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Course 332

Overview
cdma2000CDMA
Phase1X
One:
1xRTT
1xRTT

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2-1
Contents of Course 332
■ 2G-3G Progression Overview
■ The RF Side of CDMA2000 developments
• The Standards Documents
• CDMA2000 Compatibility with IS-95
• New features and improvements
– Radio Configurations & channels
– Improvements: access, power control, coding, etc
– OTD, pilots for smart antenna beamforming, etc.
■ The Data Side of new CDMA2000 developments
• Circuit-switched vs. packet-switched access
• The data backbone
– Physical structure: PDSNs, OSSN, AAA, administration
– Operational features: Simple IP, Mobile IP, QoS
■ Appendix: Glossary

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2-2
The CDMA Technology Path to 3G
CDMAone CDMA2000/IS-2000
Generation 1G 2G 2G 2.5G or 3? 3G 3G
1xEV:
IS-2000: IS-2000:
Technology AMPS IS-95A/J-Std008 IS-95B HDR or
1xRTT 3xRTT
1Xtreme
Signal 1250 kHz. F: 3x 1250k 1250 kHz.
30 kHz. 1250 kHz. 1250 kHz. R: 3687k
Bandwidth, 50-80 voice 120-210 per Many packet
1 20-35 25-40
#Users and data 3 carriers users
None, 153K 2.4 Mb/s
Data (HDR)
2.4K by 14.4K 64K 307K 1.0 Mb/s 5 Mb/s
Capabilities
modem 230K (1Xtreme)

First Faster data Faster data


•Improved •Enhanced
Features: System, First CDMA, rates on rates on
Access Access
Incremental Capacity Capacity, shared 3- dedicated
•Smarter •Channel
Progress & Quality carrier 1x RF data
Handoffs Structure
Handoffs bundle carrier

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2-3
CDMA2000

The
The RF
RF Side
Side of
of 3G
3G Networks
Networks

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2-4
A Story of Two Hotels
■ A sector on an IS-95 CDMA BTS
runs like a discount hotel today
• There's a Sign outside, a
PILOT
ACCESS covered entranceway, Lobby
SYNC
BTS PAGING
TRAFFIC • Only Two kinds of rooms:
TRAFFIC
one king bed or two doubles
• There are no meeting rooms
or ballrooms
■ New 1xRTT CDMA BTS sectors
are like a convention resort!
F-Pilot
F-Sync
• Twice as big in square feet
PAGING
• Sign, Entranceway, Lobby
F-BCH
F-QPCH • Restaurants, Bars, Nightclub
F-CPCCH R-Pilot
BTS F-CACH R-ACH or • Guest rooms: one king bed
F-CCCH R-EACH or two doubles, maybe suites
R-CCCH
F-TRAFFIC
F-FCH R-TRAFFIC
• Meeting Rooms with
F-DCCH R-FCH adjustable walls -- for use as
F-SCH R-DCCH Classrooms, Auditorium,
F-SCH R-SCH Ballrooms, Banquets,
Parties, Meetings

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2-5
The CDMA2000 Standards Documents

■ Although the standards are dry reading, they are the prime source
of authoritative detail on each new technology. Know them!
■ The CDMA IS-2000 Standard is broken into six major sections
• Section 2 presents a high overview of Radio Transmission
Technology, physical layer
• Section 3 includes key features and functionality of the Media
Access Control Layer
• Section 4 includes key features and functionality of the Link
Access Control Layer
• Section 5 includes key features and functionality of the Upper
Signaling Layer, Layer 3
• Section 6 includes analog overlay compatibility

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2-6
CDMA2000 Capabilities Overview
■ Basic operation compatible w/existing IS-95B systems
■ 1xRTT independent I & Q modulation doubles capacity SPEED LIMIT
SPEED LIMIT
14.4
kbps


Improved performance: Multiple enhancements
3xRTT provides flexible multicarrier upgrade capability 307kbps
TRUCKS ■ New transmission modes offer faster data rates
TRUCKS
9.6
153
• Voice and data to more than 144K in unrestricted
kbps
general mobile use (1xRTT)
• Up to ~384 kbps packet or circuit data at medium Kbps
speeds (1xRTT gives 307k, 3xRTT & 1xEV more) USE I & Q LANES
• Up to 2 Mbps data rates when fixed in favorable
locations (1xEV and 3xRTT both exceed 2Mbps)

Technology Data Capabilities


IS-95A/J-Std008 Up to 14.4 kbps using one traffic channel for supplemental data
Up to 115.2 kbps using 1 traffic channel and up to 7 supplemental
IS-95B code channels supporting 14.4 kbps each
Up to 153.6 kbps (RC3) or 307.2 kbps (RC4); only RC3 avail. today;
1xRTT Uses fundamental & supplemental channels, advanced rate and
quality of service management
Up to 1.0386 Mbps (RC9) using fundamental channel for voice and
3xRTT supplemental channel(s) for data; advanced QoS and rate mgt.

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2-7
Specific Performance Improvements
■ More effective Mobile signal
• Reverse Link Pilot transmitted by mobile in advanced modes
– Allows synchronous demodulation
• Mobile transmits a continuous waveform
– Not like today's mobile TX data burst randomizing
■ Improved convolutional encoding for more robust channels
• Much better protection against FER
■ Faster power control on forward link
• Finally the mobile can say what it wants 800x per second
■ Forward Link Orthogonal Transmit Diversity (OTD)
• Complex, but can gives diversity gain
■ Quick-paging channel improves slotted-mode paging
• Greatly enhanced battery life, standby time
■ Auxiliary pilots support beam-forming and smart antennas
• Expect advanced smart antenna products in 3-5 years

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2-8
CDMA2000 Compatibility with IS-95B & IS-95

■ CDMA2000 systems still support operation of IS-95 mobiles just like today
• IS-95B radio interface operation is still fully supported
• IS-707 data services standard still fully implemented
• Familiar vocoders in widespread use still supported
– IS-127 8K EVRC
– IS-733 13K vocoder
• IS-637 SMS supported
• IS-683 Over-The-Air (OTA) Activation fully supported
• IS-98 and IS-97 BTS and Mobile specs still apply
• Pilot, Sync and Paging channels of IS-95 are still retained as Common
Broadcast Channels in CDMA2000
■ IS-2000 can be deployed in overlay mode with existing IS-95 carriers
■ This compatibility allows operators to immediately implement CDMA2000
without waiting for widespread deployment of special CDMA2000 mobiles

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2-9
One Operator’s Spectrum viewed by
IS-95, 1xRTT, and 3xRTT Users
REVERSE LINK FORWARD LINK

IS-95/B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011


f

1xRTT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011


f

3xRTT 3x MC 1 3x MC 2 3x MC 3 3x MC 4 Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112
5 MHz. 5 MHz.
f
15 MHz. 15 MHz.

■ IS-95 and IS-2000 1xRTT can operate using single RF carriers and
multiples in any combination that will fit in operator’s licensed spectrum
■ IS-2000 3xRTT operates using groups of three carriers each on the
forward link, and triple-wide single carriers on the reverse link
■ Only 3 groups of forward 3xRTT carriers and three reverse 3xRTT carriers
are possible in a single 30 MHz. block (15 MHz. uplink, 15 MHz. downlink)
• No room for the last carrier of the fourth 3x group, so only 3 groups
will fit in a 15 MHz. PCS licensed block
10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 10
Physical Layer

Spreading
Spreading Rates
Rates and
and
Radio
Radio Configurations
Configurations

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 11


Spreading Rates and Radio Configurations

■ Spreading Rate refers to the speed of the waveform which spreads


the CDMA signal, determining its spectral width and its processing
gain
• Spreading Rate 1 is 1,228,800 chips per second, identical to
current IS-95 operation. It makes signals about 1.25 MHz.
wide, and can carry certain amounts of data per sector
– This is called 1xRTT, 1x Radio Transmission Technology
• Spreading Rate 3 is 3 times Spreading Rate 1, or 3,686,400
chips per second. It makes signals about 3.75 MHz. wide and
can carry larger amounts of data per sector
– This is called 3xRTT, 3x Radio Transmission Technology
■ Radio Configuration refers to the coding arrangements and
channel definitions used
• There are several Radio Configurations for 1xRTT and several
more for 3xRTT. Each one has its own characteristics

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 12


Spreading Rates & Radio Configurations
Spreading Radio Data Radio Data
Rate Configuration Forward Link Rates Configuration Reverse Link Rates

Required. IS-95B Compatible 9600 Required. IS-95B Compatible 9600


RC1 No CDMA2000 coding features variable RC1 No CDMA2000 coding features variable

Compatible with IS-95B RS2 14400 Compatible with IS-95B RS2 14400
RC2 No CDMA2000 coding features variable RC2 No CDMA2000 coding features variable
SR1
Quarter-rate convolutional or 9600
1 carrier RC3 Turbo Coding, base rate 9600 153600 9600
¼ rate conv or Turbo coding, 9600
1.2288
MCPS
RC3 ½ rate conv or Turbo coding, 9600
153600
Half-rate convolutional or 9600 307200
RC4 Turbo Coding, base rate 9600 307200

Quarter-rate convolutional or 14400 ¼ rate convolutional or 14400


RC5 Turbo Coding, base rate 14400 230400 RC4 Turbo Coding, base rate 14400 230400

1/6 rate convolutional 9600


RC6 or Turbo coding, base rate 9600 307200 9600
SR3 RC5
Required. ¼ or 1/3 convolutional
307200
Or Turbo coding, base rate 9600
Required. 1/3 rate convolutional 9600 614400
3.6864 RC7 or Turbo coding, base rate 9600 614400
MCPS
as ¼ or 1/3 rate convolutional or 14400
3 carriers RC8 Turbo coding, base rate 14400 460800 14400
¼ or ½ convolutional or Turbo
1.2288 RC6 encoding
460800
MCPS ½ or 1/3 rate convolutional or 14400 1036800
RC9 Turbo encoder, base rate 14400 1036800

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 13


IS-2000 Physical Layer Radio Configurations
Reverse CDMA Channel Forward Traffic Channel

RC 1 RC 3 RC 5 RC 1 RC 3 RC 4 RC 6 RC 7
1x 1x 3x 1x 1x 1x 3x 3x
R=1/3 R=1/4 R=1/4 R=1/2 R=1/4 R=1/2 R=1/6 R=1/3
1200 1200 1200 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500
1350 1350
Based on Rate Set 1

1500 1500
2400 2400 2400 2400
2700 2700 2700 2700 2700 2700
4800 4800 4800 4800 4800 4800 4800 4800
9600 9600 9600 9600 9600 9600 9600 9600
19200 19200 19200 19200 19200 19200
38400 38400 38400 38400 38400 38400
76800 76800 76800 76800 76800 76800
153600 153600 153600 153600 153600 153600
R=1/2 R=1/3
307200 307200 307200 307200 307200
614400 614400

All the possible combinations


RC 2 RC 4 RC 6 RC 2 RC 5 RC 8 RC 9
1x 1x 3x 1x 1x 3x 3x
R=1/2 R=1/4 R=1/4 R=1/2 R=1/4 R=1/4or1/3* R=1/2or1/3*
Based on Rate Set 2

