Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 27

Poultry Pocketbook

Index - Poultry Pocketbook


Chapter 1 - Marketing Chain 3
Table 1.1 UK poultry meat supply balance 3
Table 1.2 UK eggs supply balance 3
Table 1.3 EU poultry meat supply balance 4
Table 1.4 EU egg supply balance 5

Chapter 2 - Poultry Numbers 5


Figure 2.1 Density of poultry flock, June 2013 5
Table 2.1 UK poultry numbers, June survey 6
Table 2.2 UK chick and poult placings 6

Chapter 3 - Slaughterings and Production 7


Table 3.1 UK poultry slaughterings 7
Table 3.2 UK poultry meat production 7
Figure 3.1 UK broiler meat production 8
Figure 3.2 Average liveweight of broilers in England and Wales 8
Table 3.3 UK egg packing station throughput 9
Table 3.4 UK production of egg products by processors 9
Figure 3.3 EU broiler meat production, 2016 10
Figure 3.4 EU egg production for human consumption, 2016 10

Chapter 4 - Poultry and Egg Prices 11


Table 4.1 Average UK egg packer price paid to producers 11
Figure 4.1 Quarterly average UK egg packer price paid to producers 11
Figure 4.2 UK wholesale chicken prices 12
Figure 4.3 EU and UK broiler meat wholesale market price 12
Figure 4.4 EU and UK egg (large and medium) wholesale market price 13
Figure 4.5 Average poultry compound feed price, GB 13

1
Chapter 5 - Imports and Exports 14
Table 5.1 UK egg trade by volume 14
Table 5.2 Volume and value of UK poultry meat imports 14
Table 5.3 Volume and value of UK poultry meat exports 15
Table 5.4 UK fresh/frozen poultry meat imports by source 15
Table 5.5 UK fresh/frozen poultry meat exports by destination 16
Table 5.6 UK processed poultry meat imports by source 16
Figure 5.1 Map of UK fresh frozen poultry meat exports by destination 17
Table 5.7 UK processed poultry meat exports by destination 18
Table 5.8 EU exports of fresh/frozen poultry meat by destination 18

Chapter 6 - Consumption 19
Table 6.1 UK per capita consumption of major meats 19
Table 6.2 GB retail chicken and egg value by type of outlet 19
Figure 6.1 Trends in GB household chicken purchases by volume 20
Figure 6.2 Trends in GB household egg purchases by volume 20
Figure 6.3 Change in GB retail volume and value sales of chicken by product, 2016 21
Figure 6.4 GB volume sales of chicken by product, 2016 21
Figure 6.5 Change in GB retail volume and value sales of eggs, 2016 22
Figure 6.6 Volume sales of eggs, 2016 22
Figure 6.7 Average GB retail price of chicken cuts, 2016 23
Figure 6.8 Average GB retail price of eggs, 2016 23
Figure 6.9 Proportion of chicken products sold on promotion in GB retail outlets 24
Figure 6.10 Proportion of eggs sold on promotion in GB retail outlets 24

2
Chapter 1 - Marketing Chain
Table 1.1 UK poultry meat supply balance (a)

‘000 tonnes 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

roduction 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0

Im orts (b) 1 2 2 9 2 1 012

orts (b) 334 2 323 335

Total consumption 2 091 2 10 21 0 2 9 2

Sel su ciency ( ) 77 9 77 74 72

(a) ncludes poultry o als.


(b) ncludes trade in salted and processed poultry meat.
All data in carcase weight equivalent
Source: Defra, IHS Maritime & Trade – Global Trade Atlas®/HMRC, AHDB

Table 1.2 UK eggs supply balance

Million dozen 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015*


roduction
21 9 29 9
( or human consum tion)

Sold in shell 5 95 95 29

rocessed 15 143 134 144 137

Im orts (a) 12 1 153 15 1

orts (a) 11 19 23 11 9

Total consumption 9 9 1 959 9 1 02

Sel su ciency ( ) 5 5 5

(a) ncludes shell egg e uivalent of whole (dried, fro en and li uid) egg, egg yolk and albumen.
*Provisional
Source: Defra
3
Marketing Chain

Table 1.3 EU poultry meat supply balance (a)

