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THE GENERAL ACCEPTABILITY OF DRAGON FRUIT

(Hylocereus undatus) EXTRACT AS AN ALTERNATIVE


INK FOR BALLPOINT PENS1
2
3
A Senior High School Research
Presented to the Faculty of
STI College Southwoods
Maduya, Carmona, Cavite
1
2
In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the
Subject Practical Research 1
12
3
1
by:
Abanto, Aeron Marll
Bucud, Mariel Ann
Burgos, James Ryan
Chico, Carlos Daniel
Odiamar, Rejoyce
Paculdo, Jorilyn
Sanchez, Joyce
1
2
STEM 301

OCTOBER 2018
APPROVAL SHEET

In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Practical Research, this research

paper entitled “THE GENERAL ACCEPTABILITY OF DRAGON FRUIT

(Hylocereus undatus) EXTRACT AS AN ALTERNATIVE INK FOR BALLPOINT

PENS” prepared by Aeron Marll Abanto, Carlos Daniel Chico, Mariel Ann Bucud,

James Burgos, Joyce Odiamar, Jorilyn Paculdo, Joyce Zin Sanchez.

MS. KRISTINE CERENADO


Adviser

Approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Practical Research

2 course by the committee of Oral examiners with a grade of _______.

MR. JAMES LABRADA


Chairperson

MR. ANGELO ALVAREZ MS. MARIA JIRLYN ESPIRITU


Member Member

Accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Practical Research 2.

MS. ANNA MARIE ALITAGTAG


Assistant Principal, SHS

Date: _______________________
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ACKNOWLEGEMENT

This is one of the most significant academic challenges we have faced. It is

made possible through the help and support from everyone, including: parents, teachers,

family, friends, colleagues, and in essence, all sentient beings. Especially, please allow

us to dedicate our acknowledgement of gratitude that we owe toward the following:

• First and foremost, we would like to thank God for His unconditional guidance

and wisdom as we make our research.

• Second, we would like to thank our instructor, Ms. Kristine Cerenado, for her

most support and encouragement for giving us this research.

• Third, to the participants of our research survey to whom we are truly grateful

of their participation.

• Finally, we sincerely thank our parents, family, and friends, who provide the

advice and financial support.

This research project gives us the experience on how to cooperate and engage

ourselves in a serious project. The project of this research paper would not be possible

would not be possible without all of them.

Thank you very much, everyone!

Jorilyn A. Paculdo and Colleagues

STI College Southwoods, October 12, 2018

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DEDICATION

The researchers dedicate this research study to God Almighty who has been

their source of inspiration, wisdom, knowledge, and understanding. He has been the

source of their strength through out the process of this research.

The researchers would also like to dedicate this research study with their special

feeling of gratitude to their ever-loving and ever-supporting parents who has been

supporting them in all their endeavors.

Also, to Ms. Kristine Cerenado, the researcher’s adviser, who enhanced their

skills more and guided them every step of the way.

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ABSTRACT

Name of the Institution: STI College Southwoods

Address: Lot 2A , Maduya, Carmona, Cavite

Title: The General Acceptability of Dragon Fruit (Hylocerus undatus) Extract as an

Alternative Ink for Ballpoint Pens

Researchers:

Abanto, Aeron Marll Odiamar, Rejoyce

Bucud, Mariel Ann Paculdo, Jorilyn

Burgos, James Ryan Sanchez, Joyce

Chico, Carlos Daniel

Adviser: Ms. Kristine Anec Cerenado

Date Started: June 2018

Date Completed: October 2018

Objective of the Study:

This study aimed to test the general acceptability of Dragon Fruit extract as an

alternative ink for ballpoint pens.

Specifically, it attempted to answer the following questions:

1. Can Dragon Fruit extract be an alternative ink for ballpoint pens?

2. How acceptable is the Dragon Fruit extract as an alternative ink for ballpoint pens in

terms:

a. Writing Performance?

iv
b. Permanence?

c. Drying Time?

d. Readability?

e. Impact Resistance?

Restate Hypothesis:

Based on the research questions identified, the proponents formulated the

following hypotheses:

1. Ho: Dragon Fruit extract cannot be an alternative ink for ballpoint pens.

Ha: Dragon Fruit extract can be an alternative ink for ballpoint pens.

2. Ho: Dragon Fruit extract is not acceptable as an alternative ink for ballpoint pens in

terms:

a. Writing Performance

b. Permanence

c. Drying Time

d. Readability

e. Impact Resistance

Ha: Dragon Fruit extract is acceptable as an alternative ink for ballpoint pens in terms:

a. Writing Performance

b. Permanence

c. Drying Time

d. Readability

e. Impact Resistance

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Research Methodology:

The research design used in the study was experimental method. The

experimental method was a type of research design wherein one variable was

manipulated. In this case, the variable that was manipulated in the study was the

Dragon Fruit extract.

On the other hand, the experimental design used in this study was a single-group

design. Single group design was a type of experimental design wherein a specific

subject was treated and then measured and observed. In this case, the subject being

treated was the Dragon Fruit extract while its general acceptability as an alternative ink

for ballpoint pens was the data being measured and observed.

Summary of Findings:

This study was conducted to test the general acceptability of Dragon Fruit

extract as an alternative ink for ballpoint pens.

Based on the gathered data, the researchers can infer that:

1. Out of 30 cluster sample of Senior High School students of STI College Southwoods,

100% said that Dragon Fruit extract is effective as an alternative ink for ballpoint pens

in terms writing performance.

2. 66.67% of the 30 respondents said that the writing using ballpoint pen with Dragon

Fruit extract ink is incapable of erasing.

3. Out of 30 respondents, 50% of them said that the writings using ballpoint pen with

Dragon Fruit extract ink can dry easily.

4. 83.33% of the 30 respondents said that the writings using ballpoint pen with Dragon

Fruit extract ink were readable.

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5. Out of 30 respondents, 83.33% of them said that the ballpoint pen with Dragon Fruit

extract ink was still writing after dropping.

Conclusions:

Based on the Summary of Findings, the following conclusions and implications

were drawn:

1. Dragon Fruit extract can be an alternative ink for ballpoint pens.

2. Dragon Fruit extract is acceptable as an alternative ink for ballpoint pens in terms of

writing performance, permanence, drying time, readability, and impact resistance.