1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800


3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600
7200 7200 7200 7200 7200 7200 7200
14400 14400 14400 14400 14400 14400 14400
28800 28800 28800 28800 28800
57600 57600 57600 57600 57600
115200 115200 115200 115200 115200
230400 230400 230400 230400 230400
460800 460800 460800
R=1/2
1036800 1036800
* R=1/3 for 5ms frames

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 14


Physical Layer

IS-2000
IS-2000 CDMA
CDMA Code
Code Channels
Channels

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 15


2G Today: IS-95 CDMA Channels
FORWARD CHANNELS REVERSE CHANNELS

W0: PILOT
ACCESS
W32: SYNC

TRAFFIC
BTS W1: PAGING

Wn: TRAFFIC

■ Existing IS-95A/JStd-008 CDMA offers one radio configuration


using just the channels shown above
■ IS-2000 CDMA is backward-compatible with this IS-95, but offers
additional radio configurations with additional channels
• These additional modes are called Radio Configurations
• IS-95 Rate Set 1 and 2 are IS-2000 Radio Configurations 1 & 2

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 16


Big Improvements in 1xRTT!
■ the FUNDAMENTAL Channel (FCH) carries Voice and/or Low Speed
Data just like today
■ New SUPPLEMENTAL Channel (SCH) carries high-speed data
• High-speed data channels allocated on a burst-by-burst basis
• Raw rates of 19.2, 38.4, 76.8, and 153.6 kbps and higher
• Independent Forward and reverse supplemental channel rates
• Airlink Dormant State is supported
• voice on fundamental channel possible while dormant!
■ Signaling can be either on
• Fundamental Channel (FCH) [bearer profile P1], or
• Dedicated Control (DCCH) [bearer profile P2]
• using a new 4 state MAC protocol to increase efficiency
■ Reverse Pilot Channel (RPCH) provides extra link budget margin
■ Fast Forward Power Control
• From old IS-95 max of 50 Hz to new constant 800 Hz!
■ Enhanced Access Channels increase occupancy, more efficient

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 17


CDMA2000 SR1 CDMA Channels
FORWARD CHANNELS REVERSE CHANNELS
Same coding as IS-95B, Includes Power
1 F-Pilot Backward compatible Control Subchannel R-Pilot 1
Same coding as IS-95B, Access Channel
1 F-Sync Backward compatible (IS-95B compatible) R-ACH or
Enhanced 1
1 to 7 PAGING
Same coding as IS-95B,
Access Channel R-EACH
Backward compatible
Common
0 or 1 F-BCH Broadcast Channel Control Channel R-CCCH 0 or 1

0 or 1 F-QPCH Quick Paging Channel


R-TRAFFIC
Reverse Fundamental
Common Channel (IS95B comp.) R-FCH 1
0 or 1 F-CPCCH Power Control Channel
Dedicated
BTS Common Control Channel R-DCCH 0 or 1
0 or 1 F-CACH Assignment Channel
Reverse
Common Supplemental Channel R-SCH 0 to 2
0 to n F-CCCH Control Channels
■ Not all of these channels will be
0 to many F-TRAFFIC Forward
Traffic Channels implemented immediately, and
1 F-FCH Fundamental Channel some may not be supported in
Dedicated
commercial use any time soon.
0 or 1 F-DCCH Control Channel ■ All are defined in the Standard
0 to 7
Supplemental
F-SCH IS-95B only Channels IS-95B only and have useful purposes and
Supplemental
advantages
0 to 2 F-SCH Channels RC3,4,5

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 18


1xRTT

Forward
Forward Control
Control Channels
Channels

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 19


Spreading Rate 1 Forward Control Channels

■ Forward channels can be a mix of existing IS-95B channels and new


CDMA2000 channels
• F-Pilot and F-Sync are identical to those used in IS-95B
■ It’s the Operator’s choice whether to use old, new, or both sets of
forward control channels
• F-Paging from IS-95B and/or
• F-CCCH forward common control channels from CDMA2000
– If using F-CCCH, system overhead messages are now sent by
F-BCH forward broadcast control channel
– Option: F-QPCH forward quick paging channel can be used to
increase battery life by flagging when pages are coming in
upcoming slots
– To reduce interference and collisions during system access,
use:
F-CPCCH forward common power control channel
F-CACH forward common assignment channel
– R-EACH reverse enhanced access channel
– R-CCCH reverse common control channel

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 20


F-QPCH The Quick Paging Channel

■ IS-2000 mobiles in slotted mode can use the Quick Paging


Channel to determine whether they need to wake up and read the
paging channel to receive an incoming page
■ Each sector can have up to three F-QPCH walsh codes assigned
• Walsh Code 48 (128-bit)
• Walsh Code 80 (128-bit)
• Walsh Code 112 (128-bit)
■ The QPCH slots are 80 ms long
■ QPCH slots begin 20 ms before corresponding paging slots
■ Page indicators are transmitted on the QPCH 100 ms before the
associated paging channel slot containing the page
• Mobiles that see paging indicators on the QPCH 100 ms before
their paging slot wake up and read the paging channel; mobiles
that do not see the indicators go back to sleep

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 21


1xRTT Access Procedures

■ IS-2000 adds two new Access methods, for three ways to access:
■ Existing Aloha Method from IS-95 Success!
• no closed-loop power control MS
Probing
• Mobiles may suffer collisions
• Mobile Power control is by successive trial and error, not
efficient
■ Power Controlled Aloha Mode
• R-EACH is power controlled
• Better power control, but still subject to collisions
■ Power Controlled Reservation Mode
• R-CCCH channel is Power Controlled
• Access to system is Reservation-based (no collisions)
• Maximizes feasible occupancy level of access channels

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 22


New Channels Improve 1xRTT Access
FORWARD CHANNELS REVERSE CHANNELS
Same coding as IS-95B, Includes Power
1 F-Pilot Backward compatible Control Subchannel R-Pilot 1
Same coding as IS-95B, Access Channel
1 F-Sync Backward compatible (IS-95B compatible) R-ACH or
Enhanced 1
1 to 7 PAGING
Same coding as IS-95B,
Access Channel R-EACH
Backward compatible
Common
0 or 1 F-BCH Broadcast Channel Control Channel R-CCCH 0 or 1

0 or 1 F-QPCH Quick Paging Channel


R-TRAFFIC
Reverse Fundamental
Common Channel (IS95B comp.) R-FCH 1
0 or 1 F-CPCCH Power Control Channel
Dedicated
BTS Common Control Channel R-DCCH 0 or 1
0 or 1 F-CACH Assignment Channel
Reverse
Common Supplemental Channel R-SCH 0 to 2
0 to n F-CCCH Control Channels

0 to many F-TRAFFIC Forward


Traffic Channels ■ Reservation Access Mode:
1 F-FCH Fundamental Channel
• On R-CCCH mobiles ask
0 or 1 F-DCCH
Dedicated permission to transmit on R-
Control Channel
EACH
Supplemental
0 to 7 F-SCH Channels IS-95B only • F-CACH gives permission
Supplemental
0 to 2 F-SCH Channels RC3,4,5
• F-CPCCH gives power
control commands to mobile

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 23


The F-CACH
FORWARD CHANNELS
Same coding as IS-95B,
1 F-Pilot Backward compatible
Same coding as IS-95B,
■ F-CACH modes:
1 F-Sync Backward compatible
Same coding as IS-95B,
■ Power Controlled access
1 to 7 PAGING Backward compatible mode
0 or 1 F-BCH Broadcast Channel • F-CACH provides fast
0 or 1 F-QPCH Quick Paging Channel acknowledgments to
Common
mobiles during access for
0 or 1 F-CPCCH Power Control Channel power control
BTS 0 or 1 F-CACH
Common
Assignment Channel ■ Reservation Access Mode
Common
0 to n F-CCCH Control Channels • Transmits an abbreviated
0 to many F-TRAFFIC Forward address for each mobile
Traffic Channels
that is allowed to transmit
1 F-FCH Fundamental Channel
on the R-CCCH
Dedicated
0 or 1 F-DCCH Control Channel
• This reduces collisions
Supplemental
0 to 7 F-SCH Channels IS-95B only during the access process
Supplemental
0 to 2 F-SCH Channels RC3,4,5

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 24


The F-CPCCH
FORWARD CHANNELS
Same coding as IS-95B,
1 F-Pilot Backward compatible
■ Common Power Control
Same coding as IS-95B,
1 F-Sync Backward compatible Channel tightly controls power
Same coding as IS-95B, of mobiles accessing the
1 to 7 PAGING Backward compatible
system using R-EACH or R-
0 or 1 F-BCH Broadcast Channel CCCH
0 or 1 F-QPCH Quick Paging Channel ■ One CPCCH can transmit

Common
power control data for up to 24
0 or 1 F-CPCCH Power Control Channel reverse channels (each is
BTS 0 or 1 F-CACH
Common
Assignment Channel
either an R-EACH or an R-
Common
CCCH)
0 to n F-CCCH Control Channels • 12 channels of power
0 to many F-TRAFFIC Forward control on the I channel, 12
Traffic Channels
on the Q channel
1 F-FCH Fundamental Channel

Dedicated
■ The CPCCH increases system
0 or 1 F-DCCH Control Channel capacity by better control of
0 to 7 F-SCH
Supplemental mobile power during access
Channels IS-95B only
mode
Supplemental
0 to 2 F-SCH Channels RC3,4,5

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 25


IS-2000 using the new F-BCH and F-CCCH
FORWARD CHANNELS
Same coding as IS-95B,
1 F-Pilot Backward compatible
■ Broadcast Channel F-BCH
Same coding as IS-95B,
1 F-Sync Backward compatible • 40 ms frames with slots of 40,
1 to 7 PAGING
Same coding as IS-95B,
Backward compatible
80, or 160 ms
0 or 1 F-BCH Broadcast Channel • Carries only Overhead
messages transmitted at 19.2,
0 or 1 F-QPCH Quick Paging Channel 9.6, or 4.8 kbps
0 or 1 F-CPCCH
Common
Power Control Channel
■ Common Control Channel
BTS 0 or 1 F-CACH
Common
Assignment Channel
• Uses 20, 10, or 5 ms frames
Common • Transmits signaling messages
0 to n F-CCCH Control Channels
at 9.6, 19.2, or 38.4 kbps
0 to many F-TRAFFIC Forward
Traffic Channels • Handles all other signaling
1 F-FCH Fundamental Channel
directed to mobiles
0 or 1 F-DCCH
Dedicated • Free to operate at higher data
Control Channel
rates to improve throughput
Supplemental
0 to 7 F-SCH Channels IS-95B only
Supplemental
0 to 2 F-SCH Channels RC3,4,5

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 26


In-Call Administration on the F-DCCH
FORWARD CHANNELS
Same coding as IS-95B,
1 F-Pilot Backward compatible
■ The optional Dedicated Control
Same coding as IS-95B,
1 F-Sync Backward compatible Channel is paired up with an FCH
Same coding as IS-95B, (forward fundamental channel)
1 to 7 PAGING Backward compatible
• also relates to any F-SCHs
0 or 1 F-BCH Broadcast Channel
used in the call
0 or 1 F-QPCH Quick Paging Channel ■ Transmits signaling and possibly

