48/29

GIPI 10.9.8.105/30

ZBSC16
GIPI 10.9.9.101/30
Abis
Subnet 10.9.9.48/29

GIPI 10.9.9.105/30

BSC11 and BSC13 both have two racks, so there are four IPBB (GIPI) boards
to forward data of the Abis interface.
Inside BSC, the IPBB board forwards data of the sites to the PRU address. For
example, the RPU address of BSC11 is 10.9.4.49.

The above is the planning of the BMI equipment room. Following the same
principle, we can get the planning for the BPO equipment room as follows:

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ZBSC21

GIPI 10.10.4.101/30
Abis
Subnet 10.10.4.48/29

GIPI 10.10.4.105/30

ZBSC22

GIPI 10.10.5.101/30
Abis
Subnet 10.10.5.48/29 GIPI 10.10.5.105/30

GIPI 10.10.5.109/30
GIPI 10.10.5.113/30 RAN6513-21

ZBSC23

GIPI 10.10.6.101/30 RAN6513-22


Abis
Subnet 10.10.6.48/29 GIPI 10.10.6.105/30

GIPI 10.10.6.109/30
GIPI 10.10.6.113/30

ZBSC24

GIPI 10.10.7.101/30
Abis
Subnet 10.10.7.48/29 GIPI 10.10.7.105/30

GIPI 10.10.7.109/30
GIPI 10.10.7.113/30

BSC21 has only one rack, and the other BSCs are dual-rack structures.
 IP Planning of RAN6513 (RAN6513 is Cisco’s equipment)
The address of the interface connected with BSC should be in the same subnet
as the connected GIPI board.

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The interface connected to the L2 network is an L2 port. It is necessary to add


VLANs, set the management address of VLANs, and the corresponding virtual
address (because the HSRP protocol is used, the two switches in the backup
mode should be configured with separate management IP addresses for the
same VLAN ID, but they share the same virtual IP address). The virtual
address acts as the gateway of the base station.
For VLAN 30, settings of the two switches are as follows:
RAN6513-11:
interface Vlan30
description ###connected to SP_Domain###
ip address 10.9.30.252 255.255.255.0
standby version 2
standby 1030 ip 10.9.30.254
standby 1030 timers 2 5
standby 1030 priority 110
standby 1030 preempt delay minimum 10
standby 1030 authentication md5 key-string CSL_HSRP

RAN6513-12:
interface Vlan30
description ###connected to SP_Domain###
ip address 10.9.30.253 255.255.255.0
standby version 2
standby 1030 ip 10.9.30.254
standby 1030 timers 2 5
standby 1030 authentication md5 key-string CSL_HSRP

 Address Planning of the Base Station


The address planning should be based on subnet class C. Every 20 sites form
a group, and share one VLAN, one subnet C, and one gateway. The operation
& maintenance IP and the service IP of sites are in different subnets, and
different VLANs. The operation & maintenance channel and the service
channel are separated. The table of whole network planning is attached below:

Site Address
Planning.xls

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The BSCs of the sites are in two equipment rooms, two subnets of class B are
used to distinguish the sites:

 Subnet 10.9.0.0/16 is used for sites allocated to the BMI equipment


room

 Subnet 10.10.0.0/16 is used for sites allocated to the BPO equipment


room
For each equipment room, the first two bits of the address keep unchanged.
The third bit is the VLAN ID corresponding to the site address. Thus, it is easy
to judge which VLAN a site is allocated to from its IP address.
 Route Planning
Route planning at the BSC is listed in Table IP Application-14.

Table IP Application-14 Route Planning at the BSC

IP Address Subnet Mask Next Hop Metric Remarks

10.9.11.0 255.255.255.0 10.9.4.102 1 to BTS


10.9.11.0 255.255.255.0 10.9.4.106 1 to BTS
10.9.11.0 255.255.255.0 10.9.4.110 1 to BTS
10.9.11.0 255.255.255.0 10.9.4.114 1 to BTS
10.9.12.0 255.255.252.0 10.9.4.102 1 to BTS
10.9.12.0 255.255.252.0 10.9.4.106 1 to BTS
10.9.12.0 255.255.252.0 10.9.4.110 1 to BTS
10.9.12.0 255.255.252.0 10.9.4.114 1 to BTS
10.9.16.0 255.255.240.0 10.9.4.102 1 to BTS
10.9.16.0 255.255.240.0 10.9.4.106 1 to BTS
10.9.16.0 255.255.240.0 10.9.4.110 1 to BTS
10.9.16.0 255.255.240.0 10.9.4.114 1 to BTS
10.9.32.0 255.255.224.0 10.9.4.102 1 to BTS
10.9.32.0 255.255.224.0 10.9.4.106 1 to BTS
10.9.32.0 255.255.224.0 10.9.4.110 1 to BTS
10.9.32.0 255.255.224.0 10.9.4.114 1 to BTS
10.9.64.0 255.255.192.0 10.9.4.102 1 to BTS
10.9.64.0 255.255.192.0 10.9.4.106 1 to BTS
10.9.64.0 255.255.192.0 10.9.4.110 1 to BTS
10.9.64.0 255.255.192.0 10.9.4.114 1 to BTS
10.9.128.0 255.255.192.0 10.9.4.102 1 to BTS
10.9.128.0 255.255.192.0 10.9.4.106 1 to BTS
10.9.128.0 255.255.192.0 10.9.4.110 1 to BTS
10.9.128.0 255.255.192.0 10.9.4.114 1 to BTS
10.9.192.0 255.255.248.0 10.9.4.102 1 to BTS
10.9.192.0 255.255.248.0 10.9.4.106 1 to BTS

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IP Address Subnet Mask Next Hop Metric Remarks

10.9.192.0 255.255.248.0 10.9.4.110 1 to BTS


10.9.192.0 255.255.248.0 10.9.4.114 1 to BTS

The configuration RAN6513 routes is as follows:


ip route 10.9.4.49 255.255.255.255 10.9.4.101 name
####to_ZBSC11_Abis###
ip route 10.9.4.49 255.255.255.255 10.9.4.109 name
####to_ZBSC11_Abis###
ip route 10.9.4.63 255.255.255.255 10.9.4.101 name
###to_ZBSC11_OMCB###
ip route 10.9.4.63 255.255.255.255 10.9.4.109 name
###to_ZBSC11_OMCB###
ip route 10.9.5.49 255.255.255.255 10.9.5.101 name
####to_ZBSC12_Abis###
ip route 10.9.5.63 255.255.255.255 10.9.5.101 name
###to_ZBSC12_OMCB###
ip route 10.9.6.49 255.255.255.255 10.9.6.101 name
####to_ZBSC13_Abis###
ip route 10.9.6.49 255.255.255.255 10.9.6.109 name
####to_ZBSC13_Abis###
ip route 10.9.6.63 255.255.255.255 10.9.6.101 name
###to_ZBSC13_OMCB###
ip route 10.9.6.63 255.255.255.255 10.9.6.109 name
###to_ZBSC13_OMCB###
ip route 10.9.7.49 255.255.255.255 10.9.7.101 name
####to_ZBSC14_Abis###
ip route 10.9.7.63 255.255.255.255 10.9.7.101 name
###to_ZBSC14_OMCB###
ip route 10.9.8.49 255.255.255.255 10.9.8.101 name
####to_ZBSC15_Abis###
ip route 10.9.8.63 255.255.255.255 10.9.8.101 name
###to_ZBSC15_OMCB###
ip route 10.9.9.49 255.255.255.255 10.9.9.101 name
####to_ZBSC16_Abis###
ip route 10.9.9.63 255.255.255.255 10.9.9.101 name
###to_ZBSC16_OMCB###

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4.4.1.2 A Interface and Gb Interface

 Network Topology
In this network, there are four MSCs and four SGSNs. They are in the same
layer, and are mutual backup for each other. Besides, they can realize load
balance. They are connected with each other through CORE6513. The A
interface and the Gb interface of BSC are both connected with CORE6513.
The interfaces connecting BSC, MSC, and SGSN with CORE6513 are all L3
ports. Static routes are used to forward the data on BSC to the corresponding
office via CORE6513
 Address Planning for the A Interface and the Gb Interface
Here the address includes the physical address of the interface board and the
virtual address of the RPU board. On the A interface, the address also includes
the user plane IP address and the control plane IP address.
The specific structure is as follows:

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ZBSC11
GIPI 10.9.4.65/30
Cs-CP GIPI 10.9.4.69/30
Subnet 10.9.4.0/29 GIPI 10.9.4.73/30
Cs-UP GIPI 10.9.4.77/30
Subnet 10.9.4.16/29

PS-CP&UP GIPI 10.9.4.89/30


Subnet 10.9.4.32/29
GIPI 10.9.4.93/30

ZBSC12
GIPI 10.9.5.65/30
Cs-CP GIPI 10.9.5.69/30
Subnet 10.9.5.0/29 GIPI 10.9.5.73/30
Cs-UP GIPI 10.9.5.77/30
Subnet 10.9.5.16/29

PS-CP&UP GIPI 10.9.5.89/30


Subnet 10.9.5.32/29 GIPI 10.9.5.93/30

ZBSC13
GIPI 10.9.6.65/30
Cs-CP GIPI 10.9.6.69/30 Core 6513-11
Subnet 10.9.6.0/29 GIPI 10.9.6.73/30
Cs-UP GIPI 10.9.6.77/30
Subnet 10.9.6.16/29

PS-CP&UP GIPI 10.9.6.89/30


Subnet 10.9.6.32/29 GIPI 10.9.6.93/30

ZBSC14 Core 6513-12


GIPI 10.9.7.65/30
Cs-CP GIPI 10.9.7.69/30
Subnet 10.9.7.0/29 GIPI 10.9.7.73/30
Cs-UP GIPI 10.9.7.77/30
Subnet 10.9.7.16/29

PS-CP&UP GIPI 10.9.7.89/30


Subnet 10.9.7.32/29 GIPI 10.9.7.93/30

ZBSC15
GIPI 10.9.8.65/30
Cs-CP GIPI 10.9.8.69/30
Subnet 10.9.8.0/29 GIPI 10.9.8.73/30
Cs-UP GIPI 10.9.8.77/30
Subnet 10.9.8.16/29

PS-CP&UP GIPI 10.9.8.89/30


Subnet 10.9.8.32/29
GIPI 10.9.8.93/30

ZBSC16
GIPI 10.9.9.65/30
Cs-CP GIPI 10.9.9.69/30
Subnet 10.9.9.0/29 GIPI 10.9.9.73/30
Cs-UP GIPI 10.9.9.77/30
Subnet 10.9.9.16/29

PS-CP&UP GIPI 10.9.9.89/30


Subnet 10.9.9.32/29 GIPI 10.9.9.93/30

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ZBSC21
GIPI 10.10.4.65/30
Cs-CP GIPI 10.10.4.69/30
Subnet 10.10.4.0/29
GIPI 10.10.4.73/30
Cs-UP GIPI 10.10.4.77/30
Subnet 10.10.4.16/29

PS-CP&UP GIPI 10.10.4.89/30


Subnet 10.10.4.32/29
GIPI 10.10.4.93/30

ZBSC22
GIPI 10.10.5.65/30
Cs-CP GIPI 10.10.5.69/30
Subnet 10.10.5.0/29
GIPI 10.10.5.73/30
Cs-UP GIPI 10.10.5.77/30
Subnet 10.10.5.16/29
Core 6513-21

PS-CP&UP GIPI 10.10.5.89/30


Subnet 10.10.5.32/29
GIPI 10.10.5.93/30

ZBSC23
GIPI 10.10.6.65/30
Cs-CP GIPI 10.10.6.69/30 Core 6513-22
Subnet 10.10.6.0/29
GIPI 10.10.6.73/30
Cs-UP GIPI 10.10.6.77/30
Subnet 10.10.6.16/29