Recommendations:

Based on the conclusions that were based on the findings, the following are

recommended:

1. To test the shelf-life of the effectiveness of Dragon Fruit extract as an alternative ink

for ballpoint pens.

2. To try the Dragon Fruit extract as an alternative ink for other writing instrument aside

of ballpoint pens such as permanent marker, whiteboard marker, and highlighter.

3. To try other fruit extract besides of Dragon Fruit as a source of alternative organic

ink.

4. To compare the Dragon Fruit extract as an alternative ink for ballpoint pens to

commercial ballpoint pens in terms of writing performance, permanence, drying time,

readability, and impact resistance.

5. To improve the pigment of the Dragon Fruit extract as an alternative ink into more

dark color so that the writings will be more readable.

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6. To utilize other process in extracting Dragon Fruit to get the more acceptable pigment

of extract as an alternative ink for ballpoint pens.

7. To lengthen the course of the study by conducting further research.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Approval Sheet………………………………………………………………………...i

Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………………ii

Dedication……………………………………………………………………….…...iii

Abstract………………………………………………………………………………iv

Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………….ix

Chapter 1: The Problem and Its Background……………………………………….1

Introduction…………………………………………………………………....1

Background of the Study……………………………………………………….1

Conceptual Framework……………………………………………………...…3

Statement of the Problem………………………………………………………4

Hypothesis……………………………………………………………………..4

Significance of the Study………………………………………………………5

Scope and Limitations…………………………………………………………7

Definition of Terms……………………………………………………………8

Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature……………………………………………9

Foreign Literature……………………………………………………………...9

Local Literature………………………………………………………………10

Foreign Studies……………………………………………………………….10

Local Studies…………………………………………………………………11

Chapter 3: Methodology……………………………………………………………14

Research Design……………………………………………………………...14

Source of Materials…………………………………………………………...14

Ink Making Procedure………………………………………………………..15

Flow Chart of the Procedure………………………………………………….17

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Data Processing Method…………………………………………………...…18

Statistical Treatment………………………………………………………….18

Chapter 4: Presentation, Analysis, and Interpretation of Data………………...…19

Chapter 5: Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendations………………………23

Summary of Findings…………………………………………………………23

Conclusion……………………………………………………………………24

Recommendations……………………………………………………………24

Bibliography………………………………………………………………………...25

Appendices…………………………………………………………………………..28

Appendix A…………………………………………………………………...29

Appendix B…………………………………………………………………...31

Appendix C………………………………………………………………...…34

Appendix D…………………………………………………………………...36

Curriculum Vitae……………………………………………………………………43

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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

Ballpoint pens are writing materials first invented in America by John J. Loud.

The first ballpoint pens have a small steal balls that prevent the ink to fall apart. This

invention of John J. Loud is not commercially practical and could not be used. Later,

ballpoint pens are improved by Hungarian newspaper editor, Lazlo Biro. Lazlo Biro’s

innovation of ballpoint pens allows the ink to easily dry and prevent it to clog on the

steal balls of the pen (History of Pencils, 2018).

Ink is usually made of synthetic materials such as colorant, solvent, and resins

which result in a foul odor of the product. The materials used in ballpoint pens are

hazardous to both human health and the environment when exposure is acquired. As a

result, a research about the general acceptability of Dragon Fruit extract as an

alternative ink for ballpoint pens is conducted (Flournoy, 2018).

Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus undatus) is one of the most unique fruit in the world.

It is also known as pitaya or pitahaya and is usually rare in Western countries but

abundantly found in tropical countries such as Thailand, Vietnam, and Philippines. It

belongs to the family of cactuses. Its fruit is characterized by reddish-pink pigment, soft

pineapple-like spikes, and has abundant small-edible seeds (Mercola, 2013).

Background of the Study

Ballpoint pens are writing materials that has a ball as its tip. The ball serves as

the buffer between the ink and the medium of writing. It freely rotates as it emits the

ink outside the plastic reservoir and it is kept in place by a socket. The ball inside the
1
pens are tiny in shape that is why it is hard to visualize its movement as the user writes

with a ballpoint pen (Russel-Ausley, 2018).

Ink is a liquid or semi-liquid material used for writing, printing, and drawing. It

was defined also as a fine pigment particle that dispersed in an aqueous or organic

solvent. The earliest black writing ink was developed before 2500 B.C. which is made

of suspensions of carbon in water stabilized with a natural material (“Ink Chemistry”,

2018).

According to Flournoy, B. (2018), ink was composed of colorant, solvent, and

a resin. The colorant is a pigment or dye that gives ink its specific color. The solvent is

liquid that dissolves and transport ink colorant and ink resin through the sponge by

means of siphoning. The resin is a glue-like polymer that ensures the ink colorant sticks

to paper as the solvent evaporates.

Craston, G. (2018) said that toxic ingredients found in ink are a mixture of

solvents, dyes, and other chemicals. Serious poisoning will occur if you have direct

contact with skin. Symptoms of ink poisoning include eye and skin irritation.

Even though ink poisoning is very rare and seems not a major concern, keep

anything to be toxic out of the reach of children. Solvents are usually combustible and

highly volatile substance. Exposure to solvents may cause nausea, dizziness, acute

inhalation poisoning, and irritation to the skin ("Solvents", 2018).

However, Lehnhardt, P. (2018) stated that colored ink can be made of organic

materials. It could be made of coreopsis, avocado pit, black raspberry, black tea, and

black walnut. Other organic substances were added to make the ink last longer and not

fade quickly such as mordant, gum Arabic, and thyme oil.

On the other hand, Dragon fruit is a plant rare in Western countries but are

abundant in Asian Countries. It is a tropical fruit usually found in countries like


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Thailand, Malaysia, and Philippines. It belongs to a family of climbing cactus named

cacti (Cactaceae) family. Dragon Fruit can grow from moist to dry areas. Its flowers

only bloom at night thus it is usually called as “Lady of the Night”. Its plant can fruit

between four to six cycles a year and can be propagated easily by seeding or stem

cutting (Thulaja and Rahman, 2018).

As a result, a research about the general acceptability of Dragon Fruit extract as

an alternative ink for ballpoint pens was conducted. This research aimed to know the

effectiveness of Dragon Fruit extract to be a substitute for ballpoint pens ink in terms

of writing performance, permanence, drying time, readability, and impact resistance.