0 or 1 F-CPCCH
Common power control information about
Power Control Channel
the FCH
BTS 0 or 1 F-CACH
Common
Assignment Channel ■ Uses either 5 ms or 20 ms frames
Common
0 to n F-CCCH Control Channels ■ Data rate always matches rate of
the associated FCH
0 to many F-TRAFFIC Forward
Traffic Channels
■ F-DCCH can use discontinuous
1 F-FCH Fundamental Channel
transmission during periods with
Dedicated
0 or 1 F-DCCH Control Channel
no data is to be transmitted
0 to 7 F-SCH
Supplemental ■ F-DCCH can offload messaging
Channels IS-95B only
Supplemental
which otherwise would have been
0 to 2 F-SCH Channels RC3,4,5 required to go over F-FCH

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 27


1xRTT
1xRTT Channel
Channel Generation
Generation

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 28


SR1 F-Pilot Channel (IS-95 Compatible)
Complex
Scrambling

Orthogonal 1228.8 kcps + I


■ The backward-compatible IS-95 Spreading I
Σ FIR
I
Short Code LPF
Pilot, Sync, and Paging I I -
1228.8 kcps
Channels are applied to the I All Zero Data 19.2 ksps
1228.8 kcps
channel of the complex short
Walsh 128
code spreader. Generator

■ No input is applied to the Q Q


1228.8 kcps BTS

channel Nothing Connected


Q 1228.8 kcps + Q
■ This produces parallel BPSK
Q
Short Code Σ FIR
LPF Q
modulation for these channels + 1228.8 kcps

just like IS-95

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 29


SR1 F-CPCCH Generation and Coding
Complex
Scrambling

Orthogonal 1228.8 kcps + I


Spreading
Pwr Ctrl Bits for R-CCCH0
Gain 9.6 ksps
I
Short Code Σ FIR
LPF I

MUX
User Long
Pwr Ctrl Bits for R-CCCH1 I -
1228.8 kcps
Code Mask
Pwr Ctrl Bits for R-CCCH11
I 1228.8 kcps
Offset
Long Code Long Code Calculation Walsh 128
Generator Decimator Generator
Offset
1228.8 kbps Calculation
Gain 1228.8 kcps
Q

MUX
BTS
Pwr Ctrl Bits for R-CCCH12
Pwr Ctrl Bits for R-CCCH13
Q 1228.8 kcps + Q
9.6 ksps
Pwr Ctrl Bits for R-CCCH23
Q
Short Code Σ FIR
LPF Q
+ 1228.8 kcps

■ No convolutional or turbo coding is used on the power control data


■ Time offset of each power control subchannel is determined by the
log code offset of the reverse channel of the associated mobile

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 30


F-QPCH Quick Paging Channel Coding
Complex
Scrambling

Orthogonal 1228.8 kcps + I


Spreading I
Short Code Σ FIR
LPF I
9.6 ksps I -
1228.8 kcps

I 1228.8 kcps
Gain
Channel Channel Page 2x/4x Serial to Walsh 128
Symbol
Indicator Data Indicators Repetition Parallel Generator

2.4 or 4.8 4.8 or 9.6 19.2 ksps 1228.8 kcps


kbps kbps Q
BTS 9.6 ksps Q 1228.8 kcps + Q
Q
Short Code Σ FIR
LPF Q
+ 1228.8 kcps

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 31


CDMA2000

Walsh
Walsh in
in the
the Fast
Fast Lane
Lane
(Supplemental
(SupplementalChannels
ChannelsF-SCH
F-SCH&&R-SCH,
R-SCH,that
thatis)
is)

Disclaimer: Any relationship perceived between Joe Walsh and any Walsh Codes living or dead is purely Orthogonal.

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 32


Faster Walsh Codes Allow Faster Channels

■ New cdma2000 channels operate at substantially faster data rates


than current IS-95 channels
■ These faster symbol rates require shorter Walsh codes, so the
Walsh codes can occur as rapidly as the symbols being
transmitted
■ It’s worth a re-visit to the basics of Walsh codes to understand the
implications of this change
• Shorter faster Walsh codes can carry more symbols, but with
less spreading gain
• When a mix of different Walsh code lengths are in use on a
sector, the shorter Walsh codes make it impossible to use
certain longer Walsh codes that would otherwise be available
– “You can’t hire him -- his grandfather died with no children!”
• With so many Walsh codes in use and so many new channels,
we must even face the possibility we’ll run out and have to use
other codes to support additional traffic

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 33


Basics of IS-95’s Most Famous and Popular
Channelization Sequences: The Walsh Codes
WALSH CODES
# ---------------------------------- 64-Chip Sequence ------------------------------------------
0 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
1 0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101
2 0011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011

■ 64 “Magic” Sequences, each 64 chips long 3


4
5
0110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110
0000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111
0101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010
6 0011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100

■ Each Walsh Code is precisely Orthogonal with 7


8
9
0110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001
0000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000000011111111
0101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101010110101010

respect to all other Walsh Codes and their 10


11
12
0011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011001111001100
0110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110011010011001
0000111111110000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000
opposites too! 13
14
15
0101101010100101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101
0011110011000011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011
0110100110010110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110
16 0000000000000000111111111111111100000000000000001111111111111111
• it’s simple to generate the codes, or 17
18
19
0101010101010101101010101010101001010101010101011010101010101010
0011001100110011110011001100110000110011001100111100110011001100
0110011001100110100110011001100101100110011001101001100110011001

• they’re small enough to use from ROM


20 0000111100001111111100001111000000001111000011111111000011110000
21 0101101001011010101001011010010101011010010110101010010110100101
22 0011110000111100110000111100001100111100001111001100001111000011
23 0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110
24 0000000011111111111111110000000000000000111111111111111100000000
25 0101010110101010101010100101010101010101101010101010101001010101
26 0011001111001100110011000011001100110011110011001100110000110011
27 0110011010011001100110010110011001100110100110011001100101100110
28 0000111111110000111100000000111100001111111100001111000000001111
29 0101101010100101101001010101101001011010101001011010010101011010

Unique Properties: 30
31
32
0011110011000011110000110011110000111100110000111100001100111100
0110100110010110100101100110100101101001100101101001011001101001
0000000000000000000000000000000011111111111111111111111111111111

Mutual Orthogonality
33 0101010101010101010101010101010110101010101010101010101010101010
34 0011001100110011001100110011001111001100110011001100110011001100
35 0110011001100110011001100110011010011001100110011001100110011001
36 0000111100001111000011110000111111110000111100001111000011110000
37 0101101001011010010110100101101010100101101001011010010110100101
38 0011110000111100001111000011110011000011110000111100001111000011
39 0110100101101001011010010110100110010110100101101001011010010110
40 0000000011111111000000001111111111111111000000001111111100000000
41 0101010110101010010101011010101010101010010101011010101001010101
42 0011001111001100001100111100110011001100001100111100110000110011

EXAMPLE: 43
44
45
0110011010011001011001101001100110011001011001101001100101100110
0000111111110000000011111111000011110000000011111111000000001111
0101101010100101010110101010010110100101010110101010010101011010
46 0011110011000011001111001100001111000011001111001100001100111100
47 0110100110010110011010011001011010010110011010011001011001101001

Correlation of Walsh Code #23 with Walsh Code #59 48


49
50
0000000000000000111111111111111111111111111111110000000000000000
0101010101010101101010101010101010101010101010100101010101010101
0011001100110011110011001100110011001100110011000011001100110011
51 0110011001100110100110011001100110011001100110010110011001100110
52 0000111100001111111100001111000011110000111100000000111100001111
#23 0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110 53 0101101001011010101001011010010110100101101001010101101001011010
54 0011110000111100110000111100001111000011110000110011110000111100
#59 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001 55 0110100101101001100101101001011010010110100101100110100101101001
56 0000000011111111111111110000000011111111000000000000000011111111
Sum 0000111111110000000011111111000011110000000011111111000000001111 57 0101010110101010101010100101010110101010010101010101010110101010
58 0011001111001100110011000011001111001100001100110011001111001100
59 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001
60 0000111111110000111100000000111111110000000011110000111111110000
Correlation Results: 32 1’s, 32 0’s: Orthogonal!! 61
62
0101101010100101101001010101101010100101010110100101101010100101
0011110011000011110000110011110011000011001111000011110011000011
63 0110100110010110100101100110100110010110011010010110100110010110

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 34


General Development of the Walsh Codes
WALSH WALSH WALSH WALSH WALSH WALSH CODES WALSH CODES
# 1-Chip # 2-Chips # 4-Chips # 8-Chips # ---- 16-Chips ------- # ----------- 32-Chip Sequence ------------- # ---------------------------------- 64-Chip Sequence ------------------------------------------
0 0 0 00 0 0000 0 00000000 0 0000000000000000 0 00000000000000000000000000000000 0 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
1 01 1 0101 1 01010101 1 0101010101010101 1 01010101010101010101010101010101 1 0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101
2 0011 2 00110011 2 0011001100110011 2 00110011001100110011001100110011 2 0011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011
3 0110 3 01100110 3 0110011001100110 3 01100110011001100110011001100110 3 0110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110

2x2
4 00001111 4 0000111100001111 4 00001111000011110000111100001111 4 0000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111

4x4
5 01011010 5 0101101001011010 5 01011010010110100101101001011010 5 0101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010
6 00111100 6 0011110000111100 6 00111100001111000011110000111100 6 0011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100
7 01101001 7 0110100101101001 7 01101001011010010110100101101001 7 0110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001
8 0000000011111111 8 00000000111111110000000011111111 8 0000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000000011111111

8x8
9 0101010110101010 9 01010101101010100101010110101010 9 0101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101010110101010
10 0011001111001100 10 00110011110011000011001111001100 10 0011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011001111001100
11 0110011010011001 11 01100110100110010110011010011001 11 0110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110011010011001
12 0000111111110000 12 00001111111100000000111111110000 12 0000111111110000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000
13 0101101010100101 13 01011010101001010101101010100101 13 0101101010100101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101
14 0011110011000011 14 00111100110000110011110011000011 14 0011110011000011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011
15 0110100110010110 15 01101001100101100110100110010110 15 0110100110010110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110
16 00000000000000001111111111111111 16 0000000000000000111111111111111100000000000000001111111111111111

16x16
17 01010101010101011010101010101010 17 0101010101010101101010101010101001010101010101011010101010101010
18 00110011001100111100110011001100 18 0011001100110011110011001100110000110011001100111100110011001100
19 01100110011001101001100110011001 19 0110011001100110100110011001100101100110011001101001100110011001
20 00001111000011111111000011110000 20 0000111100001111111100001111000000001111000011111111000011110000
21 01011010010110101010010110100101 21 0101101001011010101001011010010101011010010110101010010110100101