‘000 tonnes 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Indigenous roduction 12 0 12 92 1 2 0 1 1 92

Imports 2 92 21 5 2

orts 1 1 1 0 1 2 1 5 1 2

Total consumption 12 229 12 2 2 12 51 1 2 1 92

Sel su ciency ( ) 10 10 10 10 10

(a) ncludes poultry o als


Source: EU Commission

Table 1.4 EU egg supply balance

'000 tonnes 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 (e)

Indigenous roduction 0 0 1 5 02

Imports 0 22 1 20 24

orts 235 2 9 09

Total consumption 5 0 09 2 9

Sel su ciency ( ) 10 10 10 105 105

Note: The E Commission has again revised the series compared with last year’s pocketbook.
All data is in whole egg equivalent and consumption includes hatching eggs
(e) estimate
Source: EU Commission
4
Chapter 2 - Poultry Numbers
Figure 2.1 Density of poultry flock, June 2013

Orkney and Shetlands

Po ul try density
(po ul try per square km)
Under 20
20-9 9
100-4 9 9
500-9 9 9
1000+

Data covers commercial holdings only.


Source: Defra
5
Poultry Numbers

Table 2.1 UK poultry numbers, June survey


Million head (a) 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Total poultry 160 163 170 168 173

otal breeding and laying owl 47 47 50 51

ens and ullets laying


37 37 37
eggs for eating

otal breeding oc 10 11 11 13 13

able chic ens (broilers) 10 105 110 10 111

Other poultry 11 11 11 11 11

ur eys 4 4 4 4 4

(a) Due to production cycles, subgroups within the poultry population are often volatile as the ‘point
in time’ nature of the June Survey can lead to large variations in the numbers in each category
Source: Defra

Table 2.2 UK chick and poult placings

Million head 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016*

ommercial broilers 91 9 9 9 2 1 012

ommercial layers 35 34 35

ur eys (a) 1 17 1 1 1

emale broiler breeders (b) 7 7 9 9

*53-week statistical year


(a) Including female breeder poults
(b) emale parents only. Excludes grandparent chicks and by-product’ chicks. ncludes imported
female parent chicks.
Source: Defra
Chapter 3 - Slaughterings and Production
Table 3.1 UK poultry slaughterings

Million head Broilers Boiling Fowl Turkeys

2000 0 27

2005 2 19

2010 41 1

201 900 42 15

2015 95 45 17

201 99 57 1

*53-week statistical year


Boiling fowl includes spent hens and spent breeders
Source: Defra

Table 3.2 UK poultry meat production (a)

Boiling
‘000 tonnes Broilers Turkey Ducks Total
Fowl

2000 11 52 2 41 1 519

2005 12 2 51 192 37 15

2010 1 2 53 1 2 0 15

201 1 5 172 32 1

2015 1 5 5 1 1 29 1 1

201 1 515 2 1 0 1 9

*53-week statistical year


(a) Excludes other bird types, eg geese
Source: Defra
7
Slaughterings and Production

Figure 3.1 UK broiler meat production


‘000 tonnes
1,600
1,515
1,500 1,456

1,383
1,400
1,323
1,282
1,300

1,200 1,163

1,100

1,000
2000 2005 2010* 2014 2015 2016*
*53-week statistical year
Source: Defra

Figure 3.2 Average liveweight of broilers in England and Wales

kg
2.26
2.24
2.24 2.23
2.22
2.22 2.21
2.21 2.21

2.20

2.18

2.16

2.14

2.12

2.10
2000 2005 2010* 2014 2015 2016*
*53-week statistical year
Source: Defra
Slaughterings and Production