Conceptual/Theoretical Framework

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE DEPENDENT VARIABLE

General Acceptability of
Dragon Fruit Extract Dragon Fruit Extract as an
Alternative Ink for
Ballpoint Pens

Figure 1

Research Paradigm of the Independent and Dependent Variables of the Study “The

General Acceptability of Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus undatus) Extract as An

Alternative Ink for Ballpoint Pens”

In this study, the independent variable was the Dragon Fruit extract. The

dependent variable was the general acceptability of Dragon Fruit extract as an

alternative ink for ballpoint pens while the concentration of Dragon Fruit extract was

controlled in this study.

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Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to test the general acceptability of Dragon Fruit extract as an

alternative ink for ballpoint pens.

Specifically, it attempted to answer the following questions:

1. Can Dragon Fruit extract be an alternative ink for ballpoint pens?

2. How acceptable is the Dragon Fruit extract as an alternative ink for ballpoint pens in

terms:

a. Writing Performance?

b. Permanence?

c. Drying Time?

d. Readability?

e. Impact Resistance?

Hypotheses

Based on the research questions identified, the proponents formulated the

following hypotheses:

1. Ho: Dragon Fruit extract cannot be an alternative ink for ballpoint pens.

Ha: Dragon Fruit extract can be an alternative ink for ballpoint pens.

2. Ho: Dragon Fruit extract is not acceptable as an alternative ink for ballpoint pens in

terms:

a. Writing Performance

b. Permanence

c. Drying Time

d. Readability

e. Impact Resistance
4
Ha: Dragon Fruit extract is acceptable as an alternative ink for ballpoint pens in terms:

a. Writing Performance

b. Permanence

c. Drying Time

d. Readability

e. Impact Resistance

Significance of the Study

The usage of ballpoint pens played an important role in the community

especially to the students and teachers as a medium of writing and teaching material,

but the ink, the major component of ballpoint pens that contains synthetic pigments, is

dangerous to the health of human. The researchers decided to conduct a study of the

general acceptability of Dragon Fruit extract as an alternative ink for ballpoint pens.

Furthermore, this research may be a great help in the following areas:

1. Students

The study of the general acceptability of Dragon Fruit extract as an alternative

ink for ballpoint pens will be significant to students who are one of the major users of

ballpoint pens. It will be significant to them since it is one of the media of writing,

drawing or labeling. Students used ballpoint pens in writing reports and for highlighting

their lessons. Having an alternative ink for ballpoint pens will help them a lot when

they need a sudden need for a refill.

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2. Teachers

The study will be beneficial to teachers who are also one of the major users of

ballpoint pens in the world. Teachers usually used ballpoint pens as their teaching and

checking material. It is significant in writing their lessons or even in preparing their

visual aids. Likewise, alternative ink for ballpoint pens from Dragon Fruit extract has

a strong socioeconomic impact on teachers because it will provide them with a low cost

all-natural alternative ink.

3. Environment

This study will benefit the environment because it will provide the all-natural

alternative ink for ballpoint pens. It will be an eco-friendly as it gives harmless

chemicals and will reduce the use of solvents and other pigments that may harm the

environment.

4. Local Producers of Drago Fruit

Local producers of Dragon Fruit will be benefited by this study as the

researchers utilized the Dragon Fruit extract as an alternative ink for ballpoint pens.

This may help the local producers to gain additional profit as the demand for using

Dragon Fruit.

5. Future Researchers

Moreover, this study has a great influence on the future researchers in enriching

research instruments, methods, and strategies. It can provide basic ideas and knowledge

relating to this research especially the related literature and related studies that the

future proponents will need.


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Scope and Delimitation

This study focused on studying the general acceptability of Dragon Fruit extract

as an alternative ink for ballpoint pens. The study only focused on Dragon Fruit extract

as a ballpoint pen. It stated that Dragon Fruit is plant that belongs to a family of

climbing cacti and is abundantly seen in tropical countries. It usually fruits four to six

cycles every year. Additional information such as the Philippines produces Dragon

Fruit was given to give awareness that this fruit was available in the country. The study

was conducted on the school year 2018-2019 at the Odiamar's residences at B19 L2

Kansas St., Town and Country Southville, Brgy. Sto. Tomas, Biñan City, Laguna and

Chico's residences at Lot 7 Block 16, Nauru St., Town and Country Southville, Brgy.

Sto. Tomas, Biñan City, Laguna. In order to focus specifically on the study about the

general acceptability of Dragon Fruit extract as an alternative ink for ballpoint pens,

this study discussed only (1) the feasibility of Dragon Fruit extract as an alternative ink

for ballpoint pens; and (2) the general acceptability of Dragon Fruit extract as an

alternative ink for ballpoint pens in terms of writing performance, permanence, drying

time, readability, and impact resistance.

The respondents for the research were males and females. It is composed of

cluster sample of 30 senior high school students of STI College Southwoods. This

cluster sample of 30 senior high students composed of a Science, Technology,

Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM), Accountancy, Business, and Management

(ABM), IT in Mobile App and Web Development (MAWD), Culinary Arts, and

Tourism Operations students.

The study did not extend on Dragon Fruit extract as a marker, highlighters, or

any writing material. It did not extend to any fruit, vegetable, or kind of plant that has
7
the same staining ability as Dragon Fruit. It did not focus on other tropical countries

that produce Dragon Fruit. Also, no further research was done about the availability of

Dragon Fruit in other nearby countries is conducted. Teachers of STI College

Southwoods were not a part of the respondent for this research.

Definition of Terms

The following terms were utilized in the study are operationally and/or

conceptually define for common understanding:

Dragon Fruit - A reddish-pink fruit found abundantly in tropical countries such as the

Philippines used in making the alternative ink for markers.

Dragon Fruit Extract - Extract from the Dragon fruit.

Dragon Fruit Ink - A dyed colored liquid made from Dragon fruit extract.

Emulsifier – An additional agent used to mix or combine two liquids that dispersed

like oil and water

Extract - A concentrated form of a substance made through the process of exertion of

force and straining.

Gum Arabic – A natural additives came from dried Narra used for ink making that acts

as an emulsifier and serves as a binder to control viscosity of an ink.

Ink - It is a dyed liquid used for writing, drawing, highlighting, or printing.

Thixotropy – It is a property of ink that is less viscous when shear force or stress

were applied.