Walsh Code Names


22 00111100001111001100001111000011 22 0011110000111100110000111100001100111100001111001100001111000011
23 01101001011010011001011010010110 23 0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110
24 00000000111111111111111100000000 24 0000000011111111111111110000000000000000111111111111111100000000
25 01010101101010101010101001010101 25 0101010110101010101010100101010101010101101010101010101001010101

W1232 = “Walsh Code #12, 32 chips long.” 26


27
28
00110011110011001100110000110011
01100110100110011001100101100110
00001111111100001111000000001111
26
27
28
0011001111001100110011000011001100110011110011001100110000110011
0110011010011001100110010110011001100110100110011001100101100110
0000111111110000111100000000111100001111111100001111000000001111
29 01011010101001011010010101011010 29 0101101010100101101001010101101001011010101001011010010101011010
30 00111100110000111100001100111100 30 0011110011000011110000110011110000111100110000111100001100111100
31 01101001100101101001011001101001 31 0110100110010110100101100110100101101001100101101001011001101001

Walsh Level Mapping 32x32


32
33
34
35
0000000000000000000000000000000011111111111111111111111111111111
0101010101010101010101010101010110101010101010101010101010101010
0011001100110011001100110011001111001100110011001100110011001100
0110011001100110011001100110011010011001100110011001100110011001
The Walsh Codes shown here are in logical 36
37
0000111100001111000011110000111111110000111100001111000011110000
0101101001011010010110100101101010100101101001011010010110100101
38 0011110000111100001111000011110011000011110000111100001111000011
state values 0 and 1. 39
40
0110100101101001011010010110100110010110100101101001011010010110
0000000011111111000000001111111111111111000000001111111100000000
41 0101010110101010010101011010101010101010010101011010101001010101
Walsh Codes also can exist as physical 42
43
0011001111001100001100111100110011001100001100111100110000110011
0110011010011001011001101001100110011001011001101001100101100110

bipolar signals. Logical zero is the signal 44


45
46
0000111111110000000011111111000011110000000011111111000000001111
0101101010100101010110101010010110100101010110101010010101011010
0011110011000011001111001100001111000011001111001100001100111100

value +1 and Logical 1 is the signal value -1. 47


48
0110100110010110011010011001011010010110011010011001011001101001
0000000000000000111111111111111111111111111111110000000000000000
49 0101010101010101101010101010101010101010101010100101010101010101
Mapping: Logical 0,1 > +1, -1 Physical 50
51
0011001100110011110011001100110011001100110011000011001100110011
0110011001100110100110011001100110011001100110010110011001100110
52 0000111100001111111100001111000011110000111100000000111100001111
53 0101101001011010101001011010010110100101101001010101101001011010
54 0011110000111100110000111100001111000011110000110011110000111100
55 0110100101101001100101101001011010010110100101100110100101101001

■ All Walsh codes can be built to any size from a 56


57
58
0000000011111111111111110000000011111111000000000000000011111111
0101010110101010101010100101010110101010010101010101010110101010
0011001111001100110011000011001111001100001100110011001111001100

single zero by replicating and inverting 59


60
61
0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001
0000111111110000111100000000111111110000000011110000111111110000
0101101010100101101001010101101010100101010110100101101010100101

■ All Walsh matrixes are square -- same number


62 0011110011000011110000110011110011000011001111000011110011000011
63 0110100110010110100101100110100110010110011010010110100110010110

of codes and number of chips per code 64x64


10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 35
Walsh Code Trees and Interdependencies
W364
W332 0110 0110 0110 0110 0110 0110 0110 0110 W3564
W316 0110 0110 0110 0110 W1964
W1932 0110 0110 0110 0110 1001 1001 1001 1001
W5164
W38 0110 0110
W1164
W1132 0110 0110 1001 1001 0110 0110 1001 1001 W4364
W1116 0110 0110 1001 1001
W2732 0110 0110 1001 1001 1001 1001 0110 0110 W2764
W5964
W34 0110
W764
W732 0110 1001 0110 1001 0110 1001 0110 1001 W3964
W716 0110 1001 0110 1001
W2364
W2332 0110 1001 0110 1001 1001 0110 1001 0110 W5564
W78 0110 1001
W1564
W1532 0110 1001 1001 0110 0110 1001 1001 0110 W4764
W1516 0110 1001 1001 0110
W3132 0110 1001 1001 0110 1001 0110 0110 1001 W3164
W6364

■ Entire Walsh matrices can be built by replicating and inverting -- Individual


Walsh codes can also be expanded in the same way.
■ CDMA adds each symbol of information to one complete Walsh code
■ Faster symbol rates therefore require shorter Walsh codes
■ If a short Walsh code is chosen to carry a fast data channel, that walsh
code and all its replicative descendants are compromised and cannot be
reused to carry other signals
■ Therefore, the supply of available Walsh codes on a sector diminishes
greatly while a fast data channel is being transmitted!
■ CDMA2000 Base stations can dip into a supply of quasi-orthogonal codes
if needed to permit additional channels during times of heavy loading
10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 36
Walsh Code Families and Exclusions
■ Consider a forward link supplemental WALSH CODES
channel being transmitted with a data #
0
---------------------------------- 64-Chip Sequence ------------------------------------------
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
W34 0110 1 0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101
rate of 307,200 symbols/second 2
3
4
0011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011
0110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110
0000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111
5 0101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010
• Each symbol will occupy 4 chips at 6
7
8
0011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100
0110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001
0000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000000011111111
the 1x rate of 1,228,800 c/s. 9
10
0101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101010110101010
0011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011001111001100
11 0110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110011010011001
12 0000111111110000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000
• A 4-chip walsh code will be used for 13
14
0101101010100101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101
0011110011000011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011

this channel 15
16
17
0110100110010110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110
0000000000000000111111111111111100000000000000001111111111111111
0101010101010101101010101010101001010101010101011010101010101010
18 0011001100110011110011001100110000110011001100111100110011001100

■ If Walsh Code #3 (4 chips) is chosen for 19


20
21
0110011001100110100110011001100101100110011001101001100110011001
0000111100001111111100001111000000001111000011111111000011110000
0101101001011010101001011010010101011010010110101010010110100101

this channel: 22
23
24
0011110000111100110000111100001100111100001111001100001111000011
0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110
0000000011111111111111110000000000000000111111111111111100000000
25 0101010110101010101010100101010101010101101010101010101001010101

• Use of W34 will preclude other usage 26


27
28
0011001111001100110011000011001100110011110011001100110000110011
0110011010011001100110010110011001100110100110011001100101100110
0000111111110000111100000000111100001111111100001111000000001111

of the following 64-chip walsh codes: 29


30
31
0101101010100101101001010101101001011010101001011010010101011010
0011110011000011110000110011110000111100110000111100001100111100
0110100110010110100101100110100101101001100101101001011001101001
32 0000000000000000000000000000000011111111111111111111111111111111

• 3, 35, 19, 51, 11, 43, 27, 59, 7, 39, 33


34
35
0101010101010101010101010101010110101010101010101010101010101010
0011001100110011001100110011001111001100110011001100110011001100
0110011001100110011001100110011010011001100110011001100110011001

23, 55, 15, 47, 31, 63 -- all forbidden! 36


37
38
0000111100001111000011110000111111110000111100001111000011110000
0101101001011010010110100101101010100101101001011010010110100101
0011110000111100001111000011110011000011110000111100001111000011
39 0110100101101001011010010110100110010110100101101001011010010110

• 16 codes are tied up since the data is 40


41
42
0000000011111111000000001111111111111111000000001111111100000000
0101010110101010010101011010101010101010010101011010101001010101
0011001111001100001100111100110011001100001100111100110000110011
being sent at 16 times the rate of 43
44
45
0110011010011001011001101001100110011001011001101001100101100110
0000111111110000000011111111000011110000000011111111000000001111
0101101010100101010110101010010110100101010110101010010101011010
conventional 64-chip walsh codes 46
47
48
0011110011000011001111001100001111000011001111001100001100111100
0110100110010110011010011001011010010110011010011001011001101001
0000000000000000111111111111111111111111111111110000000000000000

■ The BTS controller managing this sector 49


50
51
0101010101010101101010101010101010101010101010100101010101010101
0011001100110011110011001100110011001100110011000011001100110011
0110011001100110100110011001100110011001100110010110011001100110

must track the precluded walsh codes 52


53
54
0000111100001111111100001111000011110000111100000000111100001111
0101101001011010101001011010010110100101101001010101101001011010
0011110000111100110000111100001111000011110000110011110000111100

and ensure they aren’t assigned 55


56
57
0110100101101001100101101001011010010110100101100110100101101001
0000000011111111111111110000000011111111000000000000000011111111
0101010110101010101010100101010110101010010101010101010110101010
58 0011001111001100110011000011001111001100001100110011001111001100
59 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001

Which Walsh Codes get tied up by another? 60


61
62
0000111111110000111100000000111111110000000011110000111111110000
0101101010100101101001010101101010100101010110100101101010100101
0011110011000011110000110011110011000011001111000011110011000011

Wxxyyties up every YYth Walsh Code starting with #XX.


63 0110100110010110100101100110100110010110011010010110100110010110

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 37


Quasi-Orthogonal Functions

■ CDMA2000 has 128 Walsh codes available for SR1 and 256 for
SR3; still, the use of so many new types of channels, and variable
length Walsh spreading for SCHs, can cause sectors to run out of
available Walsh codes
• Such a sector can’t assign any additional channels!
■ CDMA2000 has a method to provide additional codes in this
situation: Quasi-Orthogonal Functions
■ QOFs are generated by multiplying Walsh Codes with a quasi-
orthogonal mask
■ Following Walsh Spreading, the I and Q channels are rotated 90
degrees gated by another Walsh Code
■ This provides additional almost-orthogonal codes, orthogonal
enough to be used for additional channels that would otherwise be
impossible
■ Some manufacturers won't implement QOFs in their initial
CDMA2000 products, but all are expected to eventually

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 38


Masks for Quasi-Orthogonal Functions

■ There are four mask


conditions used to create
Walsh and QOF functions
• 0: Walsh Codes
(perfectly orthogonal)
• 1-3: QOF functions
(approximately
orthogonal)

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 39


Walsh Code/Quasi Orthogonal Implementation
Complex Multiplier

Iin +
I Baseband
YI Σ Filter
-
Walsh Cos 2πfct
Function When
Enabled, +
Rotate
by 90° Σ S(t)
(Output - +
Qin +jIin)
QOFsign
BTS Qin +
Q Baseband
YQ Σ Filter
+
Enable
Sin 2πfct
Walshrotn
PNI

PNQ

Walsh function = ±1 (mapping: ‘0’⇒ ⇒+1, ‘1’ ⇒-1)


QOFsign= ±1 sign multiplier QOF mask (mapping: ‘0’⇒ ⇒+1, ‘1’ ⇒-1)
Walshrot = ‘0’ or ‘1’ 90°-rotation-enable Walsh function
Walshrot = ‘0’ means no rotation
Walshrot = ‘1’ means rotate by 90°
The null QOF has QOFsign = +1 and Walshrot = ‘0’
PNI and PNQ = ±1 I-channel and Q-channel PN sequences
The null QOF is used for Radio Configurations 1 and 2