PS-CP&UP GIPI 10.10.6.89/30


Subnet 10.10.6.32/29
GIPI 10.10.6.93/30

ZBSC24
GIPI 10.10.7.65/30
Cs-CP GIPI 10.10.7.69/30
Subnet 10.10.7.0/29
GIPI 10.10.7.73/30
Cs-UP GIPI 10.10.7.77/30
Subnet 10.10.7.16/29

PS-CP&UP GIPI 10.10.7.89/30


Subnet 10.10.7.32/29
GIPI 10.10.7.93/30

The planning for BSC11 is as follows:


Aim of The Interface IP UnitType Rack No Shelf Slot No IP Subnet Mask Remark
No Address

Service IP RPU 1 2 11&12 10.9.4.17 255.255.255.255 Cs-UP


Service IP RPU 1 2 11&12 10.9.4.18 255.255.255.255 Cs-UP
Service IP RPU 1 2 11&12 10.9.4.19 255.255.255.255 Cs-UP

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Aim of The Interface IP UnitType Rack No Shelf Slot No IP Subnet Mask Remark
No Address

Service IP RPU 1 2 11&12 10.9.4.20 255.255.255.255 Cs-UP


Service IP RPU 1 2 11&12 10.9.4.33 255.255.255.255 PS-CP&UP
Service IP RPU 1 2 11&12 10.9.4.34 255.255.255.255 PS-CP&UP
Service IP RPU 1 2 11&12 10.9.4.1 255.255.255.255 Cs-CP
Service IP RPU 1 2 11&12 10.9.4.2 255.255.255.255 Cs-CP
Service IP RPU 1 2 11&12 10.9.4.3 255.255.255.255 Cs-CP
Service IP RPU 1 2 11&12 10.9.4.4 255.255.255.255 Cs-CP
GIPI interface IP GIPI 2 1 1 10.9.4.65 255.255.255.252 A
GIPI interface IP GIPI 2 1 2 10.9.4.69 255.255.255.252 A
GIPI interface IP GIPI 2 1 3 10.9.4.73 255.255.255.252 A
GIPI interface IP GIPI 2 1 4 10.9.4.77 255.255.255.252 A
GIPI interface IP GIPI 1 3 11 10.9.4.89 255.255.255.252 Gb
GIPI interface IP GIPI 1 3 12 10.9.4.93 255.255.255.252 Gb

 Route Planning for the A Interface and the Gb Interface


Both interfaces use static routes. Please refer to the following table (BSC11) for
details:

IP Address Subnet Mask Next Hop Metric Remarks

10.11.1.128 255.255.255.252 10.9.4.66 1 to ZMSCS1


10.11.1.128 255.255.255.252 10.9.4.70 1 to ZMSCS1
10.11.1.128 255.255.255.252 10.9.4.74 1 to ZMSCS1
10.11.1.128 255.255.255.252 10.9.4.78 1 to ZMSCS1
10.11.11.128 255.255.255.252 10.9.4.66 1 to ZMSCS2
10.11.11.128 255.255.255.252 10.9.4.70 1 to ZMSCS2
10.11.11.128 255.255.255.252 10.9.4.74 1 to ZMSCS2
10.11.11.128 255.255.255.252 10.9.4.78 1 to ZMSCS2
10.11.1.132 255.255.255.252 10.9.4.66 1 to ZMSCS3
10.11.1.132 255.255.255.252 10.9.4.70 1 to ZMSCS3
10.11.1.132 255.255.255.252 10.9.4.74 1 to ZMSCS3
10.11.1.132 255.255.255.252 10.9.4.78 1 to ZMSCS3
10.11.11.132 255.255.255.252 10.9.4.66 1 to ZMSCS4
10.11.11.132 255.255.255.252 10.9.4.70 1 to ZMSCS4
10.11.11.132 255.255.255.252 10.9.4.74 1 to ZMSCS4
10.11.11.132 255.255.255.252 10.9.4.78 1 to ZMSCS4
10.11.2.128 255.255.255.240 10.9.4.66 1 to ZMGW1
10.11.2.128 255.255.255.240 10.9.4.70 1 to ZMGW1
10.11.2.128 255.255.255.240 10.9.4.74 1 to ZMGW1
10.11.2.128 255.255.255.240 10.9.4.78 1 to ZMGW1
10.11.12.128 255.255.255.240 10.9.4.66 1 to ZMGW2
10.11.12.128 255.255.255.240 10.9.4.70 1 to ZMGW2

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IP Address Subnet Mask Next Hop Metric Remarks

10.11.12.128 255.255.255.240 10.9.4.74 1 to ZMGW2


10.11.12.128 255.255.255.240 10.9.4.78 1 to ZMGW2
10.11.2.144 255.255.255.240 10.9.4.66 1 to ZMGW3
10.11.2.144 255.255.255.240 10.9.4.70 1 to ZMGW3
10.11.2.144 255.255.255.240 10.9.4.74 1 to ZMGW3
10.11.2.144 255.255.255.240 10.9.4.78 1 to ZMGW3
10.11.12.144 255.255.255.240 10.9.4.66 1 to ZMGW4
10.11.12.144 255.255.255.240 10.9.4.70 1 to ZMGW4
10.11.12.144 255.255.255.240 10.9.4.74 1 to ZMGW4
10.11.12.144 255.255.255.240 10.9.4.78 1 to ZMGW4
10.11.4.48 255.255.255.240 10.9.4.90 1 to ZSGSN1&3
10.11.4.48 255.255.255.240 10.9.4.94 1 to ZSGSN1&3
10.11.14.48 255.255.255.240 10.9.4.90 1 to ZSGSN2&4
10.11.14.48 255.255.255.240 10.9.4.94 1 to ZSGSN2&4

4.4.1.3 Network Integration Between Two Equipment Rooms

The integration between the two equipment rooms is fulfilled through a core network.
This core network consists of four high-end routers called PE routers (PE is the boarder
router at the CN side of an MPLS network, where MPLS is Multi-Protocol Label
Switching). The four routers are connected with the CORE6513s in their equipment
rooms. Thus, the networks in the two equipment rooms are integrated with each other
through a transparent channel of the core network.

4.4.2 Topology of the Management Network

As shown above, the above topology structure of a 2G management network includes


networks of two equipment rooms: BMI and BPO, and four PE routers are used here for
network connection of these two equipment rooms. EMS network, OMCR network, and
OMCB network are all included in the above figure. The following part will detail the
application structure of the above network from the physical and the logical perspectives.

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4.4.2.1 Network Description — Local Network

Figure IP Application-20 Network Topology of the BMI Equipment Room

As shown above, there are six BSCs corresponding to six RAN2950 switches. As per the
planning g, SCBX adopts the active/standby mode, so the active O&M server of BSC11
is connected with RAN2950-11, and the standby O&M server of BSC11 is connected
with RAN2950-12; while the active O&M server of BSC12 is connected with RAN2950-
12, and the standby O&M server of BSC12 is connected with RAN2950-13; and the rest
may be deduced by analogy to realize interconnection and the backup of switches (when
one switch fails, the data packets are sent to the other switch).

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The RAN2950s converge to two EMS2950s, and two EMS servers are connected with
EMS2950s respectively. Thus in the BMI equipment room, the six local O&M servers can
communicate with the EMS server through the LAN shown above. Each RAN2950 is
connected with two #MS2950 switches, to realize load balance and mutual backup. The
two network adapters on each EMS server are connected with the two switches
respectively, to realize the backup of links and improve redundancy.

EMS and O&M clients can access corresponding servers by connecting to the
RAN2950.

Besides, servers that use the EMS subnet, such as the Microwave (MW) server, access
this network by connecting to the EMS2950 switch.

4.4.2.2 Network Description — Connection of Remote Network

Figure IP Application-21 Core Switching Network for Interconnection of Two Equipment Rooms

As shown above, EMS2950s are connected with Core3750s. The gateway of the EMS
subnet is also configured on Core3750, which is used for data forwarding. The four PE
routers in the middle and the four Core6513 routers compose a core switching network
that is used as a transparent channel for transparent transmission of the data forwarded
by Core3750, to realize connection of remote networks.

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The EMS servers are backed up remotely. Each equipment room has an active EMS
server, and its standby server is placed in the remote equipment room, realizing remote
backup through the connection of remote network.

The CSL monitoring daemon and workstations are connected with the Core3750
switches through firewalls. Thus they can access the EMS network.

4.4.2.3 Network Description --- Convergence of Three Networks

Figure IP Application-22 Interconnection Between BSC and RAN2950

To analyze the topology more clearly, we logically separate the SBCX board that is
integrated in the BSC from the BSC.

Physically, the OMCR server, OMCB server, and EMS server refer to the same SBCX
board. There are three network interfaces on the rear panel of the SBCX board, and they
are connected with the three interfaces of the three servers. The three links of the three
servers are connected with the RAN2950 switch, and the subnetworks are segregated
through different VLANs.

SBCX in the above figure represents two boards: the active one and the standby one.
The active one is connected with RAN2950-11, and the standby one is connected with
RAN2950-12.

In the OMCR network, ROMPs are also connected with the two switches in the
active/standby mode.

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In the CMCB network, GIPIs are connected with the two switches in the active/standby
mode, too.

The data packets in VLANs corresponding to the subnetworks of OMCR and OMCB are
not forwarded to upper layer network via EMS2950. That is, the data packets in these
two VLANs cannot be transmitted from an equipment room to the other equipment room,
which is for security considerations. Besides, there is no sense for transmitting the data
packets in these two VLANs from one equipment room to the other.

4.4.2.4 Network Description --- Address Planning

The address planning is listed in the following table:


NE name IP Netmask GW Remark
SBCX 21 172.22.97.4 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.126  
SBCX 22 172.22.97.5 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.126  
SBCX 23 172.22.97.6 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.126  
SBCX 24 172.22.97.7 255.255.255.128 172.22.96.126  

Servers 172.22.97.8~172.22.97.10 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.126 Reserved

V890-21(BMI-Master)
172.22.97.11 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.126  
EMSRANA1a: NIC1
V890-21(BMI-Master)
172.22.97.12 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.126  
EMSRANA1a: NIC3
V890-21(BMI-Master)
172.22.97.13 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.126  
EMSRANA1a: NIC2
V890-21(BMI-Master)
172.22.97.14 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.126  
EMSRANA1a: NIC4
V890 172.22.97.15     Reserved
V890-21(BMI-Master)
172.22.97.16 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.126  
EMSRANA1a: IPMP
V890-22(BPO-Slave)
172.22.97.17 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.126  
EMSRANA2b:NIC1
V890-22(BPO-Slave)
172.22.97.18 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.126  
EMSRANA2b:NIC3
V890-22(BPO-Slave)
172.22.97.19 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.126  
EMSRANA2b:NIC2
V890-22(BPO-Slave)
172.22.97.20 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.126  
EMSRANA2b:NIC4
V890 172.22.97.21     Reserved
V890-22(BPO-Slave)
172.22.97.22 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.126  
EMSRANA2b:IPMP
  172.22.97.23     Reserved
Sun STK6140 172.22.97.24 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.126  
Brocade200E-21 172.22.97.25 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.126  
Brocade200E-22 172.22.97.26 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.126  
T5220_BPO 172.22.97.27 255.255.255.128 172.22.96.126  
172.22.97.29~172.22.97.3
EMS CLIENT 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.126  
1

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NE name IP Netmask GW Remark


