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The 2nd International Youth Symposium

on Creative Agriculture 2017


Bogor, Indonesia
September 30, 2017

Reviewers
Dr. Wanamina Waehama
(Academic Relations Manager at ASEAN Youth
Organization)
Lina Rospita, M. Sc
(Food Security Analyst-Nutrition and SDGs Focal
Point at Food and Agriculture Organization)

Cover by
Allen Sianjaya

Layout by
Dellania Tri Husnisa
Fatchurrachman
Mutiara Sani
Ni Putu Ayu Eka Sundari

Published by

IAAS LOCAL COMMITTEE IPB


COMMITTEE

Ghazi Ashfahani Shafa H. Zulfikar Muchammad


Azwar A. Sujaswara Anggie Kusuma Damayanti
Hanifa Hasna Perdana Dio Akbar Al Ghiffari
Aulia Ismarisa Farhan Fadhlillah
Varissa Nurhasanah Ikhram Hafiz Rahmadi
Indah Ainun Firdaus Nanda Zerlian Putra
Dellania Tri Husnisa Rifqi Puja Novtiar
Fatchurrachman Raymundus Jati Primanda
Ibnu Hafizh Syam Allen Sianjaya
Maria Jacklyn Brilyani P. P. Fikha Raihani
Mohamad Yusril Ramadhan Halimah Azzahrah
Mutiara Sani Muhammad Fadhil Rifqi A. R.
Ni Putu Ayu Eka Sundari Cahyani Fortunita
Yogie Rivaldy Siti Nabila Triananda
Zaky Syahri Luthfan Ni Ketut Susila Dharma Asih
Gabriela Vianka Kineta G. Adelivia Anjani
Athena Ilda Novanti Elgiani Yassifa Yulia Nurinsani
Azhari Ridha Darmawan Renal Syah Putra
Fahri Sinulingga Selma Laily Nur Afifa
Lazuardi Iman Alif Daniel Andri
Muhammad Farid Naufal M. Gabriella Clarinta Dyahpakarti
Muhammad Ikhsan Zulkifli Muhammad Mutaqqin
Yasmin Putri Masri Nabila
Zafran Akhmadery Arif Muhamad Adilah
Nissa Arrasyidi Joan Novvic
Myra Febriyanti Pramananda Pasaribu
Feni Rahmawati Mardiana
Nanda Rizky F. Dedi Iskandar
PREFACE

Dear Distinguished Delegates and Guests,


International Association of Students in Agricultural and Related Sciences (IAAS)
Local Committee IPB warmly welcomes our distinguished delegates and guests at
The 2nd International Youth Symposium on Creative Agriculture (IYSCA)
scheduled on September 30th 2017 at Bogor, Indonesia.
This symposium is a place for university students to discuss and share their
knowledge, expertise, and experience on the principles, instruments, and issues
related to ideas towards the significance of the agricultural and related sciences
interaction. There are two sub-themes discussed on the symposium, those are
Creative Solutions on Science and Technology and Creative Solutions on Social
and Humanities.
IAAS itself is a student organization for agricultural students worldwide based in
Leuven, Belgium which was established in 1957. While, IAAS LC IPB was started
in 1992, the same year Indonesia was officially accepted as one of IAAS World
member. IAAS is known in the UN as an NGO (non-governmental organization).
This proceeding records all essays presented at the symposium. The essays have
been reviewed by the reviewers who master the sub-theme matters. Review aspects
of the essays include the originality of essay, the title of essay, the essay format, the
suitability to the topic, the benefit and urgency issue, the rationality of idea and
innovation, the coherence, and the argumentation.
We would like to thank the organization staffs and all committees for their hard
work. We would like also to thank and show our gratitude to the reviewers and all
those who have contributed for the success of the symposium. We hope that all
participants and the readers get the benefit from the proceedings and also find it
stimulating in the process of their quest of achieving greater heights. Finally, we
would like to wish you success in your oral presentation and social networking with
all the delegates in the symposium. We hope you have a memorable and enjoyable
day at IYSCA 2017 Bogor, Indonesia.

Warm regards,

IYSCA Committee
September 30, 2017
Bogor, Indonesia
PREFACE

An expanding population, all too finite resources and a changing environment


present many challenges for the people and nations of the world. One of the most
basic of them is maintaining the ability to produce sufficient food and ensuring that
it gets to those who need it. Ironically the young, who will ultimately have to face
these problems, and hopefully solve them, are rarely given a chance to air their
views and ideas. In 2017, the 2nd International Youth Symposium on Creative
Agriculture (IYSCA), a sub-event of the 9th IAAS Olympic, encouraged tertiary
students from around the world to discuss and share their knowledge and
experience in this complex area.
One feature of the conference was asking students to write essays on its theme:
“Creative Solutions for Sustainable Agriculture to Ensure Food Sovereignty”.
These essays could focus on proposed solutions that focused on science and
technology (novel methods of food production or distribution), or social and
humanities (novel policies, education or social structures to facilitate food
production or distribution). These essays were then judged by Dr Wanamina
Waehama of Academic Relations Manager of the ASEAN Youth Organization, and
Lecturer of Prince of Songkla University Thailand on the basis of originality,
rationality of the idea and the urgency of the issue discussed as well as coherence
and expression.
This volume contains the best twenty-nine of these essays, evenly divided between
social and humanities solutions and science and technology solutions. It is to be
hoped that it showcases how the minds of the young can dedicate themselves to
these urgent problems, and inspire others with the optimistic view that the solutions
it presents are both practical and effective.

Sincerely,

ASEAN Youth Organization


INDEX
The 2nd International Youth Symposium on Creative Agriculture 2017
Bogor, Indonesia
September 30, 2017

Topic 1
Essay ID Essay Title and Authors Page
No.
Prevent Agricultural Land of Hazardous and
Toxic Chemicals with Addition of Organic
1211701 2
Materials and Biodiversity
Andi Azwar
Integrated Tempe Agroindustry Model
(Integrateam): Soybean Production Optimization
1321702 Solutions to Increase Production of Tempe in 4
Indonesia.
Bagus Rahmansyah Priyoadi
Utilization of Limited Lands with Azolla pinnata
Hydroponics Plant as High Protein Poultry Feed
1321703 6
in Ensuring Food Sovereignty
Barra Najah Dinana
Cryogenic Freezing Technology as a Profitable
Alternative to Minimize Excess Seasonal Fruit
1321704 8
Waste in Developing Countries
Darren Tanaka
Decision Making System to Support Food Self-
1221705 Sufficiency of Corn 11
Dito Hafizh Indriarto
Banana Peel Cellulose-Based Hydrogel as Soil
Conditioner and Nutrient Carrier to Improve Corn
1221706 15
Production in Dryland
Harlino Nandha Prayudha
Growth and Production of Red Chili (Capsicum
annum L.) on Ultisol Soils with Partial Rootzone
1221708 17
Drying (PRD) Technique
Risa Agustina
App to Support Fish Losses Data Collecting in
1221709 Small Scale Fisheries 19
Mery Kathryn Kurniawati Br. Panjaitan
AM2W: Automatic Mousetrap Machine and
Water Adsorbing as an Effective Agriculture Plant
1321710 22
Protection to Support Food Production
Rr. Ike Rachmania Swanten
Empowerment of Beach Society Utilizing
Hydroponics Verticulture Technology Anti
1221712 27
Malnutrition in Achieving National Food Security
Suryadi Pappa
Pistol Innovation Bullet Combination Technology
‘Plasma and Hydroponic’ to Shoot Sustainable
1221713 Agriculture in Succeed Sustainable Development 32
Goals in 2030
Qurrota Ayunin Diananda
Struvite Based Urine Livestock as a Solution to
Environmental Problems in the Development of
1221714 35
Sustainable Agriculture (Livestock)
Latiffa Lutfiani
GO – MOAGI Application (Solution for Farmers
to Manage Sustainable Modern Organic
1221715 39
Agriculture)
Pramudito Kartiko Dumipto
Biopesticides: Ecofriendly Pest Control and Safe
Food Enhancers to Achieve Sustainable
1221716 42
Agriculture
Roudlotun Nafingah
Agrishape: Educational Purposed Functional
Snack from Banana Peel and Red Bean to Raise
1221730 Self-Awarness and Alternative of Eradicating 45
Hunger
Syuga Eugenia Invicta
Bottom Up Needs of Population and
1321732 Modernization of Agricultural Industry 48
Waheed Ul Hasan
Creative Solution on Science and Technology
1321734 51
Otaigo Elisha

Topic 2
Page
Essay ID Essay Title and Authors
No.
Creative Solution on Social and Humanities
2121717 57
Anusha Acharya
Reinvigorating Agriculture of Equator’s Emerald
2321718 with Agrow Apps (Agriculture Crowdfunding) 60
Citra Atrina Sari
Etnogotani (Combination of Strengthening
Ethnobotany Agroforestry and Agricultural
Marketing Education): National Agricultural
2221720 Technology Applications Market-Based Start Up 63
as the Strategy to Increase Foodstuff Production
and Improve Farmer Prosperity
Eka Indah Cahyaning Thyas
Designing Connectivity for Better Agriculture
2321723 67
Muhammad Rasyid Shidiq
New Design of Farmer Group as the Strategic
Framework to Increase Farmer Paddy Welfare
2221724 Based on Karang Taruna and Gapoktan 70
Empowerment on Green Supply Chain
Moch. Alawy Syaiful Anam
Smart Farming Marketing Based on Collective
Action: An Alternative of Farmer Immunity
2321725 Towards Free-Riders to Support Grand Design of 74
Excellent Farming in Banyuwangi 2020
Mahtuf Ikhsan
Agriaboard: Increasing the Comprehension of
Children About On-Farm to Promote Sustainable
2321726 Agriculture Based on Educational Game in Bogor, 77
Indonesia
Latiful Akbar
Agribusiness Training Family Wednesday to
Improve Social Welfare in Order to Ensure Square
2321727 80
of Food Sustainable
Irfan Nugraha
A Concentrate Small Action
2321728 82
Mentari Br Peranginangin
Social Entrepreneurship and Crowdfunding as a
2221729 Gift for Indonesian Farmers 84
Sandy Irawan
How to Make Agriculture Sustainable for the
2121731 Future 87
Shun Maejima
Our Sustainable Future
2121733 89
Kako Kinuya
TOPIC-1
Creative Solutions on
Science and Technology
International Youth Symposium on
Creative Agriculture
(IYSCA-2017)
PREVENT AGRICULTURAL LAND OF HAZARDOUS AND
TOXIC CHEMICALS WITH ADDITION OF ORGANIC
MATERIALS AND BIODIVERSITY
Andi Azwar

Indonesia as an agrarian country In the 1970s, a green revolution was


launched to increase production for food sovereignty by the use of synthetic
chemical fertilizers. The current movement of the green revolution has made land
damage in the form of fertility, declining biodiversity. And now the population of
Indonesia which reached 257,912,349 people, resulting in the use of agricultural
land becomes increasingly narrow because it is used as housing. Increasingly also
the industries that currently lead to land on agricultural land contaminated with
hazardous metals. Therefore the use of organic materials and biological agents is
very important on agricultural land today.
The problem of increasing the population, the industries, the use of chemical
fertilizers synthetic in the future will trigger the occurrence of food crisis. The
number of people who make the soil decreases due to housing construction. Land
on agricultural land is polluted by industries. Nutrients and microorganisms on the
soil are reduced as a result of synthetic chemical fertilizers.
The big problem can be solved with organic material and the addition of
biological agents. Addition of organic can be done with two systems that is in and
out. System in the provision of the rest of the harvest, while the external system is
by the addition of livestock manure and composting results. Organic materials that
have a special aspect in providing the environment on the chemical, physical and
biological properties of the soil. In chemical properties one of them can increase
absorption and cation exchange capacity, can store water and fertilizer because the
nature of organic materials can withstand nutrients and water. The addition of
organic material can maintain pH conditions. Decreased soil pH resulting from the
decomposition of organic matter that produces dominant acids. While the increase
in pH on the acid soil aluminum content becomes high because the organic material
binds aluminum so it is not hydrolyzed again. While on the biological properties of
soil is to increase the growth and activity of microorganisms. Changes in soil

2
physical properties due to organic matter capable of storing high water, humus
contents of the mule. The addition of biological agent microorganisms are bacteria,
yeast, fungi, algae, diatoms, and protozoa. In general microorganisms reduce
harmful and toxic chemicals by detoxification, biohydrometallurgy, bioleaching
and bioaccumulation. Examples of microorganisms are nitrifier chemoautotroph
bacteria (mitrosomonas, nitrosobacter) important in the natural nutrient cycle and
maintain the system when oxidizing ammonium to nitrate. For example, fungi can
fill the nutrient void in the soil, removing nutrients from one place to another. Often
acts as a plant pathogen, improves soil structure and feeds on microbial feeding
fauna.
The benefits of organic and microorganisms in the handling of malasalah in
the field of Indonesian agriculture today, namely providing nutrients, neutralize
hazardous chemicals, increasing the microbial population. By optimizing the land
contaminated with hazardous chemicals and metals. And in the future with the
optimization of contaminated land can prevent the occurrence of food crisis and
Indonesia can achieve food sovereignty.

3
INTEGRATED TEMPE AGROINDUSTRY MODEL
(INTEGRATEAM): SOYBEAN PRODUCTION
OPTIMIZATION SOLUTIONS TO INCREASE PRODUCTION
OF TEMPE IN INDONESIA

Bagus Rahmansyah Priyoadi

Soybean is one of the critical agricultural commodities in Indonesia,


especially in the form of tempe. Based on the National Social Economic Survey by
Kementerian Pertanian RI in 2014, average consumption of tempe in Indonesia in
the year 2009-2013 is 7.09 kg/capita/year, with an index of the average growth
(growth average) 0.23% a year. However, the amount of the consumption/demand
for tempe currently not proportional to the number of its raw material, soybean,
production. According to data from the Badan Pusat Statistik in 2014, the
production of soybean in Indonesia in 2012 as much as 843.153 tons, and in 2013
by as much as 779.992 tons.
Data from the Pusat Data dan Sistem Informasi Pertanian in 2015 also
shows that the national soybean production by 2015 as much as 963.099 tons of dry
beans. Meanwhile, the national soybean raw materials needs for tempe’s
manufacture as much as 2,5 million tons/year. So far, Indonesia still rely on
imported soybean to cover the shortcomings of those needs. Indonesia's reliance in
importing soybean growing in good volume as well as value. These circumstances
may be harmful for sovereignty and food security in Indonesia’s future.
To minimize the dependence of imported soybean in Indonesia, production
optimization of soybean is absolutely necessary to maintain the availability of
supply of soybean to meet the production needs of tempe. IntegraTeAM concept
combines upper and lower aspects of tempe production, that consists of soybean
and banana cultivation, tempe industry, and fertilizer production units. This method
is able to suppress the production of soybean needs for tempe production, as well
as reduce the amount of waste being wasted in useless, so the production cost
incurred can also be pressed. The concept of the IntegraTeAM method are as
follows: land the soybean supplies of raw materials for the industry to produce

4
tempe. Bananas are grown on the same land with soybean can produce fruit
consumption and the leaves can be used as a wrapping material in the production
of tempe.
The banana plant and tempe industry produce waste that can be processed
and utilized as raw organic fertilizer to increase crop productivity of soybean. The
largest component of liquid waste in tempe industry are protein (total-N) as much
as 226.06 mg/L up to 434.78 mg/L, so the influx of liquid waste in tempe industry
into the environment will leave total nitrogen. In addition, banana peels contain
protein, Potassium (K), Phosphorus (P), Magnesium (Mg), Sodium/Natrium (Na)
and Sulphur (S).
IntegraTeAM model is developed by group. This group model consists of
soybean cultivated land management units, tempe processing, banana groves, and
the organic fertilizer production units were still in one group of farmers as well as
certain business groups. This model was developed through the empowerment of
soybean farmers and tempe craftsman. IntegraTeAM model can optimize the
production of soybean to fulfil the needs of tempe as pressing as raw materials
production as well as increase value added products, so being able to improve the
welfare of soybean farmers and tempe craftsman.