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 40


1xRTT

Forward
Forward Traffic
Traffic Channels
Channels

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 41


Spreading Rate 1 Forward Traffic Channels

■ In IS-95B mode (RC 1 or 2) F-Traffic channels include


• 1 F-FCH forward fundamental channel for primary data at 9600
or 14400 bps using IS-95B coding
• 0 to 7 F-SCH forward supplemental channels for high speed
data using IS-95B coding
■ In CDMA2000 mode (RC3, 4, 5) F-Traffic channels include
• 1 F-FCH forward fundamental channel
• 1 or 2 F-SCH supplemental channel
■ In CDMA2000 mode, F-DCCH dedicated control channels may be
associated with F-Traffic channels to carry signaling and power
control data
• Power control bits can be either on F-FCH or F-FDCCH

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 42


SR1, RC1 9,600 bps F-FCH (IS-95-Compatible)
Orthogonal
Spreading

I
Power Short Code
Control
Puncturing
+CRC & 1/2 rate Symbol Pwr Ctrl 19.2 ksps I
Σ
Data Bits Interleaver FIR
Tail bits Conv Encoder Repetition Bits
LPF I
8.6 kbps 9.6 kbps 19.2 ksps 800 bps Gain
1228.8 kcps
Gain
User Long PC
Code Mask Punc

800 bps 1228.8 kcps

BTS Long Code


Generator
Long Code
Decimator
Power Ctrl
Decimator 19.2 ksps
Σ FIR
LPF Q
1228.8 kbps /W Q
Q
Short Code

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 43


SR1, RC2 14,400 bps F-FCH (IS-95-Compatible)
Orthogonal
Spreading

I
Power Short Code
Control
2 of 6 Puncturing
+CRC & 1/2 rate Symbol Symbol Pwr Ctrl 19.2 ksps I
Σ
Data Bits Interleaver FIR
Tail bits Conv Encoder Repetition Puncturing Bits
LPF I
13.35 kbps 14.4 kbps 28.8 ksps 19.2 ksps 800 bps Gain
1228.8 kcps
Gain
User Long PC
Code Mask Punc

800 bps 1228.8 kcps

BTS Long Code


Generator
Long Code
Decimator
Power Ctrl
Decimator 19.2 ksps
Σ FIR
LPF Q
1228.8 kbps /W Q
Q
Short Code

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 44


Channels of the Higher 1xRTT Configurations
FORWARD CHANNELS REVERSE CHANNELS
Same coding as IS-95B, Includes Power
1 F-Pilot Backward compatible Control Subchannel R-Pilot 1
Same coding as IS-95B, Access Channel
1 F-Sync Backward compatible (IS-95B compatible) R-ACH or
Enhanced 1
1 to 7 PAGING
Same coding as IS-95B,
Access Channel R-EACH
Backward compatible
Common
0 or 1 F-BCH Broadcast Channel Control Channel R-CCCH 0 or 1

0 or 1 F-QPCH Quick Paging Channel


R-TRAFFIC
Reverse Fundamental
Common Channel (IS95B comp.) R-FCH 1
0 or 1 F-CPCCH Power Control Channel
Dedicated
BTS Common Control Channel R-DCCH 0 or 1
0 or 1 F-CACH Assignment Channel
Reverse
Common Supplemental Channel R-SCH 0 to 2
0 to n F-CCCH Control Channels

0 to many F-TRAFFIC Forward


Traffic Channels
1 F-FCH Fundamental Channel

Dedicated
0 or 1 F-DCCH Control Channel
Supplemental
0 to 7 F-SCH Channels IS-95B only
Supplemental
0 to 2 F-SCH Channels RC3,4,5

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 45


SR1, RC3 F-FCH (9,600 bps)
Complex
Scrambling

Power Orthogonal 1228.8 kcps + I


Control Spreading
Puncturing
I
Short Code Σ FIR
LPF I
Full Rate +CRC & 1/4 rate
Interleaver
Pwr Ctrl 19.2 ksps I -
Data Bits Tail bits Conv Encoder Bits 1228.8 kcps
8.6 kbps 9.6 kbps 38.4 ksps 800 bps Gain I
Gain 1228.8 kcps
User Long PC Serial to Walsh 64
Code Mask Punc Parallel Generator
1228.8 kcps
38.4 ksps 800 bps
Q
BTS Long Code
Generator
Long Code
Decimator
Power Ctrl
Decimator 19.2 ksps Q 1228.8 kcps +
1228.8 kbps /W/2 Q
Power control information
Q
Short Code Σ FIR
LPF Q
may be carried as shown + 1228.8 kcps
or on the F-DCCH

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 46


SR1, RC4 F-FCH (9,600 bps)
Complex
Scrambling

Power Orthogonal 1228.8 kcps + I


Control Spreading
Puncturing
I
Short Code Σ FIR
LPF I
Full Rate +CRC & 1/2 rate
Interleaver
Pwr Ctrl 9.6 ksps I -
Data Bits Tail bits Conv Encoder Bits 1228.8 kcps
8.6 kbps 9.6 kbps 19.2 ksps 800 bps Gain I 1228.8 kcps
Gain
User Long PC Serial to Walsh 128
Code Mask Punc Parallel Generator

19.2 ksps 1228.8 kcps


800 bps
Q
BTS Long Code
Generator
Long Code
Decimator
Power Ctrl
Decimator 9.6 ksps Q 1228.8 kcps +
1228.8 kbps /W/2 Q
Power control information
Q
Short Code Σ FIR
LPF Q
may be carried as shown + 1228.8 kcps
or on the F-DCCH

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 47


SR1, RC5 F-FCH (14.4 kbps)
Complex
Scrambling

57.6 ksps
Full Rate +CRC & 1/4 rate Puncture Power Orthogonal 1228.8 kcps + I
Control Spreading
Σ
Data Bits Tail bits Conv Encoder 4/12 I FIR
13.35 kbps 14.4 kbps
Puncturing Short Code LPF I
Interleaver
Pwr Ctrl 19.2 ksps I -
Bits 1228.8 kcps
38.4 ksps 800 bps Gain I 1228.8 kcps
Gain
User Long PC Serial to Walsh 64
Code Mask Punc Parallel Generator

38.4 ksps 1228.8 kcps


800 bps
Q
BTS Long Code
Generator
Long Code
Decimator
Power Ctrl
Decimator 19.2 ksps Q 1228.8 kcps +
1228.8 kbps /W/2 Q
Power control information
Q
Short Code Σ FIR
LPF Q
may be carried as shown + 1228.8 kcps
or on the F-DCCH

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 48


SR1, RC3 F-SCH (152,400 bps)
Complex
Scrambling

Orthogonal 1228.8 kcps + I


Spreading
614.4 ksps
I
Short Code Σ FIR
LPF I
Payload +CRC & 1/4 rate
Interleaver 307.2 ksps I -
Data Bits Tail bits Conv Encoder 1228.8 kcps
152.4 kbps 153.6 kbps 614.4 ksps I 1228.8 kcps
Gain
User Long Serial to Walsh 4
Code Mask Parallel Generator

614.4 ksps 1228.8 kcps


Q
BTS Long Code
Generator
Long Code
Decimator 307.2 ksps Q 1228.8 kcps +
1228.8 kbps /W/2 Q
Q
Short Code Σ FIR
LPF Q
+ 1228.8 kcps

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 49


SR1 Forward Channel Complex Spreading
Complex Multiplier

Iin +
I Baseband
YI Σ Filter
-
Walsh Cos 2πfct
Function When
Enabled, +
Rotate
by 90° Σ S(t)
(Output - +
Qin +jIin)
QOFsign
BTS Qin +
Q Baseband
YQ Σ Filter
+
Enable
Sin 2πfct
Walshrotn
PNI

PNQ

Walsh function = ±1 (mapping: ‘0’⇒ ⇒+1, ‘1’ ⇒-1)


QOFsign= ±1 sign multiplier QOF mask (mapping: ‘0’⇒ ⇒+1, ‘1’ ⇒-1)
Walshrot = ‘0’ or ‘1’ 90°-rotation-enable Walsh function
Walshrot = ‘0’ means no rotation
Walshrot = ‘1’ means rotate by 90°
The null QOF has QOFsign = +1 and Walshrot = ‘0’
PNI and PNQ = ±1 I-channel and Q-channel PN sequences
The null QOF is used for Radio Configurations 1 and 2

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 50


Forward
Forward Orthogonal
Orthogonal Transmit
Transmit
Diversity
Diversity (OTD)
(OTD)

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 51


SR1 Forward Orthogonal Transmit Diversity

■ Forward link receive space diversity is not possible on phones due


to space limitations
■ Forward Orthogonal Transmit Diversity (OTD) divides the
transmitted symbol stream into two streams before Walsh
spreading
■ Each signal is then transmitted by a separate antenna at the BTS

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 52


SR1, RC4
Orthogonal Transmit Diversity Coding
9.6 ksps
Carrier One
4.8 ksps Symbol
Power FIR
Control
Repeat I
Puncturing I1 (++) Complex
LPF
PN 1228.8 kcps
Full Rate +CRC & 1/2 rate Pwr Ctrl Walsh 128
Interleaver Sequence 1228.8 kcps
Data Bits Tail bits Conv Encoder Bits 4.8 ksps Symbol Scrambling
800 bps FIR
8.6 kbps 9.6 ksps 19.2 ksps Gain Repeat Q
Gain Q1 (++)
LPF
User Long PC
Demux Carrier Two
Code Mask Punc
4.8 ksps Symbol
FIR
19.2 ksps 800 bps Repeat I
I2 (+-)
LPF
BTS Long Code
Generator
Long Code
Decimator
Power Ctrl
Decimator
Walsh 128
Complex
PN 1228.8 kcps
1228.8 kbps /W/2 Sequence 1228.8 kcps
Power control information
Q2 Symbol Scrambling
FIR
may be carried as shown 4.8 ksps
Repeat
LPF Q
(+-)
or on the F-DCCH
9.6 ksps 1228.8 kcps

■ The DEMUX splits the data into four streams at 1/4 the input rate
■ Symbol repetition doubles the symbol rates of each channel
■ The channels are then spread by a 128-bit Walsh code
■ The resulting signal appears to have been spread by a 256-bit Walsh code
■ Each carrier is transmitted on a different spatially-separated BTS antenna

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 53


1xRTT
1xRTT Reverse
Reverse Channels
Channels

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 54


CDMA2000 SR1 CDMA Reverse Channels
REVERSE CHANNELS
■ IS-95 mobiles never transmit Includes Power
more than one kind of channel Control Subchannel R-Pilot 1
at a time Access Channel
(IS-95B compatible) R-ACH or
1
■ A 1xRTT mobile can transmit Enhanced
Access Channel R-EACH
up to five different channels Common
R-CCCH 0 or 1
simultaneously, all within its Control Channel

own signal using one long R-TRAFFIC


code offset Reverse Fundamental
Channel (IS95B comp.) R-FCH 1
■ An IS-95 mobile transmits the Dedicated
R-DCCH 0 or 1
content of its single channel in Control Channel
Reverse
the form of a string of walsh Supplemental Channel R-SCH 0 to 2
codes which are symbols of
the information being sent
■ A 1xRTT mobile uses steady
walsh codes as individual
channels of information, the
same way a base station does
on the forward link