EMS CLIENT for 2G 172.22.97.86~88 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.126 VLAN 4 for 2G
OMCB for 2G 172.22.97.89~92 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.126 VLAN 4 for 2G
EMS CLIENT for 2G 172.22.97.100,102~110 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.126 Reserved
Alarm Box 2G 172.22.97.110 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.126 VLAN 4 for 2G
MultiLMT 172.22.97.101 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.126  
CN3750-21 vlan4 int 172.22.97.124 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.126 vlan4 for EMS
CN3750-22 vlan4 int 172.22.97.125 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.126 vlan4 for EMS
CN3750-vlan4 HSRP 172.22.97.126 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.126 vlan4 for EMS
SYSTEM
  172.22.97.127~128    
Reserved
RAN6513-21 172.22.97.129 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.254 vlan5,BPO
RAN6513-22 172.22.97.130 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.254 vlan5,BPO
RAN6513-HSRP 172.22.97.131 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.254 vlan5,BPO
RAN2950-201 172.22.97.132 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.254 vlan5,BPO
RAN2950-202 172.22.97.133 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.254 vlan5,BPO
RAN2950-203 172.22.97.134 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.254 vlan5,BPO
EMS2950-21 172.22.97.135 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.254 vlan5,BPO
EMS2950-22 172.22.97.136 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.254 vlan5,BPO
RAN2950-21 172.22.97.137 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.254 vlan5,BPO
RAN2950-22 172.22.97.138 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.254 vlan5,BPO
RAN2950-23 172.22.97.139 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.254 vlan5,BPO
RAN2950-24 172.22.97.140 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.254 vlan5,BPO
OMM BACKUP
172.22.97.146 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.254 VLAN5,BPO
SERVER
packet capturing pc 172.22.97.147 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.254 VLAN5,BPO
packet capturing pc 172.22.97.148 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.254 VLAN5,BPO
8902 switch 172.22.97.156 - 176 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.254 VLAN5,BPO
LMT for IT-NM 172.22.97.201 255.255.255.128 172.22.97.254 vlan5,BMI
         
CN3750-11 vlan5 int 172.22.97.252 255.255.255.128    
CN3750-12 vlan5 int 172.22.97.253 255.255.255.128    
CN3750-vlan5 HSRP 172.22.97.254 255.255.255.128    

5 IP Configurations in BSS

5.1 RPU Configuration

5.1.1 Abis Interface

Figure IP Configurations in BSS-23 Configuration of Virtual Address for RPU on the Abis Interface

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Create a board. Select RPU for the Board function type option. Select the Port No.
according to the creation sequence, and make sure that it is unique. Then configure the
IP address and the subnet mask of the interface board as per the planning. The third
column is the broadcast address. The broadcast address is a default value, and you do
not need to change it. The IP address here is the virtual IP address, and it is the
destination address in the SCTP link creation of all base stations.

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5.1.2 A Interface

Figure IP Configurations in BSS-24 Configuration of Virtual Address for Control Plane RPU on the
A Interface

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Figure IP Configurations in BSS-25 Configuration of Virtual Address for User Plane RPU on the A
Interface

Create a board. Select RPU for the Board function type option. Select the Port No.
according to the creation sequence, and make sure that the port number is unique. The
A interface has the control plane and the user plane, so you need to create two logical
RPU boards. Then configure the IP address and the subnet mask of the interface board
as per the planning. The third column is the broadcast address. The broadcast address
is a default value, and you do not need to change it. The IP addresses here are the
virtual IP addresses, and they are the control plane address and the user plane address
of the A interface.

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5.1.3 Gb Interface

Figure IP Configurations in BSS-26 Configuration of Virtual Address for RPU on the Gb Interface

Create a board. Select RPU for the Board function type option. Select the Port No.
according to the creation sequence, and make sure that the port number is unique. Then
configure the IP address and the subnet mask of the interface board as per the planning.
The third column is the broadcast address. The broadcast address is a default value,
and you do not need to change it. The IP address here is the virtual IP address, and it is
the address of the Gb interface.

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5.2 Interface Board Configuration

5.2.1 Abis Interface

Figure IP Configurations in BSS-27 Configuration of Real Address for IPBB Board on the Abis
Interface

Create an IPBB board. Select the specific slot number and type the corresponding MAC
address (it is the hardware address of the network port and is written on a label of the
board). Then configure the IP address and the subnet mask of the interface board as per
the planning. The third column is the broadcast address. The broadcast address is a
default value, and you do not need to change it. The IP address here is the real address
of Abis interface on the IPBB board.

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5.2.2 A Interface

Figure IP Configurations in BSS-28 Configuration of Real Address for IPI Interface Board on the A
Interface

Create an IPI board. Select the specific slot number and type the corresponding MAC
address (it is the hardware address of the network port and is written on a label inside
the board). Then configure the IP address and the subnet mask of the interface board as
per the planning. The third column is the broadcast address. The broadcast address is a
default value, and you do not need to change it. The IP address here is the real address
of A interface on the IPI board.

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5.2.3 Gb Interface

Figure IP Configurations in BSS-29 Configuration of Real Address for IPGB Interface Board on
the Gb Interface

Create an IPGB board. Select the specific slot number and type the corresponding MAC
address (it is the hardware address of the network interface and is written on a label
inside the board). Then configure the IP address and the subnet mask of the interface
board as per the planning. The third column is the broadcast address. The broadcast
address is a default value, and you do not need to change it. The IP address here is the
real address of Gb interface on the IPGB board.

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5.3 Route Configuration

As shown above, create a static route entry in the Static Router page. There are three
key items: Static router prefix (subnet of the destination IP address), Static router
subnet mask, and Next hop IP address.

 Static router prefix: In most cases, BSC will not create a route for the IP
address of a base station. Instead, it will create route entries by subnet for all
base stations under it.
 Static router subnet mask: This is used to limit the size of a subnet.
 Next hop IP address: If the corresponding interface board is connected with a
router or an L3 port of the switch, the next hop IP address is the IP address of
the router or the L3 port.

5.4 SDR Configuration


IP configuration related parameters of SDR sites are mainly configured in IP Bearing
Configration. The following part will describe the configuration of each parameter in
sequence.

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As shown above, click Ethernet Parameter on the left pane. Then right-click on the right
pane and click Create. In the displayed window, select the working mode of the physical
port (port for service); normally the selection is 100Mbps FDT. Then configure the
corresponding port bandwidth. The bandwidth here is the total service bandwidth of the
BBU (the bandwidth is greater than the total bandwidth of the SCTP links and the OMCB
links).

After configuring the Ethernet port, you need to configure Global Port Parameter. Click
Create, and select the working mode in the displayed window. If the transmission is
through FE, the selection here is IP over Ethernet; if the transmission is through E1/T1,

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the selection here is IP over E1. If VLAN needs to be configured according to planning,
you need to set the VLAN ID.

Then you need to configure the IP Parameter, that is, to configure an IP address pool for
the base station.

Configure the IP address, the subnet mask, and the gateway as per the planning.

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Note: The total bandwidth of the IP channels cannot exceed the bandwidth set
in Ethernet Parameter configuration.

Then in SCTP Parameter configuration, select the IP address used by this service
channel, the local port number (the site number), and the remote port number (that is,
14592+module number). For the Remote IP Address item, you need to configure the
RPU address of the Abis interface for the iBSC that this site belongs to. This address

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must be the same as the IPABIS value in BSC global parameter configuration, as shown
below:

In OMC-B Parameter configuration, select the IP address used by the OMCB channel,
as well as the RPU address of the OMCB channel of the iBSC that this site belongs to.
This address must be the same as the OMCB channel IP in BSC global parameter
configuration, as shown below:

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Lastly, you need to configure the IP address of the SNTP server as per the planning, as
shown above. The SNTP Server address here is normally the IP address of the OMCB
server.

5.5 Several Key Points

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As shown above, in the IP Property tab of the BSC Function page, you need to
configure IPAbis and OMCB channel IP (here OMCB channel IP refers to the operation
and maintenance IP address of the RPU on the Abis interface). You can set two IP
addresses for the Abis interface, one for service and the other for operation and
maintenance. But if the two IP addresses are the same, service will not be separated
from operation and maintenance.

As shown above, in the Basic Property tab of the BSC Function page, you need to
configure the OMP IP and the corresponding subnet mask. The IP address set here
must be the same as the IP address of the OMP board. If they are not the same, after
data synchronization between the OMCR and the iBSC, the IP address configured here
will overwrite the IP address of the OMP board.

Besides, you also need to configure the interface IP address of OMCR in this page, and
this address must be in the same subnetwork as the IP address of OMP on iBSC.

OMCB IP refers to IP address of the OMCB server.

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6 Network Configuration

6.1 Network Device Introduction

6.1.1 Main Network Devices from Cisco

Cisco System Inc. is well known to most people. With its Internet Operating System
(IOS), Cisco now possesses absolute predominance on the multi-protocol router market.

The following part will introduce Cisco’s switch product line and its main products.

6.1.1.1 Overview

Cisco’s switches are under the trademark of “Catalyst”, and they fall into more than 10
series, such as 1900, 2800, 2900, 3500, 4000, 5000, 5500, 6000, and 8500. Generally
speaking, these switches can be divided into two types:

 Switches with fixed configuration: This type includes Switch 3500 and most
models under it. For example, Switch 1924 is a 10M Ethernet switch with 24
interfaces, and it has two 100M uplink ports. Except software upgrade, these
switches cannot be expanded.
 Modular switches: This type mainly includes Switch 4000 and the models
above it. Network designers can select interface boards, power modules, and
corresponding software based on their network requirements.

When selecting devices, many people are puzzled by the long product name. Actually,
Cisco’s product naming has regular rules. For the Catalyst switches, their naming format
is as follows:

Catalyst NNXX [-C] [-M] [-A/-EN]

NN means the series number of the switch; for switches with fixed configuration, XX
means the number of ports, and for modular switches, it means the number of slots; the
appearance of -C means that the switch has fiber interfaces; -M means modularized; -A
means that the software is the standard version, and -EN means that the software is the
enterprise version.

6.1.1.2 Product Introduction

Currently, Cisco switches commonly used in network integration projects are the
following series: the 1900/2900 series, the 3500 series, and the 6500 series. They are
respectively used at the low end, the medium end, and the high end networks. The
following part will introduce these series respectively:

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1. Low End Products


1900 and 2900 are typical low end products. However, in low end switch
market, Cisco does not possess obvious advantages, because products of
3Com and Dlink have higher performance price ratio.

2. Medium End Products


For the medium end products, the 3500 series are widely used and are very
representative.
The basic features of the C3500 series are as follows: the backplane bandwidth
is up to 10Gbps; the forwarding rate is 7.5Mpps; it can support 250 VLANs; it
also supports IEEE 802.1Q and ISL Trunking, as well as CGMP network/GE
switches and redundant power supply. But the biggest feature of C3500 is its
management capability and supporting of GE switches.

3. High End Products


In enterprise data networks, C6000 has replaced the original C5000 series and
become the most commonly used product.
Catalyst 6000 provides solutions with high performance and multilayer
switching for campus networks. It is designed for application environment that
needs Gigabit expansion, high availability, and multilayer switching, and it is
mainly used in scenarios such as backbone connection in campus networks.

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6.1.2 Commonly Used Network Devices from ZTE


1. ZXR10 2826E/2626/26182609/2809/2818S/2826S/2852S2826E/2626/2618
Series of Access Switches
ZXR10 2000 series of access switches are mainly targeted at the access layer
of enterprise networks and broadband IP MANs. They provide Ethernet ports of
low and medium densities, and can be used as the user side access devices in
intelligent residential communities, office buildings, hotels, campus networks
and enterprise networks (government networks), or as the convergent
equipment in small-sized networks. They can provide access and convergence
solutions with high speed, high efficiency, and high performance price ratio for
users.

Figure Network Configuration-3 Front Panel of ZXR10 2826E

Figure Network Configuration-4 Front Panel of ZXR10 2818S

2. ZXR10 3900/3200 Series of L3 Intelligent Ethernet Switches


ZXR10 3900/3200 series are intelligent fast Ethernet switches developed by
ZTE. They include ZXR10 3906, ZXR10 3952, ZXR10 3928, ZXR10 3206,
ZXR10 3252, and ZXR10 3228. ZXR10 3906, ZXR10 3952, and ZXR10 3928

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are called ZXR10 3900; ZXR10 3206, ZXR10 3252, and ZXR10 3228 are
called ZXR10 3200.
ZXR10 3200 can be used in the convergence layer or access layer of a MAN.
ZXR10 3900 can be used as the convergence L3 switch in large enterprise
networks and campus networks.
ZXR10 3906 and ZXR10 3206 share the same appearance, except the product
name labeling, as shown in Figure Network Configuration-30.