5
UTILIZATION OF LIMITED LANDS WITH AZOLLA
PINNATA HYDROPONICS PLANT AS HIGH PROTEIN
POULTRY FEED IN ENSURING FOOD SOVEREIGNTY
Barra Najah Dinana

Lately almost all regions in Indonesia are affected by floods and landslides,
caused by deforestation, the use of an-organic fertilizers on land that is not wise by
farmers. All of them have an impact on food land degradation. Limited production
of poultry feed material, especially grain resulted in soaring prices of poultry feed
so it is not affordable anymore by our community that is destined for poor farmers.
Everyone knows Indonesia is one of the agrarian countries that have strong food
security in the past and even helped the starving African country at that time.
Therefore, it is necessary to do a lot of research on the potential of our local
biodiversity to overcome the potential of the local Azolla superior strain as a high
protein feed material that is easy, inexpensive and in accordance with the tropical
conditions of Indonesia.
Azolla is used as a poultry feed that is very high protein varies from 20% -
30%. Dry Azolla pinata or compost can reach up to 25%. The high price of fish
meal as a source of protein causes the high price of poultry feed, but unfortunately
not balanced with the quality of feed itself. In fulfilling the protein content in fish
meal, some fish-producing producers mix other ingredients such as urea and
melamine. These ingredients to be consumed by poultry will accumulate the growth
of low-poultry fowl, and can be fatally damaged by poultry. Therefore, by using
Azolla pinnata as a feed pellet, it is expected that poultry farmers can reduce
operational costs to be spent without reducing the growth rate of poultry
maintained.
As an additional feed source, Azolla pinnata can be cultivated in separate
containers or pools. Azolla pinnata cultivation process is quite easy and cheap. The
required fertilizer dose is 5 g/ l of water. A. pinnata, ranging from chicken fertilizer
5 g/l doses are evenly distributed in containers that have been prepared. After 2 -3
days A. pinnata is dispersed in the container. Maintenance by using old fertilizer
with new (dose ½ of initial fertilizer). Harvesting of A. pinnata is done after 1 week,

6
with half harvesting method (partial). The fermented Azolla can increase its
nutrients and decrease the crude fibers making it suitable as an expensive
manufacturer's replacement feed. In improving palatability can also be changed in
the form of mash, pellet or crumble.
This hydroponic system can benefit from the quality and quantity of the
results, and can maximize the existing agricultural land because it does not require
a lot of land. Information on the development of hydroponics systems in Indonesia
is still minimal, this is due to lack of counseling about the advantages of hydroponic
systems on limited land. With the introduction of Azolla pinnata plants to the public
through counseling, newspapers, magazines, TV service ads can optimize people's
knowledge of the benefits as well as optimize the usefulness of this plant for poultry
feed in maintaining national food sovereignty.

7
CRYOGENIC FREEZING TECHNOLOGY AS A
PROFITABLE ALTERNATIVE TO MINIMIZE EXCESS
SEASONAL FRUIT WASTE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Darren Tanaka

Technology has undoubtedly altered every aspect of our agriculture. It has


enhanced our production capabilities, shortened processing time, and amplified our
efficiency. Some might even say that we are presently in the pinnacle of agricultural
success. While it is an undeniable fact that technology has brought us abundant
benefits for global agriculture, we cannot afford to overlook the consequences it
has brought. Loss of biodiversity, increased usage of chemical substance, and land
degradation are but a few of the modern agricultural problems that we are currently
facing. I’m a freshman majoring in Food Science and Technology with limited
background in economics and accounting that I have obtained through various
online courses. Food is the embodiment of agriculture itself; and as such I have a
strong conviction that I can apply the skills and knowledge regarding food I have
learnt to develop not only sustainable but also profitable solutions regarding
agriculture.
Food waste is a critical issue that we must address as a global community if
we are to achieve food sovereignty. It is nigh impossible to accomplish this while
1.3 billion tons of food are being wasted each year, with fruits constituting 45% of
the figure. If a tenth of that amount can be salvaged, it can feed approximately 348
million people for a whole year. Moreover, excessive food waste also has an impact
on the climate and ecosystem. According to figures released by the Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), around 4.4 gigatons of
carbon dioxide are produced from the food waste. If these losses and wastes were
a country by itself, it would be the world’s third largest emitter of carbon dioxide,
behind America and China. The climate change induced by these wasted food will
then affect the average temperature, rainfall, and the sea level that are imperative
for the farmers; creating an endless cycle that will endanger our agriculture. Food
losses are found across all elements of the supply chain, from initial production to

8
consumer consumption. Based on a report by the FAO, 40% of food losses in
developing countries; e.g. Sub Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia, occur mainly
due to inefficient post-harvesting and processing techniques. In view of this fact,
the price of seasonal fruits in these countries tends to fluctuate depending on the
season. On off- seasons, the price of these seasonal fruits can often rise as high as
triple the normal price. During harvesting season however, you can buy them for
very cheap prices because of oversupply. Some farmers even decide to just throw
away their produce, as no one wants to buy their produce that can be found
ubiquitously.
As a long-term preservation method for fruits and vegetables, freezing is
generally considered superior when compared to canning and dehydration, with
respect to retention in sensory attributes and nutritive properties. (Fennema, 1973)
One of the modern-day solutions to resolve this seasonal fruit waste problem is
through a preservation method called cryogenic freezing. Cryogenic freezing with
liquid nitrogen is carried out by first passing the food through nitrogen vapor at
about -50° Celsius then freezing the food by spraying the refrigerant directly onto
the food. (Smith 2011) There are primarily 3 steps that constitute the cryogenic
freezing process in general. The first step is washing and preparing harvested food
produce. Fruits are washed while vegetables are blanched to dispose of dirt and
other contaminants. The second step is freezing the products in order to lock in key
vitamins and preserving the taste. Cryogenic freezing is currently the fastest
freezing method to date, needing only 30 seconds to 1 minute to complete. The fast
processing time also reduces ice crystals formed in foods during freezing, which
will maintain moisture, firmness, and nutritional quality of said product. Finally,
the frozen foods are then packed in a special packaging that excludes oxygen then
stored in freezers. The implementation of this technique is very suitable for
agricultural industries and farmers in developing countries as it requires very low
initial cost or investment. The cryogenic system itself is usually rented or leased for
a very cheap (sometimes free) price by the supplier for a set amount of time given
that they buy the coolant or refrigerant from said supplier. This alleviates the burden
of farmers and business owners in developing countries who generally have less
budget compared to those in developed countries. A realistic example would be the

9
price of frozen jackfruit meat in Indonesia. The normal price of frozen jackfruit
meat is approximately Rp 35,000 on harvesting season, but can jump to Rp50,000
on off seasons. The frozen jackfruits are sold by some big food manufacturing
companies in Indonesia. These companies however, generally source the food
ingredients from local farmers at a much cheaper price (around Rp20,000 –
Rp25,000) before reselling them at a higher price after being frozen. However, there
are some drawbacks of using this method. The handling of liquid nitrogen must be
done with caution, as it is dangerous due to its extremely low temperature.
Cryogenic freezing also requires quite a significant amount of refrigerant. Thus, it
is recommended to apply these techniques on seasonal fruits, where there is enough
margin to make profit.
If the local farmers and small scale industries were to be educated to freeze
their own excess produce, they can enjoy up to a twofold increase in profit for each
kilograms sold on off seasons. Furthermore, with the instantaneous freezing process
of cryogenic freezing, the amount of excess fruit produce that can be preserved will
also grow, which will result in an increase in revenue. In conclusion, cryogenic
freezing offers a very feasible solution with its low initial cost requirement in order
to reduce seasonal fruit waste, and at the same time make profit out of it.

REFERENCES

Fennema, O. R., Powrie, W. D., Marth, E. H. 1973. Low Temperature Preservation


of Foods and Living Matter. New York: M. Dekker.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Food Wastage Footprint:
Impacts on Natural Resources. Accessed June 16th 2017.
http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3347e/i3347e.pdf.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. SAVE FOOD: Global
Initiative on Food Loss and Waste Reduction. Accessed June 18th 2017.
http://www.fao.org/save- food/resources/keyfindings/en/.
Smith, P.G. 2011. Introduction to Food Process Engineering. New York: Springer
Science and Business Media.

10
DECISION MAKING SYSTEM TO SUPPORT FOOD SELF-
SUFFICIENCY OF CORN

Dito Hafizh Indriarto

Indonesia is an agrarian country with a very abundant distribution of natural


resources in all its corner. With the abundance of these natural resources, the fields
of work for non-oil and gas workers are very much available. Farmers' work as the
majority of the most important workers in developing countries is a demand that
Indonesia should be self-sufficient in the management and income of food for
domestic needs. Major food revenues such as rice, cassava, and corn are the primary
food needs and staple as the main food that must be owned by the people of
Indonesia.
Corn is one of the most important food needed by the people of Indonesia.
Corn became one of the main food self-sufficiency which is included into the
National Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMN) by the government of
Indonesia. In addition can be consumed by human food needs, corn can also be a
food requirement by livestock [1]. Even corn is also the main raw material in the
industry needs (Nuryartono, 2010). With an overview of the corn commodity that
is very influential to the national food needs, attention in the management and
income of corn must also be the center of development by all parties involved,
ranging from researchers, farmers, government, to students.
Unfortunately, Indonesia still finds some of the main problems that hinder
the income of corn commodity. One of them is the broad growth of corn harvest for
the period 2005 - 2015 or in the last ten years rather slow down with an average
growth of 1.76% [2]. This causes all exploratory experiments from farmers to be
very limited. Until finally the limitation of the farmer's exploration causes the
growth of gross domestic product (GDP) of agriculture down from 2012 to 2014.

11
Figure 1: Growth Table of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Agriculture in
2011-2014

Source : Central Bureau of Statistics.

In addition to causing a decrease in the GDP rate, all such polemics have
caused Indonesia to suffer a trade deficit in corns [3]. In other words, Indonesia has
been importing corns more than exporting. Very sad when Indonesia is dubbed as
agrarian country but they must import their own agrarian needs. Whereas with all
its support from the wide harvest and human resources that are owned, Indonesia
has the potential to become the world's largest corn production base country, which
is still held by the United States, China and Brazil. Corn is also a highly contested
commodity fiercely by all countries in the world. Looking at the needs of world
imports, at least ten countries have become the largest importing countries of maize
with a percentage of 59% of the total world imports (Head of Center for Agricultural
Information Systems and Data, 2015). Looking at the phenomenon, it needs an
overall revitalization step in the management and income of maize by farmers in
Indonesia to meet the needs of national food as well as international.

12
Figure 2: World Corn Production and Export, 2008 - 2011 (million tonnes)

Resource : FAO-Stat (2013).

East Java is one of the areas in Java island that produces corn in very large
quantities. Fixed Rate (ATAP) 2014 East Java Province Corn production amounted
to 5.74 million tons. Compared with corn production in 2013 of 5.76 million tons
of dry pepper, there was a production decrease of 23.58 thousand tons (-0.41
percent). The decrease of corn production was due to the decrease of productivity
by 0.31 quintal / hectare (-0.65 percent) from 48.03 quintal / hectare to 47.72 quintal
/ hectare although the Harvest Area increased by 2.76 thousand hectares (0.23
Percent) from 1,199 million hectares to 1,202 million hectares [4].
One of the areas of East Java that is suitable for the development of the
agricultural sector, especially for corn commodities, namely in Bangkalan, Madura.
According to BPS data, in 2010, Bangkalan regency was ranked fourth after
Sumenep Regency, Tuban Regency and Sampang Regency as the corn producing
area with the dominant harvest area (World Food Program, 2015). Therefore
Kramat village was chosen as one of the villages in Bangkalan District as an
example of location to be used as a case study in research. The research will aim to
predict the optimum yield of corn harvest by considering all possible minimum
production factors. Analysis of the factors of production will be calculated by
Multiple Regression method. This method is used to predict a certain value that is
continuous (a distance or ratio) by considering variables that are continuous as
well. In this research, the variables used as parameter of calculation include land

13
area, seed, urea fertilizer, manure, pesticide, labor, and harvest production. From
these variables will then be processed using Multiple Regression method then will
produce a decision system regarding the use of the recommended corn production
factors. From these experiments, the application will find the continuity between
the most influential production factors on the most optimal harvest yields. So the
application will form a decision system to suggest to farmers to consider all the use
of production factors as effectively and efficiently as possible.
With the use of applications designed as such a proactive and adaptive
decision system, Indonesian farmers in particular Kramat village areas can produce
optimal yields taking into account the minimum possible use of production factors.
So that the upstream process of maize production in Indonesia can be avoided from
deficit incidents where the capital owned by farmers is not proportional to graduate
with the income earned. Further view with the utilization of the application with
the maximum can shift the orientation of the original farmers just to meet the needs
of life to be profit oriented. In addition to the increasing welfare of farmers, this
shift of orientation can also improve the livelihood paradigm of farmers who are
increasingly underestimated by the opportunists, where they are underestimating
the income of today's mature farmers.

REFERENCES

[1] Direktorat Pangan dan Pertanian Kementerian Perencanaan Pembangunan


Nasional. 2013. Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Nasional
(RPJMN) Bidang Pangan dan Pertanian 2015-2019. Jakarta: Bappenas.
[2] Kementerian Pertanian. 2015. Outlook Komoditas Pertanian Tanaman Pangan
Jagung. Jakarta: Kepala Pusat Data dan Sistem Informasi Pertanian.
[3] ITPC Osaka. 2013. Market Brief: HS 1005 Jagung. Osaka: Kementerian
Perdagangan Republik Indonesia.
[4] Dewan Ketahanan Pangan Jawa Timur. 2015. Peta Ketahanan dan Kerentanan
Pangan Jawa Timur 2015. Surabaya: Badan Ketahanan Pangan Jawa Timur
dan World Food Programme.

14
BANANA PEEL CELLULOSE-BASED HYDROGEL AS SOIL
CONDITIONER AND NUTRIENT CARRIER TO IMPROVE
CORN PRODUCTION IN DRYLAND

Harlino Nandha Prayudha

Lack of water supplies has become one of primary issues on dryland farming
in Indonesia. According to the fact that Indonesia has more dryland than wetland,
this issue becomes more urgent because of its effect on Indonesia’s agricultural
production. This problem has reduced the agricultural productivity index of dryland
farming and has affected the land degradation. That is why, dryland in Indonesia
needs a better treatment to improve soil’s quality for farming. Corn, as one of
primary commodities in Indonesia which is generally cultivated in dryland, is in
danger if such situation keeps getting worse. Indonesia needs to provide about 3.3
million tons of corn every year to fulfill its corn demand. Integrated agricultural
intensification is required to increase dryland productivity and to revitalize land
health. Related to this issue, hydrogel can be used as one of the efficient alternatives
solution. Recent studies proved that hydrogel can be used as land conditioner,
nutrient carrier, and portable irrigation. Hydrogel is a polymer crystal that has an
ability to absorb water in bulk. It has unique cross-linked chain that allows to swell
hundreds time from its original size. User friendly and easy to apply, are several
examples of hydrogel excellences.

This alternative solution may succeed the SDG’s number 2 about Zero
Hunger in Indonesia. Improved land condition will serve a positive impact to
agricultural land productivity and increase national food production as well. A
better dryland farming quality means a better agricultural production for Indonesia.
As an irrigation solution and a soil conditioner, hydrogel can be applied along with
fertilizers as a useful combination. This method will improve land condition and
maintain land health. Synthetic polymer such as pHEMA (polyhydroxyethyl
methacrylate) and PVA (polyvynil alcohol) can be used as base of hydrogel, but
with high production cost and high persistent in the environment. In the other
hand, hydrogel can be made from organic matters such as cellulose. This fact opens

15
an opportunity of using organic wastes as its base.
Among other organic wastes, banana peel has the highest amount of
cellulose, which reaches around 11.5% of its weight. Cellulose from banana peel
will be transformed into CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose) and will be used as
hydrogel base. CMC from banana peel is retrieved from series of cellulose
isolation, alkalination, carboxymetilation, and neutralization process. After CMC
is retrieved, hydrogel will be made through freezing and thawing methods.
Hydrogel with cellulose base is biodegradable and has less harm to the
environment.
The idea to make cellulose-based hydrogel from banana peel is expected to
become an alternative material in hydrogel base production and an alternative
solution in waste management. Dryland potentiality can be utilized as a catalyst to
improve land productivity, while corn production in dryland that uses cellulose-
based hydrogel is expected to serve higher productivity as well. In the end, banana
peel hydrogel is expected to increase land productivity—particularly for corn, in
order to maintain food security.