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 55


SR1 Reverse Channel Complex Spreading

R-SCH 2 Gain Complex


1228.2 kcps Scale Scrambling

1228.8 kcps
W24 or W68
R-Pilot +
+
Power
Control
Σ Σ I
I-channel
Short Code - 1228.8 kcps
Gain
R-DCCH
1228.2 kcps Scale 1228.8 kcps

User Long Long Code


W816 Code Mask Generator W22
R-SCH-1
or 1-chip Decimate
Gain Delay By 2
R-EACH Scale
or 1228.2 kcps
R-CCCH Q-channel +
Σ Q
Short Code
W12 or W14
or W28 or W48
Σ + 1228.8 kcps

Gain
R-FCH
1228.2 kcps Scale 1228.8 kcps

W416 W416 means Walsh Code #4 at 16-chip length

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 56


Reverse Link Modulation

■ After construction of the composite


baseband signal including all the
active reverse channels, the I and
Q signals are now ready for
Baseband
modulation I Filter

■ Modulation is performed in the Cos 2πfct


same was as IS-95 Σ
Passband
Filter S(t)

■ Notice that although I and Q carry


independent contents, all the Baseband
reverse channels are complex- Q Filter

spread and occupy both I and Q Sin 2πfct

due to the complex scrambling


shown on the preceding page

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 57


SR1 RC3 R-FCH Generation & Coding
Orthogonal
Spreading

76.8 ksps 1228.8 kcps


R-FCH Channel 1/4 Rate 1 Frame X2 Symbol
Convolutional Block Repetition
Data Bits Coder Encoder Interleaver
8.6
kbps Add CRC 9.6 kbps 38.4 ksps 38.4 ksps
& Tail Bits
Spread Walsh Code
Factor =16 Generator

■ This is the fundamental channel for SR1 RC3, with frames 20 ms


long when it is carrying voice information
■ CRC and tail bits are added
■ The data is passed through a R1/4 convolutional encoder,
providing very powerful protection against bit errors
■ The resulting symbols are block-interleaved against bursty fades
■ Symbol repetition then brings the rate from 38.4 ksps to 76.8 ksps
■ Each of the phone’s reverse channels has a different walsh code;
the R-FCH always uses Walsh code #4 at 16-chip length

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 58


How Walsh Codes are used
on the SR1 Reverse Channels
WALSH CODE CHANNEL(S)
W016 R-Pilot + Power Control
W816 R-DCCH
W416 R-FCH
W12 or W14 or W28 or W48 R-SCH1 or R-EACH or R-CCCH
W24 or W68 R-SCH2

■ When a mobile transmits at SR1 with RC1 or RC2, it uses the original
coding method from IS-95 for Rate Set 1 or Rate Set 2
■ When a mobile transmits at SR1 with RC3 or RC4, it uses the totally
different arrangement shown above
• The mobile may be transmitting multiple channels, and Walsh codes
are used to keep them separate
• Walsh Code 0 is used for the Pilot and for Power Control bits
• Walsh Code 8 is the R-DCCH control channel
• Walsh Code 4 is the R-FCH fundamental channel (voice)
• Another Walsh Code is used for the Supplemental Channel 1, if there
is such a channel being transmitted, or for the R-EACH or R-CCCH
• Another Walsh Code is used for the Supplemental Channel 2, if there
is such a channel being transmitted
■ Refer to the Radio Configurations for full details of the channels
10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 59
Reverse Channel Walsh Code Trees

0
R-SCH1

R-SCH2
1 0

3 1 2 0

7 3 5 1 6 2 4 0

15 7 11 3 13 5 9 1 14 6 10 2 12 4 8 0

If a Walsh Code is used,


the other walsh codes R-FCH R-Pilot
beneath it cannot be used.
R-DCCH

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 60


Reverse Channel Gain Settings

Code Channel Power (dbm) = Pilot Power


+ 0.125 * (Nom_Gain + Adjust_Gain
+ Reverse_Chan_Gain
- Multiple_Chan_Gain
+ RI_Gain_Traffic_Pilot
+ RI_Gain_SCH_Pilot)

■ Each code channel gain is set relative to the mobile’s pilot


■ Gain parameters have resolution of 1/8 db
■ The Phone maintains a table of Nominal Gains (see next page)
■ Other parameters are supplied by the BTS

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 61


Reverse Link Nominal Attribute Gain Table
Reverse Link Nominal Attribute Gain Table
Target
■ This table defines the Nominal Pilot Frame
nominal gain for any Data Rate Frame Attribute Reference Error
specific transmit rate (bps) Length, ms Coding Gain Level Rate
307,200 20 or 40 Convolutional 96 54 0.05
and coder type 460,800 20 Convolutional 104 61 0.05
518,400 40 Convolutional 104 64 0.05
■ The mobile is required 614,400 20 Convolutional 112 68 0.05
to maintain this table, 1,036,800 20 Convolutional 128 83 0.05
which can be 19,200 20, 40 or 80 Turbo 44 2 0.05
28,800 20, 40 or 80 Turbo 52 9 0.05
overwritten from the 38,400 20, 40 or 80 Turbo 56 10 0.05
BTS is needed 57,600 20, 40 or 80 Turbo 64 19 0.05
76,800 20, 40 or 80 Turbo 68 19 0.05
■ The other parameters 115,200 20, 40 or 80 Turbo 76 29 0.05
in the gain equations 153,600 20, 40 or 80 Turbo 76 33 0.05
230,400 20 or 40 Turbo 88 39 0.05
come from overhead 259,200 80 Turbo 88 48 0.05
messages on the 307,200 20 or 40 Turbo 88 50 0.05
forward control 460,800 20 Turbo 104 54 0.05
518,400 40 Turbo 108 56 0.05
channels of the BTS 614,400 20 Turbo 112 58 0.05
1,036,800 20 Turbo 125 78 0.05
1,500 20 Convolutional -10 0 0.01
1,800 20 Convolutional -2 3 0.01

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 62


HPSK Modulation

■ Hybrid Phase Shift Keying (HPSK)


• Lowers the Peak-to-Average ratio (I.e., crest factor) of the
reverse link waveform transmitted by the mobile
• This eases the performance requirements for the power
amplifier of the mobile, making it simpler, less costly, and more
efficient using precious battery power
■ IS-95 Uses OQPSK to reduce crest factors. Won’t that work here?
• It works well when 1) there is only one waveform being
transmitted, and 2) only one carrier frequency being
transmitted
• IS-2000 uses multiple summed code channels which can drive
OQPSK signals through the origin; IS-2000 also uses multiple
RF carriers which are independent waveforms
• HPSK is able to retain its crest factor when multiple channels
are used

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 63


The HPSK Method of Operation
■ HPSK reduces the probability of I I
zero transitions and symbol
repeats from 1/4 to 1/8
Long Code
Generator W22 Q’
Q
• Decimate the Q code by 2, 1-chip
Delay
Decimate
By 2
then XOR with the Walsh
code #2 Q
• Halves the Peak-to-Average +1
power ratio of the signal!

I
Possible Possible Q Q’ I/Q -1 +1
I Values Q Values Patterns Patterns Pairs
1 1, -1 1, -1 1,1 ; 1, -1
1, 1
-1 -1, 1 -1, 1 1,1 ; -1, 1
-1
1 1, -1 -1, 1 -1,-1 ; -1, 1
1, 1
-1 -1, 1 1, -1 -1,1 ; -1, -1
1 1, -1 1, 1 1,1 ; -1, 1
•In each symbol change, zero crossings
1, 1
-1 -1, 1 -1, -1 1,-1 ; -1, -1 and symbol repeats are not allowed!
1 1, -1 -1, -1 -1,-1 ; 1, -1 •The next two-bit pair has a 1/4 chance
1, 1
-1 -1, 1 1, 1 -1,1 ; 1, 1 of zero-crossing or symbol-repeat

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 64


HPSK Imposes Walsh Code Requirements

■ In order to preserve the reduction in zero crossings and reduced


peaks provided by HPSK, the Walsh codes selected for the
various reverse channels from the mobile must avoid certain bit
patterns.
• Basic requirement: The Walsh codes must be patterns which
repeat bits at least twice before changing value. Examples:
– Walsh 1, 1, -1, -1 works since it repeats twice before
changing

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 65


IS-95B
IS-95B Handoff
Handoff Improvements
Improvements
Supported
Supported inin 1xRTT
1xRTT

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 66


IS-95A Handoff: Inflexible, Threshold Driven

Active
■ Mobile requests soft handoff with all -3
All Six
pilots above T_Add sectors in

Pilot Strength
soft handoff!

(Ec/Io, db)
• This occasionally leads to some
rigid, less-than-optimum decisions! Active
Active
Active
Active Active
■ Problem Situation 1 T_Add
• One dominant, strong signal and a
lot of weak ones: -20

– Mobile asks for them all, but


only one is really needed!
-3
■ Problem Situation 2 Only One
Sector in soft

Pilot Strength
• Heavy pilot pollution, many signals handoff!

(Ec/Io, db)
lurk barely below the threshold
Active
– Mobile may request one or two, T_Add
but ignore the others which
could have helped call survive
-20

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 67


IS-95B Handoff Improvements
Are Supported in CDMA2000

■ A handoff process more intelligent than fixed thresholds


• Handoff events driven by smarter, situation-influenced triggers
■ Candidate Set Removal:

■ Neighbor-to-Active transition:

■ Removal from Active Set:

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 68


The
The Data
Data Side
Side of
of 3G
3G Networks
Networks

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 69


Network-Side Improvements in CDMA2000

■ We've just seen how new CDMA2000 RF improvements create a


whole new type of channel which can carry fast data
• The RF link is no longer the bottleneck for mobile data!
■ Many wireless operators' business plans expect data usage to
rapidly expand, reaching bit volumes roughly equal to voice calls
within just a year or so after CDMA2000 commercial launch
• And voice traffic is still growing in the meanwhile!
■ All this new fast data has to go through some kind of equipment
• The traditional voice circuit-switched plant can't handle it
– It handles only circuit-switched 64 kb/s DS-0s, which would
be a big bottleneck for high speed data
• A whole new back-side packet data network is needed to
bypass mobile data around the switch, into internet or VPNs
■ Fortunately, existing LAN-style data technologies are up to the job,
and much more hardware-efficient than traditional switching

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 70


Understanding the foundation of 3G Networks:
Core 2G CDMA Network Architecture

Switch Access Manager BTS


GPS or (C)BSC GPS
GPSR
SLM CM GPSR
BSM CDSU CDSU DISCO TFU

DMS-BUS TFU1 CDSU


Ch. Card ACC

Packets
CDSU DISCO 1 CDSU
LPP ENET LPP CDSU Σα Txcvr
A
RFFE
A
CDSU DISCO 2

Chips
Σβ Txcvr RFFE

DS0 in T1
CDSU B B
DTCs CDSU Σχ Txcvr
C
RFFE
C

IOC
SBS
Vocoders
Vocoder Channel RF
Selectors The selector
assembles
Element
packets going to A channel element turns
the BTS and packet bits into CDMA
A vocoder converts disassembles
PSTN speech between DS-0 packets coming
chips to the mobile, and
chips from the mobile into
and packet forms from the BTS. packets to the BSC.

