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W[F{][F • •

communications
A Publication for the Radio Amateur
Especially Coveri ng VHF , UHF , and Microwaves

Volume No. 18 ' Spring · Edition 1/1986

Pub lished by : Verlag UKW-B ERICHTE, Terry Bill an Repr esentat ives
P. O. Box 80, JahnstraBe 14
0-8523 BAIE RSOORF
Au stria
Fed. Rep. of Germany Verlag UKW-BEAI CHTE . Ter ry D . Bitt an
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Au st rali a
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Colin J. Brock (Assistant) p eR 000- 1014257 CCP, TeI.00 -32-9 1-3 12 1 11
Denma rk
Translator : Colin J. Brock, G 3 ISB I OJ 0 OK Hatskov Electr onic , QZ 7LX , Siger sled gam Ie Skole .
DK -4100 RINGS TED . Tell . 03-6 16 162 . Giro 7 29 68 00
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VHF The international edition of the Finl and
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COMMUNICATIONS Germa n publ ication UKW- Joe nsuu ntie 6, Tel. 92 4· 463 11
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We would be grate ful if you


would addre ss your orders and
queries to your repre sentative. ISSN 0177-7505
VHF -COMMUNICATI ON S 1/86

Contents

Guenter Prokoph, 80-Channel Handheld Transceiver 2 - 12


DL 5 NP for the 2 m Band

A. R. Jenkin s, Active Probe Scaler 400 - 1300 MHz 13 - 17


ZL 2 TVT

Guenter Sattler. SDA 3202 - A New PLL IC for up to 1.5 GHz 18 - 22


OJ 4 LB

Klaus-Dieter Broeker. Coaxial Power Amplifier for the 13 cm Band 23 - 30


OK 1 UV Using Tube TH 6885

Editors Index of Volume 17 (1985) 3 1 - 34

Peter Gerber. Antenna-Position Calculations for 35 - 37


HB 9 BNI Measurements of Cosmic Radio Sources and
EME-Communications

Konrad Hupfer, A 20 W Linear Amplifier for the 23 cm Band 38 - 40


OJ 1 EE

Franz R. Rathenow. Oil Cooling for High-Power Tub es 41 - 46


DF 9 ZT

Harald Fleckner. Two-Band (1.2 - 2.4 GHz ) Feed Horn 47 - 52


De 8UG for Parabolic Antennas

H. Schroeter, OK 3 VF Digita l Picture Storage for SSTV . 53 - 63


W. v. Driesche. ON 6 VD FAX and WEFAX

'berichte Terry D. Bittan . Jahnstr. 14 . Postfa ch 80 . D-8523 Baiersdorf


Tel. West Germ any 9 133 47-0 . For Representatives see cover page 2
VHF-COMMUNIC ATIONS 1/86

Guenter Prokoph, DL 5 NP

80-Channel Handheld Transceiver


for the 2 m Band

This article describes the construction of a Sensitivity : 0.15 ~ V for 10 dB S / N


handheld transceiver for th e two met re band. AF output power: 200 mW (approx.)
During its development, particular attention Current consumption
was paid to keep the circuitry techn iques inc. synthesizer approx. 20 mA
straight forward together wi th low-cu rrent (Squelch active)
consumption and small dimensions.
Transmitter
Output power: 0.6 W (approx.)
Harmonic suppression : 50dB min.
Current consumption
with synthesizer: 150 mA (approx.)
1.
TECHNICAL OATA Dimensions
PCB: 100 x 70 rnm
Equipment: 148 x 74 x 30 mm
The following technical specifications were
achieved: -
Synt hes izer 2.
Number of channels: 80 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
Channel spacing: 25 kHz
Channel selection: coded switch
Current consumption: approx . 10 mA / 10 V The complete circuit schematic of the 2 metre
Harmonic suppression : 60 dB handheld transceiver is shown in fig . 1.
The synthesizer may be built separately by
cutting this part of the PCB from the whole or by
developing it separately . The synthesizer alone 2.1. Synthesizer
may be required, for example, to equip an existing
quartz transceiver. The synthesizer produces the transmitted signal
directly and also the local oscillator (LO) signal for
Receiver the first IF at the receiver mixer. This means that
Principle: double -superfet with IFs two bands of signals are supplied. 144 to 146
at 10.7 MHz and MHz and 133.3 to 135.3 MHz for the transmitter
455 kHz and the first IF of 10.7 MHz respectively. The
2
. all !a:lSueJI aJlaW l pjauoueu laUUe4:l-08 a4110 oueuseuos iJl",d ":';0:J : ~ '6!:!
~I
C')
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I
I
i
I OL 5 NP
IJ Oi
,"u:oV 0
-.
11-· '''8
"' ~ ' ;9
I
I !j
[\)~
I ii'. '
~I lJ:iB3 86 z. ' •
1.. S [JJ
(/) . R'7 '"
I "I I
··,i ,·r
z . =' " I , -.
o 1. _ D" I -'- .~ I
~
o
Z
~
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~
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>
VHF -COMMU NIC ATIONS 1/86

Fig. 2:
§ 61.MHZ
Blo ck schematic of the

Sll.J.-l t.6MHl
E 1l33-1353MH 1
• B
ve o
Me '<'5 152 p

. .~
Modulati on ~

~
sy nthesi zer

_. ~
~

.
. . j A- counl er I
• DL5NP

f req uency set er t to qir

cha nn el T fR Shif t

channel separation is 25 kHz and the HF output channel-code selector switch, also takes into
power about 3 mW. The current consumption was account information such as, send 1 receive
kept under 10 rnA. change -over and working mode (simplex or
duplex). The integrated phase discriminator is
The heart of the frequency conditioning is the
supplemented by an external PI regulator in
Motorola IC MC 145 152 P. This is a CMOS
order to extract the control voltage. The control
integrated circuit, which, because of its very low-
voltage is superimposed on the modulating signal
current consumption, is particularly suitable for
on"transmit". An example of the A and N counter
bat1ery operation. Besides the considerable
programm ing will make this clearer:
circuitry of the phase discriminator, the chip
contains the reference oscillator with a selectable Assuming a VCO frequency of 145.350 MHz is
programmable divider (R-counter). Two further required. V = 145350 /25 . i. e. V = 5814. The
counters. A and N, are employed in the HF values for A and N are found by dividing V by 40.
divider, but they must be supplemented by the The integral proportion of the result gives the
addition of an external input divider. programming for N and the remainder amounts to
A. In the example: 5814 / 40 = 145 remainder 14.
Fig . 2 shows how the MC 145 152 P chip fits into
N is set to 145, A to 14.
the whole concept. The phase-comparator
reference signal at 25 kHz is taken from dividers Now for the circuit details: The VCO uses the
driven by a 6.4 MHz crystal oscillator. The VCO BF 606 A PNP transistor (T 1). This has the
output is taken to a high-speed divider which, advantage that the frequency-determin ing tuned-
dependent on the mode-inpu t level, divides the circuit inductance is connected directly to earth,
frequency by 40 or 41. As well as the A and N thus obviating problems with decoupling compo-
counters, the PLL chip contains a programmable nents. The oscillator operates in a common-base
HF divider. Its division ratio V is calculated: circuit with capacitive feedback from collector to
V = 40 N + A where N and A are adjustable emit1er. The power output depends upon the
division ratios for the requisite counter. transistor working-point and can be varied by
altering the value of R 25. The capacitive diodes
These selections are carried out by a frequency allow a tuning range from approx imately 130 to
selection logic which, besides the set1ing of the 150 MHz. The HF energy for transmit1er and
4
VHF-CO MMUNICATIONS 1/86

receiver is taken from the tuned circuit by means smoothed VCO control signal is available at the
of a coupling coil. output (pin 6). The AC combination R 21 / C 11
reduces the influence of the op-amps. internal
The high-speed divider (I 7) is capacitively
noise . C 12 is an HF decoupling capacitor. The
coupled to the low-impedance emitter of the
modulating audio signal is fed via C 10 to the VCO
oscillator transistor. The Plessey low-power ECl
input in the "transmit" condition .
chip SP 8793 is employed here: This integrated
circuit can work with input signals up to 225 MHz The frequency selection logic is realized by the
whilst requiring only an input power of 26 mW. use of only three CMOS binary adders (ICs 1, 2
Depending on the logic level on pin 1, the applied and 3). They convert the BCD coding of the
frequency will be divided either by 40 or 41. The channel-selector switch (chan. 00 = 144.000
resulting signal of about 3.5 MHz is fed, via C 22, MHz, chan. 79 = 145.975 MHz) into binary logic.
into the MC 145152P input. The frequency shift for the receiver local oscillator
on "receive" and in "radio relay" operation is also
The crystal Q 1, two capacitors and a trimmer
provided here. On the "receive" condition the
complete the integrated circuit oscillator . The
local-oscillator signal lies 10.7 MHz under the
reference oscillator can be adjusted exactly to its
receive frequency. The Tx / Ax change-over
nominal frequency of 6.4 MHz by means of the
switching is carried out by a high-level on the
trimmer. The 6.4 MHz synchronizing signal is
middle contact of the simplex / duplex selection
divided by 256 in the A-counter . The resulting
switch. This potential is taken via R 11 from the
signal is available for the control of the phase
receiver supply.
comparator. The adjustment of the A-counter's
division factor is accomplished by an appropriate In radio relay operation the transmit channel must
wiring of the three AA inputs of the MC 145 152 P. be selected. The receive frequency is raised
logic 1 may be achieved by simply leaving the 600 kHz higher. This has the advantage that it is
pins concerned open, as integrated pull-up possible to listen on the lower band merely by
resistors have been provided for all logic inputs. switching to simplex. The displace ment is not
possible for all channels as eventually the adder
At the outputs <I> A and <I> V of the Pll chip the will overflow. For the relay frequencies A 0 to A 9
control information is available. According to the this effect does not occur. Besides this, the
preset deviation of the VCO from its nominal possibility of working outside the two metre band
frequency, short negative impulses appear at is avoided.
either one of the two pins. Unfortunately short The voltage stabilizer uses a circuit with a pro-
impulses occur at both outputs even in the "lock" grammable shunt regulator (I 6) and a field-
condition. The length of each impulse is only effect transistor (T 2). Using this type of circu it
120 ns and the repetition frequency is 25 kHz. ensures that the difference between regulated
These impulses would overextend the dynamic and unregulated inputs does not adversely
common-mode suppres sion of the following influence the stabilisation greatly (battery operat-
operational amplifier. This would result in a ion!). The stabilized voltage at the FET' s source is
break-through onto the control output and about 8 V. The 5 V supply potential for the ECl
thereby causing an undesirable frequency divider is obtained via T 3. An lED may be added
modulation of the VCO frequency. The capacitors to the transistor collector circuit without any
C 4 and C 5 are largely effective in attenuating additional current consumption as an "on"
these short impulses. The behaviour of the indicator.
control, however , is barely affected by these small
capacitors.
2.2. Receiver
The PI regulator itself, contains the low-power
operational amplifier chip lM 4250 (I 5). Its The receiver concept uses the double super-
current consumption may be adjusted by a heterodyne principle with IF 1 at 10.7 MHz and
resistor connected from pin 8 to ground. It has IF 2 at 455 kHz. At an input sensitivity of less
been set, in this case, to less than 1 mAoThe than 0.2 IJ. V the current consumption is under
5
~ ---- VHF ·CO MMUN ICAT IONS 1/86

10 mA in "standby" (muted) . The n F pre-amplifier 2.3. Transmit/Receive Switching


uses a bipolar transistor 6 FT 66 . wh ich, with a
The transmitter is equippe d in two stage s. The
collector curren t of only 3 mA , offers a good
output power amounts to app roximately 0.6 Watt
compr om ise between gain . low-noise and large -
at all input curren t of 130 mA o The coupling
sign al handling capabi lities . It proved unneces -
between the penultima te amplifier (BFR 96) and
sary to provide HF neu tralization as no signs of
the final amplifi er (2N 4427) is broadbanded.
unstabilit y could be detected with any of the test
1 his obviates the requirement for alignme nt
exa mples cons tructed . The input is matched by
tuninq, 1 he matchin g from the final-stage trans is-
the selective cornbination r. ?, C ~ 6. C 27 and
tor to the antenna is accompli shed by a comb i-
C2B.
nation of series reson ant circuit L 6/ C 56 and the
The amplified signa l frequency is take n via C 30 Pi·filter C 57/ L 7/ C 58. This coupling suppresses
to a two-stage band -pass li lter ont o the mixer harmonic radiati on by more than 50 dB .
gate of the FE r mixer T 5. The local-oscillator
The ante nna change-over is effected, without
signa l is fed to the r:F.Ts source .
contacts, with the aid of PIN diodes . In the
1 he bard selec tion for the first IF is accomplished " receive" condition the diodes D 4 and D 9 are
by a crys tal filter (FL 1), type 10M 15 A. This is a blocked and the qua rter-wave line works only as
high -impedance device at both input and output an extension of the antenna lead. On "Transmit"
terminals and. correctly terminated, results in a DC is fed via R 54 to the diodes . The diodes
minimal passband ripple . The 10.7 MHz siqnal conduct causing an HF short -circuit directly at the
from the filter is the 'I amplified hy a Siemens TS B receiver input. The quarter-wave line is then
1469 IC (I 8). It is then fed to the second mixer open-circuited at its other extremity , thus allowing
whe re it is translated in frp.quency to 455 kHz by the transm itted signal to pass to the antenna
mixing it with 10.245 kHz (LO 2\ . The active part via D 9 .
of LO 2 is also intpgrated in I B.
2.4 . Modulation Amplifier
The resulting second IF is filtered by a ceramic
The mod ulation amp lifier is split into a pre -
filter (FL 2) with a 15 kHz bandpa ss (Cr U 455 D).
amplifie r and a low-pas s filter. The elektret-
Followin g the selection, arnplifica tion and limiting .
microph one signal is am plified by T 10 . Diodes
the signal is demodulated in a quadrature demo -
D 10 and D 11 form an amplitude limiter. The
dulator. The necessa ry pha se-shifte r circuit
following active, low- pass filter has a turn-over
cons ists of a minia ture IF filter with a white
freq uency of approximately 3.3 kH z, it also lifts
marker. In order to increa se the circuit O. the
the amp litude of frequencies aroun d 2 kHz in
inductor tap must be employed
order to improve spee ch intelligibility . The output
Th e aud io outpu t is extracted from pi" 5 of I 8 level of the amplifier, together with the frequency
and then fed to a low -pass filter C 43 : R 42 and deviation . can be adjust ed by means of P 3.
C 44 and on to the aud io amplifier via a poten tio-
meter gain control P 2. The audio amplifier is an
LM 386 (I 9) which driv es a loudspeaker
The circuit between pins 5 and 2 of the TBB 1469
3.
(I 8) is utilized as part of the squelch facility . By
CONSTRUCTION AND
means of exter nal circuitry, a high -pass amplif ier
ADJUST MENT
is forme d whir;h is adjusted by the squelch poten -
tiomete r P 1. The noi se pe aks cha rge up capa-
citor C 46 via T 6 and switch on trans istor T 7. For this projec t a printed circu it board was
Th e I\F amplifier LM 386 (I 9) is then rendered designed with dimensions of 100 x 70 mm . Fig , 3
inoperative by a ground on pin t The current shows the two-s ided board des ign ated DL5NP
con sumption of I 9 faits almo st 10 zero under 00 t. For the construction - besides the neces -
these condition s. Under "transmit" cond.tion s the sary care - the followin g miniatur e com ponents
Ie is muted via '1 46 and D 7 are necessa ry:
6
VHF-COMMUNICAT IONS 1/86