16
GROWTH AND PRODUCTION OF RED CHILI (Capsicum
anuum L.) ON ULTISOL SOILS WITH PARTIAL ROOTZONE
DRYING (PRD) TECHNIQUE

Risa Agustina

Agriculture is one of the important sectors in a country that helped


determine the welfare of the nation. Good agriculture will ensure the adequacy of
the citizens food. Along with increasing population, agriculture sector get
obstacles, for example about water limitations. Deficit of water in a short period
will not give significantly effect for plants, but in the long period, deficit of water
can decreasing quality and productivity of plants. Decreasing of crop production
can lead to increasing financial inflation. Agriculture commodities that affect
inflation is red chili, onion and rice. Therefore, the sustainability of crop production
must be maintained.
Climate change give big impact on agricultural sector. Agriculture sector
very depending on water supply. Agriculture will be strived when water resources
are well maintained. Use of water resources for the needs of community, is
contained in government regulation, Laws of The Republic Indonesia, number
7/2004 about water resources, “That in the faced of an imbalance between
availability water that tends to decrease and the need for more water increased,
water resources must be managed with due regard social, environmental and
economic functions aligned”.
The increase in population and their needs leads increased use of water
quantities. Water limitation on agricultural sector, can be overcome in several ways.
In addition to using varieties of plants that resist drought stress, water efficient
irrigation system should be applied. Water saving irrigation technology is needed
to overcome the water shortage. One of the water saving irrigation techniques that
can be used is Partial Rootzone Drying (PRD) technique. Dorji et al. (2005), the
technique is able to increase water use efficiency, growth and production of the
plant, also on red chili plants. PRD saved water by 50% and improved irrigation
use efficiency. Fruit quality attributes such as colour and PRD had higher fresh

17
fruit yield than the former treatment. Hera et al. (2007), after 3 years of application
of PRD with moderate water amounts, we observed a poristive effect of the study,
when PRD was applied during the whole of the growing season. In this year, yield
and water use efficiency were significantly increased by PRD without affecting
berry weight or must and wine quality. PRD increased mainly the fruit set
percentage and leaf area development, and these two factors improved yield.
However, leaf water relations and gas exchange were not affected significantly by
PRD dyring the experimental period.
The result from Agustina (2017) showed, PRD gave significantly response
to plants height, stems diameter, flowering period, harvesting period, fruits length,
fruits diameter, plants production, shoot and root ratio, and plants dry weight, but
PRD not significantly on chlorophyll value. PRD volumes levels gave different
effect to chili plant on ultisol soils. The irrigation volumes 1.250 ml produced the
best growth and production of the chili plant. PRD irrigation volumes can increased
production and water used efficiency of plant. The plant with the irrigation volume
500 ml produced lowest growth and production of chili plant. PRD can increased
growth and production of red chili plant.

REFERENCES

Dorji K, Behboudian MH, Zegbe DJA. 2005. Water Realtions, Growth, Yield, and
Fruit Quality of Hot Pepper Under Deficit Irrigation and Partial Rootzone
Drying. Scientia Horticulturae Journal 104: 137-149.
Government Regulation. 2004. Laws of The Republic Indonesia, number 7/2004
about water resources.
Hera MLDL, Romero P, Gomez PE, Martinez A. 2007. Is Partial Rootzone Drying
an Effcetive Iriigation Techinique to Improve Water Use Efficeinct and
Fruit Quality in Field Grown Wine Grapes Under Semiarid Conditions?.
Agricultural Water Management Jornal 87(3): 229-346.
Agustina R. 2017. Growth and Production of Red Chili (Capsicum annuum L.) with
Partial Rootzone Drying (PRD) Technique on Ultisol Soils. [Undergraduate
Thesis: Unpublished]. Faculty of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Biology,
Bangka Belitung University.

18
Mery Kathryn Kurniawati Br. Panjaitan

factor to
country development. With a vast ocean area of 2/3 from the total country area,
fisheries sector is very potential to become a sector that can build the country's
economy. Adequacy of fish supply and utilization of good fishery resources in the
country can support the realization of food security to reduce hunger and increase
nutritional adequacy for the community and reduce national poverty rate. In the

fishing industry
conflicts and Post-harvest fisheries losses. Small scale fisheries (SSFs) account for
more than half of total fish production in the
to millions people in developing countries. Post-
harvest fisheries losses are of great concern because they equate to a loss of
valuable animal protein for consumers and lost income for fisheries, processors and
the fisheries
sector (Ouadi, 2011).
Fish Losses commonly referred to as discarded or low-priced fish due to
deterioration of quality or caused by the dynamics of marketing, this means that
fishermen (fishermen, processors, traders, and people

available to consumers has a low quality.


Post-harvest fisheries losses often occurs due to decay by biochemistry and
microbiology that occur

-40% of
the Post-harvest fisheries losses is still referred, even though the number has been
used since the 1970s. In the calculation of the result of Post-harvest fishesries
conducted (2013 in Tegal) at catching stage,
average Post-harvest fisheries losses

19
percentage on six species of fish is 4.05% and the fish fillet processing has fisheries
losses percentage at 6.62%. Based on this example, the total fisheries losses result
is 10 - 11%, then there is a possibility of the total number of fisheries losses results
the fisheries
losses figure below 30% (about 25%) is more realistic. However, all data in the
distribution chain needs to be collected and
on this case, data collection in Post-harvest
fisheries losses is an
do.

Manual for
Assessing Post-harvest Fisheries Losses" which is now starting to be used as a
reference for the calculation of Post-harvest fisheries losses in Indonesia. The
method has been complemented by a simple mobile-based applications (App) that
have been used for data collection in the Eastern and Southern Africa and Indian
Ocean which is
can assist enumerators to collect data in the field which later can be
of post-harvest
fisheries losses in various regions and determine the actions that need to be done to
reduce the number of losses suffered by
and processing types SSFs (fisheries, processors and
traders), several

of this app, it is possible that all stakeholders will need


to learn and customize all the features it contains. It needs special extension and
target area that is used as the pilot project of this app. Constraints that may occur
during the creation of this application are the maturation of concepts that must be
in accordance with the objectives and continuous development to obtain the
appropriate app expectations to meet the

20
most important support to this project is the cooperation of several
parties in this case are Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries,
all parties who will
contribute directly to this data collection activities to
SSFs economic growth.
This app is a challenge to app developer to make a contribution to fisheries
sector. The actual data that have been obtained can be studied
used to find suitable methods
to reduce the number of Post-harvest fisheries losses associated with adequate
methods of handling and processing of fish as well maximizing the role of fisheries
extension. The results can also be published and become a reference to measure
progress of further processing and fisheries handling and become a source of
information for publication media such as posters and flyers that are used as an
appeal to increase the awareness of the fishermen in improving the quality of
fishery products.

21
AM2W : AUTOMATIC MOUSETRAP MACHINE AND
WATER ADSORBING AS AN EFFECTIVE AGRICULTURE
PLANT PROTECTION TO SUPPORT FOOD PRODUCTION

Rr. Ike Rachmania Swanten

Agriculture is the largest sector in development. This sector becomes very


important because it is the main source of food production. However, at this time
many problems that occur in this sector. Especially in Indonesia. This is evidenced
by the high number of food imports, which is US $ 6,294,293,000 with a volume
of 18,080,271 tons in 2000-2013. This food problem arises due to the number of
crop failures that have occurred in Indonesia in recent years. The two main factors
causing crop failure are pest / rat and flood attacks. As happened in Bekasi, Gunung
Kidul, Cirebon, Nganjuk, and other areas. Whereas the need for food continues to
increase as the population increases. According to the United Nations, 19.4 million
people in Indonesia are still starving.
The existing problems have become a lot of attention from various parties.
The solution that farmers now make is to harvest the crops ahead of time because
usually the rats will attack the farm near the time of harvest. However, it causes the
quality of agricultural products is very bad. Furthermore, azman former head of
agriculture and food service Gunungkidul said, the best solution in handling pest
rats is by making a trap. They make a mouse trap, which is food that has been given
toxins. However, the solution is ineffective because repetitive patterns cause rats to
not get caught. Then, the handling of crop failures due to flooding by the
government is to provide seeds subsidized to farmers not to strike planting.
However, the fact is that many farmers who still do not want to replant because they
want to get the seeds for free 100%. Flood handling is only done after the flood,
and prevention of flood harvest failure has not been done yet.
Therefore, an effective and efficient solution is needed to achieve food
independent through a protection plant. Based on the combination and analysis of
literature studies, AM2W can be an alternative solution in overcoming the problems
of crop failure due to rats and floods. The basic material that used for machine
manufacturing are iron, mouse glue, rat poison, and fake grass.

22
AM2W Design
AM2W is a machine made of iron which is made to protect plants, especially
rice. The design of AM2W is shown in Pictre 1 and 2. The mechanism of action of
this machine is in accordance with its design with 3 main parts. Section (1) is an
AM2W roof that can be closed automatically when an incoming rat is detected.
Once closed automatically, the roof is equipped with toxic rats that will
immediately sprayed and deadly mice in a state without air. This part of the roof is
openly covered with grass outboard, in order to trap a rat to not know that there is
a hole. Then, part (2) is a cantilever that serves to hold and amplifier AM2W so as
not to fall down. In the center there is a hollow iron board for the path of rainfall
down to the base. On the iron board is equipped with glue adhesive mice, so the
mouse is not easy to run after trapped. Section (3) is a canal that serves as a channel
attached directly to the ground at the bottom. Below the canal is directly connected
to the hole that has been created for the flood-prevention rain channel.

AM2W Application
This AM2W can be applied on farms that often occur damage due to rodents
as well as flooding. Storage by planting it in the soil. Position of application can be

23
done freely. However, to protect optimally there are 2 recommended ways. First, in
the line of rice field shown by Picture 3. AM2W is grown in a circular way to fill
the sides of farmland. This method can blockade the rats in order not to enter
agricultural land at all. Then, between the fields shown by Picture 4. This method
can trap the mice that have entered the farm and can not touch the crops. The
combination of these two methods is shown in Picture 5. The combination of the
two will lead to more optimum results. However, it requires extensive farmland.

24
The effectiveness and efficiency in protecting agriculture from rats and
floods makes AM2W an alternative and applicable solution for sustainable
agriculture. In addition, as for other advantages. Effective and efficient AM2W can
also reduce the number of food imports and achieve food self-sufficiency.

REFERENCES

Abidin MZ. 2015. Dampak Kebijakan Impor Beras dan Ketahanan Pangan dalam
Prespektif Kesejahteraan Sosial. Jakarta (ID): Kementrian Keuangan.
Hariajogja.com. 2017. Petani Terancam Gagal Panen Karena Tikus (Online),
(www.solopolos.com, diakses 28 Juni 2017).
Indopos.co.id. 2017.890 .5 Hektar Sawah Gagal Panen (Online),
(www.megapolitan.indopos.co.id, diakses 28 Juni 2017).
Liputan 6 Petang. 2017. Segmen 2: Ribuan Rumah Terendam Banjir Hingga Petani
Gagal Panen (Online), (www.tw.liputan6.com, diakses 28 Juni 2017).
Rein K. 2013. Petani Bawang Merah di Nganjuk Gagal Panen (Online),
(www.nasional.tempo.co, diakses 28 Juni 2017).
Sapuan, Silitonga C. 1994. Pembangunan pertanian dalam menanggulangi
kemiskinan. Prosiding PERHEPI.

25
LAMPIRAN

1. Zoom of picture 3

26
EMPOWERMENT OF BEACH SOCIETY UTILIZING
HYDROPONICS VERTIKULTUR TECHNOLOGY ANTI
MALNUTRITION IN ACHIEVING NATIONAL FOOD
SECURITY

Suryadi Pappa

In order to develop agriculture in Indonesia, the Government has launched


a strategic plan from 2015 to 2019 through the strategy of Penguatan Pembangunan
Pertanian untuk Kedaulatan Pangan (P3KP) to increased availability and land use.
The reality in Indonesia that some areas are not possible as a land to be able to grow
crops. This is evident from the condition of people living on the coast to maintain
life only rely on the results of fish catch or cage fish farming. These conditions
make it difficult for them to obtain food needs in the form of vegetable consumption
so that can be found coastal communities affected by malnutrition.
According to Yulni et al., (2013) nutritional status of children in coastal city
of Makassar based on IMT/U is very thin 3.3%, thin 16.7%, normal 77.3%, 1.3%
fat and very fat 1, 3%, while based on TB/U obtained very short respondent
nutritional status 13.3%, short 30.7%, normal 56% and no high respondent. In
children from Southeast Mihasa district is very thin 5.5%, lean 22.2%, normal
54.2%, grease 15.4%, and obesity 2.7% (Sineke and Mirna, 2015). Factors that
affect malnutrition status in infants are very rarely consume vegetables, while the
most widely consumed fruit is a banana as a source of vitamins (Walalangi et al.,
2015), as well as income parents who lack the less eating patterns have less impact
on the nutritional value received toddlers (Persulessy et al., 2013).
The availability and utilization of land for people living on the coast to be a
serious problem in getting the vitamin from vegetables. Coastal sand is a land that
contains clay, dust, and nutrients are very minimal. As a result, the sandy soil easily
drains water, about 150 cm per hour. In contrast, the ability of the sand soil to store
water is very low, 1.6-3% of the total water available. The wind in the south coast
is very high, about 50 km per hour. The wind at that speed easily picks up roots and
knocks out plants. Strong winds on the beach can carry salt particles that can

27
interfere with plant growth. The temperature in the beach area during the day is
very hot. This causes the process of groundwater loss due to the very high
evaporation process (Prapto et al., 2000; Saputro, 2015). That conditions make it
difficult for plants to grow in marginal areas of the coast so that it takes dedication,
motivation and appropriate technology to be applied in the cultivation of plants.
Hydroponics technology is a technique that can be used to grow crops as a
form of science implementation to improve agricultural cultivation. Compared with
the cultivation of plants with soil media, the hydroponic system has many
advantages, namely: 1) pest and disease attacks tend to be rarer and easier to
control, 2) more efficient use of fertilizers and water, 3) no activities requiring
intensive labor for heavy work Such as soil treatment and eradication of weeds, 4)
nutrient solutions of plants can be supplied according to the level of crop needs 5)
can be cultivated in infertile soil and in narrow land 6) cleanliness is more easily
maintained and avoided from land-borne diseases 7 ) Cultivation of plants can be
done without season dependent (Suhardiyanto, 2010).
Application of vertical hydroponics technology is a combined innovation of
agricultural cultivation technology that can be done in order to empower coastal
communities. The application of this technology is done by Nutrient Film Tehnique
(NFT) method with plant roots grown in a very superficial nutrient solution forming
a thin layer of nutrients and circulating so that plants can obtain enough nutrients,
water and oxygen. The required components are the channels, tanks, pumps, pipes
/ bamboo, and styrofoam, but due to the high coastal temperatures during the day
so that they can use cooling machines (Suhardiyanto, 2010). Furthermore, buffer
made from strong material to support planting medium. The use of vertikultural
techniques in this case as in figure 3. aims to increase the creation and innovation
of land use so that it can design NTF plant containers according to conditions and
desires.
In meeting the nutritional needs of plants, used seawater as the main source
of nutrition. Sea water contains NaCl so it requires appropriate technology such as
to maximize the electrodialysis process by utilizing solar energy panel. Sodium is
positively charged, while chloride is negatively charged. This salt water is passed
on a channel with direct current (DC), so that sodium is attracted to the surface of

28
the negative charge. Instead, the chloride is attracted to a positively charged
surface. As a result, water is free of salt and fresh water (Lumbantobing, 2015).

Design of Hydroponic Verticulture Technology

Figure 1. Design of hydroponic techniques by means of Nutrient Film Tehnique


Source: http://belajarberkebun.com

Figure 2. Nutrient Film Tehnique system scheme developed by Matsuoka and


Suhardiyanto (1992)
Source: (Suhardiyanto, 2010)

29
Figure 3. Design of vertical hydroponics technology application
Source: http://hidroponikjogja.com

Figure 4. Electrodialysis process turns sea water into fresh water


Source: http://global.liputan6.com

Utilization of vertical hydroponics technology can empower the community


so avoid the state of malnutrition due to lack of vitamins. Even further if this
technique can be implemented optimally will be able to open up new agricultural
land and boost the production of Indonesian agricultural produce, especially in the
aspect of vegetable crops so that food security in Indonesia can be realized.

30
REFERENCES

Deil, Siska Amelie F. 2014. Daftar 29 Bahan Pangan yang Diimpor RI sampai
November. http://bisnis.liputan6.com. Diakses 18 Juni 2017.
Kementerian Pertanian. 2015. Rencana Strategis Kementerian Pertanian 2015 –
2019. Jakarta: Kementerian Pertanian Republik Indonesia.
Lumbantobing, Alexander. 2015. Begini Cara Mengubah Air Asin Menjadi Air
Tawar. http://global.liputan6.com. Diakses 19 Juni 2017.
Lukman, Liferdi. 2014. Teknologi Budidaya Tanaman Sayuran Secara Vertikultur.
Lembang: Balai Penelitian Sayuran Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian
(BPTP) Kalsel.
Persulessy, Vonny, A. Mursyid, A. Wijanarka. 2013. Tingkat Pendapatan dan Pola
Makan Berhubungan dengan Status Gizi Balita di Daerah Nelayan Distrik
Jayapura Utara Kota Jayapura. Jurnal Gizi dan Dietetik Indonesia Vol. 1,
No. 3. Halaman 144 – 150.
Saputro, Tendi Eko. 2015. Agriculture Research Center di Lahan Pasir Pantai
Baru Yogyakarta [Skripsi]. Surakarta: Universitas Muhammadiyah
Surakarta.
Sineke, J. dan Mirna Kawulusan. 2015. Perbedaan Pola Makan dan Status Gizi
Siswa Anak Sekolah dari Keluarga Nelayan dan Bukan Nelayan di
Kabupaten Minahasa Tenggara. GIZIDO Vol. 7, No. 2. Halaman 420 – 429.
Suhardiyanto, Herry. 2010. Teknologi Hidroponik untuk Budidaya Tanaman.
Departemen Teknik Pertanian Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian IPB.
Yulni, Veni Hadju, Devintha Virani. 2013. Hubungan Status Gizi Makro dengan
Status Gizi Pada Anak Sekolah Dasar di Wilayah Pesisir Kota Makassar
Tahun 2013. http://repository.unhas.ac.id. Diakses 18 Juni 2017.
Walalangi, R.G.M., O. Sahelangi, G. Widodo. 2015. Pola Makan, Asupan Zat Gizi,
dan Status Gizi Anak Balita Bawah Garis Merah di Pesisir Pantai Desa
Tatengesan dan Makula Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Pusomaen. GIZIDO Vol.
7, No. 1. Halaman 1 – 7.