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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter includes the ideas, generalization or conclusions, methodologies,

and others. Those that were included in this chapter helps in familiarizing information

that are relevant and similar to the present study.

Related Literature

Foreign Literature

Condy, S. (2018) explained that plant dyes were primarily made before

synthetic ink. Different plants will produce different dyes and ink colors. Vinegar and

Arabic gum should be added to inks as preservatives. Variety of different wood barks

and wood hearts can be utilized to produce brown, black, or red inks. Strawberries,

raspberries, blue berries, and a variety of other berry fruit are often used to create a

wide range of ink colors, including red or blue. Beside of the plants mentioned above,

flowers can be utilized also to produce plant dyes. Hyacinth flowers will produce blue

ink. Crush rose, lavender or hibiscus petals for a red or pink ink. Lilies of the valley,

Artemisia and snapdragons can all be used to create a wide range of greens from a pale

shade to a darker forest shade. Marigolds, daffodils and dandelion create a bold yellow

ink.

Ink is a liquid or semi-liquid material used for writing, printing, and drawing. It

was defined also as a fine pigment particle that dispersed in an aqueous or organic

solvent. The earliest black writing ink was developed before 2500 B.C. which is made

of suspensions of carbon in water stabilized with a natural material (“Ink Chemistry”,

2018).

9
Craston, G. (2018) said that toxic ingredients found in ink are mixture of

solvents, dyes, and other chemicals. Serious poisoning will occur if you have direct

contact with skin. Symptoms of ink poisoning include eye and skin irritation. Even

though ink poisoning is very rare and seems not a major concern, keep anything to be

toxic out of the reach of children.

Local Literature

Dragon Fruit is a fruit that is pineapple in shape and has two varieties of color,

the bright red and the pale white. Both have tiny edible seeds inside and it has a bland

taste. It is native in western countries but abundantly available in tropical countries

such as the Philippines. Its covering has soft-spiky skin and usually leaves reddish to

bright purple pigment. It weighs 200-250 grams and its peak season is usually by the

months of October, November, April, and May (Hays, 2014).

Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus undatus) from a climbing vine called Cactaceae

family. Fruits that are in Cactaceae family are usually characterized by dark purple

color and this kind of pigment is what known to us as betalain. Dragon Fruits are has

two distinct groups – the Betaxanthins and the Betacyanin. Dragon Fruits that are in

the group of Betaxanthins have yellow to pale pigments while that in group of

Betacyanin produces fruits that have reddish to purple pigments (Capati, 2013).

Related Studies

Foreign Studies

Another study proposed by Khan, A., et.al. (2013) entitled “Extraction of

Natural Dye from Red Calico Leaves: Gamma Ray Assisted Improvements in Colour

Strength and Fastness Properties” was focused mainly on the colouring potential of red
10
calico (Alternanthera zickiana) leaves and the improvement of colour strength of dye

using gamma radiation and mordanting process. The researchers concluded that

alkaline medium was the best way to extract dye from the irradiated powder of red

calico leaves. They concluded also that with the use of gamma radiation can improve

the colorfastness through inducing surface modification of cotton fabric.

Suabjakyong, P., et.al. (2011) studied about the “Extraction of Natural

Histological Dye from Black Plum Fruit (Syzygium cumini)” using various solvents and

its staining property on the rat hepatic tissue. The researchers extracted fresh and dried

black plums with distilled water and 45% glacial acetic acid and the rat hepatic tissue

were processed for paraffin embedding technique. They concluded that black plum fruit

dye could stain the nucleus and cytoplasm of rat hepatic cells with violet color so that

the black plum fruit could be used as an alternative natural dye for histological staining

and cytotoxicity testing in cosmetic and others.

According to the study of Sandriami, et.al. (2017) entitled “Formulation of

Lipbutter Using Red Dragon Fruit’s Extract (Hylocereus costaricensis) As Natural

Dyes With Various Oil Phase Concentration”, Dragon Fruit contains anthocyanin,

betalain pigment that serves as a color pigment which can be used as a lip moisturizer

and can be used as a substitute for synthetic color that may harm skin.

Local Studies

According to the study of Alguzar, J., et.al. (2016) entitled “Plants Extract

Alternative Ink for Markers”, the researchers aimed to determine the effectiveness of

mayana and alugbati extract as an alternative ingredient for marker ink in terms of color,

absorption and stick consistency. The boiling process was conducted to extract mayana

and alugbati plant as an alternative ink for markers. The researchers concluded that
11
mayana and alugbati extract does not produce the strong color of ink, but it was less

odor and the stain it produced to the paper and clothes were easy to wash compared to

the commercial ink. Because of that, the researchers recommended to improve the color

of the mayana and alugbati ink and look for the substance that can improve the

absorption of the ink, rate of the stick consistency. They recommended also to use

parallel test based on the components of the standard ink and the mayana and alugbati

ink.

Antioquia, J. (2012) conducted a study entitled “The Effectiveness of Narra

(Pterocarpus indicus) Extract as an Ingredient for Permanent Marker Ink”. The

effectiveness of narra ink in terms of absorption, stick-consistency and color; and

acceptability in terms of color, odor, absorption, and rate of evaporation are the focus

of the study. The extraction of narra bark was done using mortar and pestle with

benzalkonium chloride solution. According to his study, benzalkonium chloride

prevents the ink from solidifying and prevents the fungi to grow in the ink. He utilized

also other substances such as glycerol and ferrous sulfate to increase the rate of

extraction of tannin in the pigment and to disinfect the growth of microorganisms in the

ink respectively. Waterproof test of ink was done both on narra ink and a standard ink

by letting the written paper with narra ink and standard ink under the running water for

30 seconds. The researcher used the questionnaire as a method of instrumentation in

data gathering in which participants rated the effectiveness of narra ink in terms of

absorption, stick-consistency and color; and significant difference between the standard

ink and narra ink. The researcher concluded that narra ink was not effective in terms of

color and absorption but very resistant to water. This study has inferred also that narra

ink has a low acceptability in the rate of evaporation, absorption in the paper, and color

but acceptable in ink’s odor so that it has a significant difference between the two inks
12
in terms of color, absorption, and rate of evaporation but no significant difference in

terms of odor. He recommended to improve the color of narra ink and find for the

substance that can improve the absorption of the ink, rate of evaporation, and odor. This

study recommended also to use parallel tests based on the components of the standard

ink and the narra ink.