Component Gui de : Wound L 1: primary 3 turns, 0.3 Cui.


com pon ents: secondary 1/2 turn, 0.3 Cui
Integr ated 11,12, 13: CD 4008 ; RCA , on coil kit 7 V 1 S
circuits: MC 14008; Motorola (Neosid, Helpert)
14: MC 145 152 P; Motorola
I 5: LM 4250 ; Nationa l L 2 to L 7: 3 turns. 0.3 Cui on
16: TL 431 C; Texas coil kit as L 1, but L 5 and L 6
Instruments without core
17: SP 8793 ; Plessey Ch 1: 4 turns, 0.3 Cui on
18: TBB 1469; Siemens 4 mm VHF core
I 9: LM 386; National Ch 2: 5 x 0.3 Cui thro' ferrite
bead
Transistors : T 1: BF 606 A; BF 451 ;
Siemens , Valvo
Capacito rs : smaller than 4.7 nF:
T 2: BF 246 C; Valvo, Texas
EPDU cera mic 2.5 mm grid
Instrumen ts, Siemens
as well as e. g.
T 3, T 7, T 10, T 11:
Sibatit 5 mm grid
BC 547 B, various
Electrolytics : Tantalum 16 V
manufac turers
T 4: BFT 66, Siemens Resistors: Type 0207 or 0204 ,
T 5: BF 245 B; Valvo, Texas carbon film
Instruments, Siemens Potentiometers : P 1, P 2: e. g. Miniature
T6, T 12, T 13, T 14: cermet pots. 50 K; (MOtron)
BC 557 B; various P 3: Miniature pot. 50 K (flat)
manufacturers 5 x 10 mmgrid
T 8: BFR 96; Siemens, Valvo
T 9: 2 N 4427; Valvo, Other 2 Miniature code switches
Motorola components : BCD: e. g. Kundisch MS
20.01, (MOtron)
Diodes : Dl ,D2: BB105G , Miniature toggle switch
BB 505 G; Valvo, Siemens (on / off / call)
0 3: LED (red), 3 mm dia Push buttons for PTT and
D 4, D 5, D 8, D 9: BA 182, later call tone
BA 243 ; Siemens , Valvo Antenna socket (BNC)
D 6,D7,Dl0,Dll : Charge socket e. g.
1 N 4148; various 3 mm jack
manufacturers Batteries e. g. 8 x 255 DKZ:
D 12: 1 N 400 1; various Varta
manufacturers Cable : RG-174 U for
Crysta ls : Q 1: 6.4 MHz, 30 pF parallel antenna etc. connect ions.
resonance , 10 ppm ; Helpert Housing: e. g. tinplate
Q 2: 10.245 MHz, series WB 13; (Schubert)
resonan ce; Helpert

Filt ers: FL 1: Crystal filter 10M 15 A:


Helpert
FL 2: Ceramic filter
CFU 455 D: Murata, Helpert
FL 3: Miniature IF filter
455 kHz, 7 x 7 mm, white; [ Note: Proper names in brackets are German
Helpert component supply Firms )
7
VHF-CO MMUNICATIONS 1/86

Fig . 3:
Component mounting
plan 01 th e two -Bided
PCB DL5NP 001

Upon assembly of the compone nts. care should component side. Drillings not marked with a dot
be exercised to keep all conne ctions as short as should be chamfe red with a 3 mm drill on the
possible . The upper side of the PCB is unetched component plan in order to prevent componen t
copper and serves as the ground plane. Ac- leads from contacting ground. The given orienta-
cordingly. most ground conn ections must be tion of upright soldered resistors should be
made on the component side . The drillings for strictly followed as their connec ting wires may be
these ground connections are shown in the used as solder-tags for exte rnal connections.
component plan of fig . 3 as a solid dot. In order to The construction should follow complete circuit
ease the construction , a proportion of the ground lines in order that a systematic testing may be
wiring is made on the track side of the PCB. In undertaken as the construction progre sses. This
such cases , just one through connection to the procedure can save elaborate testing for faults
groun d plane per track will suffice. Components on a fully constructed unit. The chokes and coils
carrying RF, however , should be soldered to the are made accord ing to the sketches of f ig . 4.

Neosid 7V1

nL+J £ ec.
pri m.
Ch .1

4 tu r ns 0,3 CuL
an 4mm VHF care
Ch .2

P\
S. O.3 Cul

middle pin t hr a' ferr ite bead


r emoved L 1: pr imary 3 t ur ns 0.3 CuL
sec. 1/2 t ur n 0.3 Cu L DLSNP
Fig. 4:
L 2 t o L7 as primary of L 1 Details 01 ch okes and co il s

8
VHF·COMMUNICATIONS 1/86

3.1. Synthesizer Constructio n very difficult to remove . When the wire bridges 141
pin 3 - C 25, C 25 - I 21pin 16 are completed , the
First of all, the voltage stabilizers and VCO
whole frequency-qeneration chain may be tested .
components are mounted . The lED indicator
may also be wired in at this point. The correct Alte r switching in the suppy voltage, the VCO
sense of the coils should be noted when winding must be adjusted to a frequency of 144.000 MHz.
l 1. The ground connection of the coupling loop Small departures from this may be taken up by
should be soldered to the PCB ground plane C 1. The carrier can be monitored with a two
(upper side). This is not difficult when using a metre receiver. The two code-selection switches
sharply tipped soldering iron. The connect ion are wired-in and the output frequency can be
tabs on the screening can must be removed as switched from channel to channel. The tuning
the can is soldered directly to the ground plane. voltage at the output of I 5/pin 6 to l 1 must be
Alter connecting the supply voltage of 10 V, the adjusted to 5 V when channel 79 (145.975 MHz)
stabilizer may be tested for correct operat ion. has been selected. Now the duplex/simplex
The voltage at the source of T 2 should be ap- switch may be added.
proximately 8 V when the stabilizer is loaded with, When the middle contact of this switch is connec-
at least, the VCO. The voltage at the emilter of T 3 ted to the CMOS supply voltage , the VCO should
should be approx imately 5 V. The l ED does not jump to the receiver local-oscillator frequency.
indicate, at this stage, as no current is flowing Operation of the switch causes the channels 40 to
through T 3. 49 (ROto R9) to change in frequency by 600 kHz.
To test the VCO, a frequency counter is con- When all of these tests have been satisfactorily
nected to the coupling coil of l 1. A provision al completed then the synthesizer may be con-
diode tuning-voltage, variable between 2 and 6 V sidered as working normally.
(normally supplied by a potentiometer accross
the supply voltage), is connected via R 22. The
core of l 1 is then adjusted for a tuning range of
about 130 to 150 MHz. If this range cannot be 3.2. Recei ver Construction
achieved, C 17 may be removed . When tuning the
The components for the receiver are mounted
core, the utmost care must be used as it is easily
on the PCB from lelt to right. The crystal Q 2 cover
broken and tends to jam in the coil former. A cor-
and the crystal filter cover are soldered directly to
rectly-filt ing screw driver should be used (or
the PCB ground plane (top side). The same goes
better still, the correct size of trimming tool).
for the pre-amplifier transistor BFT 66 and the
If all is satisfactory , the construction may proceed cold ends of coils l3 and l 4. The coil kits must be
with the ECl divider SP 8793 and associated correcnv constructed and aligned with the
components . In the interests of avoiding p..ira - appropriate PCB drillings hefore the screening
sitics no IC holder is used , the IC being soldered cans are filted. Also, the transmit/r eceive-switch
directly into position. Pin 1 of the IC is temporarily components around T 3, T 4 and T 5 must be
connected to ground . At pin 3 the output (input put in at this stage. The connections to the
divided by 40) may be seen with an oscilloscope loudspeaker and squelch potentiometer are
or a counter. The temporary earth on pin 1 may made with a small diameter screened AF cable.
then be removed. The A 1 4 transformer , consisting of 33 em of
The locating of the rest of the synthesizer's RG174U, is connected at the receiver end only,
the free end being used provisionally as a re-
components may then proceed. The author
ceiver test input. Between the accessible con-
soldered these directly to the board but if IC
necting wires of R 46 and R 54, combination
holders are used , they must be of very high
quality which permit grounding on the compone nt
o 7/R 45 is inserted. The latter components
should be covered by a piece of insulated
side. In any case, great care must be used in
sleeving.
effecting and soldering the ground connections
as in the event of mistakes the IC, or - holder, is When all the requisite wire bridges (flg .5) have
9
VHF·COMMUNICATIONS 1/86

,/ loudspea ker

Vol.-Pcb
ol.-Poti
1
Ant. Fig . 5:
Connections, w ire bridges and
co mpo nents on the PCB

1 1 sa-poll

LED .(j

\\ \ \ t\\ \ I
U S/Ds W
'ich\ Duplex!" Simp lex E8 E4 1Ez r 2.-J
Z4 ZZ Z1 I E1

been wired-in, the receiver alignment and testing tran smission (e.g. a radio relay station etc.)
can commence. For amateurs possessing the When this is being done , the corre ct position of
necessary test instruments, signal generator, the simplex/duplex switch must be made . The
sweeper etc., the alignme nt will present few tran smitter should already be heard in the
problems. Those not so fortuna te as to have loudspeaker. Inductances L 2, L3, and L 4 are
access to test equipment should adhere to the then adjusted in turn for the best possible recep-
following procedure: tion . For an indicator, an osc illoscope can be
connected to the 455 kHz output of the ceramic·
First check the function of the transm it/receive
filter. FL 3 is then adjusted for the best intel-
change-over. The receiver's 8 V supply will be
ligibility. The tuning is repeated , but this time,
present until the PTT-switch contacts are ground -
when the receiver has been tuned to a weak
ed , thereby simulating the "transmit" condition.
signal. If the loudspeaker output is insufficient,
P 1 is set to minimum and P 2 to maximum . The
a 10 Jl. F tantalum capacitor may be connected
loudspeaker will emit some noise which, with
between the pin 1 (+ Vel and pin 8 of the LM 386 .
FL 3, can be tuned to maximum.
It must be pointed out , however, that operating
The antenna can now be connected and the code the rece iver at a high audio output level will tend
switch operated to select a high-signal level to run-down the batteries so much quicker .
10
VHF-COMMUNICATIO NS 1/86

con t r o l s 1 ; [11
;;'

WG O]
J "........
- OGO

ri\
tbd
L7
- 'CIT I
printed circuit boa rd
n ~ I ~ W-
~ (1\- ,/ I
l- -W~
<0 I
s T
~ I/ EB--II
;;; <0
~ ~

3 ~
~ A

h -1- I

I I 7 I ;:, I N

I.n
0
~I ~$Tffi
. _ I.n

B x 225DK Z ~ 1 ~I \J7
bat t e r ie s
I
I _L
in
L.-_
' - 10
- - '_ .......:...._ ---'I-L

Fig. 6: Dimensions of tin-plate housing

3.3 Construction of the Transmitter too early, the gain may be reduced by a re-
sistance in the microphone lead.
Basically the same rules of construction apply to
the transmitter as to the other parts of the trans-
ceiver. Inductors L 5 and L 6 are installed without
a core. Take care that transistor T s 's case does
not contact ground . The cooling of this transistor 4.
is effected by means of an appropriately bent tin- HOUSING THE TRANSCEIVER
plate heat sink. 0 9 is not installed for the moment.
Instead, a power meter (or an SWR meter plus
dummy load) is connected to the output of the The author used a tin-plate box WB 13, dimen-
pi-filter. The PIT-switch contacts are bridged and
sions 148 x 74 x 30 rnrn, for the housing. The
L 7 and C 57 are iterated until a maximal output
PCB is soldered, at its sides, to the housing for the
power has been tuned . A power of about 600 mW
necessary mechanical stability. In order to in-
should be achieved . The antenna change -over
can now be completed. Capacitor C 66 is
soldered directly to the antenna socket. The .5
tuning of the transmitter power stage and receiver
Dl 5NP
input circuit should now be checked once more.
The transmitter deviation is best adjusted with 1---4--<l>-----l~
the aid of another station's signal report. The
frequency response may be adjusted by chang- 13 ~COII.
~ 47n Op l 50k T 10
ing the values of C 10 and C 60 if it should be
necessary to compensate for the characteristics
1
of the electret microphone . If the limit comes in Fig . 7 : A stable call-tone generator

11
VHF-COMMUN ICATIONS 1/86

Fig. 8: Prototype showing als o part-view of cover containing batteries and microphone

crease the mounting area, available for the oscillator circuit, at a frequency of 448 kHz,
operating control components , part of the tin- somewhat under its midband frequency. After a
plate lip was removed at appropriate points. The division by 256, the 1750 Hz call-tone frequency
code switch had to be shortened , with a fret-saw, is obtained . Operating the call button the trans-
in order to make it fit. Further details of the mitter automaticall y modulates. The deviation
construction may be seen from fi g. 6. Other can be adjusted by the 50 k n potentiometer.
forms of packaging are, of course , possible but
they all must be of metal on account of the
necessary RF screen ing required.
6.
REFERENCES
5.
CALLING-TONE FACILITY
(1) Motorola:
Data Book
RF Semiconductors 1980
A signal from a call generator is easily introduced
to the collector of T 10. The generator may be (2) Texas Instruments:
constructed on a piece of veroboard and mounted Linear Circuits Data Book 1984
pick-a-back style on to the main board. Many (3) Plessey Semiconductors:
call-tone circuits (e.g. using the NE 555) have SP 8000 High Speed Dividers
been published and the author used the one Integrated Circuits Handbook 1982
shown in fig . 7. This proved particularly stable as (4) Motorola:
far as temperature was concerned . A ceramic CMOS Data Manual Special
resonator SFB 455 (Murata) is driven , in the 4060 Functions 1983
12
VHF-COMMUNICAT IONS 1/86

A. R. Jen kins, ZL 2 TVT

Active Probe Scaler 400-1300 M Hz

The attached circuit schematic should pro ve of the 78L05 regulator. which supplies the
a valuable accessory to those enthusiasts required regulated + 5V to the 1st and 3rd stages.
who desire means of measuring 400-1300 The decoupled 12V input is fed to the OM36 1
MHz with an excellent degree of sensit iv it y, which requires same for correct operation. The
combined with simple frequency counter broadband tuning on the input of the OM361 will
modifications, wh ich correct the dis pl ay help improve the pick-up sensitivity at 1296 MHz,
reading in conjunction with the prescaler and whilst no accurate sensitivity figures are
division of 256. I.e. if the probe in put fre - available. the 1152 MHz diode multiplier in the
quency is 1296 MHz then the co unte r di splay author's 1296 MHz receive converter is easily
also indicates th is value. sensed and would only be a few milliwatts.