Figure Network Configuration-30 Front Panel of ZXR10 3906/3206

ZXR10 3952 and ZXR10 3252 share the same appearance, except the product
name labeling, as shown in Figure Network Configuration-31.

Figure Network Configuration-31 Front Panel of ZXR10 3952/3252

ZXR10 3928 and ZXR10 3228 share the same appearance, except the product
name labeling, as shown in Figure Network Configuration-32.

Figure Network Configuration-32 Front Panel of ZXR10 3928/3228

3. ZXR10 5900/5200 Series of Gigabit Intelligent Routing Switches


The ZXR10 5900/5200 series include the following products: ZXR10 5924,
ZXR10 5928, ZXR10 5928-FI, ZXR10 5952, ZXR10 5224, ZXR10 5228, ZXR10
5228-FI, and ZXR10 5252, and they are Ethernet switches adopting the same
solution.

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Figure Network Configuration-33 Front Panel of ZXR10 5924

4. ZXR10 6900 Series of 10-Gigabit Routing Switches


The ZXR10 6902/6905/6908 series are Ethernet routing switches developed by
ZTE. They can be used in the backbone layer or convergence layer of MANs,
and can also be used as the backbone/convergence L3 switch in large
enterprise networks and campus networks.

Figure Network Configuration-34 Front Panel of ZXR10 6908

5. ZXR10 8900 Series of MPLS Routing Switches


The ZXR10 8902/8905/8908/8912 series are Ethernet routing switches
developed by ZTE. They can be used in the backbone layer or convergence
layer of MANs, and can also be used as the backbone/convergence L3 switch
in large enterprise networks and campus networks.

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Figure Network Configuration-35 Front Panel of ZXR10 8912

6.2 Commonly Used Network Commands in Windows

6.2.1 Ping

Ping is a frequently used utility used to find out whether a local host can exchange (send
and receive) data packets with another host. Based on the returned information, you can
infer whether the TCP/IP parameters are correctly configured and whether the running is
normal. Note that succeeding in exchanging data with another host once or twice does
not mean that the TCP/IP configuration is correct. You need to execute huge volume of
data exchange between the local host and the remote host, to ensure that the TCP/IP
configuration is correct.

To put it simply, Ping is a test program. If Ping runs correctly, you can almost exclude
the possibility of failures in the network access layer, the network adapter, the input and
output lines of MODEM, cables, and routers. Thus the range for locating problems can
be compressed. Because of the ceaseless high-speed data sending and the customized
size of data packets, Ping can be used as the Distributed Deny Of Service (DDOS) tool
intentionally. Not long ago, Yahoo encountered an absolute failure, and the cause was
that hackers used hundreds of computers that could access the Internet at high speeds
to continuously send large volume of Ping packets.

By default, a Ping command in Windows will send four Internet Control Message
Protocol (ICMP) echo requests, and each requrest contains 32 bytes of data. If
everything is accpetable, you can get four replies.

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Ping can show the time used from sending echo request to returning echo reply in
milliseconds. If the time to reply is short, it means that the data packets do not need to
pass through too many routers or the network speed is high. Ping can also show the
Time To Live (TTL) value. Through the TTL value, you can estimate the number of
routers that the data packets have passed through. The method is as follows: the source
address’s TTL value (a closest value of 2 n that is larger than the returned TTL value) –
the returned TTL value. For example, the returned TTL value is 119. Then you can
estimate that the start TTL value when the data packets left the source address is 128,
and that the data packets need to go through 9 (128-119) routers to reach the
destination address from the source address. If the returned TTL value is 246, the start
TTL value will be 256, and the data packets need to go through 9 routers to reach the
destination address from the source address.

Typical sequence for detecting network problems with Ping:

In normal cases, you need to use many Ping commands to locate problems or check the
network running status. If all the Ping commands return positive results, you can
ascertain that there is no problem with the basic connectivity and the configuration
parameters. If some Ping commands fail, they can still indicate the possible location of
the problem.

The following is a typical detection sequence and the corresponding problems:

 ping 127.0.0.1: This Ping command is sent to the IP software of the local
computer, and it will never exit from the computer. If this command fails, it
means that problems exist in TCP/IP installation or running.
 ping IP address of your own computer: This command is sent to the IP address
of your own computer, and your computer should always reply to this Ping
command. If it fails to do so, it means that problems exist in your local
configurations or installation. In this case, if you are a LAN user, please
disconnect the network cable and re-send this command; if this command runs
correctly in case of network cable disconnection, it means that another
computer may be configured with the same IP address with your computer.
 ping other IP addresses in the LAN: This command should pass through the
network adapter and network cables and then reach another computer in the
LAN. Then it should return data to your computer. If your computer receives the
echo reply, it means that the network adapter and carriers in the local network
are running correctly. If your computer receives no echo reply, it means that the
subnet mask or the network adapter configuration is wrong, or there are
problems with the cables.
 ping IP address of the gateway: If this command runs correctly, it means that
the gateway router in the LAN is running and can reply to requests.
 ping a remote IP address: If your computer receives four replies, it means that
the default gateway is successfully used. For users who are connected to the

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network through dial-up access, it means that they can successfully access the
Internet (but there may still be problems with ISP’s DNS).
 ping localhost: localhost is a network reserved name of the operating system. It
is the alias of 127.0.0.1. Each computer can convert this name into this
address. If this command fails, it means that problems exist in the host file
(/Windows/host).
 ping www.yahoo.com: This command will normally go through the DNS server.
If the command fails, it means that the IP address of the DNS server is not
correctly configured, or the DNS server fails (for users who are connected to
the network through dial-up access, some ISPs do not need the DNS
configuration). In addition, you can also use this command to convert the
domain name into the IP address.

If all the Ping commands listed above can run normally, it indicates that there is no
problem with the local and remote communication of your computer. However, the
successful execution of these commands does not necessarily mean that all your
network configurations are acceptable. For example, some subnet mask errors cannot
be detected by using this method.

Commonly used parameters of the Ping command are as follows:

 ping IP –t: Successively execute the Ping command on an IP address, until it is


interrupted by the user by using Ctrl+C.
 ping IP -l 2000: Specify the data length of the Ping command to 2000 bytes,
instead of the default 32 bytes.
 ping IP –n: Execute the Ping command for a specific number of times.

6.2.2 Netstat

Netstat is used to show statistics related to IP, TCP, UDP, and ICMP protocols. It is often
used to check the network connectivity of each port on your computer.

If the data packets your computer receives cause error data deletion or faults, do not be
surprised, because TCP/IP allows for this kind of errors, and it can automatically re-send
the data packets. But if the accumulated number of errors accounts for a considerable
percentage of the received IP packets, or the number of errors is increasing rapidly, you
need to use Netstat to see the cause of the errors.

Commonly used options of netstat are as follows:

 netstat –s: This command can show statistics of each protocol. If your
application (such as the Web browser) runs slowly, or it cannot display the Web
page, you can use this option to view the information. You need to read through
each line of the statistics to find out the key words of the errors, and then locate
the problem.

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 netstat –e: This option is used to show the Ethernet statistics. The items it lists
include the total number of bytes of the transferred data packets, as well as the
number of errors, deletions, data packets, and broadcasts. This statistics
includes both the number of the sent data packets and the number of the
received data packets. This option can be used to view the basic network
traffics.
 netstat –r: This option can show information of the routing table, which is similar
to the information you see when you use the route print command. It shows
both the valid routes and the valid connections.
 netstat –a: This option is used to list all the valid connections, including the
established connections (ESTABLISHED) and the listening (LISTENING)
connections.
 netstat –n: This option is used to show all the established connections that are
valid.

6.2.3 IPConfig

The IPConfig utility and its equivalent GUI --- WinIPCfg in Windows 95/98, can be used
to show the TCP/IP configurations. This information is often used to check whether the
manually configured TCP/IP parameters are correct. If your computer and LAN have
used the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP --- a protocol used under
Windows NT to allocate a small number of IP addresses to a large number of hosts,
which is similar to the dynamic IP allocation in dial-up network access), information
displayed by this utility may seem more practical. In that case, IPConfig enables you to
know whether your computer has obtained an IP address and if it has, what address it
has been allocated. Getting the IP address, the subnet mask, and the default gateway of
a computer is actually an indispensable step for testing and fault analysis.

The commonly used options are as follows:

 Ipconfig: This command does not need to carry any parameter, because it
shows the IP address, the subnet mask, and the default gateway for each
configured interface.
 ipconfig /all: When the all option is used, IPConfig will show the additional
information (such as the IP address on DNS and WINS servers. It will also
show the physical address (MAC) embedded in the local network adapter. If the
IP address is leased from the DHCP server, IPConfig will also show the IP
address of the DHCP server and the expected expiry date of the leased
address (for information about the DHCP server, please consult books on NT
servers or your network management administrator).
 ipconfig /release and ipconfig /renew: These are two additional options, and
can only be used on computers that lease IP addresses from the DHCP server.
If you enter ipconfig /release, IP addresses leased by all interfaces will be

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given back to the DHCP server. If you enter ipconfig /renew, the local
computer will try to connect with the DHCP server and lease an IP address
from it. Note that in most cases, the network adapter will be allocated an IP
address that is the same as the previous one.
If you are a user of Windows 95/98, you should be more accustomed to the use
of winipcfg instead of ipconfig, because winipcfg is a GUI and the
information it provides is the same as that provided by ipconfig. Besides, it
also provides the release and renew options. If you have bought Windows NT
Resource Kit (NT resource package), Windows NT will also provide a GUI
named wntipcfg, which is similar to winipcfg in Windows 95/98.

6.2.4 ARP

The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is an important TCP/IP protocol. It can be used
to find out the network adapter’s physical address for an IP address. Using the arp
command, you can also view the current content in the ARP caches of the local
computer or another computer. Besides, using the arp command, you can also enter
pairs of static physical address/IP address of the network adapter; you may use this
operation on commonly used hosts like the default gateway or the local server, to reduce
the traffic over the network.

According to the default setting, entries in the ARP cache are dynamic. When data
packets to a specific address are sent and there is no matching entry in the cache, ARP
will automatically add this entry. Once an entry of the cache is entered, they will become
void soon. For example, in Windows NT network, if an entry is entered and then not
used, the physical/IP address pair will become void in 2 to 10 minutes. Therefore, if there
is no entry or just a small number of entries in the ARP cache, do not be surprised, and
you can add entries by using the ping command on another computer or router. If you
want to view the content in the cache through the arp command, it is suggested that you
remotely ping this computer first (you cannot ping this computer locally).

The commonly used options of this command are as follows:

 arp –a or arp –g: They are used to view all entries in the cache. -a and -g will
return the same result. –g is used in the UNIX platform, while arp -a is used in
Windows (-a can be viewed as the short form of all), but Windows can also
accept the use of -g.
 arp -a IP: If you have multiple network adapters, you can use arp –a plus the IP
address of the specific interface to show ARP cache entries related to this
interface only.
 arp -s IP physical address: You can manually enter a static entry into the ARP
cache. This entry will remain valid in the computer boot process, or when there
are errors, the manually configured physical address will automatically update
this entry.

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 arp -d IP: You can use this command to manually delete a static entry.

6.2.5 Tracert

When a data packet is sent from your computer and passes through several gateways to
reach the destination, the Tracert command can be used to track the route (path) of the
data packet. The route tracked by this utility is a route from the source computer to the
destination, and you cannot ensure or assume that data packets will always follow this
route. If your configuration uses DNS, you can often get city names, addresses, and
communication carrier names from the responses. Tracert runs slowly (if the specified
destination is far from the source), and each router will use almost 15 seconds.