31
PISTOL INNOVATION BULLET COMBINATION
TECHNOLOGY 'PLASMA AND HYDROPONIC' TO SHOOT
SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE IN SUCCEED
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN 2030

Qurrota Ayunin Diananda

Currently problem of agriculture is the constant imposition of cultivation on


farmland. Necessary for rice getting bigger, because the population also increasing.
Presumption that the costs incurred to plant (such as: fertilizers, pesticides) is
cheaper than the harvest. Such misperceptions result in degraded land, ugly and
persistent cultivation of land, produce declining production. Finally, the decision to
sell the land and cause land conversion. This resulted in limited agricultural land
management, declining production, agricultural commodities consumed is also
limited, food shortages (lessening the ability of the natural resource to supply
foodstuffs), declining family’s economy and the fulfillment of food needs, imports
from outside, increase the poverty rate, attacked by outbreaks of diseases,
unavailability of employment, increasing unemployment, etc. Therefore, it’s
necessary for creative solutions to solve the problem, or at least minimize it. New
innovations in improving agricultural productivity by combining plasma and
hydroponics. Combination of plasma and hydroponics is one of the results of
scientific research and technology development in the field of science. New
renewable innovations are very potential and have positive prospects. Plasma and
hydroponics development is useful to provide vegetables food that can be enjoyed
quickly with good quality, and able to fill necessary of society because it doesn’t
take long, so that production can be higher. In addition, this innovation is also
beneficial to increase revenue, absorb labor and reduce unemployment.
According to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
(OECD), productivity can be defined as a ratio between output volume and input
volume. In other words, productivity measures how efficient use of inputs in
production processes, such as labor and capital, used in an economy to produce a
certain level of output. Agricultural is a potential sector in increasing productivity,

32
while increasing productivity is the key to sustainable development. In Indonesia,
agriculture is the largest source of livelihood, mainly food crops. Agriculture is
essentially very important because the greatest potential of Indonesia based on
agricultural resources. Agriculture gives support in the national economy, food and
nutrition providers, employment providers, etc. Ironically, currently condition of
Indonesia agriculture: import of foodstuffs massively (rice, fruits, vegetables).
Agriculture is regarded only as a 'sector' in development, and is only seen as a
'support' in development of other sectors (industry, services, etc). While agricultural
resources in Indonesia is very high, considering Indonesia is an agrarian country.
Who doesn’t know? In the international, Indonesia is known for its agriculture,
that’s why Indonesia colonized long ago, it's because of spices, the spice that is
agriculture. However, it’s because of the misperception that agriculture is only seen
as 'one eye'. Coordinating institutions in agriculture whose role is important and
indispensable for the province are often unclear. The above reflects the weak
effectiveness and efficiency of public service in agriculture. Destruction of
agricultural resources, ultimately marginalize the farmers as the subject of
agricultural development. Conversion of agricultural land into non-agricultural,
deforestation, urbanization, etc., are some of the real examples we find as
agricultural problems. It’s clear that there are many concrete examples where
regional/national development has been done without considering the development
of potential resources, resulting in misallocation of resource allocations in various
development activities. According to Basuki Suhardiman, researcher of Comlabs
ITB, Indonesia's future depends on agriculture, putting Indonesia's future in the
agricultural sector more realistic than other field, because Indonesia is in equatorial
region with its natural capital advantages. Vegetables are foods that contain
vitamins, calcium, irons, folic acid, minerals that are important for our body to boost
immunity, prevent anemia, and maintain the digestive system. With various
benefits, but there are some vegetables that have a weakness that’s relatively long
harvest time from 35 days to 80 days after planting. Market demands for vegetables
continues to increase as population grows, but agricultural land is limited because
converted into settlements, and industrial estates.

33
Based on exposure above, there is an effort to solve or at least minimize the
problems of Indonesian agriculture. As a young who supports the achievement of
sustainable development goals, we are students should find new knowledge (no
longer gain knowledge). Discovery new innovation on vegetable planting by
combining plasma corona discharge technology and planting hydroponic nutrient
thin film (NFT) to improve the quality and growth rate of vegetables on limited
land. Plasma is one technology of science that is utilized in various fields of science
because plasma radiation in certain doses is very beneficial for human life. This
method uses plasma corona discharge radiation to generate nitrogen ions around
vegetable seeds, so ions can penetrate pores of vegetable seeds so that the vegetable
crops can grow better and faster than vegetable crops without using plasma. In
optimizing plant growth, parameter used in the study is at 'time' (time for plasma
discharge in the seeds), can be in seconds or minutes. Then to increase vegetable
production, cultivation technique with hydroponics method is one of alternative to
increase crops production. Advantages of hydroponic cultivation are no large area
needed, plant growth can be more controlled, production isn’t depending on season,
and commodity selling prices are higher than commodity cultivated conventionally
using soil media. Vegetables grown using hydroponics technology can reduce the
risk of plant pests and reduce contamination of pesticide.
The expected outcomes of this combination of innovations can be one of the
innovations in agriculture (especially in the first time of vegetable crops) to increase
the production of fast, healthy, plentiful and efficient crops in land use and self-
contained in production, who want to entrepreneurship, create entrepreneurship
articles or technology science articles, can reduce imports, increase employment
and reduce unemployment, etc. Although these innovations in plasma and
hydroponics are not thoroughly solve problems, but at least this innovation can help
reducing the problems of agriculture in Indonesia with one example of minimizing
the import of vegetables, followed by other foodstuffs as rice, corn, etc., and
hopefully in the future Indonesia will export foodstuffs more than above.

34
STRUVITE BASED URINE LIVESTOCK AS A SOLUTION TO
ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS IN THE DEVELOPMENT
OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE (LIVESTOCK)

Latiffa Lutfiani

The human population is increasing every day. Along with the increase of
human population, the need for food also increases, one of them is animal protein.
The fulfillment of animal protein can be fulfilled one of them through animal
products. However, the needs of animal products in Indonesia have not been able
to be met within the country. This is caused by several factors, including limitations
of technology and human resources. Livestock development continues to be carried
out, such as increasing the quantity and quality of animal through animal breeding,
feed management, health, reproduction, animal processing, and animal waste
processing.
Livestock is one of the important sector to meet human food, especially
animal protein. Development of livestock in Indonesia continues to be done both
quantitatively and qualitatively to meet food needs. The development of livestock
quantitatively will also increase the animal by-product of animal waste.
Unprocessed animal waste can pollute the environment. In 2006, the Food and
Agriculture Organization (FAO) issued a report "Livestock's Long Shadow" with
conclusion that the livestock sector is one of the main causes of global warming.
The contribution of the livestock sector to global warming is about 18%, greater
than the contribution of the transportation sector in the world which accounts for
about 13.1%. Animal waste is often disregarded when farm waste if not handled
properly can cause environmental problems, whereas if it can be processed properly
it can minimize environmental problems and can increase the economic value of
these animal wastes. Farm waste that rarely get attention is the urine of animal.
Urine animal such as cattle and goats are often left alone or even thrown away by
breeders. A study of water pollution by animal waste reported that the total cattle
weighing 500 kg for one day of manure production could contaminate 9,084 x 107
m3 of water (Mustajid, 2010). One result of water pollution by ruminant wastes is
increased nitrogen levels. Nitrogen compounds as pollutants

35
have a specific pollution effect, where their presence can lead to a consequence of
degradation of aquatic qualities which may lead to disruption of aquatic life (Farida,
1978).
Animal waste, especially urine, can pollute the environment if it is not
handled properly, while animal urine has potential to be processed into useful and
economically viable products. Animal waste processing is usually done in solid
waste only, while urine has the potential that is not less than solid waste. Huda
(2013) states that when examined more deeply the potential content of elements N,
P, K in the same liquid waste even more than solids. The faecal and urine ratios
produced by animal are 1.21: 1 pigs (55% feces, 45% urine), 2.4: 1 beef cattle (71%
feces, 29% urine), 1: 1 sheep (50% feces, 50% urine), and 2.2: 1 dairy cows (69%
feces, 31% urine) (Rinekso et al., 2011). The amount of urine content produced by
each animal varies. The urine produced by animal is influenced by food, animal
activity, external temperature, water consumption, season, etc.
Table 1. Nutrient content and amount of daily urine excretion of various types of
animal
Types of Gynecology Elements(%)a Amount Urinb Average
animal N P K H2O (liter) (liter)
Horses 1,35 - 1,25 90 2 to 11 4,7
Pig 0,40 0,10 0,45 97 2 to 6 4
Goats 1,35 0,05 2,10 85 0,5 to 2 1
Cattle 1,00 0,20 1,35 92 8,8 to 22,6 kg 14,2 kg
Source: a. Sutedjo (1994) b. Dukes (1955).

Based on the content of urine in the form of N, P, K has the potential to be


processed into struvite that can be used as fertilizer for agricultural crops.
Processing of liquid waste into struvite usually done on hospital waste and factory
waste. Ariyanto et al. (2015) states that struvite is a white crystalline consisting of
magnesium, ammonium and phosphorus in the same concentration
(MgNH4.PO4.6H2O). Iswahyudi et al. (2013) states that struvite is an inorganic
mineral crystallite that can be used as a slow releas fertilized fertilizer for rice
plants. The process of struvite formation is by reacting Mg2 +, NH4 + and PO43-.
The reaction of crystalline struvite formation occurs when the concentration of
magnesium, ammonium and phosphorus in solution exceeds solubility product
(KSP) (Ariyanto et al., 2014). The process of struvite preparation can be done by

36
mixing cow urine and brine with a proportion of 1: 0,5 in a flask or container so
that the pH does not change. The use of brine as a source of magnesium can also be
obtained from salt-making waste. The pH mixture obtained when not reaching pH
9 is then adapted to 9 using a 5 N NaOH solution then mixed with a magnetic stirrer.
Magnesium sources can also be obtained by adding pure magnesium chloride
hexahydrate in stoichiometric ratio. After stirring for 10 minutes, the solution is
stored in a thermos for struvite crystallization. After 2 hours, the white precipitate
will be formed and settled. The precipitate is filtered and dried in the shade at room
temperature until all water evaporates and struvite forms. All processes are carried
out at room temperature (Prabu and Mutnuri, 2014). Preparation of struvite is
essentially easy to apply in livestock companies, as well as at farm level. Besides
struvite as a slow release fertilizer can be directly applied to the plant. However, at
farm level the possibility of getting chemicals is a little more difficult, and usually
farmers prefer practical things.
Animal waste such as urine is like two blades, if not properly utilized it can
cause pollution to the environment, if it can be utilized as well as possible then it
can reduce environmental pollution and can increase the economic value of the
waste. Cattle urine is very potential to be processed into struvite as fertilizer for
agricultural crops. Struvite as a fertilizer can be used directly on plants and has a
simple manufacturing process. Food and environmental are becoming an important
issue in the development of the world today, it will be meaningful if we can play a
role in overcoming environmental problems and play a role in increasing the
availability of feed on earth for humans.

37
REFERENCES

Ariyanto, E., T.K. Sen, dan H.M. Ang, 2014, The influence of various
physicochemical process parameters on kinetics and growth mechanism of
struvite crystallisation. Advanced Powder Technology. 25(2): 682-694.
Ariyanto, E., A. Melani, dan T. Anggraini. 2015. Penyisihan PO4 dalam air limbah
rumah sakit untuk produksi pupuk struvite. Seminar Nasional Sains dan
Teknologi. Fakultas Teknik. Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta. Jakarta.
Dukes, H. H. 1955. The Physiology of Domestic Animal. Comstock Publishing
Associates. New York.
Huda, M. K. 2013. Pembuatan pupuk organic cair dari urin sapi dengan aditif tetes
tebu (molasses) metode fermentasi. Skripsi. Fakultas Matematika dan
Pengetahuan Alam. Universitas Negeri Semarang. Semarang.
Iswahyudi, L. K. Muharrami, dan Supriyanto. Pengolahan limbah garam (bittern)
menjadi struvite dengan pengontrolan pH. Seminar nasional: Menggagas
Kebangkitan Komonitas Unggulan Lokal Pertanian dan Kelautan. Fakultas
Pertanian. Universitas Trunojoyo. Madura.
Mustajid, A. 2010. Teknologi pengolahan limbah ternak di UPTD Aneka Usaha
Ternak Sragen. Fakultas Pertanian. Universitas Sebelas Maret. Surakarta.
Prabu, M. dan S. Mutnuri. 2014. Cow urine as a potensial source of struvite
production. Int J Recycl Org Waste Agricult. 3 (49):1-12
Rinekso, K.B., E. Sutrisno dan S. Sumiyati. 2012. Studi pembuatan pupuk organik
cair dari fermentasi urin sapi (Ferisa) dengan variasi lokasi peternakan yang
berbeda. Laporan Hasil Penelitian. Fakultas Teknik. Universitas
Diponegoro. Semarang.
Sutedjo, M.M. 1994. Pupuk dan Cara Pemupukan. PT Rineka Cipta. Jakarta.

38
GO – MOAGI APPLICATION
(SOLUTION FOR FARMERS TO MANAGE SUSTAINABLE
MODERN ORGANIC AGRICULTURE)

Pramudito Kartiko Dumipto

Our country, Indonesia, is known as a natural resource-rich country with


existing natural resources potential and geographical position that make Indonesia
to have tropical climate. Based on those facts, Indonesia should now be a developed
country, especially in agriculture. Unfortunately, the fact now shows that
Indonesia’s agriculture today still experiences a slump. Our country now imports
major fruits, livestock, and food such as rice, corn, soybeans and sugar. Indeed, if
seen, this is an ironic condition considering our country in the 1980s was the main
rice exporter in Asia. In the present era, the condition seems to be reversed because
Indonesia's agriculture has now been defeated by other countries especially
Southeast Asian countries including Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, etc. If this
condition continues, it is very possible that Indonesia will encounter poverty and
even hunger, like what has happened in Africa.According to the Global Hunger
Index (2016) the condition of Indonesia's starvation rate is still at a serious level.
There are more than 19 million Indonesians who are still malnourished, even 2 to
3 children out of every 100 children are dying before the age of five due to hunger.
One way to anticipate the issue of hunger that occurred in our era is to realize the
importance of food security.
Food security is associated with three main factors: food sufficiency, food
economic stability, and physical and economic access for individuals to obtain
food. Geotimes magazine weekly newspaper on August 25, 2014 referred to the
Central Bureau of Statistics data and mentioned that there are 26.14 million small
farmers whose land holdings do not reach 1 hectare. On average, each farmer's
household worked on 0.89 hectares. This limited land problem can be the result of
land destruction caused by excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides that
damage soil nutrients and caused by land use for the construction of infrastructure,
housing, and factories including agro-industry factories that continue to run over
farms in the suburbs.

39
Based on the problems and the issues described above, it is necessary to
have a technology that can address issues related to agricultural sustainability and
support food security. Lack of information on land cultivation is a major factor in
Indonesia's agriculture that has not led to a sustainable system yet. Modest land
treatment with no attention to factors such as environmental factors is what makes
Indonesia’s agriculture has levelled out and still far from achieving food security.
For example, excessive use of pesticides, excessive fertilization, lack of attention
to soil condition in land processing, and ineffective soil processing where farmers
still tend to use the traditional way, are the conditions faced by Indonesia’s
agriculture up to nowadays.
Therefore, the author tries to make a breakthrough through GO-MOAGI
Application. GO-MOAGI is an application aimed to be used by all Indonesian
farmers. This application contains various information needed by farmers to
manage their land. It hasinformation such as the appropriate land fertilization, pest
population level, possible diseases that attack the cultivation plants, and solutions
that must be done by farmers to eliminate diseases or pests to help plantsto stay in
its best condition. Further, there are information about what plants that can and is
suitable to be planted on a certain land, about the suitability of the existing land
(criteria which supports the crop growth and factors which may inhibit the crop to
grow), and about the water requirement for the plant (water available to the point
of permanent wilting) to prevent water shortage or excess water.
This application is a data-based application which collects various data from
the results of previous research and from remote sensing. This application combines
both applications with mapping and database application. Since this is a
smartphone-based application with easy-to-use menu, farmers are expected to be
able to use it easily. This application also provides information about plant varieties
that have been developed in Indonesia based on research or innovation results of
Indonesian agriculture experts. The information includesthe ability for these
varieties to grow, the crop production, and also the way to plant or to take care the
varieties for harvest purpose. The GO-MOAGI will also present the plants’
production cost estimation for planting, so farmers can estimate their expected
profit in harvest time.