To ensure favour able sensitivity, all connections


should be short and bypass capacitors of the chip
variety, though it is not necessary to use the
expensive ATC Brand. The less expensive
1. WESCAP or Vitramon work well. The probe
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION components are mounted within one of the
smaller Eddystone diecast boxes and suspended
80 metre style on top of a double-sided G10
The input transistor MRF901 and the Philips laminate which has both planes grounded to the
Broadband Amp OM361 amplify the sensed bottom of the box. The input connector should be
frequency , which is fed into the RCA CA3179 of miniature low-loss variety and the pick-up loop
ECL Scaler. The ECL level signal output being is approx. 50mm teflon with a 1 turn loop one end
5.0625 MHz when 1296 MHz is sensed, is direc- and matching plug the other end. This allows the
ted to a phantom fed modified input of any fre- operator to hold the probe in one hand and
quency counter which must supply a relatively direct the insulated pick-up loop sensor in close
clean 12 V positive regulated rail. The DC is thus proximity to RF without fear of any metallic
fed down the coax and AC decoupled to the input contact.
13
Scaler
en
z VHF RFC
o
~
o
Z
::l
~~~p± ~-~OO 6BO Philips OM 361
3 . 1003p Chip
Fr eq Co un t er
I npu Stag"
r-- - - -
:::;
:::;
oo
"--H-<'--<'-~>-~P--U-~ 1
~+~;g
u,
I
> ~~¥l 'J' L
iJ D i vi d ~
UL_' :~Sil
by 25t
a ny le n~ t h
ccu x to
Pi ck up MRF 901 or srrn.
10}J .:.L s uit
Loop Rx = 103 a l BO.n. Tant. .1
AOT Ic s SmA
~- ~ +5 V
Thi s st age i s op r io not
bu t i ts use r esu l t s in excelle nt
pic KUp sen sit ivit y. ZL2TVT
Fig. 1: Circu it schematic of the Probe Scaler 400 -1300 MHz
VHF·COMMUNICATIONS 1/86

Brec- th is li n e

M HZ --GJ-0
. :0-0
. ~
10011 10k 1k 100 J .nser t s'. ltc h 10 , HZ 0 el ls -Ing

~ :10 1 1
.10 .10 .10 . 10 : 10 _ '"9 't ,''00''
90 eese
Osc : , r
• I : : J 90625 0 390625 HZ
:
. tlormal '
----..
l __ ,

Timebase Mod s

Cer r ec ts O,\ pl o ,
:GJ----GJ
~ :16
Pr Ob

:16 •
---;9061S HI
ZL 2 TVT
reading ..hen Prob f' n use

Fig . 2 a: Frequency counter w ith timebase mod if ica tions

available at the probe input and probably due to a


2. high frequency oscillation within the probe due to
INDIRECT MEASUREMENT the high gain, but disappears when a valid signal
is sensed.

The loop pick-up is most desirable for indirect


measurement as the senso r is held only close
3.
FINAL NOTE
enough to ensure a stable reading and does not
upset or overload any circuitry . Direct electrical
Modifications to an existing frequency cou nter
connection, whilst possible, is probably not
are simple being the addition of two divide by 16
advisable at these frequencies as the pick-up
devices either TIL or CMOS to suit and one
sensitivity is excellent in its present form.
switch. This slows the gating etc. by a factor of
A random display reading is evident on the 2.56, but is a small price to pay for a counte r which
author's frequency counter when no input is reads correctly.

+5 V

f .In 10 kHz
"'1 Is
1.Im3l-"--_ _ ~,. j 7493
12 ~9.
1 __0625f out Hz

~
ILJ.~
TTL
'-:-;-::'":'"":':'-
2 L...3~
---'
I
...L

f ·In -
_'1 f
out

ZL2 TVT
+5to15V

_'S fout

.r. .r, , Fig . 2 b :


Three versions of utilizing vari o us
16 16 256 counters in timebase modi fic ati o n

15
CJ)
z
o
f=
..:
o
Z
:J
:2
:2
oo
u,
:c
>
Fig . 3: Photograph showing the intern al view of the described Probe Scaler
<
I
"T1
0
0
;::
;::
C
Z
()
/
:>
-i
! is
z
7 en
03
(J)

Q ';·1jgf"~
, :.~ f

~ ','"

Fig. 4: Photograph showing the author's original design


VHF·CO MMUNICATIONS 1/86

Guenter Sattler, OJ 4 LB

SDA 3202 - A New PLL rc


for up to 1.5 GHz

The Phase-locked-Loop (PLL) c ircuit SDA


3202, with an integrated frequency d ivider,
1.
is a new Siemens ch ip in the SDA (Siemens-
MEASUREMENTS ON THE
Digital-Abstimmsystem) series developed
SDA 3202
for television sets . It enables a crystal control -
led adjustment of voltage controlled oscil-
lators (VeO) at a 62.5 kHz channel spacing The SDA 3202 works in the frequency range 16
and is suitable for all amateu r use where - to 1500 MHz - the upper limit being that of the
kHz or Hz steps are not requ ired . A possible integrated divider. The curves of fi g. 1, cornpris-
application is for wideband systems such as ing Siemens data up to 950 MHz and the author's
AM or FM amateur television (ATV ). The PLL tests above 1 GHz (abridged), show merely the
frequency synthesizer can replace the usual largest and the smallest RF input powers at which
multiplication of a crystal source (s) and the the integrated divider is able to function. The
accompanying filtering measures necessary upper limiting frequency of twenty-five examples
to minimize harmonics. (tested using IC sockets on a PCB) lay within a

dBm
OH LB

---
·1 0

--- ,
I ·-'T
I
- 10
I
I /1
I I
V
- ]0
"' :----'
V
v-- I
I Fig . 1:
Dynamic ran ge versu s
I I frequen cy of the SDA 3202.
01 0' 06 O! to 1.1 12 13 U t5 1.6 GHz Up to 950 MHz ; give n in the
data shee t.

18
VHF-COMMUNICATIONS 1/86

~ U.
D
P

EF
- [>- c .vice r
-- prog div ide r phas e- t r eq

~Jv-"
D

r
P= 8 N .: 256 16383 compara t or

UH FI
V HF

,---
TO
I.=! wn . 51

o1
OSC
4
f----
divid e r
Q.: 512
I
o2
MH z
I fre t , cv
T1

'--- I
LATCH 011 LATCH ,
drv tsrcn r a tio
I control- by te 1
I
t
Cl t
SDA
bus con trol

~ WeH]
ccntrct - bvt e 2 h --, U
II
I I I I I I
III TT
I I
1/I
I
PO PI P] P3 P4 P5 P6 .7 GND Us

Fig . 2: SDA 3202 (Siemens) bl ock diagram

range of 1560 to 1605 MHz. In association with above the received frequency (900 - 1500 MHz)
the high-speed 2 : 1 pre-scaler NEC I-l. PB 581 C and the half-frequen cy of the oscillator is used
the subject chip is able to stabilize VCO fre- for a frequency counter and/or PLL operation
quencies in 125 kHz steps to approximately using an input power of - 12 to - 15 dBm. A typical
3 GHz. application circuit for the SDA 3202 is shown
in fi g. 3 with, as far as is possible, the oscillator
frequency (and the consequent 5 x diode tuning)
together with the frequencies of the rest of the
2. tuned-circuit in 125 kHz steps.
APPLICAT ION IN TV
RECEPTI ON

3.
Fig. 2 shows the block-diagram . The VHF/UHF
EXPERIMENTS
input signal frequency is divided , according to the
programming, and compared with a crystal
controlled reference source of 4 MHz divided by In the TV set, the 40-pole user-spec ified micro-
512 i.e., 7.8125 kHz. The frequency/phase computer SDA 2011 contro ls the PLL module.
detector controls the tuning of the VCO and uses The interface is the 12 C Bus which needs two
external components for the loop filter. lines (SDA= data, SCL =sync.) for the serial data
transfer.
A tuner may be employed for ATV reception in the
23 cm band for the production of the satellite Under experimental conditions, the SDA 3202
receiver's first IF e.g. the IC UT-06B (Sanshin may be programmed by hand. Just a toggleswitch
elec.). This chip uses an oscillator at 70 MHz is required for the data and a push button for the
19
VHF-COMMUNICATIONS 1/86

f vco = F,npr 70

41n

220n sv rtc h
outp ut s
for
optiona l
SDA 32 02 use

f i ~~
900...
1500MHz'-- -+....J DJ4LB
SDA SCl . VB
f lF : 70 MHz I SV/SO mAI

Fig . 3: Typ ical application circuit

synchron izing. A conta ct anti-bounce circuit The two divider-rad io arranged bytes may be also
and a few minutes time are also required. The identified directly with the given frequency. The
schemat ic is given in fig. 4. Siemens "supplement" for the 23 cm band
(1240 - 1340 MHz): The bit n14 given in the table
The logic arrangemen t of the telegram-bytes is
as 0 may also be set at 1 whereby the highest
shown in table 1. The address-byt e differentiates
programmab le frequency results in 204B MHz
the PLL circuit from other chips at the 12 2 C Bus.
(theoretically) and not 1024 MHz.

• SV
SN74(LSIOl 9

,----. - ---"i "00 ' ~


. LO" .. !::~~.~ n
~.sv PNP
O' ( BC SS7 12N29071

l
+SV
data ,
SDA
NPN
SDA 3202 (BCS47/ 2N2222)
SCl
330
I
sync .
HI--~

0' .sv
~ov' DJ4LB
Fig . 4:
Circ uit 01 test manual con tro l
P,n7 · 0112 C·bus contr ol·
R' d k1 Pin 14 . 5V led chip

20
VHF-COMMUNICATIONS 1/86

SDA 3202 hQgic Arrangement Table 1:


Telegra m- Bytes
arrangement

..... ~ ~

I
A . A( . "'O .. " d ~ ..

Addr essbyte 1 0 0 0 0 0 A
I
prog . divider
div ision
Byte 1
ratio n

prog . divider
Byte 2
frequ ency

co ntrol info
51 Tl TO 0 A
Byte 1

control info
Byte 2 I P7 P6 P5 P4 P3 P2 Pl PO A
I
Teta! division rauo N c su m n

N = 8 19]- n 13 .. 4096 +0 12 • 2046 +n 11 + 1024 +n10 + Sl rn9 • 256 +n8 • 128 +n7 • 64+n6
• 3rnS + 16 +n4 + S+n3 + 4+n2 • r n l + nO

Band sel.: Port o utputs :

P3 ... P O = 1 Current Sink is act rv


Pl P4 =1 Open coll ec tor output is act ive

Pum p current cha ng e-o ver Test mode :

51 =1 hIgh current 11,TO = 0.0 Norrnar operauon

(ty p . 150 ~A ) T1 ;: 1 de vlCled Input freq . on P 7


and devtded cryst al 'req

OJ 4LB (7 8 125 kHz ) on P 6 for


treq . mea surement

Example: The date, selected by the switch LOW (L) or HIGH


(H) is, with every positive flank of the synchroni-
The stabilizing of a VCO at 1296 MHz: Bit n14,
zing (L to H upon pressing the push-button), taken
n12 and n8 = 1, all other divider bits are zero.
over by the PLL circuit control. This control
"acknowledges" (A) every accepted byte by
3.1. Data input
sending the bi-directional data bus to L as long
Start condition = start of every telegram: as the following 9th sync. is H. This state of
When SCL is HIGH, SDA is LOW. acknowledge is recognizable. irrespective of
Stop condition = telegram end: the date-switch setting. as the green LED
When SCL is HIGH, SDA is HIGH (= LOW) only is illuminated.
21
VHF -COMMUNICATIONS 1/86

Divide r 10000 : 1 Freq. counter


I,
f, 'A 000
28 ICM 72 16 D
1.5G Hz 150 kHz. TTL level
SDA 3202
13 14
OJ 4 LB I
I Decimal point

Fig . 5: The SDA 3202 as a 1.5 GHz decade frequency scale r for di rect control of the co unt er IC ICM72161
7226 at TIL level (5)

3.2. The SDA 3202 as a counter It will be noticed, that the output level of the pre-
frequency divider scaler !J.PB 581 C is - 8dBm, this being exactly the
The internal frequency divider of the SDA 3202 input level required by the SDA 3202 at its highest
usable frequency. It is thus possible to build a
may also be used as pre-scaler for a frequency
frequency counter, which functions up to a
counter (see figs. 5 and 6) as the divided input
frequency of 3.1 GHz, with only three integrated
frequency may be extracted from the IC by means
of a "test-mode" (T 1 = 1 in the first control byte). circuits.
It appears, at TTL level, at the open-collector
output port 7 (pin 6) which should be connected to
an external pull-up resistor of 2.7 Kn to the 5 V
rail. This output can be directly connected to the
input of the integrated circuit counter ICM 7216 or 4.
ICM 7226. REFERENCE
Refering to the publication (1), the ICM 7216 D
counter is preceded by a preseater of 10 000 : 1
pin 13 (dp) connected to point 14. By this means, (1) Hanschke , W., DC 0 RZ:
the decimal point is independent of the gate time C-MOS Frequency Counter for 10Hz to
as it is always located at the end of a whole GHz VHF COMMUN ICATION S Vol.16,
number of MHz. Ed.3/1984, Pages 182-187

Pre-sealer 2 : 1 Divider 5000 : 1 Freq. counter


f2
10 000
28
ICM 72 16 D
3G Hz ",PB 581 C 1, 56 Hz SDA 3202 300 kHz . TTL level

13 14
I
OJ 4LB I Decimal point

Fig . 6: The SDA 3202 as a decade frequency scaler with a 2 : 1 3GHz pre -scaler dr iv ing the ICM 7216 /7226
directly at TIL level
22
VHF-COMMUNICATIONS 1/86

Klaus -Dieter Broeker, OK 1 UV

Coaxial Po wer Amplifier for th e


13 em Band Using Tube TH 6885

A tran smitt er power amplifier is described The maximum perm itted anode voltage is 1200 V
which uses a norma l commercia l t ube and and the maximum continuous anode current is
w hi ch may be constructed w ith only a little given as 250 mA oThe manufacturer speci fies a
lat he-w or k as great emphasis has been maximum work ing frequency of 3 GHz. At maxi-
placed upon simplicity of construction. A mum anode dissipation the tube must be cooled
power output of 75 Watt is easily achieved in with air flow ing at around 600 litres per minute.
th e 13 cm band w ith only 900 V at 300 rnA The pressure drop at this level is about 5 g / ern",
an od e supply at a power ga in of 10 dB. A
hi gher anode potential , together with the
ap pr opri at e level of forced air coo ling, w ill 2.
yi el d cons iderably more output power. The RESULTS CBTAINED
anode c o nstructi on ma y be see n in fi g. 1 as
the co oli ng du ct has been removed.

With lOW drive from a 2 C 39 BA the TH 6885


delive red an output power of80 W. At this output .
1. the anode current rose from a quiescent 100 mA
THE TUBE to 300 mA. The power gain was measured at
9 dB.
Increasing the drive from the 2 C 39 BA to 20 W
The electron ic power tube TH 6885 (or TH 02 1 A, resulted in a 150 W output power , the gain being
or TH 310 ) is manufactured by the French elec- 8.8 dB . This power is. however, not permitted,
tronic firm of Thomson-CSF. It is a glass / meta l neither by the manufacturer nor by the ama teur
triode using planar technology with an anode dis- licensing authorities .
sipation of 250 Watt . The cathode is indirectly In order to save the constructor som e possible
heated with 6.3 V at 2.1 A. The heater must be on experimental work , a few failures should be
for at least two minutes before power can be mentioned at this point. A 9 cm band version was
appl ied. The transconductance of the TH 6885 is des igned and built but the results were disap-
25 mA / V and the follow ing interelec trode capac i- pointing .
tances are specified :
At a drive input of6 W from a YO 1060, the outp ut
grid - cathode :
obta ined from the T H 6885 was only 6 W i. e. a
cold: 12.00 pF