The use of Tracert is very simple: you only need to add an IP address or URL behind
tracert, and Tracert will translate the domain names. Tracert is often used to detect the
location of a problem. You can use tracert IP to see where the problem locates.
Although you may not know what the problem is, you can be very sure and say “X has
problems”.

6.2.6 Route

Most hosts reside in subnets that are connected with only one router. Because there is
only one router, the consideration of using which router to send the data packets to a
remote computer does not exist. The IP address of this sole router can be used as the
default gateway of all computers in the subnet.

However, when there are two or more routers in the network, you do not necessarily
want to depend on the default gateway only. Maybe you want to use one router to
transmit data to some remote IP addresses, and use another router to transmit data to
the other remote IP addresses.

In this case, you need the corresponding route information, which is stored in the routing
tables. Each host and each router have their unique routing tables. In most cases,
routers use routing protocols to exchange and dynamically update their routing tables.
But in some cases, you need to manually add entries to the routing table of a router or
host. Route is the command to display, add, and modify routing table entries.

The commonly used options of this command are as follows:

 route print: This option is used to show the current entries in the routing table.
Because the network adapters are configured with IP addresses, all these
entries are added automatically.
 route add: This option is used to add new routing entries into the routing table.
For example, you want to set a route to the destination network 209.98.32.33,
and there are five routers in between. Of course your data needs to pass
through the router in the local network first. The IP address of this router is

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202.96.123.5, and its subnet mask is 255.255.255.224. Then you need to enter
the following commands:
route add 209.98.32.33 mask 255.255.255.224 202.96.123.5 metric 5
 route change: This option can be used to modify the transmission route of data,
but it cannot be used to change the destination of data. The command in the
following example changes the route of data into another router, and it chooses
a more direct route that contains three subnets:
route add 209.98.32.33 mask 255.255.255.224 202.96.123.250 metric 3
 route delete: This option is used to delete routes from the routing table, for
example, route delete 209.98.32.33.

6.3 Commonly Used Network Commands in Linux


Network commands in Linux are similar to those in Windows, with differences in several
commands and parameters. The following part will describe the different network
commands in Linux.

6.3.1 ping
 ping IP –s: Specify the data length of a ping command.
 ping IP –c: Execute the ping command for a specified number of times.

The ping command without any parameter is used to ping an address successively, and
you can press Ctrl+C to stop this operation.

6.3.2 traceroute

The same as the tracert command in Windows, this command is used to track the UDP
routing data packets between a local host and a remote host.

6.3.3 ifconfig

The same as the ipconfig command in Windows, this command is used to check the
local IP address.

Besides, the format to configure the local IP address is as follows:

#ifconfig interface [family] address up options

interface means the network interface. The network interface name normally has three
characters, such as le0 and lo0, and it is derived from the corresponding device driver.
Normally, le means that the device driver is made by AMD, while ie means that the

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device driver is made by Intel. When the ifconfig command is followed by the network
interface parameter only, it means to view the current network configuration. The family
parameter indicates the protocol layer corresponding to the configurations that follow this
parameter. In most cases, the configurations are for the IP layer processing, so the
option is inet. The address option means the specified IP address. up&down means to
enable the interface and disable the interface respectively. options includes many
choices. For example, you can choose to set the subnet mask or the broadcast address.

Instances:

#ifconfig lo0 127.0.0.1 up /*means to enable the loopback interface of the network*/

#ifconfig le0

le0: flags=63<UP,BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,RUNNING>;

inet 61.57.56.2 netmask ff000000 braadcast 61.0.0.0

UP means that the interface is enabled, and RUNNING means that the interface can be
used. Inet means the network interface is configured at the IP protocol layer. The
following parts mean the IP address, the subnet mask (in the hexadecimal format), and
the IP broadcast address (it is expressed in the dotted decimal notation. For a correct
broadcast address, the host part consists of 1s only. Here in the default value, the host
part consists of 0s) respectively.

In Linux, you can use ifconfig –a to show information of all interfaces, for example:

# ifconfig -a

eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 44:45:53:54:00:00

inet addr: 61.151.131.103 Bcast:61.0.0.0 Mask:255.0.0.0

UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1

RX packets:467 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0

TX packets:28 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0

collisions:1 txqueuelen:100

Interrupt:9 Base address:0x1080

lo0 Link encap:Local Loopback

inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0

UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:3924 Metric:1

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RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0

TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0

collisions:0 txqueuelen:0

#/*We can see that lo0 is an address of class A, and it has no subnet mask.*/

From the above, we can see that the MAC address in Linux is expressed in the form of
XX: XX: XX: XX: XX:XX, while in Windows, the physical address is expressed in the form
of XX- XX-XX-XX-XX-XX. But in CISCO, it is expressed in this way: XXXX.XXXX.XXXX,
and you should note that this is a hexadecimal notation.

6.4 Commonly Used Commands in Switches

6.4.1 Commands in Cisco Switches


 User EXEC Mode
When you connect to and log in to a switch through the switch’s console port or
a Telnet session, the command execution mode you see is the user EXEC
mode. In this mode, you can only execute a limited number of commands, and
these commands are used to view system information, modify terminal settings,
and perform basic tests, such as ping and traceroute.
The command status line in the user EXEC mode is student1>.
student1 is the host name of the switch. For switches that are not configured,
the default host name is Switch. In the user EXEC mode, you can enter ? and
press Enter to get help on the commands that can be executed in this mode.
 Privileged EXEC Mode
You can execute the enable command in the user EXEC mode to enter the
privileged EXEC mode. In this mode, you can execute all commands provided
by IOS. The command status line of the privileged EXEC mode is student1#.
Student1>enable
Password:
Student1#
In the startup configuration, the password to log in to the privileged EXEC
mode has been configured, so now the system will prompt you to enter the user
password. When you enter the password, the echo is off. Then press Enter.
After password authentication, you can enter the privileged EXEC mode.

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If you need to set or modify the password used to enter the privileged EXEC
mode, you can use the enable secret command in the global configuration
mode.
Enter ? in the privileged EXEC mode and you can get the prompt on all the
commands that can be executed in this mode. To exit from the privileged EXEC
mode and return to the user mode, you can execute the exit or disable
command.
To restart the switch, you can execute the reload command.
 Global Configuration Mode
You can execute the configure terminal command in the privileged EXEC
mode to enter the global configuration mode. In this mode, you only need to
enter a valid configuration command and press Enter, and then the
configurations in the memory will be modified immediately. Configuration
commands in this mode will take effect globally on the whole switch.
The command status line in the global configuration mode is as follows:
student1(config)#
student1#config terminal
student1(config)#
You can also enter sub-modes like interface configuration and line configuration
from the global configuration mode. To return to the global configuration mode
from the sub-modes, execute the exit command; to return to the privileged
EXEC mode from the global configuration mode, execute the exit command. To
exit from any configuration mode and return to the privileged EXEC mode
directly, execute the end command or press Ctrl+Z.

The following are the commonly used commands:

 show running-config
This command is used to show the basic configurations of a switch. You can
press the space key or turn pages to view all configurations.

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 show ip interface brief


This command is used to show status of the physical and logical ports of an
interface, as well as IP addresses of physical and logical interfaces.

 config terminal
This command is used to enter the configuration mode.

 interface fastEthernet 0/X

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This command is used to enter the port mode. X is the port number.

 no shutdown
This command is used to enable the physical port. shutdown means to
disable.

 show vlan
This command is used to show all the VLAN information.

 show interfaces fastEthernet 0/X


This command is used to show the details of a port. X is the port number.

 write
This command is used to save configurations of the switch.

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6.4.2 Commands in ZTE 2000 Series of Switches

Commands in ZTE 2000 series of switches are different from the commands listed
above. From the 3000 series, the command formats are the same as the Cisco
commands. In the following part, we will introduce the commonly used commands in
ZTE 2000 series.

To make it convenient for users to configure and manage the switches, ZXR10 2818S
allocates commands to different modes according to the functions and rights. Thus a
command can only be executed in a specific mode. In the CSL project, the command
modes of a switch mainly include the following:

1. User Mode
After you log in to the switch through Hyper Terminal or Telnet, you can input
the user name and password to enter the user mode. The prompt in the user
mode is the host name of the switch followed by >, as shown below:

The default host name is zte, and you can use the hostname <name>
command to change it. In the user mode, you can execute the exit command to
exit from the switch configuration, or you can execute the show command to
view the system configuration information and running information.
2. Global Configuration Mode
You can enter the enable command and the password in the user mode to
enter the global configuration mode, as shown below:

In the global configuration mode, you can configure functions of the switch. To
return to the user mode from the global configuration mode, execute the exit
command.
3. SNMP Configuration Mode
You can use the config snmp command in the global configuration mode to
enter the SNMP configuration mode, as shown below:

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In the SNMP configuration mode, you can set the SNMP parameters. To return
to the global configuration mode from the SNMP configuration mode, use the
exit command or press Ctrl+Z.
4. L3 Configuration Mode
You can use the config router command in the global configuration mode to
enter the L3 configuration mode, as shown below:

In the L3 configuration mode, you can configure L3 ports, static routes and ARP
entities. To exit from the L3 configuration mode and return to the global
configuration mode, you can use the exit command or press Ctrl+Z.
set port <portlist> {enable|disable}
This command is used to enable/disable ports.

Show port X: Show the physical port stauts. X is the port number.
Show vlan X: Show the VLAN information. X is the VLAN ID.
Saveconfig: Save the switch configurations.

6.5 Integrated Configuration

6.5.1 Networking Case


1. The sites are connected to the L2 network of the SP through a switch. Then
they get connected with the L3 switch 6513, and through that, they finally get
connected with BSC.
2. The switch on the left and the SP are in an L2 network, and the 802.1q VLAN
relay protocol is used. Thus the sites in three separate subnets do not belong
to the same broadcast domain, which reduces broadcast storms.
3. The interfaces on switch 6513s that are connected with the SP are L2 physical
interfaces, and the VLAN mode is configured on these interfaces. Then IP
addresses are set on the VLANs, as the gateway addresses of the sites. Thus,
all data from the sites will converge in switch 6513.
4. The interfaces on switch 6513s that are connected with BSC are L3 physical
interfaces. These interfaces are configured with IP addresses and are

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connected with GIPI boards of BSC. The static routing protocol is used for the
connection here.
5. Switch 6513 is L3 switching equipment, realizing the connection between L2
and L3, communication between VLANs, and route forwarding.

6.5.2 Main Configuration of 6513

6.5.2.1 Configuration of RAN6513-1

interface Loopback0

ip address 10.9.0.17 255.255.255.255!

interface Port-channel1

ip address 10.9.0.5 255.255.255.252

mls qos trust dscp!

interface GigabitEthernet7/1

no ip address

shutdown !

interface GigabitEthernet7/2

description ###For testing BBUB at BMI###

switchport

switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q

switchport trunk allowed vlan 99,199

switchport mode trunk

media-type rj45

service-policy input DSCP_POLICY!

interface GigabitEthernet8/1

no ip address

shutdown!

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interface GigabitEthernet9/6

description ###ZBSC11 1-1-11 GIPI Port1###

ip address 10.9.4.102 255.255.255.252

mls qos trust dscp!

interface GigabitEthernet9/7

description ###ZBSC12 1-1-11 GIPI Port1###

ip address 10.9.5.102 255.255.255.252

mls qos trust dscp!

interface GigabitEthernet9/8

description ###ZBSC13 1-1-11 GIPI Port1###

ip address 10.9.6.102 255.255.255.252

mls qos trust dscp!

interface GigabitEthernet9/9

switchport!

interface GigabitEthernet9/10

switchport

switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q

switchport trunk allowed vlan 10,110,2099,2199

switchport mode trunk

shutdown

speed nonegotiate

mls qos trust cos

storm-control broadcast level 60.00

storm-control multicast level 60.00!