13
CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

Research Design

The research design used in the study was experimental method. The

experimental method was a type of research design wherein one variable was

manipulated. In this case, the variable that was manipulated in the study was the

Dragon Fruit extract.

On the other hand, the experimental design used in this study was a single-group

design. Single group design was a type of experimental design wherein a specific

subject was treated and then measured and observed. In this case, the subject being

treated was the Dragon Fruit extract while its general acceptability as an alternative ink

for ballpoint pens was the data being measured and observed.

Source of Materials

Dragon Fruit is abundant in Asian Countries like Thailand, Malaysia, and

Philippines. Dragon Fruit can grow from moist to dry areas. Its plant can fruit between

four to six cycles a year and can be propagated easily by seeding or stem cutting

(Thulaja and Rahman, 2018).

The freshly obtained Dragon Fruit used in this research came from Biñan Public

Market. A total of 750 grams of Dragon Fruit is needed for the trials of this research.

14
Ink Making Procedure

To determine the general acceptability of Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus undatus)

extract as an alternative ink for ballpoint pens, the researchers prepared the materials

needed to conduct the study. The Dragon Fruit and prepared sodium chloride (table

salt), acetic acid (vinegar), Sayote sap, gum Arabic, tap water (solvent), strainer, and

empty container were gathered. The 75 grams of Dragon Fruit were cut into small

pieces for easier extraction using a kitchen knife and chopping board. The boiling set-

up was prepared until it reaches 100⁰C. The 50 milliliters of tap water (solvent) was

boiled. 75 grams of Dragon Fruit, 1 teaspoon of Sayote sap, and 1 teaspoon of gum

Arabic was put into boiling water for 15 minutes with continuous stirring. The mixture

was removed on fire, letting it cool and was filtered using a strainer to separate the

solute and the solvent. The Dragon Fruit extract was put into boiling water and added

1 teaspoon of sodium chloride (table salt), 1 teaspoon of acetic acid (vinegar), and

another 1 teaspoon of gum Arabic. The sodium chloride (table salt) was added to

preserve the solution, the acetic acid (vinegar) was also added to retain the color of the

solution, and the gum Arabic was added to act as an emulsifier and as a binder to control

viscosity of the ink. The continuous stirring in the solution during the boiling was

performed until it produced a viscous appearance. Allow the solution to cool off, and

transferred in a graduated cylinder for final reading, volume of the solution was

recorded (Juan, 2013).

The researcher conducted nine different trials in making the ink but there are

three significant trials in the study. The first trial conducted was a fail because the ink

was less viscous making the ink to just blob from the container. The Dragon fruit ink

from the first trial also got clogged when used in a long run making the ink to not work.

On the next trial, the researchers tried to use alcohol as the base solvent of the ink thus
15
making it to have a fragrance of alcohol. It was also a failed experiment because the

ink was still less viscous. The clogging of the ink was lessen but the smudging of the

ink on the paper was still there. The last and the ninth trial became a success when the

researcher used gum Arabic and sap thus making the ink to work. The ink had a viscous

texture and had a gel ballpoint pen performance.

16
Flow Chart of the Procedure

Preparation of Materials Needed

Cutting of Dragon Fruit into Small Pieces

Preparing a Boiling Set Reaching a 100⁰C

Boiling of Dragon Fruit with Water, Gum Arabic, and Sayote


Sap

Filtering of Dragon Fruit using Strainer

Boiling of Dragon Fruit Extract with Table Salt, Vinegar, and

Gum Arabic

Cooling of Dragon Fruit Extract

Figure 2

Flowchart of the Procedure of the Study Entitled “The General Acceptability of

Dragon Fruit (Hylosereus undatus) Extract as an Alternative Ink for Ballpoint Pens”

17
Data Processing Method

In the evaluation process of the results, a survey questionnaire form was used

to evaluate the outcome of the general acceptability of Dragon Fruit extract as an

alternative ink for ballpoint pens. Thirty senior high school students from STI College

Southwoods were selected through cluster sampling to answer the survey questionnaire.

The responses were tallied and treated statistically.

Statistical Treatment

After the extraction process, the general acceptability of the product was tested.

The general acceptability of the Dragon Fruit as an alternative ink for ballpoint pens

was determined using the formula:

Frequency & Percentage Distribution

𝐹
P= (𝑁) 𝑋 100

Where:

P=Percentage

F=Frequency

N=Total Number of Cases

18
CHAPTER IV

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter deals with the presentation of the data that were collected. The data

that will be presented will answer to the problems of this study. It also includes the

analysis and interpretation of the data that was used to conclude and recommend.

Presentation of Data

Question 1: Does the ballpoint pen ink is acceptable to use for writing?

Table 1

The Frequency and Percentage of the Acceptability of Using Ballpoint Pen with

Dragon Fruit Extract Ink in Writing

Frequency Percentage

Yes 30 100%

No 0 0%

Total 30 100%

The table 1 above shows the general acceptability of using ballpoint pen with

Dragon Fruit extract ink in writing. Out of 30 respondents, 100% of them said that using

Dragon Fruit ink for ballpoint pen is acceptable.

19
Question 2: Does the writings on the paper using the Dragon Fruit extract as an

alternative ink for ballpoint pens is incapable of erasing?

Table 2

The Frequency and Percentage of the Incapability of Erasing of the Writings Using

the Ballpoint Pen with Dragon Fruit Extract Ink

Frequency Percentage

Yes 20 66.67%

No 10 33.33%

Total 30 100%

The table 2 above shows the general acceptability of using ballpoint pen with

Dragon Fruit extract ink in terms of its incapability of erasing. Out of 30 respondents,

66.67% of them said that the writings using ballpoint pen with Dragon Fruit extract ink

is incapable of erasing while the 33.33% said that it is capable of erasing.

Question 3: Does the ballpoint pen with Dragon Fruit extract ink dry easily?

Table 3

The Frequency and Percentage of the Drying Time of the Writings Using the

Ballpoint Pen with Dragon Fruit Extract Ink

Frequency Percentage

Yes 15 50%

No 15 50%

Total 30 100%

20
The table 3 above shows the general acceptability of using ballpoint pen with

Dragon Fruit extract ink in terms of its drying time. Out of 30 respondents, 50% of them

said that the writings using ballpoint pen with Dragon Fruit extract ink can dry easily

while the remaining 50% said that it does not dry easily.