40
This estimation information is made by remote sensing technology through
production mapping on each farm. Basically, it uses the technology of aerial
photography and remote sensing satellite technology which records the interaction
of light beams that come from sunlight and objects on the surface of the earth. The
reflection of sunlight from objects on the surface of the earth is captured by a
camera or sensor. Each object provides a different reflection value according to its
nature. Aerial photography recording,which in its development is also often done
in digital form (Lillsand, 1990), is done with celluloid media (film), while remote
sensing through magnetic tape media is in the form of digital signals. Consequently,
this app will not only be applicable for smartphones, but also for modern farming
tools or machinery (such as drones, farm machinery to cultivate, sprinklers, etc.).
Based those descriptions, it can be concluded that GO-MOAGI application
is useful to improve agriculture in Indonesia, specifically to reach food security and
sustainable agriculture system by utilizing modern data-based technology
(information data) in assisting farmers to manage and overcomeproblems in
farming. This application is important because helping Indonesian farmers to
success also means helping Indonesia to achieve agricultural independence and to
proudly stand with other developed countries such as Australia, Japan, Taiwan and
the Netherlands.

REFERENCES

Asriyani, H. 2016.“Selamatkan Masa Depan Pangan melalui Pertanian


Berkelanjutan”. https://bersatoe.com/2016/11/16/selamatkan-masa-depan-
pangan-melalui-pertanian-berkelanjutan/ (diakses tanggal 23 Juli 2017).
Dwi, A. 2017. “Kondisi Pertanian Indonesia”. https://farming.id/kondisi-pertanian-
indonesia/ (diakses tanggal 23 Juli 2017).
Lillesand, Thomas M. ( Penerjemah Dulbhri, Suharsono P, Suharyadi S). 1990.
Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation Diterjemahkan Dalam bahasa
Indonesia : Penginderaan Jauh dan Interpretasi Citra. Yogyakarta: Gadjah
Mada University Press.

41
BIOPESTICIDES: ECOFRIENDLY PEST CONTROL AND
SAFE FOOD ENHANCERS TO ACHIEVE SUSTAINABLE
AGRICULTURE

Roudlotun Nafingah

Food is the basic need of mankind that must be fulfilled for life. However,
sometimes the availability of food is not sufficient for the food needs of the
mankind. Thomas Robert Malthus (1776-1824) stated on the Essay on the Principle
of Population that the growth of human population is faster than the growth of food
productivity, so that at one time there will be an imbalance between the population
with the availability of food. The truth of Malthus theory has occurred in 1965 due
to the very high population growth rate in Java Island while land getting narrower
and the availibility for rice is not sufficient due to drought. The increasing
population made the government do some efforts to fulfill the needs of food in
Indonesia, one of the efforts made was by the Green Revolution that initiated in
1963 by Soekarno and continued in 1966 by Soeharto. The green revolution has not
only succeeded in increasing the availability of food but also successfully making
changes in agricultural practices with the use of chemicals such as pesticides to
increase productivity. As a result farmers become dependent on pesticides to
control pests because it is cheap and easy to use.
The use of pesticides has succeeded in reducing pest populations and
increasing agricultural productivity, but excessive use of pesticides causes
environmental pollution, pest resistance and food quality degradation.
Environmental pollution occurrs because persistent chemicals such as
organoclhorin, organophosphates, etc are not degraded in the soil, but accumulated
and subjected to biological magnification in water. Based on data obtained by
Theresia (1993) in the Sa'id (1994) it is known that pesticides may have caused
pollution of the soil around the garden carrot, tomato, cabbage and beans in
Lembang and Pengalengan and water pollution in the river Cimanuk by
organochlorin residues. Chemically, organochlorin belongs to a relatively low
toxicity insecticides but included in the category of Persistent Organic Pollutants
(POPs) that are dangerous for health that can cause cancer, allergies and

42
damaging nerves (both central or peripheral), moreover it can interfere with the
endocrine system which causes damage to the reproductive system and immune
system (Yuantari, 2011). Particles of Persistent Organic Pollutants accumulated in
the ground, causes pollution and lowering the fertility of the soil, while in the water
particles will be absorbed by mikroplankton and increases the concentration of
particles up to a dozen times, then mikroplankton will be eaten by zooplankton and
get into the food chain. In addition, pesticides also absorbed by the plant and cause
residue on agricultural products including food and get into the food chain. The
concentration of the particles will continue to increase when consumed in the food
chain, and human as the last consumer will receive the highest accumulation of
pesticides of the food chain that are harmful to health.
The use of some pesticides actually have been banned, instead the
government has made a balance improvement policy ecosystems and Integrated
pest control by applying environmentally pest control technology, one of them is
by using biopesticides (Kemtan 2009). Utilization of biological agents as pesticides
have some advantages than pesticides that using chemicals: (1) it can kill pests
without causing environmental pollution due to easily decomposes materials, (2)
the materials to make biopesticides are easily found around the neighborhood and
(3) it is relatively safe for humans because of residues that are easily lost.
Biopesticides from garlic extracts proved able to control the pest aphids on crops
of chilli with 72,33% mortality and tobacco extract can reached 76,33% mortality.
When extract of garlic and tobacco combined, the mortality even reached 91.64%
(Tigau et al, 2015). Moreover, extracts from babandotan, alamanda, kamboja, and
mengkudu can control grayak caterpillar larvae with sequential mortality rates of
100%, 85%, 75% and 75% (Sari, et al). It shows that biopesticides are effective for
use as pest control. Furthermore, the microorganisms contained in biopesticides are
environmentally friendly, harmless to human health, and ensure the safety of
ecosystems to support sustainable agriculture.
Sustainable agriculture is a farming system which has a principle of not
damaging the environment and safe for the mankind. Through this system, the food
needs can be fulfilled without damaging the environment. Biopesticide application
is one of the efforts to realize sustainable agriculture. With biopesticides, pests can

43
be effectively controlled and increasing agricultural productivity. Moreover, food
products are also free of chemical residues that contain toxins, therefore do not
threaten health. Through the application of biopesticides, it is expected to achieve
sustainable agriculture and provide safe food for humans.

44
AGRISHAPE: EDUCATIONAL PURPOSED FUNCTIONAL
SNACK FROM BANANA PEEL AND RED BEAN TO RAISE
SELF-AWARENESS AND ALTERNATIVE OF
ERADICATING HUNGER

Syuga Eugenia Invicta

Society’s respond and understanding towards Agricultural in the world is


still beyond what is should be, unexceptional Indonesia. World is facing a crisis
called World Crisis 2050 in cause of population explosion to reach 9 billion of
people which means the higher demand of needs but the limit of land and work
opportunity. Most of people’s needs come from Agricultural or related sectors,
oxygen from plants; foods from farms; clothes from wools; and furniture from
woods. It is an urgent to have a main concern in Agriculture to survive from the
crisis. It is reasonable to have expectations like uncounted number of people will
think twice about what they consume, learn what is sustainable agriculture, go to
the field by themselves for planting their own wheat, to create innovation how to
preserve land or to plant in non-soil medias. But ironically, agricultural is not the
favorite university major chosen by student or offered by parents all over the world,
based on Princeton Review. Data of SNMPTN and SBMPTN 2017 reported by
UNS, UGM, and Kumparan shown that agriculture was not classified as the big 5
major chosen. Farmer is not an option of work while a lot of agribusiness-man
makes aside the sustainable concept in agriculture for the sake of profit. The number
of young, productive, and educated farmer is decreasing. Only 3.35% of food corps
farmer under 30 years old left (SOUT, 2011) in Indonesia. More than 50% of
farmer’s child doesn’t want to be farmer while the parents avoid them to be a farmer
due to the less appreciation and recognition accepted by them.
The way on educating society to raise awareness by physical (curriculum,
text book, and road action) and non-physical campaign (internet based) have
already been tried but the conduction and result need to be evaluated about its
significant effect. The idea is to offer something new to society that more efficient,
interesting, routine, and acceptable. Food product is the answer. They can meet the

45
product and consume it every day, they can gain the knowledge from its specialized
package design, and they can get the value from its functional components. Imagine
how they can be educated start from they open the package, swallow it, digest it,
until they finish it. One of the food products that meet the needs of nowadays society
is food bar. It is a ready-to-eat product and easy to carry which suits for high
mobility person. Moreover, it is satiate and affordable in price so everyone can buy
it.
React for achieve the zero hunger and prepare for the crisis, the ingredients
used must be nutritious, high in the availability, and easy to be processed. Banana
classified as the high consumed fruit in worldwide and widely used as various
processed food product. The 40% of the total weight of fresh banana is peel which
usually thrown as a waste (Ramli et al., 2009). In 2013, FAO stated that world
produce 1,6 billion of food waste. The number will be higher for year to year due
to the rapid development of banana processing industries, that is why it is a smart
choice to utilize banana peel in ingredient. Emaga et al (2007) reported that banana
peel rich in dietary fiber (40-50%), protein, amino acid (8-11%), lipid and fatty acid
(2.2-10.9%). Its also a good source of carbohydrate (59%) and minerals (Anhwange
et al, 2009). Red bean added to increase the protein content. Red bean contains high
protein for 16-20% (Astawan, 2009). Red bean usually processes into many kind of
foods in all over the world, as main dish, snack, or even dessert, so the taste must
be usual and acceptable for consumers.
AGRISHAPE will different from the usual food bar because this food bar
will not be formed in rectangle. AGRISHAPE purposed to educate and raise
awareness in agriculture, so the snack will be produced in agricultural and related
sciences icon shapes, e.g. corn, carrot, tomato, egg, grass, shovel, tractor, farmer’s
hat. It can stimulate consumers to always remember about agricultural or related
sciences. Each batch of production will produce one kind of shape so consumers
can be surprised and amused by different shape that they will get in each package,
but the weight will be the same in each package. There will be two layers of
package, the primary packaging material will be polypropylene and the secondary
material will be ivory paper. The secondary packaging will be in bar of 24 cm x 9
cm x 1 cm and designed like gift box that lifted up to be opened. In the inner-up

46
side will be attached facts about agricultural. From these facts, consumers will be
educated and explained about the agricultural or related sciences. We sure it can
attracts them because they will read it right when they open it and the information
will be changed for each production batch. We will also equip the seller with a trash
box. In the packaging we will give information on how to recycle the package in
creative way and if they want to throw it, they can throw it in the trash box that we
served, we will collect and transfer it to the recycle house e.g. in Tawangsari,
Sukoharjo.
AGRISHAPE gives the education about agriculture in a very stimulant and
attractive way to make them care about agriculture as well as provide tasty and
functional food. AGRISHAPE made by eco-friendly ingredient with high
availability in easy and cheap way of production so it can be sold in affordable price
for everyone. We hope, it can feed the world. Developing this product will add the
value on banana and red bean as well as give a fix guarantee of market for the farmer
to plant these commodities. We believe what is good will always be better, and it is
what AGRISHAPE offers: shape the future of agriculture in the world to be better.

47
BOTTOM UP NEEDS OF POPULATION AND
MODERNIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRY

Waheed Ul Hassan

BACKGROUND
If we ask your grandparents how they got their food, they might have a
different answer than you think. Why is this? It’s because agriculture has changed
throughout history. There are currently over 7.3 billion people in the world, with
an expected population of over 8.5 billion by 2030 and 9.7 in 2050. That’s a lot of
people to feed! How will we be able to provide safe, nutritious food to all these
people? The answer: through changes and advances in the agricultural system. Over
200 years ago, 90 percent of the population lived on farms and produced their own
food to eat. But today, only two percent of the population produces food for the
world to consume. That’s a large change in the amount of people associated with
producing food and making sure that everyone has enough to eat. Farmers use
technology to make advances in producing more food for a growing world. Through
the use of technology, each farmer is able to feed 155 people today, Compare to
early age agriculture when one farmer could feed only 19 people. Farmers use
technologies such as motorized equipment, modified housing for animals and
biotechnology, which allow for improvement in agriculture. Better technology has
allowed farmers to feed more people and requires fewer people to work on farms
to feed their families. The way in which farm animals are raised and where they
live has changed as well. Through research with animals, scientists have discovered
what types of housing make the animals the most comfortable. In today’s times,
dairy cows typically live in barns that provide soft mattresses, sand beds or water
beds. There are also nutritionists to feed them special diets, and fans and sprinklers
to keep them cool when it is hot outside. Making the animals comfortable is
important because farmers want their animals to be healthy, but also for the dairy
cows to produce more milk yield.

48
ISSUES
In modern agriculture major skills involved, Conservation agriculture,
Water harvesting, Organic farming, Pest and Insect control, Entrepreneurship,
Animal diseases, Post harvest technologies, Marketing, Basic Mechanical,
Partnerships (conduct trials and demonstration in partnership with seed companies),
Partnership with companies selling Agricultural Equipment, Infrastructure
development, Creating a culture of entrepreneurship, Changing mindset of
communities, Can the huge numbers of livestock be marketed, Private sector
partnership with communities, Access to finance and markets.

SOLUTION
Under the light of modern agriculture to fullfill the needs of present
population my focus is just to overcome the time problems related to sowing,
harvesting and processings. According to the modern agriculture and to boost up
post harvest activities, we still have need for further technology for sowing,
cultivation, harvesting and to run the post harvest activities. Because of less
availability of technology most of food has been lost in post harvest activities and
also during harvesting time, so we still have need to think serious about this problem
to make sure on time and enough supply of food for peoples around world.
We argue that the present agriculture has been runned through technology
and by the use of modern agricultural mechineries, but still need should be
transformed into scientific and technological industries. But other side is that there
is little papers on this topic: 1) Some papers are only concerned on technology
industrialization, but mainly focused on one objective technology such as “the
analysis on poultry industry and modern industrialization,“the industrialization of
powder injection moulding (PIM) and production management; 2) most of existing
studies are ones on “strategy”, “policy”, “development”, focusing on issues of
human resources, funds, mechanism, such as “the development of nanotechnology
industrialization to solve the problems in agriculture.
Although there are main problems to be solved in industrializing the MAT,
we can find problemsolving approaches and solving schemes. The current issue is
how to apply the problem-solving approaches and solving schemes in the practices
which is also the objective we are striving to achieve.

49
CONCLUSION
My idea must be actualized because its according to the needs and fullfil the
requirements of modern time agriculture to increase agriculture productivity to feed
population around world. Also to minimize the time consumption in field as well
as in post harvest processings.

50
CREATIVE SOLUTION ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Otaigo Elisha

Paragraph 1.

1.1 Opinion of Agriculture Nowdays


Agricultural sector plays a crucial role in the World economy because of its
significant contribution to economic growth, foreign exchange earnings and food
security. Agriculture also has a strategic role in many national economic
development, especially reducing poverty, providing employment, improving
farmers’ welfare and maintaining sustainable utilization of natural resources and
the environment.In spite of its significant contribution to national economic
development, agriculture in different countries faces many challenges, especially in
the provision of food to meet increasing demand due to rapid population growth
and increasing income domestically. Meanwhile, faces the problem of sustaining
food production capacity due to limitations in natural resources. First, fertile
agricultural land is decreasing due to rampant conversion for non-agricultural
purposes. Second, water resources for agriculture are dwindling due to depleted
irrigation services and increasing competition for non-agricultural needs. Thirdly,
the emerging averse impacts of global climate change certainly complicate existing
problems by increasing production risks and uncertainty.
While agriculture continues to be a major part of the rural economy, it is
increasingly the case that “rural” is no longer synonymous with “agriculture” and
“agriculture” is no longer synonymous with “rural”. Despite the relative decline in
the economic importance of agriculture in rural areas, does not mean economic
decline. High rates of employment growth are often to be found in rural regions,
particularly those having good transportation links or proximity to urban centres or
those able to cultivate local assets, such as rural amenities.

1.2 What skills and capability you possess to develop agriculture


I Am farmer and holder of Bsc. Agriculture Economics and Agribusines,
after I graduate I received one year mentor-ship and Agri-training by International

51
Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in the program of youth self employment
scheme on agriculture values chain especially on staple crops like cassava, I have
attended several training on agriculture value Chain of different crops such us soy
bean, in all training and mentor-ship i have attended it has equip me with necessary
skills and technical know how on agriculture and its related subjects.

Paragraph II

1.3 Why do you chose the issue


I choose the issue because as population grow the need for food will increase
and as scientists explain we will need 50% more food by 2050 this means we will
need more food that means more production, here we need to change the way we
produce, that means to invest in new technology which will allow farmers to
produce more food with less water, and plant with less acceptable to stress and
disease, this means we need to have high priority on agriculture research and
technology. In order to increase more production we must ensure that there is
equitable access to technology to smallholder famers and women which are “big
Pump” in Agriculture production.