Table 3.3 UK egg packing station throughput


Enriched Free
'000 cases Total Barn Organic
Cage Range

2000 22 0 1 1 1 5 59 n/a

2005 2 5 15 55 15 2 n/a

2010 2 0 1 522 1 11 2 92

201 2 09 1 09 2 11 591 2

2015 2 1 1 0 5 12 2

201 2 12 1 2 1 5 19

1 case = 360 eggs


n/a = Not available
Source: Defra

Table 3.4 UK production of egg products by processors

Tonnes Liquid Egg Hard Boiled* Other* Total

2000 5 022 N/A 1 5 91

2005 0 2 9 1 0 120 5

2010 59 1 9

201 910 9 101

2015 2 1 50 99

201 11 22 100

* = combined from 2010 onwards


Source: Defra
9
Slaughterings and Production

Figure 3.3 EU broiler meat production, 2016


'000 tonnes
2,000 1,897
1,834

1,500 1,471
1,285 1,254
1,134 1,080
1,000 980

500 390 364

0
Poland

United
Kingdom

Denmark

Spain

France

Netherlands

Italy

Hungary

Romania

Others
Source: EU Commission

Figure 3.4 EU egg production for human consumption, 2016


‘000 tonnes
1,400 1,334 110

1,200 100

1,000 90
872
805 800
800 773
80
671
638
600
516 70
400 345
60

200
50
0
40
France

Italy

Denmark

Spain

United
Kingdom

Netherlands

Poland

Romania

Others

Source: EU Commission
10
Chapter 4 - Poultry and Egg Prices
Table 4.1 Average UK egg packer price paid to producers
Pence per Enriched Free
Total Barn Organic
dozen cage Range

2000 9 32.3 2

2005 45.7 34.4 52 0 9

2010 01 5 72.2 135.5

201 1 c 100 1 c

2015 21 1 c 9 c

201 10 54.5 c c

Data covers all Class A eggs passed over a grader, including seconds. Prices include bonus
payments from 2012. rom 200 the average total types price includes organic eggs.
c confidential
Source: Defra

Figure 4.1 uarterly average UK egg packer price paid to producers


p/dozen
110

100

90
83
80

70 71

60
54
50

40
Qtr 1 2012 Qtr 1 2013 Qtr 1 2014 Qtr 1 2015 Qtr 1 2016
All types Enriched Free range

Source: Defra
11
Poultry and Egg Prices

Figure 4.2 UK wholesale chicken prices


p/kg
p/k
400
17
370
350 16

300 15

14
250
13
200
12
150 155 11
128
100 10

9
50
Jan 12 Jul 12 Jan 13 Jul 13 Jan 14 Jul 14 Jan 15 Jul 15 Jan 16 Jul 16 Jan 17 8
Fresh broiler: 1.35kg–1.55kg Fresh skinless breast fillets
Fresh skinless breast fillets (calibrated) Frozen broiler: 1.15kg–2.05kg
Source: London wholesale market

Figure 4.3 EU and UK broiler meat wholesale market price


p/kg
180 £/t

170 30

160
150
150 25
147
140

130 20

120

110 15

100
Jan 12 Jul 12 Jan 13 Jul 13 Jan 14 Jul 14 Jan 15 Jul 15 Jan 16 Jul 16 Jan 17
UK EU 10
is fresh broiler price, E is mixture of fresh and fro en
Source: EU Commission, London Wholesale Market
12
Poultry and Egg Prices

Figure 4.4 EU and UK egg (large and medium) wholesale market price
p/kg
170
0
160

150

140

130

120
55 110
28 105
100

90 93

80
Jan 12 Jul 12 Jan 13 Jul 13 Jan 14 Jul 14 Jan 15 Jul 15 Jan 16 Jul 16 Jan 17
UK EU
Source: EU Commission

Figure 4.5 Average poultry compound feed price, GB


£/tonne
298
300
271
262
150
250 238 236 237
229 225
147 219

200

150

17
100
Qtr 1 Qtr 2 Qtr 3 Qtr 4
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Source: Defra
13
Chapter 5 - Imports and Exports
Table 5.1 UK egg trade by volume

‘000 cases 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 (e)


Imports
Shell eggs 22 1 1 1 1 51 15 1 1 2
gg roducts 15 2 1 2 5 1 5
Total 5,438 5,099 5,263 5,836 5,548

Exports
Shell eggs 2 9 2 0 243 1 1 25
gg roducts 129 145 1 0 111 10
Total 398 425 383 293 362
1 case 3 0 eggs. All data converted to shell egg e uivalent. (e) estimate
Source: Defra

Table 5.2 Volume and value of UK poultry meat imports


Tonnes,
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
product weight
Fresh/frozen poultry
20 12 0 0 022 9 9
(inc offals)