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interface Vlan10 Enter the VLAN interface mode

ip address 10.9.10.253 255.255.255.0 Configure the interface IP of VLAN10

standby 10 ip 10.9.10.254 Configure the gateway of VLAN10 (virtual IP)

standby 10 priority 110 Configure the priority (100 by default)

standby 10 preempt Configure preemption

interface Vlan20

ip address 10.9.20.253 255.255.255.0

standby 20 ip 10.9.20.254

standby 20 preempt

6.5.2.2 Configuration of RAN6513-2

The VLAN configuration of RAN6513-2 should match that of RAN6513-1. Besides, you
need to configure router 6513S:

interface Vlan10

ip address 10.9.10.252 255.255.255.0

standby 10 ip 10.9.10.254

standby 10 preempt

interface Vlan20

ip address 10.9.20.252 255.255.255.0

standby 20 ip 10.9.20.254

standby 20 priority 110

standby 20 preempt

1. Switch 6513 adopts the HSRP protocol, which can greatly improve redundancy
and stability of the network.

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2. As shown in the above figure, there is only one uplink from a site to BSC. The
different VLANs correspond to different master routers, so their uplinks are
different.
3. There are two downlinks to realize load balance and mutual backup.
4. As shown in the above figure, the failure in any node (on a single link and
switch) will not influence communication of the whole network.
5. The larger the priority value is, the higher the priority is. In VLAN10, the priority
of router 6513A (priority 110) is higher than the router 6513S (priority 100).
Therefore, router 6513A is the master router of VLAN10, and the site data in
VLAN10 will be forwarded to BSC through router 6513A. In VLAN20, the
priority of router 6513S (priority 110) is higher than router 6513A (priority 100).
Therefore, router 6513S is the master router of VLAN20, and the site data in
VLAN20 will be forwarded to BSC through router 6513S.
6. Static routing is used for data packet forwarding between switch 6513 and
BSC. Between switch 6513 and the sites, the data packets need to go through
L2 switching, and the VLAN interface acts as the gateway.

7 Further Understanding of the Scenarios


This part is for practice.

7.1 Scenario 1 --- Configuring the L2 Switch


Required Knowledge

An L2 switch can provide L2 switching at the port rate of 100M/1000M. It does not
support route switching, and is normally used in LANs.

Required Environment

One Cisco 2950-24 switch

Objective

To perform simple configurations of Catalyst cisco 2950-24 switch on your own

Configuration Instance

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Switch>enable Enter the privileged setting mode

Switch#configure terminal Enter the user configuration mode

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Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. System prompt

Switch(config)#hostname SW50A Set the host name for identification. In


enterprise environment, the host name configured should have practical significance.

SW50A(config)#enable password cisco Set the user password. This password is not
encrypted and is used when you enter the privileged mode.

SW50A(config)#service password-encryption Encrypt the user password for security


considerations.

SW50A(config)#enable secret ciscopassword Set the secret ciscopassword, and this


password is encrypted.

Note: The secret ciscopassword has higher precedence than the user password.
Therefore, if you have set the secret ciscopassword, you are required to enter the
secret ciscopassword instead of the user password in login. Besides, the secret
ciscopassword is displayed after encryption. However, you can also encrypt the user
password by using the service password-encryption command.

SW50A(config)#line vty 0 4 Enter the VTY virtual link 0-4, where VTY is the
virtual link for Telnet login.

Note: Switch 2950 supports 16 telnet virtual links (0-15). 0-4 is the default value.
With this default setting, five telnet virtual links can be connected at the same time. 0
must be included in the default setting. That is to say, you cannot use 1-5, and the
default setting must be 0-4.

SW50A(config-line)#password cisco Set the login password for VTY link


0-4

SW50A(config-line)#login Inform IOS to execute password


authentication. When no password is set, there will be a prompt during login.

SW50A(config-line)#line console 0 Enter the console connection link.

SW50A(config-line)#password cisco Set the login password for the console


connection link.

SW50A(config-line)#login Inform IOS to execute password


authentication.

SW50A(config-line)#end Exit to the privileged mode.

SW50A#show running-config View the currently running configurations.

Building configuration...

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Current configuration : 1583 bytes This is the size of the configuration file, and it will
increase with the increase of configurations.

version 12.1 This is the IOS version.

no service pad

service timestamps debug uptime

service timestamps log uptime

service password-encryption!

hostname SW50A This is the host name display!

enable secret 5 $1$WC.B$8TGJ5LIuJodONuBIWu0b6. This is the password display,


where 5 means that the password encryption adopts the unidirectional method.

enable password 7 030752180500 This is the password display after you use the
service password-encryption command to encrypt the password. 7 means that the
encryption adopts the bi-directional method.

Note: The bi-directional encryption is a reversible operation.

ip subnet-zero!

spanning-tree mode pvst This is the spanning tree mode, which will be described
later.

no spanning-tree optimize bpdu transmission

spanning-tree extend system-id!

interface FastEthernet0/1

no ip address...

interface FastEthernet0/24

no ip address

interface Vlan1

no ip address

no ip route-cache

shutdown Show the status of VLAN1 as inactive.

ip http server!

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line con 0

password 7 13061E010803 Show the encrypted password for console interface


login

login

line vty 0 4

password 7 13061E010803 Show the encrypted password for logging into VTY
virtual link 0-4

login

line vty 5 15 No password is set for VTY virtual link 5-15, so they cannot be
used.

login

end

7.2 Scenario 2 --- VLAN Application


Required Knowledge

The VLAN technique is widely used in current enterprise and campus networks. Before
we talk about VLAN, we must be familiar with two concepts. The first is broadcast --- the
communication method in which one node sends data to all the other nodes in the
subnet is called broadcast communication. ARP is an instance of broadcast
communication. The second is broadcast domain --- the physical range that the
broadcast data can reach. Generally speaking, a network segment is a broadcast
domain, such as the network segment formed by a port of a router. Here we talk about
L2 switching. An L2 switch and all users connected with it will form a broadcast domain.
If there are too many users, and it requires multiple switches to mutually add ports, the
range of the broadcast domain will be expanded to the multiple switches.

Sometimes broadcast is mandatory in network communication, such as the ARP


protocol. But in most cases, broadcast will have a bad influence on the network
communication, especially when a broadcast strom occurs. Therefore, in network design
we should try to reduce the scope of a broadcast domain, to minimize its influence on
network communication.

Required Environment

One Cisco 2950-24 switch

Objective

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To get familiar with the VLAN configuration commands

Configuration Instance

Configure VLANs according to the above figure. You need to note the differences
between the config mode and the vlan database mode. Actually the vlan database mode
will disappear in the future (IOS will not support it).

After you have set the VLANs, you need to assign interfaces to them. At this time, you
need to note the range command, because it is not supported by some types of
equipment (for their IOS versions are low). Then we need to verify the configurations by
using the show vlan command.

Last, let's see how to delete VLANs. In the config or vlan database mode, the command
to delete VLANs is no vlan xx. Note that before you delete a VLAN, you need to release
the related interface from this VLAN. Otherwise the interface will be in the inactive status
(hidden), in which case you have to use the default interface f0/x command to restore
the default value of the interface.

Then let's see the configuration process.

SW50A#configure terminal Enter the configuration mode.

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. System prompt

SW50A(config)#vlan 2 Set VLAN2 in the configuration mode

SW50A(config-vlan)#vlan 10 Set VLAN10

SW50A(config-vlan)#name OMCB Set the name of VLAN10 for identification

SW50A(config-vlan)#end Exit to the privileged mode

SW50A#vlan database Enter the VLAN database mode (this mode is


seldom used, and it is suggested that you do not use it).

SW50A(vlan)#vlan 20 name OMCR Set VLAN20 and name it.

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VLAN 20 modified:

Name: yanfa

SW50A(vlan)#vlan 30 name EMS Set VLAN30 and name it.

VLAN 30 added:

Name: caiwu

SW50A(vlan)#exit Exit from the database mode (use exit to save and
then exit. Here you cannot press ctrl+z to exit).

APPLY completed.

Exiting....

SW50A#show vlan View the current VLAN setting (actually this is to view
the contents in the VLAN database).

VLAN Name Status Ports

---- -------------------------------- --------- -------------------------------

1 default active Fa0/1, Fa0/2, Fa0/3, Fa0/4

Fa0/5, Fa0/6, Fa0/7, Fa0/8

Fa0/9, Fa0/10, Fa0/11, Fa0/12

Fa0/13, Fa0/14, Fa0/15, Fa0/16

Fa0/17, Fa0/18, Fa0/19, Fa0/20

Fa0/21, Fa0/22, Fa0/23, Fa0/24

Note: By default, all ports belong to VLAN1.

2 VLAN0002 active

Note: Because we did not set a name for VLAN2, VLAN2 uses the default name
VLAN0002.

10 OMCB active

20 OMCR active

30 EMS active

1002 fddi-default active

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1003 token-ring-default active

1004 fddinet-default active

1005 trnet-default active

Remote SPAN VLANs

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Primary Secondary Type Ports

Assign interfaces (assign user ports to corresponding VLANs)

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

SW50A#configure terminal Enter the configuration mode

SW50A(config)#interface f0/23 Enter interface F0/23 (this is the sub-interface


mode)

SW50A(config-if)#switchport access vlan 2 Assign the current interface to VLAN2

SW50A(config-if)#interface f0/24 Enter interface F0/24

SW50A(config-if)#switchport access vlan 2 Assign the current interface to VLAN2

SW50A(config-if)#interface range f0/1 -5,f0/7 Enter interface F0/1 to F0/5 and F0/7
(use range to enter a group of interfaces)

SW50A(config-if-range)#switchport access vlan 10 Assign the current interface to


VLAN10

SW50A(config-if-range)#interface range f0/6 ,f0/8 -15 ,f0/20 Enter interface F0/6,


F0/8 to F0/15, and F0/20

SW50A(config-if-range)#switchport access vlan 20 Assign the current interface to


VLAN20

SW50A(config-if-range)#interface range f0/16 -19,f0/21 -22 Enter interface F0/16 to


F0/19, and F0/21 to F0/22.

SW50A(config-if-range)#switchport access vlan 30 Assign the current interface to


VLAN30

SW50A(config-if-range)#end Exit and go to the privileged mode

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Note: You can use the range command to enter a group of interfaces at the same time.
This can save a lot of time for you. Use space plus – between successive interfaces, and
use space plus comma between non-successive interfaces. Old versions of IOS does
not support the range command, such as the default IOS of 2924.

SW50A#show vlan View the current VLAN configurations

00:09:37: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console System prompt

VLAN Name Status Ports

---- -------------------------------- --------- -------------------------------

1 default active

2 VLAN0002 active Fa0/23, Fa0/24

Note: VLAN1’s default ports are assigned to other VLANs.

10 OMCB active Fa0/1, Fa0/2, Fa0/3, Fa0/4

Fa0/5, Fa0/7

20 OMCR active Fa0/6, Fa0/8, Fa0/9, Fa0/10

Fa0/11, Fa0/12, Fa0/13, Fa0/14

Fa0/15, Fa0/20

30 EMS active Fa0/16, Fa0/17, Fa0/18, Fa0/19

Fa0/21, Fa0/22

1002 fddi-default active

1003 token-ring-default active

1004 fddinet-default active

1005 trnet-default active

Remote SPAN VLANs

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Primary Secondary Type Ports

------- --------- ----------------- ------------------------------------------

Set the management VLAN

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~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Note: The management VLAN is used for equipment management. Set an IP address for
the management VLAN, and you can perform management operations very
conveniently. Normally, the management VLAN is not assigned to users. By default,
VLAN1 is the management VLAN. In versions after IOS12.0, you can set the
management VLAN by setting the IP address. For example, the following shows how to
set VLAN2 as the management VLAN.

SW50A#configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

SW50A(config)#interface vlan 2 Enter the VLAN2 sub-interface

SW50A(config-if)#ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0 Set VLAN2’s IP address

SW50A(config-if)#no shutdown Activate the sub-interface settings

SW50A(config-if)#end

Note: In an L2 switch, there can only be one management VLAN. That is, the IP address
of only one VLAN is activated and can be used (there can be only one manageable IP
address). If you have set IP addresses for multiple VLANs, only one of them is in the no
shutdown status.