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 71


Existing 2nd Generation CDMA Voice Networks

(C)BSC or rf
Access Manager 14400 bps max
Switch BTS
PSTN v SEL CE
t1 t1 t1
CIRCUIT-SWITCHED VOICE TRAFFIC POINT-TO-POINT PACKETS Handset

■ 2nd Generation CDMA Networks were designed primarily to handle voice


■ The CDMA voice conversation’s 20-ms frames are carried as packets
between mobile and the Selector
• The selector assembles frames being sent to the mobile and
disassembles frames coming from the mobile
• Frame contents normally include voice and occasional signaling; may
also include data if additional equipment is included (not shown)
■ The vocoders in the BSC and the mobile convert the packet stream into
continuous DS-0 audio for the end-users
• The MSC makes a circuit-switched connection for call
10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 72
Today's Data Turtle Race:
How Data flows on a 2G CDMA Network

PROPRIETARY SLOW IP TRAFFIC


Internet Backbone
VPNs Network (C)BSC or rf
Gateway IWF Access Manager 14400 bps max
Server
DIAL-UP ACCESS Switch BTS
PSTN v SEL CE
t1 t1 t1
CIRCUIT-SWITCHED VOICE TRAFFIC POINT-TO-POINT PACKETS Handset

■ Additional hardware is needed to carry data on a 2G network


■ Data to/from the user connects near the selector in the BSC
• Passed through the switch as 56kb/s data links in 64kb/s DS-0s
■ Data connection to outside world handled by IWF Interworking Function
• Includes modems to convert data stream into DS-0 for dial-up uses
• Can contain data routers to access IP or PPP networks
• May include capability for FAX and other communications modes

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 73


More about Today's InterWorking Function

PROPRIETARY SLOW IP TRAFFIC


Internet Backbone
VPNs Network (C)BSC or rf
Gateway IWF Access Manager 14400 bps max
Server
DIAL-UP ACCESS Switch BTS
PSTN v SEL CE
t1 t1 t1
CIRCUIT-SWITCHED VOICE TRAFFIC POINT-TO-POINT PACKETS Handset

■ The InterWorking Function (IWF) was introduced in 1998.


• collocated with MSC
• CDMA data calls can interwork with PSTN & packet data networks
• based on industry standards IS-95, IS-707, IS-658
• initial data service offering is rather limited, but provides valuable experience using data
service without major capital investment.
■ IWF allows:
• Data transmission rates to 14.4 Kbps. (13,350 kbps considering overhead bits)
• Traffic Primary mobile-originated; Mobile-terminated service available but rare
■ IWF provides circuit switched service, not packet-switched
• No provision for multiple data calls to share a CDMA code channel
• proprietary Quick Net Connect allows packet connection to a public packet data network

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 74


3G Data Capabilities: 1xRTT CDMA Network
FAST IP PACKET TRAFFIC PDSN
Internet Backbone fiber - ATM Foreign Agent
Network
VPNs T SECURE TUNNELS T
Authentication
Authorization R-P Interface
rf
PDSN
Home Agent AAA Accounting
Fast!
(C)BSC/Access Manager
Switch BTS
PSTN v SEL CE
t1 t1 t1
CIRCUIT-SWITCHED VOICE TRAFFIC POINT-TO-POINT PACKETS Wireless
Mobile Device

■ For full-featured data access over a 3G network, a true IP connection must be


established to outside Packet Data Networks
■ This requires a Packet Data Serving Node
• ISP and operator-provided services are provided by external Home
Network and Home Agent servers
• Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting provided by external server
■ The IWF (not shown above) is still maintained to allow old mobiles to use dial-
up and WAP/wireless web keypad access

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 75


1xRTT CDMA Network Element Descriptions
FAST IP PACKET TRAFFIC PDSN
Internet Backbone fiber - ATM Foreign Agent
Network
VPNs T SECURE TUNNELS T
Authentication
Authorization R-P Interface
rf
PDSN
Home Agent AAA Accounting
Fast!
(C)BSC/Access Manager
Switch BTS
PSTN v SEL CE
t1 t1 t1
CIRCUIT-SWITCHED VOICE TRAFFIC POINT-TO-POINT PACKETS Wireless
Mobile Device

AAA - Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting - may MSC - Mobile Switching Center
include both home and broker-provided functions voice/circuit-switched network hub
BSC - Base Station Controller: vocoders and packet router PDN - Packet Data Network
BTS - Base Transceiver Station private, public, internet packet networks
radio equipment PDSN - Packet Data Serving Node
HA - Home Agent, HN - Home Network routes user data packets to/from destinations
IP access for Mobile IP on home and roaming networks PSTN - Public Switched Telephone Network
IWF - Interworking Function VLR - Visitor Location Register
provides necessary protocol conversions HLR - Home Location Register

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 76


PDSN Packet Data Serving Node

■ PDSN Packet Data Serving Node is a new network element to


support packet data services
• The PDSN is the heart of the Packet Data Network
• The interface between the 1xRTT radio network and the PDSN
is called the R-P interface
■ Many network manufacturers offer competing PDSN solutions:

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 77


Nortel and Lucent PDSNs

LUCENT/SPRINGTIDE NORTEL
PDSN SHASTA PDSN

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 78


Ericsson and Motorola PDSNs

MOTOROLA PDSN
ERICSSON CISCO 7500 ROUTER
RXI 820 PDSN

ERICSSON MOTOROLA Access Node


AXC 706 PDSN CATALYST 6509
10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 79
Other PDSNs and DHAs

3COM PDSN

IPmobile
REDBACK PDSN AirGateway 3COM DISTRIBUTED
PDSN HOME AGENT
10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 80
3G Network with Management Interfaces
IS-2000 Air Interface
HLR HLR IOS V4 IS-707A2 Data Devices
Through SMS
(not shown) A1/A2/A5
ANSI-41 E Pal
m
BTS
Mobile VLR Base
PSTN Switching Station
Center Controller
Mobile
IS-2000 & IOS-V4 “R-P”
IS-658 “L” Client
IOS V4 A-10/A-11
Svc CDRs
DiffServ DiffServ Svc
Profile Node Inter- Node Profile E
Working
Function PDSN M
Policy NEDRs To
Foreign (IWF) S
Mgr HA Foreign Policy and
AAA Agent Mgr UDRs From
FCPS
User RFC2002
IP
Provisioning Mobile IP Home
Sub-EDRs AAA
System Sub NEDRs
OSSN
Internet IP/
RADIUS
Network Billing
Service CDRs & Enhanced UDRs
Provisioning System IPDRs Accounting NEDRs
Management Legend
New Element for 3G
Existing Element Upgraded for 3G
Service & Provisioning Interfaces Existing Element - no upgrade required
Fault & Performance Interfaces To and From FCPS

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 81


Functions of the PDSN

■ PDSN functions:
• Provides logical links to the radio network (RN) across the radio-
packet (R-P) interface
• Routes packets to/from external packet data networks
– Supports Simple IP and Mobile IP protocols
– Uses a layer-2 tunneling protocol (L2TP) over a private IP
network to implement packet transfer between the BSC and the
public packet data network
• Sets up, manages, and terminates PPP sessions for mobile users
• Supports standard Internet routing protocols: maintains routing tables
and performs route discovery
• Provides Foreign Agent functionality supporting the Mobile IP protocol
• Initiates Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) for the
mobile station client to the AAA server
• Receives service parameters for the mobile client from the AAA server
• Collects usage data for accounting to be relayed to the AAA
• Allows data users to roam seamlessly across the provider’s network
while appearing to the PDN as if they were at a fixed network address

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 82


Authentication, Authorization & Accounting

■ The AAA server provides Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting


functions for packet calls in a 1xRTT network
■ AAA Functions:
• Authentication
– PPP authentication (PAP and CHAP)
– Mobile IP authentication (User ID and password)
• Authorization
– Service profile for mobile, like an HLR stores users’ voice profiles
– Security key distribution
• Accounting
– Interface with external billing server
– Links to enterprise systems for provisioning, packet data billing
• Address management
■ All AAA transactions in some networks will initially be performed using
RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) protocol
• New AAA protocols are expected to be standardized in the future

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 83


3G-1x Mobility Modes

■ Simple IP Service
• Dynamically Assigned IP Addresses
• CHAP Authentication
• Local Mobility (dynamic IP address valid within PDSN
coverage area)
• Uses Standard (MS-Windows) dial-up protocols in mobile /
laptop
• Optional Private Network Access via L2TP
■ Mobile IP Service
• Static (public or private) or Dynamically Assigned IP Addresses
• MIP / AAA Authentication
• Full Mobility Without Application Impact (even across MSCs)
• Private Network Access via Corporate HAs
• Secure Reverse Tunnels between FA and HA

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 84


Simple IP

■ Subscriber is assigned a dynamic IP


address from the serving PDSN
• IP routing service is provided by the
serving provider network SIMPLE IP
■ Subscriber maintains its IP address as IMPLICATIONS
long as it is served by a radio network
with connectivity to the original PDSN •No Handoffs between
■ To provide roaming on other networks, a PDSNs
new mobility management scheme would •No mobile termination
be required capability
•No standard for roaming
• There is no standard for this process!
on other networks
■ Although Simple IP is relatively easy to
implement, its limitations will hamper
development of advanced services
• May reduce user acceptance!