Salted oultry 9 9 10 5 09 0 90 0 100

rocessed oultry 292 2 291 19 05 9 02 1

Total 717,794 724,619 769,824 837,214 907,820

£’000 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Fresh/frozen poultry
9 1 95 9 1 020 95 1 0 5 501 1 120
(inc offals)

Salted oultry 5 009 10 090 11 1 112 0 10 910

rocessed oultry 02 25 1 91 9 2 9 2

Total 1,823,629 1,908,308 2,022,987 2,061,766 2,211,644


Source: IHS Maritime & Trade – Global Trade Atlas®/HMRC
14
Imports and Exports

Table 5.3 Volume and value of UK poultry meat exports

Tonnes, product weight 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

resh ro en oultry (inc offals) 2 9 21 1 51 05 299 515 295 0

Salted oultry 2 929 2 11 5 1 1

rocessed oultry 5 50 25 51 9 1

Total 338,566 387,180 402,986 347,755 338,208

£’000 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016


resh ro en oultry (inc offals) 2 9 29 2 29 00 2 02 2 900

Salted oultry 5 59 5 21

rocessed oultry 1 5 12 1 5 92 11 101 10 09

Total 418,217 461,577 440,385 356,793 349,930


Source: IHS Maritime & Trade – Global Trade Atlas®/HMRC

Table 5.4 UK fresh/frozen poultry meat imports by source

9 Tonnes, product weight 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016


Total 382,067 383,812 407,833 440,022 478,979
0
etherlands 1 09 0 1 19 1 9 192 0 202 5
1
oland 1 51 55 5 10 5
0
Ireland 2 9 25 5 5 15 1 055
elgium 2 00 25 0 0 09 5 29
ermany 25 9 9 2 1 01 1 0 1 09
Italy 1 9 12 9 10 5 15 1 1 29
Romania 0 052 901 10 5 9 1 25
0
France 1 1 22 1 10 2 12 2 9
Spain 1 2 005 19 11 09
4 Note: ncludes o als.
Source: IHS Maritime & Trade – Global Trade Atlas®/HMRC
15
Imports and Exports

Table 5.5 UK fresh/frozen poultry meat exports by destination

Tonnes, product weight 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016


Total 289,787 342,161 351,058 299,515 295,806
2 20 52 2 9 115 2 19 2 0 9 199 2 1
etherlands 100 521 10 91 9 5 10
Ireland 5 1 5 199
France 1 5 21 0 21 911 22 5 2 1 1
ermany 15 2 19 9 22 02 2 102 22
Spain 1 029 1 020 12 5 1 0 12 9
elgium 2 1 22 11 5 9 9 0 509
oland 1 5 021 2 1 2 00 1 5
South Africa 2 02 1 01 1 15
Hong Kong 25 9 20 25 11 1 1 5
Note: ncludes o als.
Source: IHS Maritime & Trade – Global Trade Atlas®/HMRC

Table 5.6 UK processed poultry meat imports by source

Tonnes, product weight 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016


Total 292,288 291,197 305,893 336,802 368,741
2 12 00 1 1 1 2 95 159 5 1 0
etherlands 1 0 2 12 9 2 99
Ireland 2 5 9 00 29 9 0 1 15 9
oland 11 9 9 1 1 25 2 91
ermany 15 0 1 5 1 2 25 5 2 0
France 9 01 11 11 11 5 11 99 1 19
elgium 59 5 02 9 552
hailand 1 9 11 51 12 50 12 22 1 1 0
ra il 21 5 29 00 0 1 2 229 15
hina 00 9 22 9 5 110
Source: IHS Maritime & Trade – Global Trade Atlas®/HMRC

1
F igure 5 . 1 M ap o f U K f resh / f ro z en po ul try meat ex po rts b y destinatio n

R egio n
E U
N o nE U

Note: The. above map shows countries the UK exported fresh/frozen poultry meat to in 2016 according to I H S M a ri t i m e & T ra de – G l o b a l T ra de A t l a s ® / H M R ev enu e &
C Note:
u s t o m s the above map shows countries the exported fresh/fro en poultry to in 201 according to HS aritime
Trade - lobal
Trade Atlas®/HM Revenue & Customs
The website below provides guidance on exporting, including a list of Export Health Certificates (EHC) available:
The website, http://www.ukecp.com, provides guidance on exporting, including a list of Export Health Certificates (EHC) available.
https://www.gov.uk/guidance/exporting-
Source: IHS Maritime & Tradelive- animals- or-
- Global animal-
Trade products- to- non-
Atlas®/HM eu- countries
Revenue & Customs
Figure 5.1 Map of UK fresh frozen poultry meat exports by destination