gain of 0 dB - the DC anode current was 320 mA.
warm : 14.00 pF
anode - grid : 3.60 pF Also worthy of mention, perha ps, is an earlier
anode - cathode: 0.06 pF attempt to make a 13 em-band amplifier from four
23
VHF -COMMUNICATIONS 1/86

Fig. 1: The electronic tube TH 6885 with its narrowly spaced cooling·fins spr ung firmly into position
(insulation and cooling ducts removed)

2 C 39 BAs. The amplifi er was a lot of trouble to where


build but the gain was only 2 dB. 5
"E = equivalent wavelength = 3 x 10 (mm)
fE

3. fE = equivalent frequency : for 3 1. 1 4 = f 13


DIMENS IONS and for 5 1. 14 = f I 5
C = tube capacitance for the anod e resonator
C = 3.6 pF = 3.6 x 10 - 12 F
The anode resonator is electrically 3 I. I 4 long for the cathode resonator
and the cathode resonat or 5 I. I 4. The shorting C = 14 pF = 14 x 10- 12 F
plunger is 1. / 4 long with a 5 % veloc ity factor . Z = characteristic impedance of coa xial
Both , anode and cath ode resona tors repres ent resonator = 60 In D id
capacitive shorted coaxial tuned-circuits whose where D = int. dia of outer tube
mechanicallenth L can be ca lcu lated by mea ns of d = ext. dia for grid tube
the well-known formula (1): for the anode circuit :
Z = 60 In 50 /28 = 34 .7 n
L= ~ [90 - arctan (2 IT x f E X C X Z) 1 (1) for the cathode circuit:
360 Z = 60 In 26 /14 = 37.1 n
24
VHF-COMMUNICAT IONS 1/86

-
Fig. 2: The PA's cathode (anode p ipe clip removed)

At this point it may be mentioned, that at high An electrical schematic is quite superfluous but
values of anode resonator impedances there the quiescent current adjusting circuit was taken
may be problems with the tuning elements and from the transistor circuit of LA 8 AK (VHF COM-
tuning range at the higher frequencies. This MUNICATIONS 4 / 1981). Fig. 2 shows the ampli-
means that when Z = 60 n the tuning plunger at fier from the cathode side.
2320 MHz is in resonance since it has a longer
length than the inner conductor .
The length of the shorting plunger is calculated
by formula (2)
4.
CONSTRUCTION
3 X 10 5 x 0.95
(2)
4f (MHz)
Fig . 3 shows a cross-sectional view of the stage
The construction may be determined for other fre- but without dimensions. Three types of contact
quencies by converting the formula. The author material are employed, all of which may be
has the results for the 70 cm and 23 cm bands obtained from the firm Feuerherd of Berlin quoting
and may be obtained by sending an SAE to VHF the part-number given. The output coupling is
COMMUNICATIONS. made via a BNC socket which, at this power and
25
VHF-COMMUNICATIONS 1/86

J1~]'_EI= 4mm fTt-- - -


tsin-
tr ipe
insulat ion
pla te

- - 0.25 mm tef lon foil

capoc i t i ve
input coupling e.g. for
13 cm J 311 5 mm
tin vane

--------- R - Nr 811 7

S -N r 8 118
R-N r:8 117
con ta ct stock
Cu cable screen
from firm
Fe uerherd ~-- O. 2 5 m m tef lon foil
Olympische 5tr. 12
0-1 000 Berlin 19 1Il- - - - - R-Nr. 8 1 17
---- -f----i

inpu t

Fig . 3: Coaxial PA for 70 em, 23 em or 13 em us ing the tube TH 6885 or TH 021 A

frequency , is not ideal - an N socket or 3.5 / 9.5 First, the anode cylinder (dia 54 x 2 mm) is turned
socket , with a threaded portion for depth adjust- from a 76 rnrn' length and brazed onto a brass
ment, would be much better. The input coupling plate of (100 x 100 x 2.5 mm). The assembly is
uses a semi-rigid, copper -screened cable (e. g. turned transversely to plane the surface and a
SR-3 from the firm Suhne r). hole of 45 mm diameter cut out.
If the stage is driven in the quarter-wave mode The grid cylinder (14 mm dia x 11.90 mm long)
- e. g. in the 70 em-band - an inductive coupling must be turned internally in order that the cathode
is recommended . It consists of a small loop of the connection of the electronic tube may pass
inner conductor and proved to be very succesful. almost to the full length of the slots with a tight
The connection to the semi-rigid cable can, again, sliding fit.
be made with a coaxial cap with an N socket or
The heater contacts consist of a 5 mm dia brass
with a modified BNC socket fitted with a 3 mm
rod having an internal 20 mm long 2 mm threaded
cable insert.
section . This rod is cut with a fine hack-saw blade,
The parts are fabricated according to figs. 4 to 7. twice across the diameter in quadrature , to a
All rough edges should be removed with emery- length of 15 mm in order that it makes a tight push
cloth . fit into the electronic tube's heater connection.
26
VHF-COMMUNICATIONS 1/86

-- ~ 2 5 6-
I - ' ~2 6 --
;-- ~ 2 0, 5 - I

.._- - - - -.n77Tr- ,I-r


~I ~:J_
I - - "' ,14,5
1
J.,-,:-ri-- --;.-- ..-..r:""""i--r
- I
I
' I
s 1 item ~ .
I

o
- - - - - - 90 - - - - - - -..!

"', I
,I
'1- ·
I I,
' --"J L~
Fig . 4: Grid cylinder and gr id shortin g plunger -- ~ 25 ,6 - -.

- - 30 0 1\/ 4- 0.95 - -
YI · UNEF I BNe tnred l

Hl~ -'~;I "-- 6 slots ~ \l\7


- 1 I t em
6 s lot s

- ~5 0 ----.,

- - tJI.9 . 6 - -4
-0 32

- -- - 76 ----~~

~
"'
'-0
~

-<.
o

7 ~II
..I-~----;7"~,L_-!t-_ 1

-- ~ 3 2

Fig . 5: Tun ing plunger tube gu id e, anode resonator cylinder and shorting plunger (centre)

27
VHF-COMMUNICATIONS 1/86

o
o

- <j)- -q>- - ~

61 J I

L+- - - - - -i - - -- - - -;-+--L
~ ------ 9 0 - -- -- - -1
I_ - - - - - - - 100 - - - - -

~
i- 4o -~' ~
6s lo t s j - J i
I

- - - - - 9\ - - - - - -..,

1--- - --

1--- - J l or A /4 , 095 _ -<


- .ll.

Fig. 6: Anode plate or Its cover plate (dimensions in brackets), anode cylinder and bra ss shorti ng plunge r for
the heater connection s

1--- - - -- - - - -- 95 - - - - - - - - -- -1

.~.
'3

E:ffI- 3 f -=Ji=~
I I
I

r-- 10 -

15 - 11

Fig. 7 : Brass heater connector rod


28
VHF-COMMUNICATIONS 1186

Fig.a :
Grid cylinder and anode
shorting plunger
withdrawn

Fig.9 :
Anodecylinder with
output coupling showing
heaterconnecting rod in
foreground

The tuning plunger for "fine tune" consists of a type of blower used . Also not shown are the
6 mm dia brass rod of optional length. proprietary tube fixing clips which lock the two
The fine cooling fins of the anode cause a re- shorting plungers into position . One of them may
latively high air resistance which must be over- be recognized in the photographs of the PA in the
come with a powerful blower (Schubert). An air- disassembled state (fig . 8, 10 and 11 ).
duct may be fabricated from insulated cardboard The photographs give a "plastic" impression of
and installed according to the positioning and the parts and their assembly, but they do give the
29
- -- -- - - - - --- ---

VHF·COMMUNICATIONS 1/86

Fig . 10:
Fine tuni ng and anod e
cavity ou tpu t cou pli ng

Fig . 11:
The long 3 mm screw
enables the cathode
shorting plunger to be
tu ned

uninitiated an idea of the construc tion. It should be lightly chamferred-off in order to discourage
be noted, that the insulating material between the high-voltage arcing. The insulation of screw holes
anode plates and between the heat-sink and uses the same parts employed in the fitting of
pressure plate have been removed for the photo- powe r transistors. The anode supply voltage
graphs. should be connected directly to the plate and not
above the cooling fins.
The fitting of the anode plates must be very
carefully carried out. All drillings and edges must
30
VHF-COMMUNICATIONS 1/86

k
W[}=i][F • •
communications
Index of Volume 17 (1985)

31
VHF-COMMUN ICAT IONS 1/86

Article Author Edition Page

ANTENNAT ECHNOLOGV
Loop Vagi Antenna Design for 13 cm Josef Grimm . 1985/2 72- 78
OJ 6 PI
Estimating the Gain of Vagi-A ntennas Gunth er Hoch , 1985/2 121 - 124
from Ch art Data DL 6WU
Helical Antenna for the 70 cm Band Alois Aigner. 1985/3 130 - 132
DL 6 XE
Pola rization Performance of Matjaz Vidmar . 1985/3 173 - 177
Circularly Polarized Antennas YU 3 UMV
Th e Directional Coupler Function and Use Erich Stadler. 1985/3 178 - 184
DG 7GK
Determ ination of Antennas Gain - Bernd von Bojan 1985/3 185 - 191
What' s actually behind it all? OJ 7 YE
Micro -Striplin e Antenn as Friedr ich Krug. 1985/4 194 - 202
OJ 3 RV
FUNDAMENTALS
Imp edance Tr ansform ation Erich Stadl er. 1985/1 43 - 45
using a iJ4 Line DG7GK
Switched Mode Power Supp lies (S. M. P. S.) Jochen Jirmann. 1985/2 79 - 93
Part 1: Basic Th eory DB 1 NV
PLL-Oscillators with Delay Line s Jo achim Kestler. 1985 /2 112 - 120
Part 3 : Oscillator Modul e for the 2-Metre-Band OK 1 OF
The Noise Behaviour of Ampl ifiers Wolfram Pueschner. 1985/3 133 -1 37
DF 7 KB
PLL-Oscillators with Delay-Lines Joachim Kestler. 1985/3 138 -140
Part 4: Carrier Noise Sidebands OK 1 OF
Measurement of Cabl e-Imp edance with Erich Stadl er. 1985/3 153 - 157
Impulses and Sine-W aves DG 7GK
Th e PCB- Integr ated Coaxial Tun ed Circuit Gerd Korner. 1985/3 158-1 60
DK 2 LR
Formulae and Diagram s for the Friedri ch Krug , 1985/4 203 - 207
App roximate Calculation of Micro-Str iplines OJ 3 RV
Power Ampl ifiers - Carsten Vieland, 1985/4 208 - 212
How they are operated DJ4GC
Behav iour of Reflected Pulses Erich Stadler. 1985/4 227 - 231
along Cables DG7GK

POWER SUPPLIES
A 12-Volt-Mobil e. Swit ched -Mod e Joch en Jirmann , 1985/1 94 - 99
Power Supply (S. M. P, S,) Part 2 DB 1 NV
32
VHF -COMMUNICATIONS 1/86

Arti cle Author Edition Page

GaAs-FET Inter-Locked Dual-Polarity Horst Burfeind\, 1985/3 141 -145


Power Supplies for portable Use DC9XG
A 12-V-Mob ile. Switched-Mode Jochen Jirmann . 1985/3 161 - 168
Power Supp ly (S. M. P. S.) Part 3 (Concluding) DB 1 NV
A Microcomput er-System for Radio Amateurs J. Jirmann and F. Krug 1985/4 252 - 254
DB 1 NV. OJ 3 RV
MEASURING · TECHNOLOGY
Compa ct BNC Attenuat ors Carsten Vieland . 1985/1 2- 7
DJ4GC
A Power Meter for the Frequency Range Harald Braubach , 1985/1 36 - 42
from 2 to 200 MHz DL 1 GBH
A 2.3 GHz Prescaler (:100) Manfred MOhlb acher. 1985/1 55 - 83
DB 9SB
Thermal Power Measurements - Carsten Vieland . 1985/2 69 - 71
yet another look DJ4 GC
L- and C-Measurements Erich Stadler. 1985/2 100 - 105
with Calibrated Transmission Lines DG7GK
Impedance Measurements Erich Stadler. 1985/2 106 -111
with Calibrated Transmission Lines DG 7GK
Measurement of Cable-Impedance with Erich Stadler. 1985/3 153 - 157
Impulses and Sine-Waves DG 7GK
The Directional Couple r Function and Use Erich Stadler. 1985/3 178 -184
DG 7GK
WEATHER SATELLITE RECEPTION
A low-no ise METEO SAT Converter with Bernd Bartkowiak. 1985/1 8 - 16
GaAs-FET Preamplifier and Mixer Stage OK 1 VA
A Digital Mult iple Image Storage Harald Hufenb echer . 1985/1 17 - 3D
for Weather Satellite Images DL 6 NAD
Colour Mod ule with Composi te Output Editors 1985/1 35
for Weather Satellite Images

FAX TECHNOLOGY
FM/AM Converter for Facsimil e Reception Drs. Tjapk e Knoell . 1985/3 169 -172
and Picture Display with the YU 3 UMV PAO
Picture-Stor e
MICROCOMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
A Microcomp uter-System for Radio Amateuers J. Jir mann and F. Krug 1985/4 252 - 254
DB 1 NV. OJ 3 RV
OSCILLATORS
PLL-Oscillators with Delay Lines Joachim Kestler. 1985/1 46 - 54
Part 2: A Shortwave VFO from 5 to 6 MHz OK 1 OF
33
VHF-CO MMUN ICATIONS 1/86

Art icle Autho r Edit ion Page

PLL-Oscillators with Delay Lines Joach im Kestler. 1985/2 112 -120


Part 3: Oscillator Module for the 2-Metre-Band DK 1 OF
PLL-Oscillators with Delay-Lines Joach im Kestler. 1985/3 138 - 140
Part 4: Carrier Noise Sidebands DK 1 OF
A Stable Crystal-Controlled-S ource Jochen Jirmann. 1985/3 146 - 152
for 10.37 GHz DB 1 NV
SSB Mini Transverter 144 / 1296 MHz Konrad Hupfer. 1985/4 232 - 240
DJ 1 EE
SHORTWAVE . IF-MODULES
PLL-Oscillators with Delay Lines Joach im Kestler, 1985/1 46 - 54
Part 2: A Shortwave VFO from 5 to 6 MHz DK 1 OF
2 m Ban d
PLL Oscillators with Delay Lines Joachi m Kestler, 1985/2 112 -120
Part 3: Oscillator Module for the 2-Metre-Band DK 1 OF
Two- metre Power Amplifier using Carsten Vieland, 1985/4 213- 226
Valve 4 CX 1000 A DJ 4GC
Two- Metre Receiver Front-End Joach im Kestler, 1985/4 241 - 251
DK 1 OF
70 em BAND
Helical Antenna for the 70 cm Band Alois Aigner, 1985/3 130 - 132
DL6XE
23 em Band
SSB Mini Transverter 144 / 1296 MHz Konrad Hupfer , 1985/4 232 - 240
DJ 1 EE
13 em BAN D
Loop Vagi Antenna Design for 13 em Josef Grimm 1985/2 72- 78
DJ 6 PI
A 2.3 GHz Prescaler (: 100) Manfred Muhlbacher, 1985/1 55 - 63
DB9SB
3em BAND
A Stable Crystal-Controlled-Source Jochen Jirmann , 1985/3 146 -152
for 10.37 GHz DB 1 NV
MISCELLANEOUS
Index of Volume 16 (1984) Editors 1985/1 31 - 34
Basic Rules Wolfgang Guenther, 1985/2 66 - 68
for Self-Constructed Equipment DF4U W
TDA 5660 P - Siemens 1985/2 125- 127
A Versatile Modulator Circuit
for TV, Video, and Sound Signals
in the Range of 48 to 860 MHz
Power Amplifiers - Carsten Vieland, 1985/4 208-212
How they are operated DJ4 GC
VHF·COMMUNICATIONS 1/86

Peter Gerber, HB 9 BNI

Antenna-Position Calcul ations for


Measurements of Cosmic R adi o Sources and
E ME-Communications

In the last few years there have been various system , the position of a fixed star is always the
techniques given which allow the quality of a VHF same - at any rate for our purposes . The Sun and
/ UHF receiving system to be determined by the Moon are moving objects in this system .
means of measuring the Sun's radio noise or
noise from cosmic radio sources (1, 2. 3, 4). One
problem of such measurement, is the position in The reference plane of the moving equator ial
the sky of the object concerned. When using the system is the plane of the equator projected
Sun or the Moon. in good visibility. it is only a into the celestial sphere . The angular zero point is
matter of sighting the antenna along the boom. the direction of the so-called "spring-equinox".
but cosmic radio sources in Middle Europe cannot The size of this angle is designated "right ascen-
always be identified by sight owing to prolonged sion" (RA).
cloud-cover and one must resort to a few calcula-
tions. From the reference plane extends the gradua -