Question 4: Do you think that the Dragon Fruit extract as an alternative ink for

ballpoint pens is readable?

Table 4

The Frequency and Percentage of the Readability of the Writings Using Ballpoint Pen

with Dragon Fruit Extract Ink

Frequency Percentage

Yes 25 83.33%

No 5 16.67%

Total 30 100%

The table 4 above shows the general acceptability of using ballpoint pen with

Dragon Fruit extract ink in terms of its readability. Out of 30 respondents, 83.33% of

them said that the writings using ballpoint pen with Dragon Fruit extract ink were

readable while the remaining 16.67% said that it was not readable.

21
Question 5: Does the ballpoint pen still work after dropping?

Table 5

The Frequency and Percentage of the Impact Resistance of Ballpoint Pen with Dragon

Fruit Extract Ink

Frequency Percentage

Yes 25 83.33%

No 5 16.67%

Total 30 100%

The table 5 above shows the general acceptability of using ballpoint pen with

Dragon Fruit extract ink in terms of its impact resistance. Out of 30 respondents,

83.33% of them said that the ballpoint pen with Dragon Fruit extract ink was still

writing after dropping while the remaining 16.67% said that it was not already writing

after dropping.

22
CHAPTER V

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter deals with the summary of findings which is based on the analysis

and interpretation done in Chapter IV. These findings were the basis for the conclusion

and recommendation.

Summary of Findings

This study was conducted to test the general acceptability of Dragon Fruit

extract as an alternative ink for ballpoint pens.

Based on the gathered data, the researchers can infer that:

1. Out of 30 cluster sample of Senior High School students of STI College Southwoods,

100% said that Dragon Fruit extract is effective as an alternative ink for ballpoint pens

in terms writing performance.

2. 66.67% of the 30 respondents said that the writings using ballpoint pen with Dragon

Fruit extract ink is incapable of erasing.

3. Out of 30 respondents, 50% of them said that the writings using ballpoint pen with

Dragon Fruit extract ink can dry easily.

4. 83.33% of the 30 respondents said that the writings using ballpoint pen with Dragon

Fruit extract ink were readable.

5. Out of 30 respondents, 83.33% of them said that the ballpoint pen with Dragon Fruit

extract ink was still writing after dropping.

23
Conclusions

Based on the Summary of Findings, the following conclusions and implications

were drawn:

1. Dragon Fruit extract can be an alternative ink for ballpoint pens.

2. Dragon Fruit extract is acceptable as an alternative ink for ballpoint pens in terms of

writing performance, permanence, drying time, readability, and impact resistance.

Recommendations

Based on the conclusions that were based on the findings, the following are

recommended:

1. To test the shelf-life of the effectiveness of Dragon Fruit extract as an alternative ink

for ballpoint pens.

2. To try the Dragon Fruit extract as an alternative ink for other writing instrument aside

of ballpoint pens such as permanent marker, whiteboard marker, and highlighter.

3. To try other fruit extract besides of Dragon Fruit as a source of alternative organic

ink.

4. To compare the Dragon Fruit extract as an alternative ink for ballpoint pens to

commercial ballpoint pens in terms of writing performance, permanence, drying time,

readability, and impact resistance.

5. To improve the pigment of the Dragon Fruit extract as an alternative ink into more

dark color so that the writings will be more readable.

6. To utilize other process in extracting Dragon Fruit to get the more acceptable pigment

of extract as an alternative ink for ballpoint pens.

7. To lengthen the course of the study by conducting further research.

24
BIBLIOGRAPHY

A. Journals, Thesis and Dissertations

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or_Markers.

Antioquia, J. (2012). The effectiveness of narra (Pterocarpus indicus) extract as an


ingredient for permanent marker ink. 1-33. Retrieved July 15, 2018, from
https://www.academia.edu/4118489/Alternative_Ink.

Juan, E. (2013). The effectiveness of the extract of Marvel of Peru (Mirabilis jalapa)
flower as an effective alternative ink refill for highlighter pen. Retrieved
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https://www.scribd.com/doc/167255274/CHAPTER-I

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of natural dye from red calico leaves: Gamma ray assisted improvements in
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https://www.academia.edu/12407029/natural_dye_from_alteranthera_plant

Sandiani, Y., Nugroho, B., Tsani, S., & Syukri, Y. M. Si. (2017). Formulation of
lipbutter using red dragon fruit’s extract (Hylocereus costarincensis) as natural
dyes with various oil phase concentration. International Journal of Research in
Science, 3(3), 6-8. Retrieved September 10, 2018, from
http://researchplusjournals.com/index.php/IJRS/article/download/309/575/

Suabjakyong, P., Romratanapun, S., & Thitipramote, N. (2011). Extraction of natural


histological dye from black plum fruit (Syzygium cumini) [Abstract]. Journal of
the Microscopy Society of Thailand, 4(1), 13-15. Retrieved July 13, 2018, from
https://www.academia.edu/7793751/Extraction_of_Natural_Histological_Dye
_from_Black_Plum_Fruit_Syzygium_cumini

B. Online Sources

Ausley, M. (October 10, 2018). How ballpoint pens work. Retrieve from
https://home.howstuffworks.com/pen.htm
25
Capati, J., Bondoc, K., Manlapaz, M., & Cunanan, K. (September 21,2018). Transcript
of the Staining capability of dragon fruit extract on selected the staining
capability of dragon fruit extract on selected human tissue sections. Retrieved
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extract-on-selected/

Chemistry World. (July 24, 2018). Ink chemistry. Retrieved from


https://www.chemistryworld.com/news/ink-chemistry/3002158.article

Condy, S. (July 29, 2018). Plants that have ink properties. Retrieved from
https://www.hunker.com/13428086/plants-that-have-ink-properties

Craston, G. (July 25, 2018). Is ballpoint pen ink toxic?. Retrieved from
https://www.healthguidance.org/entry/14660/1/is-ballpoint-pen-ink-toxic.html

Hays, J. (September 21, 2018). Fruits and vegetables in asia. Retrieved from
http://factsanddetails.com/asian/cat62/sub407/item2600.html

History of Pencils. (October 10, 2018). Ballpoint pen history – Who invented ballpoint
pen?. Retrieved from http://www.historyofpencils.com/writing-instruments-
history/history-of-ballpoint-pens/