Source: IHS Maritime & Trade – Global Trade Atlas®/HM Revenue & Customs
Imports and Exports

17
Imports and Exports

Table 5.7 UK processed poultry meat exports by destination

Tonnes, product weight 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Total 45,850 42,586 48,517 44,669 38,661

Ireland 25 59 22 159 22 12 20 5 1 9

etherlands 5 5 2 9 299 90

ermany 59 2 2 5 05 5 25 2

Source: IHS Maritime & Trade – Global Trade Atlas®/HMRC

Table 5.8 EU exports of fresh/frozen poultry meat by destination

Tonnes, product weight 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016


Total 1,236,838 1,231,484 1,294,614 1,301,541 1,411,771
South Africa 129 90 150 99 195 0 209 259 0
Saudi rabia 1 25 15 51 121 1 1 1 5 120 5
enin 1 1 10 1 2 0 1 55 115 21
Hong Kong 109 11 101 5 5 120 0 025 10 0 5
hili ines 22 1 2 0 9 2 9
raine 250 5 2 5 125 2 2
hana 951 2 95 5 11 0 111
ongo em e 050 2 0 2 9 2 525
Vietnam 1 11 51 1 0 2 9 5
abon 25 01 2 9 2 2 11
ongo 1 95 22 10 2 299 5 1 0
Malaysia 2 99 2 9 9 25 1 9 2 29 0
acedonia 2 1 01 2 2 1 2 9 2 901
Liberia 11 0 1 9 12 5 20 2 2 5
Togo 1 1 0 1 2 20 5 21
hina 10 115 1 19 1 22 10 21 5

Source: IHS Maritime & Trade – Global Trade Atlas®/Eurostat


1
Chapter 6 - Consumption
Table 6.1 UK per capita consumption of major meats
kg/person/
Poultry meat Pig meat Beef & veal Total meat
year
2000 05 2 1 5 92
2005 1 24.7 20
200 31.2 2 9 20 9 2
200 00 25.7 20 9 2
200 29 5 24.5 20 0 00
2009 29 9 24.3 1 2 9
2010 1 24.1 1 9
2011 32.7 2 1 1 00
2012 2 2 1 0 9
201 2 2 9 17.3
201 0 24.4 1 9
2015 1 25.1 1 2
201 37.3 2 2 1 2
Supplies available for consumption. All data in carcase weight e uivalent.
Source: AHDB Calculations based on data from Defra, HMRC, ONS

Table 6.2 GB retail chicken and egg value by type of outlet


Freezer
% Multiples Butchers Other
centres
Chicken
201 50 0 3.1
2015 5.1 3.2
201 5 50 9 3.7
Eggs
201 5.3 1.4 5
2015 1 5.2 1.2 5.5
Source: antar orldPanel
201 90 4.5 1.1 5.4
Data covers 52 weeks ending early January of the following year
Source: antar orldPanel
19
Consumption

Figure 6.1 Trends in GB household chicken purchases by volume


Tonnes
630,000 yoy
35
620,000 30
25
610,000
20

600,000 15
10
590,000 5
0
580,000
-5

570,000 -10
31 28 27 24 22 19 17 14 11 09 06 04 01 -15
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan -20
2014 2015 2016 52 wee s ending

Note: Figures include ‘Ready to cook’ and ‘Chilled main meal accompaniment’ products V
Source: antar orldPanel

Figure 6.2 Trends in GB household egg purchases by volume


‘000s
5,900,000 To
5,800,000 25
5,700,000
5,600,000 20

5,500,000
15
5,400,000
5,300,000
10
5,200,000
5,100,000
5
5,000,000
31 28 27 24 22 19 17 14 11 09 06 04 01
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Apr

2014 2015 2016 52 wee s ending

Source: antar orldPanel


20
Consumption

Figure 6.3 Change in GB retail volume and value sales


of chicken by product, 2016
yoy % change
35 30.7
29.1
30 26.7
25 22.1
20
13.9 11.7
15
9.8
10 5.6
5 2.3 2.2 1.7
0
-5 -1.8 -2.3 -1.4 -2.4
-10 -5.9