What do you know about the issue


Agriculture production has decreased dramatically, in last few years we
produce food that can cover only our uses, while currently we are consuming more
food than we produce and the buffer we take from on year to another has follen so
our agriculture system already seems “flagile” when we look into the future, things
grow badly raising population, and our rich diet will take alot of resources to
produce than we use to this will drive our demand for food up and scientist have
already figured out we will need 50% more food by 2050, but producing this food
will be hard this because the raising demand is coming pricisely at the same time
make energy price high and climatic change are making food harder and expensive
to produce.

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Paragraph III

1.4 What is your idea to solve the issue


1. Science and technology: - to develop technology that will help farmers to
reach their potential in term of amount of food they produce, some scientist
figure out that we can easy boost production by 50% by the current available
technology, this especially important in sub-sahara Africa where many
farmers produce only 20% what the could due to lack of good quality seeds
, equipment and fertilizer, but its not easy to take seed and equipment
seems to work in Other continent to give to other continent e.g. seed that
work in Asia and give out to Africa. This doesnt work because soil, culture
and communities are different, so scientist should collaborate with farmers
to develop “Local appropriate solution to local challenges” This through
local breeding program to be introduced, drought resistant variets crops that
local smallholder farmers cultivate and famine eary warning system use of
updated data and weather forecust.
2. Distribution systems: - We must find a way to distribute the agricultural
produce we got here we need to consider “uncomfortable truth” if you
take all food in the planet divide equally by all the people there is plant,
about 2700 calories and 75g of protein per day that is more than enough but
because we feed a lot of food to animals, turn corn into ethanol and simply
waste same amount may be 20-50% of world food are wasted or because
peple ho need food are poor to afford it, hence we need to establish a way
that less food is wasted, here we need more agriculture mechanism to reduce
post and harvesting loses and to store food.
3. Support local food system: - by keep health population of famers and farms
through “supporting local food system” which are important because they
stand as they buffer between individual consumers and problem that might
ocuur in global market even if the local food system do not feed all over us
but its critical line of diffence against hunger. We can not depend much on
local systems which is rain day investment, we can not relie to feed everyone
over time but its vital buffer between consumers and dangerous swing of

53
international market
4. Policies and regulations: - The need of the government to support
sustainable farming and not tie farmers in red tape It should allow
smallholder farmers to habe impact in agriculture policies and government
should formulate specific policies to help farmers through price stabilization
fund, also the gorvenment should regalate financial institution if left
unregulated they behave badly. As the same way we need legal frameworks
to restrain agriculture from destroying environment.

1.5 How do you actualize idea


Use of new agriculture technology and other similar to high octane agri-IT
stocks this is important part of profitable agriculture and agri-investment. Countries
should invest on research and technology as technology drive production, as
Climate change is expected to affect the agriculture in different Countries in several
ways. For example, irrigation systems will be affected by changes in rainfall and
runoff, and subsequently, water quality and supply. Investing in technology is
inevitable, like investing in resistant crops, green house farming, etc.

Paragraph IV

1.6 Why idea should be actualized


Conclusion
Agricultural sector plays a strategic role in the process of economic
development of any country. It has already made a significant contribution to the
economic prosperity of advanced countries and its role in the economic
development of less developed countries is of vital importance.In other words,
where per capita real income is low, emphasis is being laid on agriculture and other
primary industries. However, the majority of farmers are small-scale farmers, with
relatively low income. Land is often converted to other purposes, thus threatening
food security. Therefore, it is crucial to create conducive environment to
revitalizing agriculture, in particular food crops, in which farmers can invest more
to boost their respective incomes. Through Increasing landholdings through

54
agrarian reform, Improving agricultural infrastructure, Ensuring adequate supply of
agricultural inputs, especially during the planting season, Establishing and
strengthening farmer institutions, Stabilizing input and output prices, Improving
market access, Improving farming skills through technology and agricultural
extension.

“if we don’t change how the world produces and distribute it’s food we will
suffer from hunger repeatdly”

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TOPIC-2
Creative Solutions on
Social and Humanities
International Youth Symposium on
Creative Agriculture
(IYSCA-2017)
CREATIVE SOLUTION ON SOCIAL AND HUMANITIES

Anusha Acharya

Feeding the world is a huge challenge for humankind. More and more
people are getting hungry, less and less land is available to produce food, the
population increases, most food systems are unsustainable and the environmental
challenges add even more complexity to the situation. Moreover, our way to
produce food in developing countries has a strong impact on the economic,
environmental and political situation of the countries. Our food system as it is now
is in crisis and needs to be changed. Agriculture has direct link s to nutrition in that
it provides a source of food and nutrients. Agribusiness is the backbone of the
national economy of the developing country, a means of livelihood for the majority
of the population, main source of gross domestic product (GDP), incomes and
employment opportunity.
The concept of “food sovereignty” was conceived by the very victims of the
present situation to change the food paradigm at a global level. It is the right of the
people, the countries, to have a voice to decide their own consumption and food
production as long as this does not harm other countries. This concept has a very
strong political dimension, but its implementation requires also environmental,
social and economical changes in the food system. As rural youngsters, we aim at
building a sustainable world, starting from today and for the upcoming generations.
For us, this concept can be a real tool to empower the actors of the agricultural
system to ensure a sustainable production of food and other agricultural products.
Asian countries are highly vulnerable to the adverse impact of Climate
change/Global warming due to chaotic farming practices. Excessive use of
chemical fertilizer provides instantaneous benefit but in long term it destroys the
production capacity of soil leads to the food insecurity. Climate change and
agriculture production have inverse relationship. Emission of greenhouse gases and
change of productive agricultural land to nonagricultural land contribute to climate
change. Changes in the monsoon patterns will greatly aggravate the situation of
unacceptable presence of poverty and inequalities of opportunities in the
developing countries. Farmers of the developing countries have limited access to

57
improved inputs and technologies and market opportunities. Declining agricultural
production has depressed rural economics and increased widespread hunger and
urban migration.
The perception of bio-intensive farming can leads to the sustainability of
agriculture because it is based on the agro-ecological principles of sustainable
organic agriculture system and participatory rural development. Cropping system
plays an important role in bio-intensive farming system (BIFS). Cropping system
generally refers to a combination of crops in time and space. Combination in time
occurs when crops occupy different growing period and combinations in space
occur when crops are inter planted. Farmers are unaware of cropping calendar, crop
rotation techniques and mixed farming systems that means farmer have no idea
about BIFS. Gender roles, gender equity, social inclusion are the major factor of
the society which plays a crucial role in the implementation of the bio-intensive
farming system in the rural farming area of the developing countries. To change the
farm from conventional one to agro-ecological /BIFS, it takes long period of time
and it is not easy to convince farmer for the change. Farmers are scared of using
new method and technology and their scared is also natural because their daily food
consumption depends on their farming and high cost of production in BIFS
compared to the usual farming. It is necessary to change and Transformation must
be willed by the farmer themselves, it cannot be implemented from outside.
Practical comparison between subsistence farming and agro-ecological farming
should be adopted as trial farm in the farmer area. Extension program and technical
support should be provided for efficient utilization of the available natural
resources.
The imagination of food security without food sovereignty and
sustainability is not practicable. Bio- intensive farming system should be focus on
sustainable issues with participatory approach, so that its socio-technological
impact on livelihood and economic aspect of household can be seen. Along with
implementation of BIFS, women participation in this system should be increased in
the different social activities, access to resources and expenses, able to take decision
so that they can contribute for achieving food/ Nutrition security of the whole
family, society, nation and world. They would be able to substantially increase their

58
income. There will be a positive change regarding to the nutritional condition of
rural people and increased household income, will have direct effect on child
education, health services and nutrition (food). In the developing countries,
household work is the said to be done by women‫׳‬s involvement of women in BIFS
will help to reduce the mental stress in the above aspects. In summary, BIFS would
focus on sustainability and help to solve the problem of social inequality in the
society.

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REINVIGORATING AGRICULTURE OF EQUATOR’S
EMERALD WITH AGROW APPS (AGRICULTURE
CROWDFUNDING)

Citra Atrina Sari

Indonesia lies in the equator, which makes Indonesia as the tropic country
with a lot of plus values especially in the field of agriculture. It has great agricultural
potential. It is rich with biodiversity and natural resources, that is why it becomes
the world’s second richest of biodiversity after Brazil. It also has fertile soil, rainfall
spread evenly, friendly climate, and sun shines often during a year. This is of course
make Indonesia as the Equator’s Emerald, the paradise of agriculture. It describes
that actually this country relies on agriculture and should make it as the back bone
of economy development. Besides, agricultural sector can absorb the labor force,
one of the contributor to GDP, foreign exchange revenue, food provider, and
poverty alleviation (BKPM, 2015). Unfortunately, this great potential has not
utilized well. According to Bureau of Central Statistic (BPS) Indonesia’s
agriculture household reduced 979.867 households from 2003 to 2013. It means
there are less people utilizing agricultural sector and it will lead to the worst
economy condition.
If we see further, there is something that makes farmers has less insentive
to work in agricultural sector, it is the capital. Most of farmers are poor. With their
unsufficient knowledge of agriculture they are not competitive enough to gain profit
from their production. Whereas in this globalizatin era, everything with high
technology is needed to increase the productivity, but farmers now seem left behind.
Imagine, if there are more farmers lost their insentive who will provide and fulfill
the foods for society? Then other sectors cannot absorb those shifted farmers
because the job fields are quietly limited. Then unemployment rate will increase.
The more jobless people, the more national security is treatened. It could cause
chain reaction that would ruin the national economy and stability.

Agrow is the fresh air


The help of government, CSR, NGOs, etc is actually beneficial for farmers

60
although the fund is limited. Because of that we should find another alternative that
can help farmers to continue their occupation. Crowdfunding is the fresh air of this
problem. Crowd-funding is an umbrella term which describes the use of small
amounts of money, obtained from a business or personal loan, to fund a project,
large number of individuals or organisations, and other needs through an online
web-based platform (Kirby and Warner, 2014). Introducing Agrow apps as the
crowdfunding system to gain capital for the farmers in order to help their
production. This application is reward-based crowdfunding. According to
Securities and Exchange Board of India (2014) Reward crowdfunding refers to
solicitation of funds, wherein investors receive some existing or future tangible
reward (such as an existing or future consumer product or a membership rewards
scheme) as consideration.This category of crowdfunding can be referred to as
“community crowdfunding”.
Firstly there must be many portrayals that expose the potential and the
severity of real condition of agriculture. It needs the help of government or private
party to spread the awareness of agriculture. Because willingness comes after deep
awareness. The system of Agrow is very simple, philanthropists only need to donate
the amount of money as they want. The apps will lead them to enter the amount of
money and choose the methods of payment (by transferring money). The money
will directly centralized to Ministry of Agirculture because this government body
does cooperation with BPS in order to know the distribution of agricultural areas
which need help the most. The ministry will coordinate with Agricultural Agency
(Dinas Pertanian) in every region to distribute the fund.

Profit Sharing System


The money from Agrow will be distributed to the farmers in need with Profit
Sharing system. This system is used to teach the farmers tha value of responsibility
and indenpency. First they will get money from Agrow as the capital loan. This
transferring money from Agrow to the farmers will be supervised by officers in
every region. That is why Agrow provides money only for farmers who are formed
in the groups, for example Gapoktan (gabungan kelompok tani). Then the capital
should be returned in a certain period of time. Agrow will not use interest-based
system because it makes them difficult to pay. The longer they loan the bigger they

61
should pay. This Agrow is actually a program with pure intention to help and
empower farmers.
After the farmers return all the loan, the profit sharing begins. During the
production, both farmers and Agrow party will have certain proportion from the
profit of the farmers which has been agreed in the very first time. The proportion of
profit sharing that is gained by the Agrow will be used for the subsidies of local
fruits and milk in the traditional and mini market.
So actually the philanthropist will get membership of Agrow as the access
of discount of fruits and milk. This is as the insentive of the philanthropist besides
the altruistic itself. Why should local fruits and milk? Because by giving subsidies
to local fruits, it triggers people to start loving local products, especially horticulture
products where Indonesia is very potential of it. And milk is to make access of high
nutritional food can be easily afforded by people especially middle-lower income
people. The better nutrition that people consume, the better quality of people we
have.
Limitation of resources especially capital may not stop us from being
competitive in this modern era, furthermore in the field of agriculture. Indonesia as
the Equator’s Emerald may not lose its magnificient identity of agriculture,
therefore it should maximize this gift. Agrow apps is the right solution to be
implemented as the platform to provide funds for farmers in order to help their
production. Unindirectly this apps will greatly affect the national economy because
the more prosper agricultural sector, the more labor force that can be absorbed. And
at the end certainly it will increase the GDP and the prosperity of the society as a
whole.

62
ETNOGOTANI (COMBINATION OF STRENGTHENING
ETHNOBOTANY AGROFORESTRY AND AGRICULTURAL
MARKETING EDUCATION): NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL
TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS MARKET-BASED START
UP AS THE STRATEGY TO INCREASE FOODSTUFF
PRODUCTION AND IMPROVE FARMER PROSPERITY

Eka Indah Cahyaning Thyas

According to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, currently 800


million people are estimated to have chronic malnutrition in the world. In Indonesia,
malnutrition in mid 2016 reached 19.6 percent. The number of severely
malnourished children under five has increased from 1.8 million (in 2005) to 2.3
million (2006) and there are 5 million more who are also experiencing malnutrition.
Of the total infant severe malnutrition and malnutrition, about 10 percent end in
death. According to the National Social Economic Survey (Susenas) by the Central
Statistics Agency (BPS) and the Survey Department of Health-UNICEF in 2005
from 343 districts/cities in Indonesia, only eight districts that have low prevalence
of infant malnutrition or undernourishment (less than 10 percent). As many as 257
districts/cities are classified as having a high prevalence and the other 169 districts
/cities are very high.
Data from the Ministry of Health reveal malnutrition or anemia which is not
only experienced by a baby or toddler, but all age groups. Women are the most
vulnerable groups, in addition to children. Of the approximately 4 million pregnant
mothers, half of them have anemia and a million other have chronic energy
deficiency (CED), an average of 350,000 babies born each year in conditions of
low weight of the mother malnourished. In addition, school-age children, 31 million
children, 11 million of which was short as a result of malnutrition and 10 million
experiencing anemia. In this age group, from 10 million adolescent girls (15-19
years), as many as 3.5 million experiencing anemia. The food crisis also has hit
Indonesia, the data of food imports last 10 years up to 36%. Of rice stocks at a
warehouse as a national supply Perum Bulog January 2015 period only reached 5.5

63
million tons. This is the lowest number for a period of 3 years. According to Dwi
Andreas, Professor of the Faculty of Agriculture, IPB, the problem of food
management in Indonesia especially the issue data is still very bad, governments
are encouraged to improve food data so that the data is valid and can be a reference
when formulating food security.
One of the targets of Global SDG is an end to hunger and ensure access to
food and nutrition for all and end all forms of malnutrition, so that the problem of
food and malnutrition should be a major concentration for young people,
governments, and society. In the field of food security, India is a country that has a
breakthrough and innovation to encourage the revitalization of the agricultural
sector. India's wheat production is minimal, only able to produce 6-7 million tons,
or an average of 800kg/ha. The lack of wheat production is compounded by
shrinking agricultural land due to conservation land into non-agricultural, water
stocks are reduced and the significance of climate change. Then the Indian
government made a breakthrough with a holistic approach to agriculture through
policy From Lab to Lab-From Lab to Land-From Land to Land. The potential of
each area and were able to bring India into the country with the persistence of food
and exporter food number one and the world's largest. In contrast to Indonesia,
60,000 hectares of productive land for food crops converted annually. In fact,
population growth, which reached 1.6% per year will lead to grow food needs.
Therefore, the authors offer an ideas EtnoGotani to increase food production and
improve farmer prosperity.
Indonesia's natural resources are needed to be maintained to develop a
pattern of farmers in accordance with local conditions in each area (Soekiman, et
al., 2007). The potential of ethnobotany (local plants) in each area in Indonesia can
diversify its dependence on rice for all Indonesian people. Management of
ethnobotany which is based on the potential of agroforestry is not new, but
traditional management is being threatened. Land management with agroforestry
ethnobotany owned by local communities are the primary methods customary in

64
producing food, maintain water even get drugs. Coercion and improper land transfer
would threaten many people lives. Such as in Papua, people were forced to plant
sugar cane and palm oil that do not exist in their traditional crops, whereas the
production of sago in Papua will produce the optimal product. The concept of food
diversification corresponding local potency could be a solution to dependence on
imported food staples.
EtnoGotani is an integrated digital application review for agroforestry
Indonesian food. Application Start Up will enter production potential and any areas
that can then be further processed such as mapping and distribution. This
application will connect farmers with the government and society. At least 5 of
excellence that can be developed in a review Start Up EtnoGotani this:

1. Management of diversification and optimization of foodstuffs


2. Collecting data base food material online so that the data obtained in
accordance with the facts on the ground
3. The opening of regional co-operatives linked nationwide to access the
food needs of each area
4. Mapping food supply and production, yield prediction in each production
of foodstuffs, food product resistance profile of local, national market
analysis
5. Improved quality of food production

With the data, EtnoGotani can help governments, farmers and communities
in increasing food production, food production profiling each region and its
potential, mapping the results of food, control and prediction of crop production,
market access and the right distribution and better. EtnoGotani kind of integrated
non- formal education that focusess on increasing farmer’s prosperity by marketing
education. The program is designed by two steps, pra-implementation and
implementation with evaluation. The effectiveness of marketing education in
creating competent marketing practitioners has been proved. Therefore, to create
better farmer in Indonesia, this program is recommended. By this, it is expected
EtnoGotani can make Indonesia’s better food and better farmer. The distribution of
food needs of each area that should get supply of other materials from an area

65
must be controlled by the government as a regulator and policy makers.