Lehnhardt, P. (July 24, 2018). 5 natural ink recipes. Retrieved from


https://www.hobbyfarms.com/5-natural-ink-recipes-2/

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safety/airborne-and-other-pollutants/solvents/

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spp.) components with valorization potential. Retrieved from
https://biblio.ugent.be/publication/4093845

Mercola, J. Dr. (September 10, 2018). What is dragon fruit good for?. Retrieved from
https://foodfacts.mercola.com/dragon-fruit.html

Flournoy, B. (October 12, 2018). What Is Ballpoint Pen Ink Made of?. Retrieved from
https://sciencing.com/ballpoint-pen-ink-made-of-10036405.html
26
Thulaja, N., & Rahman, N. (September 10, 2018). Dragon fruit. Retrieved from
http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/infopedia/articles/SIP_768_2005-01-11.html

27
APPENDICES

28
APPENDIX “A”
CERTIFICATIONS AND LETTERS

29
APPROVAL SHEET

In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Practical Research, this research

paper entitled “THE GENERAL ACCEPTABILITY OF DRAGON FRUIT

(Hylocereus undatus) EXTRACT AS AN ALTERNATIVE INK FOR BALLPOINT

PENS” prepared by Aeron Marll Abanto, Carlos Daniel Chico, Mariel Ann Bucud,

James Burgos, Joyce Odiamar, Jorilyn Paculdo, Joyce Zin Sanchez.

MS. KRISTINE CERENADO


Adviser

Approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Practical Research

2 course by the committee of Oral examiners with a grade of _______.

MR. JAMES LABRADA


Chairperson

MR. ANGELO ALVAREZ MS. MARIA JIRLYN ESPIRITU


Member Member

Accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Practical Research 2.

MS. ANNA MARIE ALITAGTAG


Assistant Principal, SHS

Date: _______________________ 30
APPENDIX “B”
TALLIES AND TABULATIONS

31
Table 1

The Frequency and Percentage of the Acceptability of Using Ballpoint Pen with

Dragon Fruit Extract Ink in Writing

Frequency Percentage

Yes 30 100%

No 0 0%

Total 30 100%

Table 2

The Frequency and Percentage of the Incapability of Erasing of the Writings Using

the Ballpoint Pen with Dragon Fruit Extract Ink

Frequency Percentage

Yes 20 66.67%

No 10 33.33%

Total 30 100%

Table 3

The Frequency and Percentage of the Drying Time of the Writings Using the

Ballpoint Pen with Dragon Fruit Extract Ink

Frequency Percentage

Yes 15 50%

No 15 50%

Total 30 100%

32
Table 4

The Frequency and Percentage of the Readability of the Writings Using Ballpoint Pen

with Dragon Fruit Extract Ink

Frequency Percentage

Yes 25 83.33%

No 5 16.67%

Total 30 100%

Table 5

The Frequency and Percentage of the Impact Resistance of Ballpoint Pen with Dragon

Fruit Extract Ink

Frequency Percentage

Yes 25 83.33%

No 5 16.67%

Total 30 100%

33
APPENDIX “C”
SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE

34
SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CLUSTER SAMPLES SELECTED
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT
Greetings!
The researchers are conducting a study entitled “THE GENERAL
ACCEPTABILITY OF DRAGON FRUIT (Hylocereus undatus) EXTRACT
AS AN ALTERNATIVE INK FOR BALLPOINT PENS”. In connection
herewith, the researchers used a questionnaire to gather information about the
study. Your participation by means of answering the questionnaire is very vital.
Please be honest on your answer. Kindly fill up the questionnaire appropriately.
Thank you for your cooperation and response. God Bless!
Yours Truly,
The Researchers

NAME (OPTIONAL): _______________________

INSTRUCTION: Rate the effectiveness of dragon fruit extract as an alternative ink


for ballpoint pens based on your satisfaction: YES or NO. Put a check (✓) on
the corresponding column.

CHARACTERISTICS YES NO
1. Does the ballpoint pen ink with Dragon Fruit
extract as an alternative ink is acceptable to use for
writing?
2. Does the writings on the paper using the Dragon
Fruit extract as an alternative ink for ballpoint pens
is incapable of erasing?
3. Does the ballpoint pen with Dragon Fruit extract
as an alternative ink dry easily?
4. Do you think that the Dragon Fruit extract as an
alternative ink for ballpoint pens is readable?
5. Does the ballpoint pen with Dragon Fruit extract
as an alternative ink is still work after dropping?

Do you think this product Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus undatus) extract as an alternative
ink for ballpoint pens will be popular in the industry? Yes or No? _______.

Comment:
_____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________.

Recommendation:
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

35
APPENDIX “D”
DOCUMENTATION

36
Figure 3

Dragon Fruit

Figure 4

Preparation of Materials Needed

37
Figure 5

Weighing of 750 grams of Dragon Fruit

Figure 6

Cutting of Dragon Fruit into Small Pieces

38
Figure 7

A 500 mL of Water

Figure 8

Preparing a Boiling Set Reaching a 100⁰C

39
Figure 9

Boiling of Dragon Fruit with Water, Gum Arabic, and Sayote Sap

Figure 10

Filtering of Dragon Fruit using Strainer

40
Figure 11

Boiling of Dragon Fruit Extract with Table Salt, Vinegar, and Gum Arabic

Figure 12

Cooling of Dragon Fruit Extract

41
Figure 13

Dragon Fruit Ink for Ballpoint Pens

Figure 14

Gum Arabic

42
CURRICULUM

VITAE

43
PERSONAL INFORMATION

Researcher’s Name : Abanto, Aeron Marll Gerna


Address : Blk42 Lot 29 Alta Tierra Homes,
GMA, Cavite
Contact Number : 09062412848
Email Address : aeronabanto988@yahoo.com
Sex : Male
Date of Birth : July 26, 2001
Place of Birth : Borongan City,Eastern Samar
Religion : Roman Catholic
Civil Status : Single
Citizenship : Filipino
Language/Dialect : Filipino and English
Father’s Name : Marlon A. Abanto
Mother’s Name : Lorilyn G. Abanto

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:

SECONDARY

STI College Southwoods


Lot2A, Maduya, Carmona, Cavite
2017-Present

Carmona National High School


Rosario St. Carmona, Cavite
2013-2017

PRIMARY

Cabilang Baybay Elementary School


Cabilang Baybay Carmona, Cavite
2007-2013

44
PERSONAL INFORMATION

Researcher’s Name : Bucud, Mariel Ann Delos Reyes


Address : 9149 Bulangan St. Brgy. Maduya,
Carmona, Cavite
Contact Number : 09478360763
Email Address : mariyelbucud@gmail.com
Sex : Female
Date of Birth : May 07, 2001
Place of Birth : Calamba, Laguna
Religion : Catholic
Civil Status : Single
Citizenship : Filipino
Language/Dialect : Filipino and English
Father’s Name : Nicanor P. Bucud
Mother’s Name : Renee D. Bucud

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:

SECONDARY

STI College Southwoods


Lot2A, Maduya, Carmona, Cavite
2017-Present

Carmona National High School


Rosario St. Carmona, Cavite
2013-2017

PRIMARY

Carmona Elementary School


Purification St., Carmona, Cavite
2007-2013

45
PERSONAL INFORMATION

Researcher’s Name : Burgos, James Ryan Pelinio


Address : B7 L3 Camachile St., SP1,
Sto. Tomas, Biñan, Laguna
Contact Number : 09270399292
Email Address : ryanburgos106@gmail.com
Sex : Male
Date of Birth : August 22, 2000
Place of Birth : San Pedro, Laguna
Religion : Catholic
Civil Status : Single
Citizenship : Filipino
Language/Dialect : Filipino and English
Father’s Name : Xandrix F. Burgos
Mother’s Name : Maria Jessa P. Burgos

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:

SECONDARY

STI College Southwoods


Lot2A, Maduya, Carmona, Cavite
2017-Present

Holy Spirit School


Mother Guiseppina Arcucci St. South City Homes, Biñan, Laguna
2013-2017

PRIMARY

Holy Spirit School


Mother Guiseppina Arcucci St. South City Homes, Biñan, Laguna
2006-2013

Headstarter Workshop
Sto. Tomas, Biñan, Laguna
2005-2006

46
PERSONAL INFORMATION

Researcher’s Name : Chico, Carlos Daniel Villamor


Address : Lot 7, Block 16 Nauru St. Southville,
Brgy Sto. Tomas, Biñan, Laguna
Contact Number : 09186220635
Email Address : carlosdanielchico@gmail.com
Sex : Male
Date of Birth : August 15, 2000
Place of Birth : Biñan,, Laguna
Religion : Catholic
Civil Status : Single
Citizenship : Filipino
Language/Dialect : Filipino and English
Father’s Name : Anthony V. Chico
Mother’s Name : Rowena M. Villamor

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:

SECONDARY

STI College Southwoods


Lot2A, Maduya, Carmona, Cavite
2017-Present

St. Therese School of Southville


Blk 1, Lot 23, Washington St. Town and Country Southville, Biñan Laguna.
2013-2017

PRIMARY

St. Therese School of Southville


Blk 1, Lot 23, Washington St. Town and Country Southville, Biñan Laguna.
2010-2013

Sto. Thomas Elementary School


Santo Tomas, Biñan, Laguna
2008-2010

San Vicente Elementary School


San Vicente, Biñan Laguna.
2006-2008

47
PERSONAL INFORMATION

Researcher’s Name : Odiamar, Rejoyce Castro


Address : B19 L2A Kansas St. Southville
Brgy Sto. Tomas, Biñan, Laguna
Contact Number : 09157811422
Email Address : odiamar.joyce.0917@gmail.com
Sex : Female
Date of Birth : September 17, 2000
Place of Birth : Biñan, Laguna
Religion : Born Again Christian
Civil Status : Single
Citizenship : Filipino
Language/Dialect : Filipino and English
Father’s Name : William B. Odiamar
Mother’s Name : Yolanda C. Odiamar

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:

SECONDARY

STI College Southwoods


Lot2A, Maduya, Carmona, Cavite
2017-Present

Saint Gabriel Archangel Academy


Minnesota St. Town & Country Southville Brgy. Sto. Tomas, Biñan City,
Laguna
2015-2017

Ann Arbor Montessori Learning Center


Michigan St. Town & Country Southville Brgy. Sto. Tomas, Biñan City,
Laguna
2013-2015

PRIMARY

Saint Gabriel Archangel Academy


Minnesota St. Town & Country Southville Brgy. Sto. Tomas, Biñan City,
Laguna
2007-2013

48
PERSONAL INFORMATION

Researcher’s Name : Paculdo, Jorilyn Alarcon


Address : 8128 Zamora St. Brgy. 8,
Carmona, Cavite
Contact Number : 09289415387
Email Address : jorilyn_paculdo@yahoo.com
Sex : Female
Date of Birth : March 7, 2001
Place of Birth : Silang, Cavite
Religion : Catholic
Civil Status : Single
Citizenship : Filipino
Language/Dialect : Filipino and English
Father’s Name : Joel C. Paculdo
Mother’s Name : Marilyn A. Paculdo

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:

SECONDARY

STI College Southwoods


Lot2A, Maduya, Carmona, Cavite
2017-Present

Carmona National High School


Rosario St. Carmona, Cavite
2013-2017

PRIMARY

Carmona Elementary School


Purification St., Carmona, Cavite
2010-2013

Maduya Elementary School


Bulangan St., Maduya, Carmona, Cavite
2006-2010

49
PERSONAL INFORMATION

Researcher’s Name : Sanchez, Joyce Diaz


Address : Blk9 Phase 3 1/2 Milagrosa,
Carmona, Cavite
Contact Number : 09356345318
Email Address : joycediazsanchez@gmail.com
Sex : Female
Date of Birth : September 18, 2000
Place of Birth : Carmona, Cavite
Religion : Roman Catholic
Civil Status : Single
Citizenship : Filipino
Language/Dialect : Filipino and English
Father’s Name : Antonino L. Sanchez
Mother’s Name : Eloisa D. Sanchez

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:

SECONDARY

STI College Southwoods


Lot2A, Maduya, Carmona, Cavite
2017-Present

Carmona National High School


Rosario St. Carmona, Cavite
2013-2017

PRIMARY

Milagrosa West Elementary School


Phase 3 Milagrosa Carmona, Cavite
2007-2013

50

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