-15 -11.5
-14.1
-20
Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Frozen Frozen Frozen Frozen Sliced
Breasts Whole Leg Roll/Roast Breast Whole Leg Roll/Roast Cooked
Volume Value
Source: antar orldPanel
Data covers 52 weeks ending early January of the following year

Figure 6.4 GB volume sales of chicken by product, 2016


Tonnes
250,000
217,777

200,000

151,168
150,000

89,217
100,000

42,228
50,000
22,808
3,625 1,883 4,531 4,860
0
Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Frozen Frozen Frozen Frozen Sliced
Breasts Whole Leg Roll/Roasts Breasts Whole Leg Roll/Roast Cooked
Source: antar orldPanel
Data covers 52 weeks ending 1 January 2017
21
Consumption

Figure 6.5 Change in GB retail volume and value sales of eggs, 2016
yoy % change £/k
9
20 16.4
15 11.6 8
9.6
10 7.3
7
5
0 6
-5 -1.8 5
-10 -6.0
4
-15
-20 3
-25
2
-30
-30.2 -29.5 1
-35
0
Barn Free Range Free Range Organic Non-free Range
Non-organic
Volume Value

Data covers 52 weeks ending early January of the following year


Source: antar orldPanel

Figure 6.6 Volume sales of eggs, 2016


Pe
‘000 eggs
35
3,500,000 3,263,341
30
3,000,000
2,386,518 25
2,500,000

2,000,000 20

1,500,000 15
1,000,000
10
500,000
111,489 80,197 5
0
Barn Free Range Free Range Non-free Range 0
Non-organic Organic

Data covers 52 weeks ending 1 January 2017.


Source: antar orldPanel

22
Consumption

Figure 6.7 Average GB retail price of chicken cuts, 2016


£/kg
9
8.12
8
6.53 6.77
7

6
4.82
5
3.81
4
3.03
3 2.68
2.23 2.01
2

0
Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Frozen Frozen Frozen Frozen Sliced
Breasts Whole Leg Roll/Roast Breast Whole Leg Roll/Roast Cooked
Data covers 52 weeks ending 1 January 2017.
Source: antar orldPanel

Figure 6.8 Average GB retail price of eggs, 2016


Pence/egg
35 33

30

25

20 17

15
10 9
10

0
Barn Free Range Free Range Non-free Range
Non-organic Organic
Data covers 52 weeks ending 1 January 2017.
Source: antar orldPanel

23
Figure 6.9 Proportion of chicken products sold on promotion
in GB retail outlets
% of total volume
50 45.6
44.5 43.8
45 43.0
39.4
40 36.3
35 30.7 32.4 32.0
30.1 28.9 30.0
30 27.3
25.0
23.5 24.6
25
20.3
20 16.1
15
10
5
0
Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Frozen Frozen Frozen Frozen Sliced
Breasts Whole Leg Roll/Roast Breast Whole Leg Roll/Roast Cooked
52 w/e 03 Jan 16 52 w/e 01 Jan 17
Source: antar orldPanel

Figure 6.10 Proportion of eggs sold on promotion in GB retail outlets


% of total volume
50
45.6
45
40
35
30 26.3
25 21.5
18.5 19.2
20 16.3
15
8.8
10
5 3.3

0
Barn Free Range Free Range Non-free Range
Non-organic Organic
52 w/e 03 Jan 16 52 w/e 01 Jan 17
Source: antar orldPanel
24
44
Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board
Stoneleigh Park
Kenilworth
Warwickshire
CV8 2TL
Tel: 024 7669 2051
www.ahdb.org.uk

© Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board 2017. All rights reserved.

While the Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board seeks to ensure that the
information contained within this document is accurate at the time of publication, no
warranty is given in respect thereof and, to the maximum extent permitted by law, the
Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board accepts no liability for loss, damage
or injury howsoever caused (including that caused by negligence) or suffered directly or
indirectly in relation to information and opinions contained in or omitted from this document.

Cover Images:
Hens - Vladimir Voronchenko/Shutterstock.com

ISBN 978-1-904437-97-0