7.3 Scenario 3 --- Configuring a Route


Required Knowledge

Routers work in the third layer of the OSI model, that is, the network layer. They use the
“logical” network addresses (IP addresses) defined by the network layer to identify
different networks, and realize the interconnection and segregation of the networks, to
maintain the independence of each network. Routers do not forward broadcast
messages. Instead, they confine the broadcast messages within their own networks.
Data sent to other networks should be sent to routers first, and then forwarded by the
routers.

Required Environment

One Cisco 2811 router

Objective

To perform simple configurations of the router on your own

Configuration Instance

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Static route configuration

ip route 10.9.4.49 255.255.255.255 10.9.4.109 name ####to_ZBSC11_Abis###

ip route 10.9.5.49 255.255.255.255 10.9.5.101 name ####to_ZBSC12_Abis###

Configure the interface address

interface FastEthernet0/1

ip address 192.168.2.254 255.255.255.0

no shutdown

7.4 Scenario 4 --- Routing Between VLANs


Required Knowledge

We know that different VLANs of a switch cannot communicate with each other directly.
In enterprise networks, VLANs are normally segregated according to the organizational
structures of the enterprises. We may wonder "Don't the different departments in an
enterprise make data communication with each other at all, since they belong to different
VLANs?" Actually, the answer is yes, but the communication between different
departments needs control.

Required Environment

One ZTE 3928A L3 switch

Objective

To better understand the concepts of VLAN and routing.

Configuration Instance

SW50A#configure terminal Enter the user configuration mode

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. System prompt

SW50A(config)#int vlan 10 Enter the VLAN configuration mode

SW50A(config-if)#ip address 10.10.10.254 255.255.255.0 Set the IP address of the


VLAN

SW50A(config-if)no shutdown

SW50A(config)#int vlan 20

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SW50A(config-if)#ip address 10.10.20.254 255.255.255.0

SW50A(config-if)no shutdown

SW50A(config)#interface fa 0/1 Configure the Trunk interface

SW50A(config-if)#switchport mode trunk Set the current port as the trunk port,
and the mode is on (enabled).

SW50A(config-if)#sswitchport trunk encapsulation dot1q Set the encapsulation


method of the F0/24 trunk port as 802.1Q.

SW50A(config-if-range)#end Exit to the privileged mode.

Note: The system prompts that port f0/1, f0/3, and f0/5 are in the UP status.

00:12:04: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/1,


changed state to up

00:12:04: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/3,


changed state to up

00:12:04: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/5,


changed state to up

7.5 Scenario 5 --- VRRP Application


Required Knowledge

1. Priorities of Routers in A Backup Group


VRRP determines the role of each router in a backup group (master router or
backup router) based on their priorities. The higher the priority is, the more
possible for a router to become a master router.
The VRRP priorities range from 0 to 255 (larger value means higher priority),
and the configurable range is from 1 to 254. 0 is reserved for special purpose,
and 255 is reserved by the system for the owner of the IP address. When a
router is the owner of the IP address, its priority will always be 255. Therefore,
when the IP address owner exists in a backup group, the owner will be the
master router, as long as it can work normally.
2. Working Mechanism of Routers in A Backup Group
Routers in a backup group have the following two working mechanisms:

 non-preemptive mode: If routers in a backup group work in this mode, as


long as the master router can work normally, the backup router will not
become the master router, even if it is configured with a higher priority
later.

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 Preemptive mode: If a router in a backup group works in this mode, once


it detects that its priority is higher than the current master router, it will
send VRRP notification packets. Consequently, routers in the backup
group will re-elect a master router to replace the original one.
Accordingly, the original master router will become the backup router.
3. Authentication of Routers in A Backup Group
To prevent illegal users from constructing packets to attack the backup group,
VRRP will authenticate the received VRRP packets by adding authentication
keys in the VRRP packets. VRRP provides two authentication methods:

 simple: Simple character authentication

 md5: MD5 authentication


In a secure network, users can choose not to set the authentication method.

Required Environment

Two ZTE 3928A L3 switches, two Cisco 2950-24 switches

Objective

To better understand the working process of VRRP

The working process of VRRP is as follows:

1. When a router uses the VRRP function, it will define its role in the backup
group according to the priorities. The router with the highest priority becomes
the master router, and routers with lower priorities become backup routers. The
master router will send VRRP notification packets periodically, to inform other
routers in the backup group that it is working normally. The backup routers will
start the timer and wait for the notification packets.
2. In the preemptive mode, when a backup router receives the VRRP notification
packets, it will compare its own priority with the priority in the packets. If its own
priority is higher, it will become the master router; otherwise, it remains the
backup status.
3. In the non-preemptive mode, as long as the master router can work normally,
routers in the backup group will remain their own status. Even if a backup
router is configured with a higher priority later, it will not become the master
router.
4. If a backup router has not received the VRRP notification packets from the
master router when its timer times out, it will assume that the master router has
already failed. At this time, the backup router will assume that it is the master
router, and it will send VRRP notification packets. Then routers in the backup
group will re-elect a master router to take on the function of packet forwarding,
based on the priorities.

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Configuration Instance

Router:

interface supervlan35

ip address 10.19.35.252 255.255.254.0

vrrp 53 ip 10.19.35.254

vrrp 53 priority 110

vrrp 53 advertise msec 2000

vrrp 53 preempt delay 600

vrrp 53 authentication CSL_HSRP

Router2:

interface supervlan35

ip address 10.19.35.253255.255.254.0

vrrp 53 ip 10.19.35.254

vrrp 53 advertise msec 2000

vrrp 53 preempt delay 600

vrrp 53 authentication CSL_HSRP

8 Troubleshooting

8.1 Troubleshooting for Link Transmission Faults


When SCTP or OMCB cannot set up links, you can use the following methods to
examine the links:

1. brsping the gateway IP address


Use the brsping command on the base station to test the connectivity between
the base station and the gateway.

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Countermeasures in case of connection failure: Check status of the network


link between the base station and the gateway, the IP address of the base
station, and the configuration data of the gateway.
2. brsping the IPBB interface IP address
Use the brsping command on the base station to test the connectivity between
the base station and the IPBB board that has the Abis interface.
Countermeasures in case of connection failure: Check status of the link
between the IPBB board and the gateway (including the physical status of the
interface), and the interface IP address of the IPBB board.
3. brsping the Abis interface's IP address of RPU
Use the brsping command on the base station to test the connectivity between
the base station and the Abis interface of RPU.
Countermeasures in case of connection failure: Check whether the gateway of
the base station has been correctly configured with the route to the IP address
of RPU’s Abis interface; and check whether the static routing table on iBSC has
correctly configured the route to the base station's IP network segment.
If the connection between the base station and the Abis interface of RPU is
normal, but SCTP cannot set up links, please check whether the configurations
of the site number and the remote port are correct. Besides, you need to check
whether the IP address of the Abis interface is correctly configured in the iBSC
global parameters.
If SCTP can set up links, but OMCB cannot set up links, you can continue with
the following examinations.
4. Ping the interface IP address of IPBB
Use the ping command on the OMCB server to test the connectivity between
the OMCB server and the IPBB interface.
Countermeasures in case of connection failure: Check the status of the link
between the OMCB server and IPBB, and check their interface IP addresses.
5. Ping the IP address of the OMCB server
Use the ping command on the base station to test the connectivity between the
base station and the OMCB server (you can also ping the IP address of the
base station from the OMCB server).
Countermeasures in case of connection failure: Check whether the base station
is correctly configured with the OMCB link channel, and whether OMCB_Link
IP is correctly configured in iBSC global parameters.
Only when the connection between the OMCB server and the base station is
normal, can links be set up by OMCB.

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8.2 Troubleshooting for Common Network Faults


 Features of Transmission Network Problems
(1) More than ten BTSes are totally out of service (OMCB links are broken)
at the same time, or they are close to the “out of service” status;
(2) BTSes that have problems do not belong to only one iBSC.
 Basic Information to Be Collected Before Problem Analysis
Before analyzing the network problems, you need to collect the following
information first:
(1) Whether the failed site's corresponding SP, domain, and VLAN are MW;
(2) Whether the SLA measurement data of other sites in the same domain
as the failed site is normal;
(3) Whether there are MAC address conflict alarms reported by the failed
site on the OMCB;
(4) Whether there are alarms on the switch that the failed site is connected
to, and whether there are exceptions with the port traffic statistics;
(5) Whether there are alarms on the core switch at the RAN side, and
whether there are exceptions with the CPU load;
(6) Related SPs’ maintenance information and ports’ alarm and performance
statistics
 Main Criteria for Judging Network Problems
The criteria for judging a network problem (instead of a single node or link’s
problem), are as follows:
(1) If the failed sites are in one domain, and there are exceptions with the
SLA measurement data, you can basically judge that the problem is the
L2 network problem.
(2) If there are also base station MAC address conflict alarms (notifications),
the root cause of the problem may be network loops or port loopback.
Then you need further confirmation by capturing packets at the network side
(core switch at the RAN side and the switch that the site is connected to).
 Analysis Process
(1) Find the GE ports of the core switch at the RAN side that correspond to
the failed domain.
(2) Select one of the GE ports for mirror image packet capturing.
(3) ARP broadcast messages are small-sized (for example, there are no
more than ten messages per second).

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Exceptional packet capturing may have the following features (they may not
occur at the same time):
Phenomenon Possible Cause Handling Measure
Request the SP to export the MAC
forwarding tables of all GEs and FEs
in the domain, and find out the site
The traffic in packet capturing whose MAC table entries exceed 12.
is quite heavy, which is an Then request the SP to disconnect
obvious sign of the existence The network has this site (note that if there is a
of broadcast strom (for loops. microwave site under an FE port, its
example, there are more than MAC entries are more than those of
100 messages per second). the common sites, which is normal).
After you find out the doubtful site, go
to the site and check it.
The core switch at the RAN For the first possible cause: Request
side sends a large number of the SP to export the MAC forwarding
ARP requests, querying the tables of all GEs and FEs in the
MAC address of BTS; domain, and find out the site whose
At the same time, there are 1. Site FE Modem MAC table entries exceed 10. Then
many ARP requests from BTS. has configured request the SP to disconnect this site
Sometimes you can see that loopback. (this measure does not apply to a
one BTS sends four ARP 2. SP has network microwave site).
requests in one millisecond, problems. For the second possible cause: An L2
but it is not obvious broadcast test needs to be deployed between
storm. BMI/BPO and the sites. If the test
There are MAC conflict alarms result is not good, analyze it together
reported by BTS on OMCB. with the SP.
For the first possible cause: Execute
show arp on the core switch at the
RAN side (which is the source of the
packets) to find out the ARP entry
corresponding to the destination IP
1. The ARP table on address, and see whether the current
6513 is too old. age value is very large (for BTS,
Unicast packets whose normally this value will not exceed one
2. The MAC
destination IP address is not minute). If this value is very large, it
forwarding table
the local equipment room are means that the core switch at the RAN
of the SP has
captured. side has not learnt the MAC of the
problems.
destination IP for a long time, and you
need to give special attention to the
equipment corresponding to this IP
address.
For the second possible cause: Send
the packet capturing result to the SP
for analysis.
An unknown IP address An unknown device Find out the MAC address of this
(source IP address or has entered the device. Then log in to the switch that
destination IP address) is network. all sites in this domain are connected
captured. Or an unknown to, and execute show MAC table to
MAC address (source address find out the site corresponding to this
or destination address) is MAC address.
captured. Valid MAC Or you can find out the MAC address
addresses are the MAC of this device, and request the SP to
addresses of the networking export the MAC forwarding tables of
devices (you can use all GEs and FEs in this domain, to find
Wireshark to automatically out the site port corresponding to this
distinguish them). MAC address.
This IP address or MAC
address brings a lot of

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Phenomenon Possible Cause Handling Measure


broadcast messages.