EtnoGotani Indonesia, We Can!

66
DESIGNING CONNECTIVITY FOR BETTER AGRICULTURE

Muhammad Rasyid Shidiq

Agriculture sector plays important role in developing country like most


countries in southeast Asia. My country, Indonesia, is the 4th biggest coffee
producer and 3rd biggest cocoa producer in the world. In Myanmar, agricultural is
the backbone of it’s economy, contributing 38% of GDP and employing more than
60% workforce. Despite those facts, there’s also lots of challenges faced by our
agriculture sector. For example, the farmers in Myanmar still struggle with the lack
of agricultural capital and low farm profits. In Philippines, lack of government
support and bad weather still become the issues. While in Indonesia, high price
fluctuation and long market-chain are some of current unsolved problems. As
agribusiness student, I learned that agriculture is a series of subsystems and
stakeholders which is interrelated to each other. From agribusiness view, those
problems can actually be fixed through maximizing the function and improving the
linkage of each subsystems and stakeholders in agriculture.
Among Southeast Asia countries above, I would like to explore Indonesian
agricultural problems in more detail, especially for high price-fluctuation. Actually,
this problem has been existing for a long time and has become annual- cycle. Yet,
no preventive action has been effectively done to solve this problem. In December
2016, Indonesian Directorat General of Horticulture stated that the price of red
chili in some production center in Java Island had reached 50.000-90.000 IDR/kg,
5-9 times higher than normal price. Even worse, In Samarinda it’s price continually
to rise up and reach the peak at 200.000 IDR/kg in January 2017. While at the same
time, the price of chili in Sulawesi Island only 7000-1000 IDR/kg. This
phenomenon was due to bad weather in some area which led to lack of supply, and
worsened by long market-chain faced by farmer. Climate change has been known
to contributes to the bad weather and made the harvest poor. Long market-chain
itself is also such a complex problem, because there’s dependency of farmer to sell
their product to middlemen or tengkulak. The long market-chain cause the farmer
get low price while the consumer get high price.

67
In order to approach those challenges, first we need to see a big picture of
agriculture as a series of subsystem which interrelated to each other. It means that
the problems in one subsystem will distract the other subsystems. High price
fluctuation is not only caused by lack of supply and long market-chain, but also
caused by lack of management in forecasting and providing the right amount of a
commodity for future needs. The farmers is not educated about how much is the
national supply, so they have no idea about the right amount of seed to plant so their
harvest is beneficial. They do not know which commodity is being needed the most
in the country, so they will just plant what they have been planting for years and
not getting any development for their farm. To fix this problem, there should be a
synergic connection between government and farmers. The role of government here
is to forecast the supply and demand of each agriculture commodity in national
level and then manage the farmer’s production in each area so the supply will not
excess nor deficient the demand. Furthermore, the government can actually cut the
long market-chain by maximizing the function of Bulog as national price stabilizer.
On the other hand, the farmers role is to report what kind of commodity they will
plant and the estimation of their harvest collectively to Gapoktan. According to
Regulation of Indonesian Minister of Agriculture number 273/Kpts/ot.160/4/2007,
Gapoktan is a group of farmers which work together to improve economies of scale
and business efficiency. Luckily, there are more than 32.000 Gapoktan which is
spread around Indonesia. Thorugh Gapoktan (Gabungan Kelompok Tani), the
farmers can also directly sell their harvest without going through middlemen. The
connectivity of those stakeholders will make the supply of each commodity meet
the demand so the price will be stable, because the report from the farmers thorugh
Gapoktan could adjust the forecasting of demand from the goverment. The long
market-chain can also be shortened because Gapoktan and Bulog will directly buy
the harvest from farmers and sell it to customers so the price can be more controlled.
Those connectivities can be more efficiently done with an online platform, so it can
be easily accessed by all stakeholders.
In the future, collaboration and connectivity is what really matters to solve
the current problems. Goverment, Bulog, Gapoktan¸ and farmers are important
stakeholders in Indonesian agriculture which the function is not utilized well. The

68
connectivity of those stakeholders through an online platform can reduce the high
price-fluctuation because the supply of each commodity will meet the demand of
market, and the long market-chain can be shortened by maximizing the function of
Bulog and Gapoktan so the farmers won’t have to sell their harvest to middlemen.
But after all, the real problem is, are we willing to make a change?

69
NEW DESIGN OF FARMER GROUP AS THE STRATEGIC
FRAMEWORK TO INCREASE FARMER PADDY WELFARE
BASED ON KARANG TARUNA AND GAPOKTAN
EMPOWERMENT ON GREEN SUPPLY CHAIN

Moch. Alawy Syaiful Anam

Agriculture is a vital sector that contributes a lot for the economic


development especially in rural areas. Indonesia is considered as agrarian country,
but the global trend on agricultural employment is currently on decline. The
downward trend in the number of worker because assumption that agriculture
relates with dirty and not prospective. As a result, many youths in rural areas did
urbanization to the city, then resulting in the slow development of agricultural
economics in rural areas.
In 2009, national paddy production broke the record after recent decades,
produced 63,84 million ton of dried milled grain, but Nilai Tukar Petani (NTP) also
known as Farmer’s Term of Trade Indices toward crops only achieve 95.04. NTP
is comparison between price index that accepted by farmer with price cost that must
be paid by farmer expressed in percent. If the number is below 100 means farmer
doesn’t get profit from his farm, because all profits must be allocated as modal for
his farm.1 The minimal access about market effects limited information to the
farmer about price. Farmer is often trapped into marketing system and capital that
creates benefits for one party (middleman). Middleman does marketing exploitation
by buying the corps with very low prices below floor price and payment in
installments.
The length of the agricultural supply chain results in price disparity between
grain and rice. In 2010, the average price of dried grain at the farmer level was Rp
2,640 / kg, while the average medium rice price was Rp 3,725 / kg.

1
Agus Ariwibowo, Thesis. Analisis rantai distribusi komoditas padi dan beras di
Kecamatan Pati Kabupaten Pati. (Semarang: Semarang State University, 2013)

70
2
The majority of farmers (88%) sold grain to middlemen. Farmers were not
involved in the product marketing chain, so the added value of processing and
trading of agricultural products was only enjoyed by traders. This tends to minimize
the share received by farmers and increase the cost to be paid by consumers.

Here is a picture of agricultural supply chain today:

According to the picture, farmers are not able to act as a price maker and
affect the market. Currently, the role of GAPOKTAN (Federation of Farmer Group)
only emphasizes the programs that enrich the knowledge on farm. Thus,
redesigning of GAPOKTAN's role by involving the role of Karang Taruna (youth
group) for the realization of green supply chain is expected to be the solution for
increasing of farmer’s welfare and achieving SDG's points number 1: No poverty
and number 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts.
Today, growing trends in modern consumers tend to prefer more natural and
nutritious benefits. To reach the market demand trend, a new design of GAPOKTAN
is formed to meet the necessaries.

2
Agus Ariwibowo, Thesis. Analisis rantai distribusi komoditas padi dan beras di
Kecamatan Pati Kabupaten Pati. (Semarang: Semarang State University, 2013)

71
This new design involves several farmers in a small area named Rukun Tetangga
(neighborhood association), then working together to carry out the production
process, post-harvest treatment and marketing independently through the
empowerment of Karang Taruna based on green supply chain. This group has some
elements consists:
1. Top Leader Farmer is a leader on GAPOKTAN who supervises several
farmer groups for information access related to the market, technology,
price information, etc.
2. Leader Farmer leads farmer group in small scale that has roles to
coordinate the system and forward information from GAPOKTAN into
the community it shelters.
3. Farmer is a member of the group who become the producer of
agricultural product.
4. Karang Taruna (youth group), plays roles in marketing because of his
ability to adopt technology innovation as the way to meet the market.

This group work system adapts the cooperative working system, which is
the farmers must deposit their crop to the group and the ownership of the harvest
profit is shared by applying profit sharing system. Members must deposit 10 kg of
grain to be saved into cash every harvest. This saving system is aimed to furnish all
requirements include mill machine and warehouse lease. Activities such as milling
and grading are done by the farmer, and youths play their roles in packaging and
branding by implementing technology and internet. Then, ready-made products are

72
ready to be distributed to the traditional market, modern market, and Pasar Tani
(government-provided markets for farmers to sell their own product
independently).
The implementation of green supply chain can create positive externalities
towards environment, social, and economic. The development of the green supply
chain creates positive importance externalities such as:
1. creating benefits for producers and consumers by assuring good prices
2. increasing environmentally sustainable agricultural procedures and
especially on the land where they develop it can enhance the local
production
3. decreasing of the km the goods have to travel
4. increasing youth participation and employability in the primary sector
In conclusion, this essay suggests a new design of green supply chain based
on the empowerment of GAPOKTAN and Karang Taruna to build social and economic in
rural areas. In particular, synergy between farmer and youth is designed to create
sustainable development in rural area that able to improve farmer paddy welfare. The short
supply chains can be a tool to satisfy the consumer’s demands and improve the
competitiveness of rural area for facing global economy in the future.

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SMART FARMING MARKETING BASED ON COLLECTIVE
ACTION: AN ALTERNATIVE OF FARMER IMMUNITY
TOWARDS FREE-RIDERS TO SUPPORT GRAND DESIGN
OF EXCELLENT FARMING IN BANYUWANGI 2020

Mahtuf Ikhsan

Currently, the national agricultural sector continues to show positive


performance. Similar performance was also seen in Banyuwangi district, East Java.
Banyuwangi is one of the areas that make agriculture become potential to encourage
economic growth. This can be seen from the relatively high contribution of
Banyuwangi Regency to East Java food security with the types of crops in the form
of rice, corn, and soybeans (Syairuddin and Mursid 2014). The rotation of the
economic wheels of Banyuwangi Regency based on the agricultural sector as
disclosed above does not always reflect that Banyuwangi agriculture is in a stable
condition. One of the off-farm phases is the marketing aspect, which is the most
risky aspect of the hegemony of the middleman who then harms the farming
business (free-riders). From the problem, I have the capability in solving the free-
riders problem through economic field. Agriculture is one of the sectors that
requiring a good economic touch to maintain the life of farmers and its
sustainability.
In terms of quantity of land and commodities, Banyuwangi Regency has a
fairly heterogeneity level, ranging from food crops to horticulture. The fast growing
horticultural crops in Banyuwangi are fruits and orange crops, which in 2014
reached 28,819 tons from 1,152 hectares (Dishutbun 2014). The areas known as the
center of dragon fruit are Purwoharjo and Bulurejo subdistricts and orange
commodities are centered in Bangorejo. Unfortunately, there is a serious problem
of free-riders participation, which is detrimental to farmers. It can be proven in
Purwoharjo subdistrict, which is the center of dragon fruit and rice, where the
farmers are forced to sell their produce below the market price. This action reflects
that the role played by brokers creates an asymmetric information on the price of
agricultural products. In solving this problem, Banyuwangi Regency has launched

74
Smart Village program, one of whose sub-programs is Smart Farming. The Smart
Farming program is basically maximizing internet facilities that focus on trade and
distribution. However, the program is perceived to require a more applicable
formula for farmers because the existing farmers' institutional system is not
sufficient.
In this context, it is necessary to establish new regulations in the form of
traditional regulations made by the community members themselves or the official
regulations from the local government of Banyuwangi Regency. This regulation
serves to create interactions that contain interdependency values among institutions,
either the Joint Farmer Group (Gapoktan) or the official village institutions, such
as the Village Owned Enterprises (BUMDes). If this is agreed, further collective
and structured action is also required in the agricultural sector to promote integrated
performance.
Smart Marketing Farming is a concept that focuses on the marketing of
agricultural products. Conceptually, Smart Marketing Farming uses a collective
action based on the theory that requires a group to work together in the sense that
its tactical steps are formed in a partnership between stakeholders. The practical
basis used is technology where Smart Marketing Farming is integrated by using
information and technology (IT). This concept uses an integrated server between
villages/sub-districts. The data collected in the server are those related to the
amount of agricultural production per sub-district and market price or an
agricultural commodity so that the accountability and transparency of market price
is preferred in this concept to protect farmers from asymmetric information.
Collective action principle between farmers, KUDs, Gapoktans, and
BUMDes can at least reduce the hegemony of free-riders. Research results by
Nasikha (2014) show that farmers have dependence on free-riders because of
capital factor; then, in this case BUMDes as an official institution that functions to
manage village finances in essence can be a real solution. The coordination step of
BUMDes with Gapoktan gives emphasis that the capital solution is at least also
focusing on Smart Marketing Farming. The mechanisms are: (1) farmers sell their
products to KUD. KUD is not only receiving sales from farmers, but also
coordinates with Gapoktan to provide services for loading and unloading large

75
quantities of commodities, (2) KUD is a server in charge of inputting data
purchases from farmers. Purchasing data from the farmer will be integrated in the
server that can be accessed by other areas, so there are always changes on the
information screen, (3) BUMDes is an institution that functions to control the
process of inputting data as well as a mediation institution of farmers capital
through Gapoktan, 4) Gapoktan cooperates with KUD to provide assistance of
loading and unloading services and assistance to farmers.
The servers in each village will then be integrated into each region in the
form of a regional LAN, which means that data in the digital information boards
will continue to fluctuate according to the number and flow of purchases from
farmers per day. Areas that encounter scarcity of an agricultural commodity can
know areas that have excess production, so the flow of goods distribution will run
quickly and efficiently. The same purpose of the group becomes evidence of an
important determinant of collective action (Yustika 2012).
Smart Marketing Farming is a concept that focuses on agricultural
marketing based on collective action theory. This concept requires working in
groups where the tactical step is done in a partnership between the parties involved
(stakeholders). The practical basis used is technology, so its nature is integrated by
using information and technology (IT). The data collected in the server is the data
of production per sub-district and the market price of an agricultural commodity so
as to support price transparency and its quantity. In addition, distribution of
commodities will encourage the acceleration of distribution performance and
reduce asymmetric information. In the development of Smart Marketing Farming,
synergic collaboration between KUD Desa, BUMDes and Gapoktan is needed to
create a combination of profitable roles for farmers. Furthermore, the government
is also expected to give more attention to the development of the concept of Smart
Marketing Farming as an effort to support the grand design of excellent farming in
Banyuwangi 2020.

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AGRIABOARD: INCREASING THE COMPREHENSION OF
CHILDREN ABOUT ON-FARM TO PROMOTE
SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE BASED ON EDUCATIONAL
GAME IN BOGOR, INDONESIA

Latiful Akbar

Agriculture is very important for the global society. Agriculture is defined


as the art, the science and the business of producing crops and the livestock for
economic purposes. (Chandrasekaran et al). Agriculture helps to meet the basic
needs of human. In recent years, the advancement of civilization is closely related
to agriculture, which produces food to satisfy hunger. Satisfactory agricultural
production brings peace, prosperity, harmony, health and wealth to individuals of a
nation. It helps to elevate the community consisting of different castes and clauses,
thus it leads to a better social, cultural, political and economical life. But agriculture
can also causes the problems both locally and globally, for example the availability
of feed for the people, or the fluctuating market prices on agricultural commodities
can trigger a variety of reactions from the community. Now, i’m studying biology.
In the terms of field i’m working on, agriculture is also a part I’m stduying,
especially regarding with the commodities in terms of anatomy, structure, planting
and breeding methods, or in this case on-farm sector. Through this science, many
agricultural problems can be solved, including providing basic education for
children about the on-farm.
Today, the innovations and technologies has been being developed to
support agriculture, primarily in fulfilling its availability as a feed for humans
whose populations continue to increase from year to year. But, the knowledge about
agriculture itself, especially in children is still lacking. However, the basic
understanding of agriculture is a crucial to promote sustainable agriculture, one of
the purpose on the Suustainble Development Goals (SDGs) number 2. Therefore,
an interesting method is needed to improve the understanding of agriculture in
children as one of the steps to ensure good agriculture in the future. Whereas, the
fact according to Country Network Coordinator AgriProFocus Indonesia explains

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that the interest of children and young people to the agricultural sector is still low,
The Central Agency on Statistics of Indonesia states that the total population of
children and young people reaches 60% of the total population, which means it
holds great potential and positively impacts to the country if children have a good
knowledge of agriculture.
The solution offered in this issue is through agriculture-based educational
games that can make children interested in studying agriculture, so their
understanding and comprehending will increase. This essay approach is qualitative
approaches. This technique through three flow of activities that constitute a unity:
(1) data reduction, (2) presentation of data, and (3) conclusion drawing or
verification. The title game is “Agriaboard”. The design of the game uses bright
colors that appeal to kids and interesting game components can cause a sense of
clossness among the players within agriculture education in Agriaboard. As the
packaging game using a square box shape with design on the outside of the box.
Packaging of Agriaboard game still “eye catching” and appealing to children but
also functions as a storage remains optimal. The dominant color of the game is
green and blue are the colors that appeals to children and also to stimulate children's
creativity. Agriaboard can be played anytime and anywhere This game designed for
children to improve the knowledge and understanding in order to support the
sustainable agriculture by the method of educational games of agriculture. The
game is implemented in Bogor, Indonesia, which will then be applied in many
places. The implementation requires an active participation of various parties. Role
of Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) and a group of private institutions can
participate in the process of implementation of the program together with volunteers
and in the provision of grants Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as one of
supporting the financial aspects of the program.
Introducing agriculture to children is one of the best solutions we can take
to support the current and future agricultural sector. Children are our future
generations who will take full responsibility to feed mankind. Therefore, it needs a
suitable learning medium for children, so they are interested to learn about
agriculture. “Agriboard” is the right choice to help in ensuring the sustainable
agriculture.