Th is art icle describes a simple method to tions of the declension (DE) to the north and to the
calc ulate both azimuth and elevation hea- south corresponding to the lines of latitude on
d ings. These calculations may be carried out earth.
easily by means of a small programmable
pocket calculator within an accuracy of one
A point, that remains stationary in the moving
degree. This is sufficient accuracy for ama-
equatorial system, moves - as far as earth's
teur antennas.
mid-point is concerned - once in about 24 hours
Calculation by means of a calculator is , in around the earth . A further system of co-ordinates
any case , qu icker than using tables as, for exists, called the "fixed equatorial system", which
example, described in (5). moves with the turning of the earth and is there-
fore fixed relative to the earth . A point that is
always stationary over the same spot on the
earth 's surface (e. g. a geo-stationary satellite)
1.
has. in this system , fixed co-ordinates. The co-
A LITTLE ASTR ONOMY
ordinates in this system are called "hour angles"
(HA) and declinat ion (DE). The declination is, of
The position of a body in the sky is mostly given in course, the same as that for the moving equatorial
the so-called "moving equato rial system ". In this system .
35
VHF·COM MUNICATIONS 1/86

The transition from moving to a fixed system is


carried out by the follow ing transformat ion : 2.
AZIMUTH AND ELEVATION
HA siderea l time (ST) - RA
DE DE
The azimuth and the elevation may now be
The sidereal time is the hour angle of the spring- calculated as follows :
equinox, but for more exact information see (6).
From the "moving equator ial system " one can EL = arc sin (sin B sin DE + cos B cos DE cos HA)
conve rt to the "horizontal system " by means
of a known formula (5). The co-ordinates in the cos DE sin HA I cos EL
horizontal system are azimuth (AZ), counted here AZ = arc tan
(sin B cos DE cos HA - cos B sin DE) I cos EL
from north eastwards, and elevat ion (EL). Both
these quant ities can be used to programm e an-
Where B = latitude of the observat ion point
tenna rotors .

With these formulae the azimuth is not yet


1.1. Sidereal Time exactly determined because it must be corrected
for the right quadrant:
For the trans ition from moving to the fixed equato-
rial system a knowledge of sidereal time is neces-
if AZ < 0 then AZ = AZ + 180°
sary . This is calculated from the time of day (HH.
if numerator > 0 then AZ = AZ + 180°
hh in hours and decimals, UT) and the position of
the earth in its orbit around the Sun . The latter can
be calc ulated but the exact calcu lation is too With these formul ae the elevation and azimuth in
complicated and involved for a pocket calculator. reference to fixed stars of still sources can be
In order to obtain a usable accuracy , the following calcul ated. The right-ascension and the declina-
formula is sufficient: tion of the sources can be taken from (1).
ST = 99.5° - Ls + HH 15° + DY 0.986
where Ls = longitude of observer where east is
negative.

DY = The observa tion day in the year (Julian


cale ndar).
2.1. Sun and Moon
The day number can be taken from a Julian calen-
The Sun and Moon move with respect to a fixed
dar of worked out as follows : .
star and therefore no definate position can be
DY 31(M -1 ) + D forM :s2 given to them. The positions are able to be deter-
DY 31 (M - 1) - Int (0.4 M + 2.3) + D mined however - but with compl icated formulae
for M > 2 - on a home computer for example . It is easier
though , to consult tables e. g. (7). These tables
whe re M = Month of year i. e. 1 = January etc.
contain the right ascension and declination of
D = Day of Month these celes tial objects , daily for zero hour UT.
The formulae are not valid for a leap-year but the If a more exact result is required , it is better to
error is in any case , less than 1°. This value of interpolate betwee n two observ ational times
sidereal time is calculated in degrees . taken 48 hours apart .
The right-ascensi on (RA) is normally given in time A program of these basic rules can be obtained
scale, i. e. in hours and minutes and must be from the author by sending a cassette and an
converted to degre es by noting that 24 hours is SAE. This program is suitable for the calculator
360°, therefore 1 hour = 15°. family Casio FX-720 / PB-41O.
36
VHF-COMM UNICAT IONS 1/86

(4) Borschel W., DK 2 DO:


3. Diagrams that allow one to easily determ ine
REFERENCES
the Sensitivity of Receive Syste ms using
(1) Dobricic, YU 1 AW : Solar Noise.
Determining the Parameters of a Receive VHF COMM UNICAT IONS Vol. 16,
System in Conjunction with Cosmic Radio Ed. 4 /1984 , P. 247 - 250
Sources (5) Bouiges, S.:
VHF COMMUNICATIONS Vol. 16, Calcul Astronomique pour Amateurs,
Ed. 1 / 1984,P.35 -50 Paris 1982
(2) Hoch, G., DL 6 WU : (6) Schaifers, K et al (Hrsgb):
Determ ining the Sensitivity of Receive. Meyers Handbuch Ober das Weltall,
Systems with the Aid of Solar Noise Mannheim 1973
VHF COMMUNICATIONS VOL. 12, (7) Burgart W.:
Ed. 2 /1980 , P. 66 - 72 Der Sternen himme l 19.. (wird jedes Jahr neu
(3) Lund, D., WA010N : herausgegeben).
Using sun noise, OST 4 1 1968 Sauerlander , Aarau

Which Volumes of VHF COMMUNICATIONS are missing from your library?


As you know, the publ ishers cont inue to reprint back copies of VHF COMMUNICATIONS. Since they are full
technical articles and little news or advertislnq, they contain a great deal of non-again information that is just as
valid today. Many of our readers will also have lent out copies of VHF COMMUNICATIONS and never received
them back. All editions available can be obtained from your representative or from the publishers.
SUbscription to VHF COMMUNICATIONS 1985/1986 each OM 24.00
VHF COMMU NICATIONS - Volume 1983/1984 each OM 22.00
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VHF COMM UNICATIONS - Volume 1976.1977. and 1978 each OM 16.00
VHF COMMU NICATIONS - Volume 1975 OM 14.00
VHF COMMUNICAT IONS - Individual copies 1985/1986 each OM 7.00
VHF COMMUNICATIO NS - Individual copies 1983/1984 each OM 6.50
VHF COMMUNICATIONS - Individual copies 1981/1982 each OM 5.50
VHF COMM UNICATIONS -Individual copies 1979 /1980 each OM 4.50
VHF COMM UNICATIONS - Individual copies 1975,1976,1977,1978 OM 4.00
Individual cop ies out of elder , incomplete volumes, as long as stock lasts:
1/197 0,211970, 211971, 1/1972 , 211972, 4/1972 each OM 3.00
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VHF COMMUNICATIONS - Discount pr ic e fo r any 3 volumes including 1 binder :
VHF COMMUNICATIONS - Volumes 1975 - 1977 OM 47.00
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All pr ices Including surface ma ll ,

k ~berichte Teny O. B;ltao . JahoW 14 . Pa'Ifaeh BO . 0 -B523 Ba;e"darl


Tel. West Germany 9133 47-0 . For Representatives see cover page 2
37
VHF-COMM UNICATIONS 1/86

Konrad Hupfer, OJ 1 EE

A 20 W Linear Amplifier for th e 23 em Band

In the 1/84 ed ition of VHF COMMUNICATIONS


(1) there was a description of a 10 Wah linear
1.
amplifier using a 25 V power supply. It also
THE CIRCUIT
mentioned experiments on an NEC transistor,
wh ich, with a working voltage of only 13.5 V,
produced a max imum output power of 20 W. The circuit shown in fig . 1 is similar to the experi-
With possible battery operation in mind, this mental circuit given in (1). It was, however,
sem i-conductor is of interest for portable use completed by the addition of trimmers C 3 and C 4
and therefore quidance in the form of circuit for base and collector matching respectively.
schematic, construction and a few data Capacitor C 3 can be a ceramic with a value of
curves is given in this article. 2 pF but it must be soldered using the shortest-

I C11
+ 22)J BO 1ges
1--.-- - - - .- - -0 + 13. 5V
C7
H1n
1 N4001

OJ 1EE 006
RF C1
oJl12

Fig . 1:
Si ngle stage
linear PA can
del ive r 20 W at
1296 MHz

38
VH F-COMMUNICATIONS 1/86

Fig. 2: Low-loss stripline circuits


using two-s ided copper teflon
PCB material t efton st r i p
I ground plane

PCB
hea t - sink

Fig. 3: Mounting and connectin g th e NEL 132081


tr ans istor

. possible connections between the base electrode trans istor s (fig . 3) take heed of the unusual
and ground. The requisite inductance cons ists , arrangement of the pins ; the chamferred tab is the
here also, of a doubl e-sided , copp erclad PTFE base connection. The more important comp o-
(teflon) strip of PCB material with suitable nents are as foll ows : -
disco ntinu ities in the copper for the appropriate
T 1: NEL 132081-20 (NEC)
trimmers C 2 and C 5 - the unbroken copper side
C 1 toC3 : mini foil trimmer (SKY green )
be ing soldered direct ly to the (cheaper) epo xy-
C4 to C 6: microwave trimmer 10 pF (J FO,
glass PCB . Th e inductor strip dimensions are
Tekelec)
given in fi g. 2.
L 1, L 2: 2 x Cu sided teflon PCB 1.4 mm thick
It is recommended that trimmers C 4 to C 6 strips (see fig .2)
(approx . 10 pF) are concentric air-tr immers (J FO, L3: Cu i wire 20 mm long , 0.5 mm dia
Tekelec). These make the job of tuning consider- Ch 1: Mini w ide band choke 0.12 JLH
ably eas ier, and at less risk, than with ceramic or Ch2: 6 holed core choke (Valvo)
foil sp indl e trimmers.
The bias supply for the base cons ists of the circuit
proposed in (1) using an LM 723 and a BO 135 .
Th e simpl e circuit given in fi g. 1 (NEC appl icat ion
note ) was tried in a test circu it but it was found that
3.
the more deta iled circuit was preferred , especially
TEST RESULTS
in cases wh ere the temperature range is large
(- 10 to + 50° C) and / or the heat-sink is small.
As fig . 4 indicates, the NEL 132081 transistor can
deliver a power output up to 17 W in linear operat-
ion (at amateur qual ity) using a powe r supply of
13.5 V. The tota l base current and the effic iency
2. depend , naturally, upon the type of bias circuit
CONSTR UCTION used. The curves shown in fig . 4 are based upon
the simple circuit given in fig . 1 with a quiescent
collector current of 200 mA. Two examples were
The cons truct ion information given in (1) together tested which exh ibited a wide disparity of res ults,
with setting up and tun ing instructions are , of indicating that the amp lifier can turn out differently
cour se, to be followed here . When mounting the from the norm . In conclusion a few general obser-
39
VHF-COMMUNI CATIONS 1/86

20 Fig.4 :
W Output power, total
input current as
well as the average
efficiency of two
17.5 transistor examples

Pout
. 13. 5 V

15 3.0 -----j~---t-----r- --,---r--t---t-/--___j


A
I
I ges.
12.5 t----=----t- - --+-- - + - --Ft-- - -t7"--- -+.. . ' - -------i

100 10 2.0
010

!11 7.5

1]1 av erag e
I '
50 5 1.0

DJ1EE

o
o 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 W
Pin-

vations :
This kind of amplifier in class AB operation is only
4.
stable with certain loads and generators. This
REFERENCES
may be ascerta ined by a perusal of the S-para -
meters . Stability is assured under a wide band,
resistive 50 ohm load but definately not when the (1) Hupfe r, K., OJ 1 EE:
antenna is disconnected . The amplifier must A 10 W Linear Amplifier for the 23 cm Band
always have a load connected before the supply VHF COMMUNICATIONS, Vol. 16
voltage is applied. Ed. 1 / 1984, Pages 51 - 55
40
VHF-COMMUNICATION S 1/86

Franz R. Ratheno w, OF 9 ZT

Oil Cooling for High-Power Tubes

In the design and operation of power tubes, system built by DD 8 DA in Bochum used copper-
the removal of heat from the tube must always tube coolers and a car radiator as a heat ex-
be considered. Amateur power amplifiers are changer. Sewing-machine oil served as the
generally air-cooled but when the power coolant. Actually, various types of oil may be
output approaches the limit, quite large employed for this purpose - my choice lay in a
quantities of air become necessary. This low-viscosity oil, Shell Tellus C 10, which appears
requi res a powerful forced air cooling system to be readily abtainable. The important points
- which causes noise. In general, this noise about the selection of an oil are; it must be thin
cannot be reduced to the point where it (a viscosity of 10 according to DIN 51519) and
becomes unobtrusive expecially when listen- capable withstanding heat without breakdown of
ing to very weak signals. The solution is its properties. Also, it must not cause corrosion
liquid cooling, oil or water, preferably the and must have a high-insulation resistance.
former. Distilled water has the disadvantage of being
a catalyst for corrosion. Finally the coolant should
A suggestion on water cooling by DL 0 HC gave
have a high-breakdown voltage.
me the idea of deve loping a similar system . The

Fig . 1:
The modified 2 C 39 heat-
sink (left) and the coolant
jacket with inlet and outlet
connections .

41
VHF -COMMUNICATIONS 1/86

Fig. 2:
Coolant jacket showing
seali ng ring together with
a pipe connector

drill 40
cut grooves DF9ZT
50

80
90° coun te r-bo re for sealing ring
M6

channel for sealing ring

original heat -sink turned


down leaving last fin

Fig. 3:
Dimensions of
turned parts
42
VHF-COMMUNICATIONS 1/86

Fig. 4:
A 2 C 39 complete with
coolant jacket

except the lowest one, so that a cylindrical middle


1. portion of 10 mm diameter remains. An M 10 x 1
PRINCIPLE screw thread is then cut on this cylinder and the
modified heat-sink then like the left-hand object in
In order to clarify the function of the complete fig.1.
system, the problem , of conducting heat away, The right-hand object in fig. 1 (and LH in fig. 2) is
must be considered a little more closely. The heat a cap which has also been turned on a lathe,
to be removed is developed at the anode of the
provided and with a blind threaded hole, into
power tube. The heat is normally dissipated by air
which the heat-sink is screwed . Into the circum-