1. If you have not found exceptional broadcast messages in packet capturing on


the core switch at the RAN side, but see a lot of SCTP retransmissions (with
both uplink and downlink to the same BTS), it is the network transmission
quality problem. Then you can use the FST2802 table for L2 test.
2. If the fault occurred once and is not repeated now, but you do not know the
reason of the fault, you need to locate the failed node based on the port traffic
statistics and the alarm data of the core switch at the RAN side and the switch
that the sites are connected to.

8.3 Troubleshooting for Network Device Problems


Set up some commonly encountered failure environment in the laboratory, to simulate
the on-site environment and perform the problem examination.

9 New Functions in R9

9.1 BSS VLAN


 Requirement for/Purpose of the VLAN Function
The layer 2 networking has the following disadvantages:
(1) A lot of broadcast packets will be generated, which will occupy bandwidth
and affect the quality of the transmission network.
(2) Network security cannot be ensured, and the network is vulnerable to
attacks.
Introduction of the VLAN function is to solve the above problems.
 Equipment Compatibility and Function Compatibility
VLAN is a new function of IBSC, and it is not compatible with the previous
versions.
 Configurations to Enable the Function
1. Parameters Configured for the Physical interface
Parameter Name Full Name Remarks
Mac MAC address
LocalPort Port number
Number of interface IP Four IP addresses are
IPAddr
addresses supported
MapNo Mapping policy number Not supported

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Parameter Name Full Name Remarks


Support out Not supported

Figure New Functions in R9-5 Parameters Configured for the Physical interface

2. Parameters Configured for the Sub-interface


Parameter Name Full Name Remarks
LocalPort Sub-port number
VlanID Sub-interface ID
Native Native sub-interface
Number of interfae IP Four IP addresses are
IPAddr
addresses supported
MapNo Mapping policy number
The sub-interface supports
Support out
802.1p

Figure New Functions in R9-6 Parameters Configured for the Sub-interface

3. Parameters Configured for the Policy Table


Parameter Name Full Name Remarks
Mapping policy table The number ranges from 1
MapNo
number to 254
TosType TOS type The default type is IP DSCP

Figure New Functions in R9-7 Parameters Configured for the Policy Table

 Operations to Verify the Configurations

 Check whether the configuration of the real interface is valid:


MNIC_2_23XX->MCS_EthPort_Display

******************EthPort Print**********************

0 IP1: 0x0 IP2: 0x0 IP3: 0x0 IP4: 0x0 Mac: 0-d0-d0-a0-69-12 Mtu: 0x5dc
1 IP1: 0x0 IP2: 0x0 IP3: 0x0 IP4: 0x0 Mac: 0-d0-d0-a0-2-77 Mtu: 0x5dc
2 IP1: 0x77131212 IP2: 0x0 IP3: 0x0 IP4: 0x0 Mac: 0-d0-d0-a0-2-88 Mtu:
0x5dc
3 IP1: 0x0 IP2: 0x0 IP3: 0x0 IP4: 0x0 Mac: 0-d0-d0-a0-2-55 Mtu: 0x5dc

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When the real interfaces are enabled, you can see the IP addresses, which
means that the configuration is valid.
MNIC_2_23XX->ip_print_if
========== Outer and Virtual Port Net_If Information ==========
name port(ss-m-u-su-p) v4_mtu v6_mtu NF_STAT
DRV_STAT MSFLAG RIM_FLAG
0:1:721:1:3 0-1-721-1-3 1500 1500 UP UP Master
0
ipv4_address=119.19.18.18,pfx_len=24
IPv6 LinkLocal Address: fe80::02d0:d0ff:fea0:0288, state:32, scope id 3
IPv6 Global Unicast Address:
IPv6 Multicast Address:
[1] ff02:0003::0001:ffa0:0288,scope id 3
[2] ff02:0003::0009,scope id 3
[3] ff02:0003::0006,scope id 3
[4] ff02:0003::0005,scope id 3
[5] ff01:0003::0001,scope id 3
[6] ff02:0003::0002,scope id 3
[7] ff02:0003::0001,scope id 3
The port status is UP, which means that the interface is already enabled.

 Check whether the configuration of the sub-interface is valid:


MNIC_2_23XX->ip_print_if
========== Outer and Virtual Port Net_If Information ==========
name port(ss-m-u-su-p) v4_mtu v6_mtu NF_STAT
DRV_STAT MSFLAG RIM_FLAG
0:1:721:1:196609 0-1-721-1-196609 1500 1500 UP UP
Master 0
ipv4_address=119.19.50.100,pfx_len=24
IPv6 LinkLocal Address: fe80::02d0:d0ff:fea0:0288, state:32, scope id 5
IPv6 Global Unicast Address:
IPv6 Multicast Address:
[1] ff02:0005::0001:ffa0:0288,scope id 5
[2] ff02:0005::0009,scope id 5

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[3] ff02:0005::0006,scope id 5
[4] ff02:0005::0005,scope id 5
[5] ff01:0005::0001,scope id 5
[6] ff02:0005::0002,scope id 5
[7] ff02:0005::0001,scope id 5
MNIC_2_23XX->Np_SubIfVpnAttr_Display
Sub_VlanID: 0x 1 Sub_VRF: 0x 0 PortNo: 0x 13 N:0x0
CosPolicyTabNum: 0x 1 CosPolicyType: 0x 1 MTU:0x 5dc IP0:
0x77133264, IP1: 0x0, IP2: 0x0, IP3: 0x0

 Check whether the policy table is bound with the port of the interface
board:
MNIC_2_23XX->PolicyMapDbgShowBind
service-policy configuration:
port policy-table direct
-----------------------------------------------------
0:1:721:1:196609 1 output

9.2 BSS Link Binding


 Requirement for/Purpose of the Link Binding Function
Current transmission networking has the following problems:
(1) When four FE interface of a 100M interface board are used, it is
necessary to configure four interface addresses at the iBSC side and
four static routes on the switch. If multiple interface boards of this kind
are used in networking, the configuration will be complicated.
(2) Backup boards must be used to back up the ports.
(3) If the interface boards support active/standby configuration, when an FE
interface on the active board fails, the other three FE interfaces also
stops working. Hence, the previous active board can no longer work and
the standby board switches to work as the active board.
(4) In active/standby configurations, only one board is working, and the other
board is not working. For carriers, this is a waste of resources.
Link binding can effectively solve the above problems.
 Equipment Compatibility and Function Compatibility
This is a new function and is not compatible with the previous versions.

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 Configurations to Enable the Function

Figure New Functions in R9-8 Parameters of the Aggregate Port

Figure New Functions in R9-9 Parameters of the Member Port

 Operations to Verify the Configurations


Check the port sessions on the RPU:
MPX86_2->print_port_selog
chnl:1, outIdx:10, banlMod:1, bondMod:5, has 2 members, 2 active
|--[5] 0:1:721:1:4 mode:1 pri:1, [Active]
-----NegoFlag:1, Group:0, HasRcvPkt:1, HasSycPkt:1, Individual:0
-----ActorOperKey:265
-----PartnerOperKey:1
-----PartnerSystemPriority:90
-----PartnerOperSystem:00-19-56-46-54-00
|--[2] 0:1:721:1:1 mode:1 pri:1, [Active]
-----NegoFlag:1, Group:0, HasRcvPkt:1, HasSycPkt:1, Individual:0
-----ActorOperKey:265
-----PartnerOperKey:1
-----PartnerSystemPriority:90
-----PartnerOperSystem:00-19-56-46-54-00
value = 0 = 0x0

9.3 BSS Trail Protection


 Requirement for/Purpose of the Trail Protection Function
(1) BSC can be connected to the external network through ports of different
IP interface boards. BSC needs to support the IP interface boards
working in the active/standby and load sharing modes. It also needs to

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support access to more than two switches by different ports, while the
switches can be in the active/standby mode or load sharing mode.
(2) When there is a transmission problem or a switch fails, BSC can switch
the traffic to the normal ports in the way of active/standby switchover or
load sharing, without interrupting the services.
(3) Abis, A, and Gb interfaces should be supported.
 Equipment compatibility and Function Compatibility
(1) The above networking methods apply to IPBB, IPI, and IPGB.
(2) The Gb interface does not support active/standby board configuration.
(3) For the BFD function configuration, the switch needs to support the static
BFD function.
 Configurations to Enable the Function
For configurations to enable the BFD function, please refer to document
ibscV6.20.60BFD Configuration Description.doc.
 Operations to Verify the Configurations
(1) In the debugging and testing view of the OMCR at the iBSC side, use the
traceroute function to check whether the intermediate network
configuration is complete.
(2) Perform service tests, to ensure the validity of all configurations.

9.4 BSS IP OAM


 Requirement for/Purpose of the OAM Function
(1) 802.3ah is called “Ethernet within the first mile”. It provides a mechanism
for carriers to monitor link status in real time and quickly locate the failed
link and the failure type.
(2) This function can monitor the transmission quality of the local network,
provide alarms when the network quality is not good, and record them.
 Equipment Compatibility and Function Compatibility
(1) The IPGB and IPBB boards of iBSC support the OAM function.
(2) IPI does not support this function.
(3) The OAM function is compatible with the BFD, LACP, and VLAN
functions.
(4) To enable the OAM function, the directly connected switch needs to
support the 802.3ah function.
 Configurations to Enable the Function

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OMCR Configuration Management > IP Related Configurations > OAM


Configuration > Create

 Operations to Verify the Configurations


After you complete the configuration at the background, you can telnet to the
interface board and use the command show_ethoam_d x to check whether
the configuration is valid and whether the OAM session has set up links. x in
the command is the port number on the interface board that is corresponding to
OAM.

9.5 BSS BFD


 Requirement for/Purpose of the BFD Function
The Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) function is designed to meet
carriers’ requirement on networking reliability. It greatly improves the fault
detection speed and the fault repair function, thus ensuring that real-time
services are not interrupted in case of link problems.
 Equipment Compatibility and Function Compatibility
(1) RPU, IPGB, IPBB, and IPI at the iBSC side support the configuration of
the BFD session.
(2) SDR supports the configuration of the BFD session.
(3) To enable BFD’s trail protection function, the switch directly connected
with iBSC must support static BFD sessions. Only L3 or higher switches
or routers can support the BFD function.
(4) The BFD function is incompatible with the Link Aggregation Control
Protocol (LACP) function. As for this incompatibility, OMCR has already
made the related restrictions accordingly, that is, if a network element’s
external interface is configured as the member port of an aggregate port,
BFD sessions (including BFD enabled by static routes) cannot be
configured on it.
(5) The BFD function can be compatible with the 802.3ah function and the
Qos (sub-interface and DSCP) function.
 Configurations to Enable the Function

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In the static route configuration page: OMCR Configuration Management-


>Configuration Set-> IP Parameter Configuration->Static Route->Add.

The static route network prefix is the network address of the destination IP address.

The next hop is configured to the interface IP address of the router that is directly
connected with the outbound interface.

Bidirectional forwarding detection is used to enable or disable the BFD session.

For sessions created in this way, their source address is the outbound interface whose
IP address is in the same network segment as the next hop, and their destination
address is the next hop.

At this time, parameters of the BFD sessions are the default parameters (you can also
modify them).

OMCR Configuration Management->Configuration Set->IP Parameter


Configuration->BFD Session Configuration->Add

OMCR Configuration Management->Configuration Set->IP Parameter


Configuration->BFD Authentication Configuration->Add

The fourth option in the above page is the identifier of the authentication, and
the sessions can use it.
Different types of authentication have different numbers of keys.

 Operations to Verify the Configurations


First you need to telnet to the RPU and use bfdDbgShowSessions and
bfdDbgShowAuthItem to check whether the configurations are synchronized
to the foreground, and whether the session status is UP.
Then you need to telnet to the interface board, and use
Bfd_DbgShowSessions and Bfd_DbgShowAuthItems to check whether the
configurations are synchronized to the interface board, and whether the
session status is UP.

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