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REFERENCE
Chandrasekaran B, Somasundaram E, Annaduurai K. 2010. A Textbook of
Agronomy. New York (US): New Age International Pvt. Ltd.

79
AGRIBUSINESS TRAINING FAMILY WEDNESDAY TO
IMPROVE SOCIAL WELFARE IN ORDER TO ENSURE
SQUARE OF FOOD SUSTAINABLE

Irfan Nugraha

Today's agriculture has increased in the modern direction. People are


beginning to realize that agriculture is needed, as long as humans need good
nutrition, agriculture in the broad sense is very much needed. Export and import
activities conducted in various countries encourage agrarian countries to increase
the added value in their natural products in order to meet those needs. However, the
next generation of farmers married young and prefer to work in this city will lead
to threatened food fulfillment. Then, how is the early marriage family interested in
agriculture? According to the authors of communication between agricultural
experts and the community is very important and the authors have communication
skills to connect people's interest in agriculture with early marriage families.
Early marriage seems to be a tradition in Indonesia, parents assume that
marrying children early on will make the family dependents reduced. On the
contrary, that view is not entirely true. Early marriage families are not self-
sufficient, still relying on the cost of parents so they still remain in the poverty circle.
Even according to the Central Bureau of Statistics and UNICEF in the report book
says the age of 20-24 years of marriage is still suffering from poverty. So, the writer
is very concerned if this phenomenon continues, the absence of early marriage
family will continue to take root so it becomes a tradition. Many of the
consequences arise from the inability of families in early marriage due to lack of
skills and limited employment.
Thus, to solve this problem, the authors have the idea of a solution to
together synergize between the agribusiness experts with the early marriage family
to create a container in which there is a reciprocal relationship, so that the early
marriage family prosperous and able to live his life. This solution is limited only to
those already married to early marriage. Not that young people are allowed to get
married at an early age. Thus, welfare can be formed and early marriage families
can contribute to the fulfillment of food through this agribusiness training. Because

80
education is also an early marriage factor emerged, as much as 40.7. Percent of
married women before the age of 18 years in 2008. Susenas, 2008-2012. This shows
the lack of education one of the causes of early marriage occurred. As for this method
of actualization using the mentoring system, early marriage families will be trained
with a certain period of time. After completion of the training, the author will make
a proposal to the donors whose funds will be given to the family to run the business.
In this case during business activities held supervision and mentoring on a certain
schedule. The authors believe that if the program is implemented many will be
interested and can help the sustainability of food, but the authors are aware of
obstacles will appear such as not interested community to agriculture, access to
remote areas that require more energy and criticism from others towards the
implementation of this solution.
The author can draw the conclusion that the problem of early marriage as a
solution to alleviate poverty is not right. Precisely making poverty increasing, to lift
back the welfare of the solution Training Agribusiness for early marriage is one
of the ideas to alleviate poverty and build a business culture in the field of
agriculture. Because if the orientation of the people working for industry in urban
areas not all will get the opportunity, even though everyone's chances to work in
urban areas are the same.

81
A CONCRETE SMALL ACTION

Mentari Br Peranginangin

Point of view surely will change our assessment on an object. The same
thing with agriculture, from the positive side, agriculture has been more successful
with all the sophistications which are available now. People don’t need a very hard
work to cultivate the land as happened before in the past agriculture and planting
time became shorter. But it doesn’t mean we deserve to be satisfied because in the
corner of the nation on this world, there are so many starving stomachs. So many
innovations people do for a better agriculture, it always be the concern of the
scientists around the world. But sometimes we forget that our earth is getting older,
crowded, hotter, and getting worse. Our earth has its own limit, when that time
comes,our innovation will not be useful anymore. The higher innovations we create
to improving agriculture, the bigger influence for our climate, and so the climate
change will influence our agriculture, that’s why we have to create the other
innovation. This how the climate change and agriculture become a circle in their
influence.
I am a student of animal science, i know clearly that agriculture can be raised
up by encourage the livestock, but in this essay i would not like to talk about this.
In this essay i would like to tell that we can’t and will never reach the food
sovereignty as long as we can not value or treasure the food first. Nowadays
situation is, more food production more food wasted. Try to imagine, if every
people in Indonesia leaves one rice in his plate when he is eating, so in a day there
will be three rice of one people every day and this means there are 1.095 rice per
day, and with 260 million population we waste 284.7 billion rice every year. If we
count it will be same with 5.649 million liters rice every year (if 1 liter= 50.000
rice). That was a fantastic number if you leave just one rice, but look at your plate,
how many rice are left there? That number just come from rice, how about fried
potato, bread, snack, and the other food which usually we leave at our plate just
because we don’t want other people say that we are so gourmand. A wrong opinion
that leads us and becomes a trend in our daily life. Just if we value the food,
something better will comes onto us, and onto our earth and our people. Hunger is

82
classic problem that we never solve till this time. Many people and more people
think so hard and work so hard to solve this problem but the fact is we did not find
the solution yet. This problem is an interested topic, while there are the hunger
problem on this earth, there are also the obesity problem on this earth. If one of nine
people on this world is hunger people, in the other side there are 700 million people
from 7.3 billion people or one of ten people has obesity disease.
Hunger is our problem together, they (the hunger people) are us. If one
person pay attention to this problem and give a big effect, imagine how big effect
it will be, if every people pays attention to this problem, i belive that hunger
problem will have no place on our planet any more. This is a very small action but
it is a very concrete action that you and i can do to save "them" from the hunger.

83
SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND CROWDFUNDING AS
A GIFT FOR INDONESIAN FARMERS

Sandy Irawan

On agriculture, according to Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) noted about 36.5%


(less or more 41.2 million) people in Indonesia work as farmer, but Badan Pusat
Statistik (BPS) report that claims that Nilai Tukar Petani (NTP) of Indonesia in
2015 was dropped 0.22% whereas food production was rising. What if the number
of workers with the farmers as much as it can be the spear head of the economy in
Indonesia so there is no longer the name of the food crisis which became a problem
in Indonesia these days especially in the food sector. And already a certainty that
food sovereignty will happen if farmers in Indonesia have become more productive,
not just to overcome the food problem would remain that could advance the
development of the economy of Indonesia. Before it comes to the question of how
to make Indonesia's farmers be more productive?
There is the only component to make our farmer better and its only
education. Why education became very important to every aspect of the good that
the quest for progress and development, and the fact proves from time until now
that education is the key to opening the door to innovation. Because there we
various conceptual science and then in sports by the creativity of individuals and
groups.
We have the solution but still we have the problem to succeed it. The
problem is the access to education itself, almost farmer live in rural area which is
comprehensive education is not obtained by farmers themselves, most farmers only
graduates of the elementary school and high school. In this essay I had the idea of
putting social entrepreneurship and crowdfunding as a solution to improve the
productivity of farmers.
Martin and Osberg (2015) identified social entrepreneurs as the drivers of
transformation in society and as the group that target unjust and unsustainable
systems and transform them into entirely new sustainable systems. Social
Entrepreneurship is one of the most powerful and practical tools for addressing and
fulfilling social responsibilities of companies, since its primary objective is to solve

84
societal problems which include problems that run the gamut from environmental
and social challenges to economic predicaments created by businesses themselves
(Rahdari, Sepasi, and Moradi 2016).
Social entrepreneurship is one of the important sectors in economic growth.
Especially in a society that is less capable or maybe the people who live in the
countryside that does have the low-level economy so the welfare of society so low
and raises unemployment even poverty. Likewise, with the agricultural sector as
one of the sectors of the Indonesian economy, because basically Indonesia is an
agrarian country that the most Indonesians living as farmers. The Central Bureau
of statistics (BPS) noted about 36.5% (less or more 41.2 million) people in
Indonesia work as farmer. Although this profession has an important role in food
fulfillment, unfortunately farmer prosperity is still low in Indonesia. It is proved by
the Central Bureau of statistics (BPS) report that claims the farmers ' exchange rate
(NTP) of Indonesia in 2015 was dropped 0.22%. It is contrary with our big
agricultural potential, the food production, was rising in 2015. Rahmat Hidayat as
Indonesian IPM Farmers Association said that there were many things causing the
lowest of farmer prosperity in Indonesia, namely 1) the limit of farmer access in
utilizing natural resources; 2) government determination to farmer in planting
seeds; 3) government force to farmer to sell their crops.
Due to the limited skill that we need to think a way out so that the farmers
in Indonesia has a good skill. In this case we hold that social entrepreneurship in
the agricultural sector have promising prospects. But the constraints of social
entrepreneurship is located from the funding. Often programs that have been
designed by social entrepreneur did not go according to plan because of low
funding. There is a concept of a program lately popularly used in various countries
including Indonesia namely crowdfunding. Crowdfunding is often bundled in an
online platform that makes it easy for people to donate for a better change.
Based on explanation above we know that social entrepreneurship is an
attempt to address social problems at the same time efforts to improve economic
growth many communities prosper. Therefore, social entrepreneurship is highly
related to the crowdfunding engaged in social movement, and if two variables
synergy, this will generate positive impacts for the welfare of society particularly

85
in Indonesia. So, for the future Indonesia agriculture, utilizing social
entrepreneurship it can make farmers more productive with a variety of programs
that have been designed by social entrepreneur, could it education programs as well
as enrichment technology for agriculture.

REFERENCES

Badan Pusat Statistik. 2004-2013. Statistik Indonesia. Jakarta:Badan Pusat Statistik


Indonesia.
Martin, Roger L., Osberg, Sally R., 2015. Getting beyond Better: How Social Entre-
preneurship Works. Harward Business Review Press.
Šūmane, Sandra et al. 2017. “Local and Farmers’ Knowledge Matters! How
Integrating Informal and Formal Knowledge Enhances Sustainable and
Resilient Agriculture.” Journal of Rural Studies.

86
HOW TO MAKE AGRICULTURE SUSTAINABLE FOR THE
FUTURE

Shun Maejima

I would like to introduce my opinion about plant factory. I think this


technology can be used all over the world because there are many benefits and
environment does not influence crops. It has abilities to grow food consistently,
produce organic food, grow vegetables year-round and control quality of crops.
Farmers can estimate the amount of production because it is a fully-automated
commercial food production facility that operates in a controlled environment. So,
they can be easier to produce and make money efficiently than conventional
agriculture. However, we have to consider some disadvantages which it has. It costs
so much for energy supply that vegetables which they provide are expensive,
because lights and air-conditioning equipment are needed. Farmers have to plan
their management in the long run. I have the ability in the field of rural
development. It is so important to decide the way of development with awareness of
environmental conservation and theories on social and economic development that
enable sustainable agriculture through international collaboration. I can play a role
in planning and process of producing crops to connect agriculture with local people
and environment through the field surveys.
Deforestation is one of the serious problems these days. When we consider
sustainable agriculture in the long run, we cannot ignore this issue because it is
destroying the Earth's forests on a large scale worldwide and resulting in many land
damages. That is why I chose this issue. One of the causes of deforestation is to
clear land for pasture or crops. According to British environmentalist Norman
Myers, 5% of deforestation is due to cattle ranching, 19% due to over- heavy
logging, 22% due to the growing sector of palm oil plantations, and 54% due to
slash-and-burn farming. Deforestation causes the climate change as well. Climate
change affects agriculture in a number of ways, including through changes in
average temperatures, rainfall, and climate extremes. Climate change is already
affecting agriculture. It will probably increase the risk of food insecurity for some
vulnerable groups, such as the poor. It also causes extreme fluctuations in

87
temperature. In 2000, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
found that "the role of population dynamics in a local setting may vary from decisive
to negligible," and that deforestation can result from "a combination of population
pressure and stagnating economic, social and technological conditions." The reason
why I chose this issue is that I feel we should take some effective measures as soon
as possible. Food security of the world is being threatened recently. There are still
a lot of people who cannot have access to the food that is available.
I would like to suggest agroforestry as the solution. Agroforestry, the
integration of trees and shrubs with crops and livestock systems, has strong
potential in addressing problems of food insecurity in developing countries. Done
well, it allows producers to make the best use of their land, can boost field crop
yields, diversify income, and increase resilience to climate change. There is some
evidence that, especially in recent years, poor smallholder farmers are turning to
agroforestry as a mean to adapt to the impacts of climate change. A study from the
CGIAR research program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security
(CCAFS) found from a survey of over 700 households in East Africa that at least
50% of those households had begun planting trees on their farms in a change from
their practices 10 years ago. The trees ameliorate the effects of climate change by
helping to stabilize erosion, improving water and soil quality and providing yields
of fruit, tea, coffee, oil, fodder and medicinal products in addition to their usual
harvest. Agroforestry was one of the most widely adopted adaptation strategies in
the study, along with the use of improved crop varieties and intercropping.
As the number of population has increased, we humans have to achieve the
enhancement of production. However, the land where we can do agriculture is
limited. We should care about the risk of environmental problems and consider how
to make agriculture sustainable for the future.

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OUR SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

Kako Kinuya

I mention that the price fluctuation of food grain such as a wheat and feed
grain as the present situation of agriculture. In the beginning of this century, the
price of its was risen by the affect of poor crop of major producing countries,
increasing the demand in the developing country and the developing of bioenergy
such as a bioethanol and so on. However, there is a positive opinion of the price of
agricultural products. According to the OECD-FAO 2015-2024, the price of
agricultural products will settle down until 2024. Therefore. the consumer will easy
to access the food and also the starvation will prevent. On the other hand, the
consumption of meat will grow with improving the income levels. It means that the
price of feed crop for example corn and soybean will rising rapidly. This situation
occurs the negative effect particularly the agrarian reform in the developing
country. Hence I think that the stable price and the distribution of food is the most
important thing to develop the agriculture and also reducing the poverty and hunger
from the aspect of the development studies.
The issue, which I choose that the large-scale farming expands into the
developing country because of the pressure of a multinational corporation. This is
occurred to decline the local agriculture such as the petty farming through the
control power from the multinational corporations. The reason for choosing this
issue is these controls system of agriculture has negative relations with the diversity
of local community in my opinion. Moreover, I would like to reconsider about the
issue from these 2 aspects, which are Sustainable Development Goals number 2:
End food hunger, achieve food security and improve nutrition and promote
sustainable agriculture and number 13: Take urgent action to combat climate
change and its impacts. From these 2 goals, I can find the negative effect of the
issue. Firstly, I will introduce the negative point of the issue to achieve Sustainable
Development Goals number 2. Many of the multinational corporations are
promoting the genetic modified food to solve the hunger and the increasing the
producing. However, the genetic modified food will make the poor soil and also
69% of the researcher insisted that there has the risk of nutrient. (Referenced

89
by the Scientific American, David H. Freedman on September 1, 2013) Secondly,
I will explain that the negative point of the issue to achieve Sustainable
Development Goals number 13. If the multinational corporations expropriate the,
the company will make new dam to secure the water to develop it. This will connect
to break the environment and also the climate change will be deepening.
There have 2 solutions to solve these issues as I mentioned above. The first
solution is that distribute the food among the mankind adequately. Actually, the
basic needs of food, 2.2 billion tons1, have already produced in the world. Despite
this the rich country’s people doubled intake of food to compare with the poor
country’s people. Therefore, we have to adjust food all over the world equally. The
second solution is to expand the consciousness of responsibility of consumer.
Primarily, the company will be influenced on the attitude of consumers. It means
that the eating habit or purchasing power can change the agricultural style in easily.
As a consequence, the agricultural issue will relate with our life-style
deeply. If we ignore these serious problems, the sustainable development will be
impossible in our future. To make the co-exist society, we should take action to
improve the present agricultural system and recognize the food consumption by
ourselves.

1 FAO “The State of Food Insecurity in the World:2015” p.8-9

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