flowing over the enlarged (with fins) surface of
ference, a channel has been cut in which to locate
the anode. In this proposed system the same prin-
the sealing ring.
ciple applies but the coolant is not air, but oil. This
serves as a transport medium for the heat from The two projections are the coolant input and
the valve to the heat exchanger which is mounted output connection-lugs, which may also be
some distance away and which dissipates the' mounted on the side of the cap, if so desired . The
coolant heat into the surrounding air. drillings in the cap for these coolant connectors
are counter-bored in order to locate sealing rings
If this heat exchanger (radiator) is large enough, (fig. 3). The connectors are screwed into the cap
a blower becomes unnecessary . Since the ra- with a 6 mm thread . These constructional points
diator may be mounted just about anywhere it are shown in the sketch of fig . 3 and the comple-
can be made as large as necessary, thus making ted heat-sink, shown in fig. 4, is mounted on the
a noisy blower superf luous or perhaps , at most, tube (using a little heat-paste ).
an almost silent fan would suffice .
VITON tubing, with a 4 mm internal diameter , is
used to conduct the oil in and out of the heat-sink.
2. This typ of tube can withstand oil and temperature
CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS and is also a good insulant. PVC tubing, on the
other hand, is not suitable owing to its inability to
Taking the normal heat-sink of the 2 C 39 tube withstand heat. Silicon pipe is also unsuitable, as
family, all the fins must be removed with a lathe , oil is able to leach through it.
43
VHF-COMMUNICATIONS 1/86

Fig. 5:
Two transmitter
oil-cooled tubes

The input and output tubes are secured to the


conne ctors using pipe, or cable clips as in fig . 5.
Branch fittings may be fabricated from copper in
the form of "T" pieces. These allow other electro-
nic tubes to be cooled from the same installation.
The oil is circulated by a small squirell-cage
induction-motor powered, centrifugal pump as in
fig . 6. A suitable pump is recommended in the
parts list. An important point to look for on the
pump is the letter "h" appended to the stock
number - this signifies that it is the hot water
version. The normal versio n of the pump is not
suitable.
The connection between pump and radiator can
utilize a PVC pipe which must be laid as evenly
and short as possible in order to avoid pressure
drops. All pipes are secured with pipe clips.
Finally, the radiator consists of copper fittings and
tubes. Six copper "T" pieces with suitable
distancing copper tubes are soldered together
and attached to the rear of the PA cabinet as in
fig . 7. It must be ensured that a diagonal coolant
flow ensues (from top right to bottom left or vice
versa). The oil filter-cap is screwed onto an ex-
pansion cylinder which can take about 10 % of the
total volume of oil. The author's installation used
180 ccm, therefore an expansion tank of 20 ccm
was sufficient. Fig. 6: Motor and circulation pump
44
VHF-COMMUNICATIONS 1/86

Fig . 7 : Radiator wit h ex pansion cylinder on the rear of the PA

2.1. Parts list

Quantity Nom en clature - Dime nsions Source

squirrel cage motor Surplus


pump PSN -Kom et (ho t water model) Pla stik -Schelter
stock number p 111 h (about OM 36. - ) 0 - 8500 NOrnberg- Reichelsdorf
VogtsbergstraBe 26
Telelon : 0911 - 636228
3m coppe r-tube 6 mm dia Plumbers
14 "T" pieces lo r above dia pipe Plumbers
3 elb ow s 10 m m Plumbers
30 cm coppe r pip e 10 mm dia Plumbers
1 10 / 15 tran sition connecting piece Plumbers
1 co nne cting sleeve lor 35 mm tubing Plumbers
2 1 mm copper w ashe rs Plumbers
1 screw-on ca p Plumbers
20 cm PVC tube 10 mm int , d ia Industry wh o lesaler
5cm PVC tub e 15 mm int. dia Industry wholesaler
50cm VITON tub e 4 mm int. dia Industry wholesaler
4 pipe clips 14 mm dia Industry wh o lesaler
2 pipe clips 18 mm dia Industry w holesaler
12 cable clips for 6 mm di a Electronic Sho p
10 cm Alu tube 34 mm dia non-Ierres-me tal su pplie s
15cm Alu tube 10 mm dia non-Ierres-me tal su pplies
6 Sealing ring s 6 x 2 mm , VITON quali ty Industry whol esaler
3 Sealing ring s 25 x 3 mm , V ITO N quality Industry wholesaler
45
VHF-COM MUNICATIONS 1/86

removed via the pre-heat control circuitry.


3.
CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS The author cools both his penultimate and PA
stages with the same insta llation. A total anode
dissipation of 250 watt is acco modated. After a
minute of continuous full output power the anode
Particular care is required when filling the system
coolant jacket temperature reaches 800 C. For
with coolant oil in order to prevent the formation of
contest operation or continuous carrier output,
air bubbles in the tubing . Air bubbles cause the the radiator should be cooled with an air-fan.
cooling circulation to be interrupted owing to the
pump sucking- in air. Oil stains may be dealt with by a light application
of methylated spirits.
As a safety measure , a small circuit-breaker,
held in by a thermostat on the electron ic tube via In conclusion, I would like to thank Alwin Kratz,
an operational amplifier , was installed. Should the DL 6 FBT, without whose help and ideas this
tempe rature exceed 1000 C the anode voltage is project could not have been accomplished.

New High-Gain Vagi Anten nas

The SHF 6964 is a special antenna for the space


communication allocation of the 24 cm band.
The maximum gain of this long Vagi is 19.9 dBd at
1269 MHz and falls off quite quickly, as with all
high-gain Yagis. with increasing frequency. We
do not, therefore, recommend this type of anten-
na for operation at 1296 MHz but for ATV appli -
cations at 1152 MHz it is eminently suitable.
There is no 24 cm ATV antenna on the world mar-
ket which possesses more gain.
The mechanics are precise , the gain frequency- The SHF 1693 is a special version for the recep-
swept and optimised. Measurements carried out tion of METEOSAT 2. This unobtrusive alter-
during heavy rain show that the antenna is not de- native to a 90 cm diameter parabolic antenna
tuned by moisture. enables, with the aid of a modern pre-amplifier or
down-converter, noise-free weather picture
Length: 5m
reception.
Gain: 22 dB" i. e. 19.9 os,
Beam-width: 13.60 Length: 3m
Front / Back ratio: 26dB Gain: 20.1 dB" i. e. 18 ea,
Side-lobes : - 17 dB Beam-width: 16.80
VSWR ref. 50 n. 1.2 : 1 Front / Back ratio: 25 dB
Mast mounting: clip (max). 52mm Side-lobes: - 17dB
Stock· No. 0103 Price : OM 298.- Stock-No 0102 Price: OM 398 .-

k ~berichte Te"y D. BHla' . Jah"," . 14 · ? oslla ,h 80 · D-85 23 Ba;e"dorl


Tel. West Germ any 9 133 4 7-0 . For Representatives see cove r page 2
46
VHF·COMMUNICATIONS 1/86

Harald Fleckner, DC 8 UG

Two-B and (1. 2 - 2.4 GHz) Feed-H orn


for Parabolic Antennas

The frequency range above 1000 MHz is almost all cases, the parabolic antenna
increasingly being " d iscovered" by more appears to off er sufficient radiated power
radio amateurs and employed for ATV-relays, output coupled with a good signal to noise
OSCAR 10 with its " mode L" , and t he recep- rat io. In order to be able to utilize either a
tion of weather pictures at 1700 MHz. No doubt full or a wire-net ref lector in a large frequency
the availability of proprietary modules and band, eith er a broadband feed-horn or a
equipment has ass isted in the increased primary feed -horn is required.
popularity of this part of the spec t rum . In

Fig.1 :
In the position shown, the
w ideband primary radiator
has vertical polarization

47
VHF-COMMUN ICATIONS 1/86

Gal n measurement of an SHF horn antenna at a Fig . 2:


4m s epa ra t io n compare d wit h ca 1ibrated r efer -
ence horn The usable frequency range is sh arply defined
ow ing to the wavegu ide cut -off frequencies
26dB
28dB
30dB
32dB
34dB
36dB
38dB

40dB
42dB
f; 0 5 GHI
De8UG two- band horn . 13em and 23cm r ef eren ce
broadb and horn (Ol1BU. Alu Type A)

OC8UG TWO- BAliD H04l" RADIATOR: , I. J .nd 2 . 3 GHI [ -POLAR DIAGRAM 1296 ,.. ,

uuo l e 'J. l n 6. 31 dBI n .a GHzI


/
.: -, , -31186 00
Gai n (fro-

~ _ l d U'll

9 . 8~ dBI
Cd '
J
50'

/ \ -10" 1460
roes

r-, I -- \ f 15118

\rJ0 ~/ 20d8

I
I

25l!B

I ,
3GCB
Ol1B U.1 9B'
I
,
I 35::8
, ,
, ,
110' .1, o' I~O' l~ .100"·. 0' . -, 0" 20 .'
.0 .Za" .
l' ,00 10" ,00- 120"
" 0" 160 ' ' 10'
40d8

OC8lJG, TWO- BAllO HOfl/il RADI ATOll: 1. 3 .I'ld 2. 3 GHI H- POlAa DIAGlWl 1296 ,..,
Od '
uu bl. g,l n 6.31 d81 11.3 GHzl / 1~ - 3d8 69°
Gf,l n { f r e- be_idtll

/ I \ • 9.aS dB1
,,,
J

/ \ - lOd' , 140°
10d8

J I

"
r 1SdB

'v-\ ! I,
I ~
,
I 20d8

,
,
,
,
\ 25d8

,
\
, , JOdS

DL1BU
nB4
, ,
35d8
I ,
,
. Fig . 3:
Polar plot at 1296 MHz

48
VHF -COMMUNICATIONS 1/86

The broadband prim ary radiator descri bed in (1)


is a high-gain feed-horn which works correctly
1.
only with very shallow parabolic mirrors (f / D >
THE RADIATOR 'S
0.5 where f = foca l length ). The feed-horn des-
CONSTRUCTIONAL PRINCIPLE
cribed in this article (fig. 1), however, is suitable
for mirrors with a focal length to diameter relation -
ship of 0.4 - a very useful value . It works well bet- The construct ional principle , first employed by
ween 1.2 and 2.4 GHz . One of the antennas fitted DB 1 PM, is a rectangu lar waveguide to coax ial
with this feed-horn has a work ing range extend ing transition common at higher frequen cies . The
from the OSCAR mode L up to METEOSAT re- rectangu lar aperature of the wavegu ide determ i-
ception and on to the 12 cm band . nes the usefu l frequency range of the transi tion .

OC 8tJG TWO-BAND HOIlJrl RADI ATOR 1.3 and 2.3 CHI H- POl,l,R DI AGRAM 2 320 MHz

Ils.ble9aln : G _9 . 1!l dBt


;:- ~-3d8 510 \
Cat n (fr om beamwi dth l
· l l . 6 dBi
Od'
l
50'

/ \ -10".10" 10::e

/ I \ 15dB

"
j \ 20d8

rI\ f ~ f: '\, I \ ~ f\ 25dB

II ~ ,
I V
,
l Od8
, ,
Dl1 BU n S4
,
, I
35dB

, ,
.180 .160 · 1'0 . 120 . IDC ·10 60 ·" 0 ·20 ~O .2 00 40 60 10 100 120 UQ ' 60 Ito a DdB

OCSUG TWO-8AND HORN RADI ATOR 1. J .n d l . 3 GHl E-POLAR DIAGRAM 1120 14Hz
O:::Il

~KOl" '"
Ilu b l eg. l n: G . 9 . 15 dBI Gain {f rom be . """id t h l
· 11 . 6 dBi

/ \ -10" Bl '
ll) dB

/ I \ 15dB

rl ~
/\ J
l OdS
V
'
,'
Y\
, /\
2SdB

A,
~
V
Dll BU
I

,
,
,
,
\I• \ JOdB

1984 ,
, ,
, , 35dB

, ,
. 110 .160 · "0 · 120 . 100" .
·aa 60 ·co ·20 ~o ' 200 '0 60. 10 100 120 1( 0 16 0 ISO 4Dd S
Fig 4 :
Polar plot at 2320 MHz

49
VHF-COMMUNICATIONS 1/86

Fig . 5: front. Guenter Schwarzbeck , DL 1 BU, measured


Fronta l vi ew of the horn's polar diagram and verified the design
radi ator objectives for the 23 cm band (fig. 3) at the
higher frequencies , however, the beamwidth
becomes smaller as the feed-horn gain increases

• (f ig. 4).

The actual radiation surface area of the mirror is


therefore not fully utilized in the 12 cm band as the
- 10 dB points do not lie at the perimeter of the
dish but some way inside it. The size of the secon-
dary radiator (i. e. the mirror 's diameter ) is deter-
mined by the feed-horn working frequency range
For the lowest usable frequency this is the limit of and should not be under 1.2 m, otherwise the gain
the Hwmode of the rectangular waveguide of the antenna will be compromised more se-
- the relevant dimension being that of the width in verely than any advantage gained from windage.
the H-plane. The upper frequency range is deter- Dishes of 1.2 m diameter reach their optimum
mined by a clearly defined mode formation which gain of about 20 dB reI. dipole when driven at
still radiates output power - the mode not being 1296 MHz.
that of the basic mode. Above this frequency the
horn radiator is no longer usable. The feed-horn, 2.
presented in this article, has limits of 1200 and MECHANICAL CONSTRUCTION
2400 MHz as clearly shown in fig . 2. Figures 5, 6 and 7 show the dimensions of the
In order that both E- and H-planes possess feed-horn and fig . 8 a frontal view through the
identical polar diagram s consistent with an aperature . Brass, copper plate or copper-plated
optimum beamwidth (at -1 0 dB) at the lower epoxy / SRPB (paxolin) may be used in the
working frequencies, the coaxial to waveguide construction. The latter material results in a
transition is fitted with a small horn (fi g. 1). The particularly lightweight construction eminently
horn takes a square form when viewed from the suitable for portable work.

/~
/ I

5 5 ~ 5 -- i
b\o I
/: I
'<, I
- 129
1
-ri=====r=~~;!=============.:r

soldered Iu-fort 1/ ",·(on.,.. t 1or

I
;!
-~-
I
Materia l. (o~er clad epoxyglass
or SRPB l1.6mm I

f-- - - - - - - - - 17B- - - - - - - - -

- - - - -- - - - 2 3 0 1- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Fig . 6: Dim ensions of w ide band primary rad iator Fig . 7 : Top view

50
VHF -COMMUN ICAT IONS 1/86

Fig . 8: View into aperature

The coa xial input couplin g is carr ied out by means The completed horn is treated both internally and
of a normal panel -mountin g N socket , the four externally with a plastic spray film in orde r to
mounting -screws of which form the groun d bon- protect it from the elements. The aperature may
ding - the nuts being soldered to the (inside) be sealed with a piece of 10 mm thick expand ed
copper film. The launch-probe consists of a 6 x 1 polystyrene.
mm brass tube solde red axially to the N socket
centre connection pin. The end of this tube is
tapped to allow an M 5 x 10 mm screw to provide 3.
variable length adjustment of the launch-prob e TEST RESULTS
- with locking nut. It is also recommended that
provis ion be made to make the launch-probe I
input connector asse mbly variable in position with The test measur ements were undertaken by
respect to the back wall of the feed- horn. The Guenter Schwarzbeck DL 1 BU (well-known
match ing can then be optimized to suit a particu- technical reviewer) in the cours e of a large
