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1.

Radioactive decay measurement:


At = Ao / 2 (Time/HL)
At = Activity after time period ‘t.’
Ao = Initial activity
Time = Time period (days)
HL = Half life of isotope (days)

2. Inverse Square Law:


I1 / I2 = D2 2. / D12.
Where I1 = Intensity of Radiation at distance D1.
I2 = Intensity of Radiation at distance D2.
In instance where I1 is not given directly I1 can be calculated as follows.
I1 = Source Strength x RHM x 1000 mR/hr. In this case.
D1 = 1 metre because RHM is for 1 metre distance.

3. Radioaction Intensity after shielding measurement:


I = Io e – μt.
Where I Intesity of Radiation after shielding.
Io Intesity of Radiation without shielding.
e exponential constant.
μ Linear attenuation / absorption co efficient = 0.693 / HVT.
t thickness of shielding material.
Half Value Thickness (HVT) in mm
Source / Material Depleted Lead Steel Concrete
Uranium
Ir-192 3.3 5.0 12.5 44
Co-60 6.0 12.0 20.0 66.0

4. Density
D = Log ( Ii / It ).
Where Ii Incident intensity of light.
It Transmitted intensity of light.

5. Geometric Unsharpness
µg = F x t/d
where
F Effective Source size / Focal Spot
t Object to film distance
d Source to object distance

SULZER CONFIDENTIAL
6. Effective source size:
Size = √ (Length 2 + breadth 2)
7. Sensitivity (Wire Type IQI)
Sensitivity = Least wire dia visible x 100 % .
Thickness
8. Sensitivity (Hole Type IQI)
Sensitivity = 100/X x √ (TH/2)
Where X - material thickness in Thou.
T - Penetrameter thickness in Thou.
H- Hole dia visible

9. Time Distance Formula.


T1 / T2 = D1 2. / D22.
Where T1 = Exposure time at distance D1.
T2 = Exposure time at distance D2.

10.Exposure Time
E = F.F * 2 X/HVT * SFD2 * 60
S.S * RHM * 1002
Where FF - Film Factor
X - Material thickness in mm
HVT - Half Value Thickness in mm
SFD - Source to Film Distance in cm
SS - Source Strength
RHM - Roentgen hour per metre

SULZER CONFIDENTIAL