lar band of frequencies. The feed-horn , photo- invest igatio n into primary radiator s. The feed-
graphed in figs . 1 and 8, has a 55 mm spacing horn built by the author and shown in the photo-
from the back wall resulting in a return loss graphs was used .
greater than 15 dB at 1250 and 1450 MHz. By Fig. 2 shows the result of the gain measurement
means of 10 mm slots the asse mbly may be in comparison with a calibrated test-horn . The
adjusted ± 5 mm , from the nomina l 55 mm , thus band-filter characteristic of the feed -horn, with its
allowing an optimal adjustment at 1296 MHz. clearly defined limiting frequencies , will be
The launch-probe length influences the feed-ho rn recognized.
matching - the prototype is set to 32 mm long.
The following table 1 gives the work ing gain of the
At the transition of the horn flare -out, the discon- horn-radiator toge ther with its 3 dB and 10 dB
tinuity in the PCB copper cladding must be brid- bea mwidths in both the E-and the H-planes. It
ged with thin-shee t copper strip, soldere d so thai may be seen that at 1296 MHz the E-and the
a uniform surface results. H-beamwidths are prac tically identical. Also , the
51
VHF-COMMUNICATIONS 1/86

1296 MHz 2320 MHz

DC8UG gain ref. isop 6.37 dBi 9.75 dBi All values in brackets
denote - 10 dB
Two-band 3 dB E-beamwidth 60° (146) 43° (81) beamwidth gains
Horn-rad iator 3 dB H-beamwidth 69° (140 ) 51° (100)
13 /23cm
ga in dBi 9.85dBi 12.6dBi
(from beamwidth)

These horn-rad iators were tested at the amateur frequencies of 1.3 GHz . 2.3 GHz . 3.4 GHz and
5.7 GHz : the weather-satellite frequency of 1.7 GHz was also partly included. The polar diagrams
were also taken . for a few horn-radiators. at the highest frequency afforded by the coax ial tech -
nique , 8.4 GHz . The beamwidth was 9° and the gain 25 dBi. The figures in brackets are the - 10 dB
beamwidth. this being an important parameter when using the radiator as a parabolic-antenna.
feed-horn .

Table 1

broadband radiator exhib its a gain of 6.4 dB at under the cut-off frequency (here at 1.1 GHz ) is
23 cm and 9.8 dB at 12 cm with reference to an unrea l (inductive) thus simulat ing a highly reac-
isotrop ic radiator . tive choke .
Figures 3 and 4 show the polar diagrams for the
amateur bands . Finally . fig . 9 shows that the
return loss / SWR . in the usable frequency range . 4.
is better than 10 dB / 2 : 1. The high-pass charac - CONCLUSION
teristics of the rectangular wavegu ide may also
be clear ly seen . The characteristic impedance

Th is two-band radiator is characterized by its


simple construction. its low weight and its ver-
satil ity. It will be of interest for contest and por-
table stations which are active in the frequency
range between 1.2 and 2.4 GHz . Amateurs who .
Two-band and broadband horn antennae (OCBUG) until now . have used their parabolas only for
MA TCHI NG ( VSWR/ Ret ur n l o ss ) ver sus t req .
weather satellite recept ion can now install this
001 . .. . I ... ~

' ·~
!~E ~~ ·'. ~ · '~
· 0 dB feed-horn and use it for both . send and receive on
5 dB the neighbouring amateur bands.
2 •: J j . . .. . · l OdB
1.5
. .. . .. . l5dB
20dB
1.1 25dB 5.
lOdB REFERENCES:
l5dB
.40dB
f= 0 5 GHz
(1) Neie. C.:
DC8UG t wo· band hor n , 13em and 23cm r et ur n loss
Multi-Band-Strahler 1 - 12 GHz .
Fig . 9: Matching versus frequency DUBUS-Info 2 / 1980. Pages 66 - 76
52
VHF·CO MMUNICA TIONS 1/86

Harjo Schroeter, OK 3 VF and Willy van Oriesche, ON 6 VO

D igital Pictu re Storage fo r SSTV ,


FAX and WEFAX

The digital pioture store (1) pub lished a few fancy. It is, howeyer, possible for the digi-
years ago by YU 3 UMV processes AM signals tal picture storage to be so modified, and
using a 2400 Hz sub-carrler sent from the extended, that all the current WEFAX, FAX
weather satellites. These weather satellite and SSTV transmissions may be reproduced.
facsimile (WEFAX) transmissions are related
to the various other facs imile emissions This may be carried out, as ON 6 VO has , by
(FAX) and slow-scan television (SSTV). modification (greatly) to the or iginal YU 3 UMV
Unfortunately, the transmission standards pr inted circuit boards and by developing
took the ir own ind iv idual paths mak ing an other, supplementary boards. On the other
eventual common standard, such as that hand , a new , but fairly large board is des-
discussed by ON 6 VO In (2), on ly a flight of cribed here which will embody all the neces-

.av

OK 3VF 001

: 4(X) Hz
~5
AM - . 12V. 0 5 A
'54 FM-
153 Dernod Modu la tor
152
151 15.

FM
convert er
AM
Rx I()I and
memor y

03 -
02 -
- - -
- --, 50;OL
3 0 0 1

DIN -$ot ~ e t 10J

NF
B<m
sync s ec-c e se lec t
SSTV- Syn c.
Dete ctor

Fig. 1: Block diag ram

53
VHF-COMMUNI CATION S 1/86

sary modifications, such as combined control sions. The modulation being recorded in one
electronics and memory and a few other channel, and the 2.4 kHz sub-carrier on the other
components normally mounted elsewhere, channel.
such as tuning indicator, switches, sockets
etc. In this relatively simple manner, a really
versatile picture receiver has been created. 2.
The many owners of YU 3 UMV boards, who CIRCUIT DETAILS
have followed the published modifications to
the original circuit will already have had
enough advice upon how to proceed with
further modifications. It would be going too far to describe again the
circuitry of the YU 3 UMV equipment. Instead,
only those circuits which have been modified will
be dealt with . The reference at (1) must be at
1. hand, in any case, for the reconstruction des-
CONCEPT cribed here to be undertaken. In order to proceed
systematically , all the relevant circuit diagrams
are reviewed in table 1 as follows : -

The equipment comprises, as fig. 1 indicates, a) YU 3 UMV 001 circuits


one large and four small functional circuits, a Fig. 3: remains unmodified
five-pole socket and various switches. The Fig. 4: PLL and frequency divider modified;
WEFAX amplitude-modulated (AM) signals, from becomes here fi g . 2
either a recorder or directly from a radio receiver, Fig. 5: ADC 0804 changed to 1.25 MHz by
are processed in the manner described in (1). An reducing capacitor at I 107 pin 4
FM demodulator with tuning indicator and an AM from 82 pF to 56 pF
modulator has been fitted for the reception of FAX Fig. 6: Tone decorder and sync. logic
transmissions . This functions by converting the changed ; becomes here fig. 3
FM signal into an AM signal which can be further Fig. 7: remains unmodified
processed in exactly the same manner as a Fig. 8: An 8 V stabilizer 7808 has been ad-
WEFAX signal (3). A further supplementary ded and + 12 V supply decoupled
circuit for the reproduction of SSTV will be discus- with 10 !J. F tantalum
sed later in more detail.
5V
In order to keep the wiring and cabling within RPM
bounds, one large board is to be preferred to 12 104 480
1104 11 105 240
several small ones. This board requires one 402 4 1 " 7 12 0
9
supply potential of 12 volts, the auxiliary supplies 6 ~. 60
159 960
of + 8.5, + 5 and - 5 volts being derived from on-
board sources . The design has also taken into ac-
count the proposals given in (4) and (5) which, by
DK3V FOO l
means of divider and transistor , provide picture
displacement and also provide the RAMs with
7 '" 3 Rl 5
pull-up resistors. The latter must, however, be 1103 11 4k 7 4 k
placed in an upright position in order to conserve 4046 Rl1
space. They are connected together at their - --t--1'4 '2f-=.)---l;9-!
upper extremity and then taken to the + 5 volt ;:~:"1Z s~,~~, 5
L.;:---,8r -_ _ +9
2
-+ ...J 4k7 1.,7k

supply . ~H 330k 4k7 0,1


151
Finally, it may be worth mentioning, that provision
has been made for a stereo tape recorder to Fig . 2 : Augmented circui t fo r reception of 15 Hz
record and reproduce all AM and FM transmis- SSTV (USA) and 960 RPM FAX

54
VHF·COMMUNICATIONS 1/86

Fig .3 :
Mod if ied tone
decoder and
syn chronizing
log ic

~ OK 3VF 123
001
120
18
19
au tos t a r t
~ := ~ 5 : I 11 5 = ~0 1 1
6 = 1 1 1 6:~011
1~ ()Cl ul os l op M5B

R 201 Honz pc s.uon C 201 Picture width


· 5V
303 ~'
,
7 1000
eo< 2 lOOn!. 16 1'" Ui1S 5k 6 10k ·
R 201

··.·HZ
'-. - + - --jf-' I \1
I 210
• ' 74 LS 123 ,

1 209 I
CD ~O I II" 100ol -
:~1()'-;~~_ I
t;.TU'f TV S¥tJC I
560p =
Line coun ter
PE
.S V 1101 5 j
· 5V
~
' ~I----=-+::":'-
· 5V
- - -t- + - + f-- - -74LSOO
- -- --t-- t--t-t--
I 211

1. I ~ l,
'k 8
3
1
I 215
7~ LS 113 , -5V

s 9
litB
. . - = -.
I
.5 V

I 217
I 216
CD ~ 011 7~ L SO ~

Write
command

Fig . 4 : Mod if ied circu it fo r TV sync . and horizontal sync.

55
VHF-COMMUNICA TIONS 1/86

.,::;:::;:.,
M <D

., -c
..... :::tNJ:
I ., .,
('?)::I: e5l:I: LfI :?..c :2
., .,
r--J: .... I I
~et::2c:: <tD::<tC( <. a::<tCt: ~ cr ~ a:
I I I
~
-S V "" "" " "" · SV

ASEL
R!W
T f . f I I
T'OOn J§l&1L ~ ,J§l.lli.1L ~
CIH 3 3 3 3

<m
t;
Scroll 5
7
d 7
"
5 tz, " tz,
~, :fj
5
clock 6 6 6 6
122 1 I 222 I 223 I 224
10 '6 74 LS 74LS 74LS 74LS
13 13 13 13
16 12 18 17 153
,~
17 153
u., 17 152
>L '7
153
u.,
11
I'l CO 40 40 "
'0 10 "
1C "
10

9 7 6 5 3 7 "13
-- , 15 11
2L'~ ---
6 1 15

,-c::r=-
7'2
. 5V

. m n. ~
B C 182
145

~ 4k
I
14 5

ou nrer I
, l.1 2 13 3 5;;r;; 7 10 1 f.
r
1213 315 1111. 210 33'
±- . IOn
Pt707

~f
.!2.-.SV 16
· 5V
Clock
I 219
C04029
-.J
9 .~
I 220
CD 40 29
Y .LJ. 100 n
L5 7 15
. ~.
61.

Fig . 5: Mod if ied circu it fo r vert ical sync. and address multiplex

lOOk

">!...........-------,:=f:r::- --~--- Ub 7
14 13 12 11 98
1125 160
LM 2907 z video
indiku to r
LLUJ:...J-----~z.AM Modulator

DK3VF001
z .SSTV Sync
1 126 detector
ICL 7641

Fig . 6: Add itional circu it FM demodulator

56
VHF ·CO MMUNICAT ION S 1/86

b) YU 3 UMV 002 circuits


Fig. 13 : remains unmodified
Fig. 14: modified ; becomes here fi g.4
Fig. 15: modified; becomes here fig . 5
Fig. 16: remains unmodified
c) New circuits
Fig . 6 : FM demodulator
Fig. 7: AM modulator
Fig. 8 : Tuning indicator =0
Fig . 9 : auxiliary circuit for line selection
Fig . 10: auxiliary circuit for picture
tl7P
displacement Fig . 7 : Ad d it io nal c ircuit AM m o dulator
Fig . 11: SSTV sync. detector
Fig . 13: PCB OK 3 VF 001 connections
diagram
Table 1: Review of relevant diagrams

In order that FAX signals can be processed, the frequency (fig. 7). This is accomplished in a
FM signal must first of all be demodula ted into a CA 3080 chip. In order that the 2.4 kHz signal
video signal (fig. 6). It must then be filtered and may be used for synchronizing the following
amplified with an operational amplifier such as picture memory, this crystal oscillator should be
type TL 084, or better still, the ICL 7641. The adjusted exactly to its nominal frequency by
signal, at this point, could be easily inverted or a means of a counter.
choice made, in a simple fashion, between a
Upon initial reception of a FAX transmission,
positive and a negative picture but without in-
there is always the problem of the correct adjust-
fluence to the position of the synchroniz ing
ment of the picture dynamic range. A good adjust-
pulses.
ment guide can be obtained by displaying the
The following amplitude modulator, modulates video signals on a linear scale. The start tones,
the video signal on to a 2.4 kHz carrier which has maximal black and white appear symmetrically
been derived from a 4915.2 kHz crystal-control - disposed about the middle of the scale, thereby
led oscillator and appropriately scaled down in indicating the amount and direction the correction

. 8V

10k 22 10
- k k - r---
1 18 17 16 15 1413 12 11 10 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10

LM 3914 LM 3914
2 3 4 56 78 9 123 456 789
.1 I 1 .1 4* l-

4.7k -;.'1t 12k


22 " .. 160 Pk lk
10 k I DK3VF Fig . 8 : Add it iona l c ir cu it tun ing indi ca tor

57
VHF- COMMUNICATIONS 1/86

5V DK3 VF
16
109 1130
130
10 4040

Fig. 9 : Ad d it ional c ircuit for lin e sele ction Fig . 10: Addit ional circuit for p icture sh ift

should take . Such a sca le is show n in fig. 8 selected by the SSTV 1 I SSTV 2 switch (f ig s. 5
which comprises twenty LEOs controlled by two and 12).
LM 3914 linear driver chi ps. This complete circuit
The SSTV sync . pulse is extracted by the com-
is made using a small PCB which can be mounted
parator shown in fig . 11. Upon reception of a tone
directly on to the front panel.
of between 1100 and 1300 Hz and of longer than
In order that the equipmen t may be used for 4 ms durati on , the comparato r produces an im-
several FAX norms and l or speeds, the divider pulse (Pt 147).
I 123 has been added (f ig. 9). Th is enables a
The sync . frequency of the analogue-to-digital
choise to be made of whethe r all lines are to be
con verter AOC 0804 must around 1.25 MHz. For
stored , very other , or every third, fourth or fifth .
this , a capacitor of 56 pF is required at pin 4 and
In practice , only three of the five possi bilities are
the period is adjusted by R 106 to about 0.8 !'-s.
normally used for the rece ption of FAX signals .
Should SSTV stations be received which are
The correct speed for SSTV pictu res is 960
usin g 15 lines per second (USA), the VCO
revolu tions per minute (RPM) or 16 lines per
frequency of PLL 1103 (fig. 2) should be lowered
second (2). The switch positions in fig. 2 have
from 38 .4 kHz (16 x 2.4 kHz) to 35 .2 kHz (16 x
been extended to a fifth position to cater for this
2.2 kHz). For this, the connecting point Pt 151 has
requirement. This switch may also be used to
been prov ided which must be switched to ground .
enlarge the size of the pictur e.
The exact frequency is adjusted by means
Two SSTV pictures may be stored in the memory , of preset R 111. The original frequency for

vFM Demodulator

...---- I--r----r-----r----~>--~ . 5V

21<2 18 k 18 k J';
470 158
1300'
R117 220

470
11 0Hz
R 18 21<2
DK3 VF

J 129 Fig .11 :


LM 339 Add it ional circuit for SS TV sync. detector

58
VHF-COMMUNIC ATIONS 1/86

n0r
Fig . 12:
1 ~1.11 Four examples of

s r < RT ' , 300 Hz


. 1 1"1' ... <;,
J VI 'JLL
sync hro ni zing i n
a FAX tra ns mi s sion

STOP wo SO Hz

.. ~ 'P
OK 3VF
" 1(.
D
A 1'\

. II ,lV
Uvv
~ J' ~ 5 '10 <o f' t .'
300 HZ
4 50Hz

50 °10
625 Hz ':'50 Hz

'ac ~ 5 °/0 .. rnt e


300 Hz
200Hz

European SSTV , 38.4 kHz, is adjusted by R 105 A / 0 converter, either inverted or upright, cor-
when Pt 151 is not grounded . responding either to white or 10 black.
A solution for case 3 would be achieved by means
2.1. Automatic synchronizing circuit of an RS flip-flop which is primed by the start tone
and reset shortly following the synchronizing-
The auto-synchronizing circuit described by YU 3
pulse leading edge. About 1.5 seconds is chosen
UMV operates only with the communication
for the 5 % sync. pulse and about 3.5 seconds for
format similar to the single pulse sync. utilized by
the 50 % sync. pulse as used by the French
METEOSAT . In the FAX technique, however ,
METEO station. If the start flip-flop has been
there are other modes (fig. 12), which require
reset, the line counter can no longer receive any
other types of synchron izing circuits , such as:
further synchronizing pulses . The process can
1. The possibility to chose between "black" and only start anew if another start pulse, manual or
"white" sync. pulses. with 300 /625 Hz tone, is applied.
2. The possibility to chose between various start
As the synchronization of NOAA or METEOR
and stop frequencies .
pictures can be easily undertaken by hand, the
3. The most difficult case, i. e. when the synchro-
decoder and synchron izing logic (fi g. 3) for the
nizing pulse is not sent directly after the start
above cases were modified. The tone decoder
tone (f ig. 12 lowest example).
I 113 and I 114 are tuned to the start tone 300 or
Case 1 in fig. 12 has the possibility to synchonize 625 Hz whilst the stop-tone decoder I 112, was
bv using the MSB (most significant bit) from the made switchable between 200 and 450 Hz. .
59
VH F-COMMUNI CATI ONS 1/86

55 rv s yr- - oo

.....,r t - -- - - - - - j157 108 .5 V 158


RPM

OK 3 VF 001 IOC ' 011 ' 1 "

~OO H Z 155

150 HZ 1~
mon syn

po s
153 1 - - - - - ; oOU I O D"'l:.

Fig. 13 : External connection s to PCB DK 3VF 001

step by step, each circuit being tested upon com-


3. pletion. Piecemeal testing is necessary because
CONSTRUCTION eventual faults would be very difficult to locate on
a completed unchecked board . In principle, inte-
grated-circuit holders are unnecessary but they
As mentioned in the introduction, the whole cir- come in handy in the rare event that a chip proves
cuit with the except ion of the tuning indicator, is defective. If holders are used , only good -quality
accommoda ted on a single printed circuit board. types should be chosen.
This board is through-contacted, 200 x 200 mm
Above all, pay strict attention to the anti-static
in dimens ion and designated OK 3 VF 001 (f ig.
measures when handling the CMOS chips.
14). The tuning indicator board OK 3 VF 002 is
The RAM 4164 pull-up resistors (8 x 1 k and
singlesided and 107 x 29 mm in dimension (f i9 .
2 x 470 fl ) are mounted vertically, connec ted
15 ).
together at their upper-connecting leads and
The construction is commenced ,most usefully, suppl ied with + 5 V.
with the power supply. The board requires 12 V
Around the tone-decorder chips (11 12 to 114),
at 500 mA when fully comple ted, other voltage s
tantalum decoupling capacitors should be
are supplied by integrated circu it stabilizers,
employed . The other capacitors and resistors
7808 and 7805 together with a 555 multivibrator
should be of a modern construction in order that
timer chip for the - 5 V supply. The latter, ne-
they suit the normalized component-lead hole
gative supply is necessary for the A / 0 converter spacing used on the PCB. Preset resistors are the
and the video output. After the power-supp ly
horizontal type using the 10 / 5 mm fixing grid.
portions have been completed, they are tested at
The four doubl e-pole change-over switches with
once .
a centre rest position are for: SSTV - stop -
The further construction should also proceed FAX, auto - manual, sync . select and SSTV I -
60
VHF-COMMUN ICATIONS 1/86

Fig . 14: Component lay out on PCB DK3VF 001

FAX - SSTV II. The push-button switches are toggle switch SPOT: left / right
used for left and right picture displacement. toggle switch SPOT: SSTV Europe / USA
The other switching functions utilize ten toggle toggle switch OPOT : mains on / off
switches. For more detailed information see SPOT with centre rest: auto start / stop
fig . 13 and table 2. OPOT with centre rest: select sync. source
(Crystal / APT / tape)
OPOT with centre rest: select sync. type (auto
white / man. / auto
Rotary switch x 5: 60 to 960 revs black)
Rotary switch x 5: 1 to 5 line store OPOT with centre rest: line sync. SSTV /
Rotary switch x 3: Rec. 1, Rec. 2, Stop / FAX
taperecorder OPOT with centre rest: 128 lines SSTV pic.
toggle switch SPOT: positive - negative 1 / FAX /1 28 Iines
toggle switch SPOT: ± 400 Hz / ± 150 Hz SSTV pic. 2
toggle switch SPOT: AM - FM Push-button SPST : left shift
toggle switch SPOT: stop 200 Hz - Push-button SPST: right shift
stop 450 Hz
toggle switch SPOT: up /down Table 2: Switc h fu nctions
61
VHF-COMMUNI CAT ION S 1/86

Fig. 15:
Compo nent layout on
PCB DK3VF 002

P11 P2 = 10k on t he s ol us r si de

3.1. Main components 2 19. 1 22 0: 4029


22 1 ... I 224: 74 LS 153
10 1: LM 324
225 . I 230 : 41 64
102: 4069
23 1: 74 LS 174
103 : 40 46
232 : OAC 0800
104 : 4024
I 233 LM 733
105.1 122: 400 7
23 LEOs
106 : 74 LS 30 N
Indicator board : 2 " LM 3914
107 : AOC 0804
1 »: 49 15.2 kHz crys tal : (Grund ton HC- 18 I U)
108 : 405 1
2 foi l trimm ers (Valvo green 20 pF )
109 : 4024
Presets . 10 / 5 mm grid
110, I 115.1 116.
117.1 209 . 1 216 : 4011
111: 4503 500 n 50 kll
112.1 113. 1 114: 567
1 18: 4027 2 4
119 : 451 8
120: 7805
121 : NE 55 5
123 : 401 8
124 : 7808
125: LM 2907 4.
126 : ICL 7641 ADJUSTME NT
127 : CA3080
128. 1 130.1 2 18: 4040
129 : LM 339
First of all, the new or modified circuits (import-
20 1: 4094
ant ly the AM / FM co nve rte r and the tuning in-
202: 401 7
dicator) will be co nsidered . It mus t be men tioned
203: 4001
that the tw o prese ts on the indica tion board are
204 : 40 13
mou nted upright.
205. 1 206. 1 208 : 4029
207 : 4020 All trimmers and presets should initially be set to
210 . I 2 12: 74 LS 123 thei r mid-range posi tion . Start ing with the indi-
21 1: 74 LS 00 ca to r module and witho ut input signal: pos. 1 neg .
2 13, I 2 14: 74 LS 169 sw itch at "pos." , by adjusting the associated
2 15: 74 LS 113 4 .7 k npreset pote ntiometer to ca us e LEO 1
2 17: 74 LS 04 (only) to illuminate. Now swi tch to "neg ." and

62
VHF ·CO MMUNICATIONS 1186

with the othe r preset cau se LED 20 (onl y) to Its nom ina l frequency With a coun te r and then.
illuminate. As these presets are Interac tive in after a week or so of con tinuo us operation . fine
their ellect upon the LEOs. some ite ration adj usted against a cou nter hav ing a time base
between the two co ntrols is necessary in order wh ich can be chec ked aga ins t an ott-au stan dar d
to illuminate either LED 1 or LED 20 at the ap - WWV. MS F. DC F 77 etc .
propna te setting of the pos. / neg . swi tch.
Th e adjus tment of the ton e decoder I 112. I 113
Now isola te Pt 153 (pos.) and with preset R 113 and I 114 IS earned ou t With Ine frequencies given
ca use LED 11 to illuminate. Connect Pt. 153 In fig . 3.
aga in and feed In a 1900 Hz input signal. Adjust The co rrect acjustrnent can be made With a volt-
preset R 112 such that LED 11 Illuminates me ter or a DC oscilloscope on pin 8 of the ap-
whe reas preset 114 ( = 400 Hz) remains at us propriate IC .
mid- scal e settrnq .
Feed in a signal of 1500 Hz swi tch to "pos .. and
to i: 400 Hz. Preset R 114 is now adjusted In
order that LED 1 (only) is lit. T hen apply 1750 Hz .
switch to 1: 150 Hz and adjus t prese t R 115 in
order that again. LED 1 illuminates . Vary the 5.
input frequ ency between 1750 and 2050 Hz (still RE FERENCES
switched to :!:. 150 Hz) and chec k that the applied
signal co rres pon d s with the illu mina tion of the
appr opriate LED on the frequency scale . Swuch
( 1) Vidm ar . M.. YU 3 UMV :
to the 1: 400 Hz range and vary the signal from
A Digital Storag e and Scan Converte r for
1500 to 2300 Hz and again chec k the accu racy of
Weather Satellite Imag es
the LED indica tor scale.
Part 1: VHF COM MUNICATIONS Vol. 14.
Tab le 3 will help to clarify the foreg oing Ed. 4 / 1982 , Pages 194 . 208
procedur e : Part 2: VH F COMMUNICATIONS Vol. 15.
Ed . 1 / 1983. Pages 12 - 25
(2) Van Onescne. W., ON 6 VD .
Sugg estion for Standardizinq SSTV and FA X
Transmissions
Sw itch LED 1 LED 11 LED20
VHF CO MMU NICATIONS Vol. 16,
± 400 Hz 1500 Hz 1900 Hz 2300 Hz Ed. 3 / 1984, Page 181
± 150 Hz 1750 Hz 1900 Hz 2050 Hz (3) Drs. Knoell , T :
FM / AM Co nve rter for Facsimile Recept ion
and Picture Display with the YU 3 UMV
Tab le 3 : Adj ustment po i nts fo r the two ra nges Pictur e Store
VHF COMMUNICATIONS Vol. 17,
Ed . 3 /1985 , Pag es 169 - 172
(4) Editors :
Preliminary Experien ce with the Digital
Storage Modu le described by YU 3 UMV
VHF COMMUNI CATION S Vol. 15,
The potentiom eter in the amplitud e modul ator
Ed. 2 /1983 , Pages 9 1 - 92
circuit CA 3080 (f ig . 7) varies the depth of
(5) Pietsch, H.-J .:
modulation and thereby the pictur e contrast. This
FAX - SST V
control is best adjusted during the reprodu ct ion of
Hadio-Prak tiker-Bucherei . Band 154
a picture. O ptimum : 1 to 10 between min . and
(Franzis-Verlaq Munchen)
max . leve l of sub-carrier.
(6) Wireless World ,
The crys tal oscillator should be set initially to Ed. 12 /1976 to Ed. 7 /1977
63
VHF -COMMU NICATIONS 1/86

MATERIAL PRICE LIST OF EQUIPMENT


described in edition 1 1986 of VHF COMMUNICATIONS

DL5 NP 80-Channel Handheld Transceiver Art No. Ed. 1 1986


for the 2 m Band
PC-board OL 5 NP 00 1 double-sided . single-etched. silvered. 6948 OM 31 .-
without cornp . plan . bored
Kit DL 5 NP 001 w ith all compone nts 6951 OM 389. -

DK3 VF Dig ital Pic t ure Storage for SSTV . FAX and WEFAX Ed. 1 1986
PC-board OK 3 VF 00 1 double-sided . throplated 6942 OM 99.-
PC-board OK 3 VF 002 single-sided. not bored 6943 OM 16.-
K it OK 3 VF 001 I both PC-board s and all 6944 OM 630 .-
OK 3 VF 002 com ponents

You can now order magazines , kits etc. using


your Eurocard or VISA Cred it Card !
E U R O CAR O
We only require the order against your
signature , the card number and its expiry date .
tis' VHF COMMUNICATIONS / UKW-BERICHTE

k ~berichIe Teny D. mllao · Ja""I,. 14 . Po,lIa," 80 ·0-8523 Ba;e" dorl


Tel. West Germany 9 133 47-0 . For Representatives see cover page 2
64
New . New . New· Now available ex stock

Interface "slave 10"


for the satellite rotator systems
-
KR 5400 and KR 5600

Stock -Nr . 1001 OM 590.- •


ON

(incl. connection cable)

• fully-automatic antenna tracking system for satellite communications


• connection to any computer possible via RS 232
• resolution of the dual-channel A / D converter amounts to 10 bits
• OSCAR 10 software for the C 64 available
• connection to existing rotator systems possible

Table of commands:
command response func tion

R CR R CR rotation clockwise
System 's
L CR L CR rotation counter clockwise block
U CR U CR rotationup
D CR D CR rotation down diagram
S CR S CR all rotators stop
V CR V CR rota tor stop vert.
H CR H CR rotator stop honz. Hor. Vert.
G xxxxyyyy CR G CR preset position Rot or Rotor
F CR f' xxxxyyyy CR interrogation position

oooc Verncal pos itron (4 dlg ,ts)


yyyy : Honzonla l posit ion (4 dlgllS)
CR: CARRIAGE RETURN

Technical data :
Control box
Data excha nge:
KR 5400/5600
3-wire asynchron . lull duplex
input and output negative or
positive
Data forma t: 1 start bit Interface
8 data bits
2 stop bits SLAVE 10
Baud rate: 1200B / s
Power supply: 14 V unstab. via control box
KR 5400 or KR 5600
Dimensions : w x h x d = 160 x 80 x 130 mm COMPUTER

Special accessories :
Software on diske tte for C 64 Art. nr. 1100 OM 48.-

Satell ite rotator systems :


KR 5400 Art. nr. 1013 OM 809.-
KR 5600 Art. nr. 1014 OM 1070.-
You should know
whafs behind our sign
Weare the only Eur op ean Our R + D engineers are
manufacturers of these con stantly working wi th
Miniature TCXQ's new technology to
develop new produc ts.
ceo 102, CCO 103, We c an offer techni cal
CCO 104, CCO 152 advice for your new
modulable table projects or manufacture
higher stability than a agains t your specification.
quartz cry stal:
less than ± 3 ppm over
the temperature range Quartz crystal units in
-30 to -eo-c (types B) the frequency range
low ageing rate: from 800 kHz to 360
less than 1ppm p er MHz Microprocessor
ye ar. oscillators (TCXO's,
wide frequency range: VCXO's , OCXO's)
10MHz to 80 M Hz crystal components
low supply voltage: according to customer's
+5V specifications
low current consump tion:
3 rnA max. (series eeo 102)
small outlines: eeo 104 = 2,6 crn -, eeo 102/152 = 3,3 c rn-,
eeo 103 = 4,0 em-
widespread app lications e.g. as channel ele me nts or refere nce
oscillators in UHF radios (450 and 900 M Hz range)

Types CCO IOZ CCO I0 3 CCOI04


A B I F A I B I F A I B I F
I
Fre q. range 1O- 80 MHz 6.4 - 25M Hz 1O- 80 MHz

-3 0 to +600c -30 to +60°C

~
stab ility -30 to +600C
vs temp . ran g e

Curre nt max.3mA max. l OrnA max . lO rnA C CO lSZ 0102A+B


co nsumption atU B = + 5V atUB ~ +5V aI UB '" + 5V me size as CC \}
sa
eluJalion input IYP.1!<Hzl
inpu t -10 dB/ SOOhm TI' L-compatible Od B/ SOOhm mO
vialion :
eleoel,frequencY,. DC to 10\<.Hz
sign al (Fan-ou t 2) 20\<.Obm
rn
~

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Telefon 0 72 68/1003 . Te le x 782359 tq a . Tel e fax 07268/ 1435