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 85


Simple IP Architecture

Simple IP
•IP Based transport to
data networks
•Dynamic/static VLR HLR

connection from local Home Access


PDSN Provider Network

•No mobility beyond


serving PDSN
Visited Home
AAA AAA
MSC
Home Access Provider
IP Private Network
Internet Home
L R-P
Pal PCF
Network
m

AAA - Authentication, Authorization,


BSC PDSN
and Accounting
Mobile PCF - Packet Control Function
Client Radio Network PDSN - Packet Data Service Node
VLR - Visited location Register
Visited Access Provider HLR - Home Location Register
Network HA – Home Agent
RN – Radio Network

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 86


Simple IP Call Flow Scenarios - 1
■ Normal Session (Mobile Initiated)
• Mobile generates call with packet data Service Option
• PCF assigned by MSC, PDSN assigned by PCF
• PDSN begins PPP (LCP) negotiation with mobile
• CHAP challenge is sent to mobile, mobile returns NAI and CHAP
secret
• PDSN sends RADIUS Access-Request to AAA Server
• AAA returns Access-Accept (and no L2TP LNS address attributes)
• PDSN knows this is normal PPP situation, assigns IP address to
mobile via IPCP
• PPP (LCP/NCP) negotiation completes, mobile exchanges bearer
data
■ Session Transition to Dormancy
• No data has been exchanged for TD seconds (a per-mobile tunable
value)
• MSC drops airlink connection to mobile, drops SVC on L-interface to
PCF
• PCF maintains connection with PDSN over R-P interface
• PPP states remain unchanged in mobile and in PDSN (upper layers
unaware of change)
10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 87
Simple IP Call Flow Scenarios - 2

■ Re-activation after Dormancy (Mobile Initiated)


• Dormant mobile has data to send, generates call with packet data SO
• MSC routes SVC re-connection to previously assigned PCF
• PCF and PDSN recognizes this as an existing PPP session (by
mobile’s IMSI)
• PPP state and IP address are all unchanged during dormancy.
• Mobile sends bearer data, PDSN forwards to backbone network.
■ Re-activation after Dormancy (PCF/PDSN Initiated)
• PDSN receives packets from Internet, forwards to PCF
• PCF determines mobile is dormant, buffers data for mobile
• PCF initiates new SVC request to MSC with IMSI of dormant mobile
• MSC pages mobile, mobile responds, MSC acknowledges connect to
PCF
• PPP state and IP address are all unchanged during dormancy
• PCF forwards bearer data to mobile

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 88


Simple IP Virtual Private Network

■ Simple IP VPN provides access to a private/corporate network from a


mobile station.
■ VPNs provide an encrypted connection between distributed user sites
over a public network.
■ A VPN provides an end-to-end tunnel between sites which guarantees
the safe passage of packets of data through the Internet using encryption
to protect the data payload as well as the source and destination
address.
■ In contrast to Simple IP where the IP address is assigned by the PDSN,
in this configuration a VPN gateway (such as the Nortel Networks
Contivity server) assigns to the mobile node a dynamic or static publicly
routable address.

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 89


Mobile IP Overview
■ Mobile IP provides mobility to IP users
• allows a host to be reachable at the same address even as it
moves across different networks; offers seamless roaming
• works with multiple access technologies, such as Ethernet,
wireless LAN, PPP links, cellular, etc.
• completely transparent to applications
■ Three Fundamental Entities in Mobile IP
• Mobile Node
• Home Agent - with mobile home location
• Foreign Agent - serves as a default router for mobile node
■ Standards
• RFC 2002 - 2006 + TIA IS-835
• RFC 2344 - Reverse Tunneling
• RFC 2794 - Mobile NAI Extension
• Foreign Agent Challenge/Response

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 90


Mobile IP: Three Levels of Mobility

I. Usual Cellular Mobility II. PCF to PDSN Mobility III. IP Level Mobility

PPP

R-P
M-IP
Interface

1
Radio Network PDSN HA
Pal
To be or
m
not to be.
(PCF) (FA)
That is
the
Question.

2
Mobile
Client
Radio Network PDSN
3 (PCF) (FA)

Radio Network PDSN


(PCF) (FA)

(Simple IP Mobility)

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 91


Mobile IP

■ Subscriber’s IP routing service is


provided by a public IP network
■ Mobile station is assigned a static IP
address belonging to its Home Agent MOBILE IP
■ Mobile can maintain the static IP IMPLICATIONS
address even for handoff between •Handoffs possible between
radio networks connected to separate PDSNs
PDSNs! •Mobile can roam in the
■ Mobile IP capabilities will be public IP network
especially important for mobiles on •Mobile termination is
possible while Mobile is in
system boundaries dormant or active mode
• Without Mobile IP roaming
capability, data service for border-
area mobiles will be erratic

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 92


Mobile IP Architecture
Mobile IP
•IP Based transport to
data networks
•HA Assigns dynamic IP VLR HLR
address Home Access
•User keeps same IP Provider Network
address across networks

Visited Home Home IP


Broker AAA
MSC AAA AAA Network

Internet
L R-P
PCF Tunnel

Pal
PDSN Home
m
BSC
Foreign Agent
Agent
AAA - Authentication, Authorization,
Radio Network and Accounting Corporate Server
Mobile PCF - Packet Control Function
Client PDSN - Packet Data Service Node
Visited VLR - Visited location Register Home
Network HLR - Home Location Register Network
HA – Home Agent
RN – Radio Network
10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 93
Mobile IP Session, Step-by-Step (1)
1. The mobile station accesses the radio network for a data session. This includes
getting the necessary fundamental and supplemental traffic channel. Procedures
for this need is defined in IS-2000 and IS-707.
2. The BSC communicates over the RP interface as defined in IOS version 4.0, with
the PDSN to initiate a data session. The underlying lower layers will support the
PPP connection.
3. The PDSN initiates a PPP connection to the mobile station. Messages and
procedures for this in based on the Point-to-Point Protocol RFC1661.
4. IPCP based on RFC1332 is used to configure the PPP link for IP communication.
PPP can support other network layer protocols in addition to IP
5. PPP is established between the Mobile Station and the PDSN. The PDSN sends
FA advertisements to the mobile station. (Or the mobile station may send an
Agent Solicitation message following the PPP initialization.) The PDSN/FA
informs the mobile station of its capabilities and care-of-addresses that are
available for use. In these advertisement messages, the PDSN will indicate its
ability to support reverse tunneling, that is used to download information from the
HA to the FA.
6. Mobile station sends a MIP registration request (MIP RRQ) to the PDSN. This
request has to be forwarded to the user’s HA so that the HA is made aware of the
user’s location. In these registration requests, the mobile station can also specify
reverse tunneling.
7. The PDSN extracts authentication information from the request and forwards to
the local AAA server using Radius Protocol. The PDSN may also request for user
profile for the user’s Home Agent address.

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 94


Mobile IP Session, Step-by-Step (2)
8. The local AAA server verifies that he NAI and password and returns an
acknowledgement to the PDSN.
9. The Foreign Agent (FA) function in the PDSN sends the MIP registration
request message to the Home Agent
10. The home agent sends a response back to the PDSN(FA). Message
formats and procedures are based on RFC2002 – IP Mobility Support.
The reply will include indication on whether the HA can support forward
and reverse tunneling.
11. The PDSN sends the registration reply to the mobile station. Accounting
is initiated to AAA server based on RFC 2139 standards.
12. Data flow between mobile station and PDSN. Interim accounting data
may be collected and forwarded to the AAA server.
13. Mobile station terminates data/PPP connection by sending MIP de-
registration request using procedures in RFC2002 PPP connection is torn
down. Accounting is suspended
14. During the session PDSN collects statistics relevant to the session and
forwards to the AAA server in a Usage Data Record (UDR) format

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 95


Home Agent & Foreign Agent
■ The Home Agent
• Located within the MNs Home Network
• Termination point for Mobile IP tunnels
• Receive and route packets to/from the FA
• Assign dynamic addresses for mobiles
• provides Mobile IP functionality by maintaining IP sessions as users
move among cells
■ Most operators will equip their own Home Agents allowing users to access
the outside network, such as the Internet while roaming
■ Large users & Corporations may equip their own home agent in their
network linked to a wireless provider
■ Using Mobile IP, their users will appear to be on their home corporate
network while using the wireless system
■ Foreign Agent
• Located within PDSN
• Maintains awareness of visiting MNs
• Acts as a relay between the MN and it’s Home Agent (HA)
• RADIUS Clients

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 96


Tunneling

■ All home agents and foreign agents must implement IP-in-IP


Encapsulation for tunneling purposes.
■ A first IP packet is placed within the payload portion of a new IP
packet. The Outer IP Header:
• Source Address and Destination Address are set to the entry-
point and the exit-point of the tunnel
■ Tunnel Soft State
• Path Maximum Transfer Unit (MTU) of the tunnel
• Length of the tunnel (hops)
• Packet Fragmentation may be required
■ In addition, Mobile IP may implement
• Minimum Encapsulation within IP - by removing redundant
information in the encapsulating (outer) and encapsulated
(inner) IP headers
• Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) - support multi-protocol
encapsulation

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 97


Tunneling Protocols

PPPOE L2TP IPSec

Carrier Protocol UDP/IP UDP/IP

Encapsulation L2TP AH/ESP

Passenger Protocol PPP PPP (Layer 2) IP (Layer 3)


(Layer 2)
Client Initiated Only Optional Yes

Authentication PAP, PAP, CHAP HMAC –MD5,


CHAP HMAC-SHA-1
Encryption IPSEC IPSEC, DES56,
3DES

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 98


Mobile IP Authentication

■ Mobile IP authentication
• Contains three parts:
– PDSN initiated access authentication and authorization
– Home Agent initiated Mobile IP registration authentication
– Foreign Agent and Home Agent Security Association.

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 99


Active IP Session “Always On” Implications
■ Active IP Session Issues:
• handset must have an active IP session to receive PUSH content
– may be in RF dormant mode but still have an active IP session.
■ Advantages:
• allows for "push" info to be delivered to the MS at all times.
• allows for a quicker return to an active transmit/receiver state
• Provides opportunity for more new services to be integrated
■ Disadvantages:
• Requires an active session for each user/sub 7X24 - worst case.
• If take rates are high V4.0 IP addresses could exhaust
– V6.0 IP may not be available in implementation time frame
• Large "PDSN farms" may be needed - ($$ and floor space)
■ Possible Alternatives:
• Limit Always-On with rate structures
– Quality of Service features not available in first release of 3G
• Use SMS to signal handset to establish session for push content
– Not within Standards, Requires development by handset vendors

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 100
Specific
Specific Required
Required
Network
Network Upgrades
Upgrades

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 101
Known Network Upgrades Required for 1xRTT
Switch (MSC) Access Manager BTS
ECP17 for 1xVoice PHV3/4 ECU for Series I, II
Lucent ECP17-1 Simple IP
ECP18 Mobile IP
Voice
PSU h/w
PHV4/5 Data S/W CCU for Mod Cells

Switch (MSC) BSC BTS


MTX10 ESEL Legacy
Nortel 1x voice
Simple IP
Enhanced Selector

SCI-S Selector Metrocell:


Mobile IP
Comm. Intf. Supreme XCEM req’d.

Switch (MSC) CBSC BTS


SIG+16.1 Cisco 4812 w/
NIB PGLI New MCC
Motorola MGX8850
Catalyst
6509 9600

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 102
3G 1x Nortel Upgrade Path

■ MTX-10 / NBSS-10.1
• Software Upgrade: 3G Voice, Simple and Mobile IP.
Proprietary PDSN Interface on BSC, Open on PDSN
• Hardware:
– BSC: 1XRTT Voice Enablers & 1X RTT Data
Enablers, ESEL
– BTS: Metro upgrade via DMCEM cards, Legacy
replacement/upgrade, Metro 6 CXR upgrade
■ IOS 4.0 11/05/01
• Nortel plans to include A1 and A2 interfaces in MTX-
10 to support IOS markets

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 103
3G 1x Lucent Upgrade Path
■ Release 17.0
• Software: 3G Voice
• BTS Hardware: CCU-64 for Flexent ModCell, MicroCell
& Micro MiniCell; ECU-32 for Autoplex MiniCell
■ Release 17.1
• Software: Simple IP, Voice/Data except for
MicroMiniCell, Proprietary PDSN Interface
• MSC Hardware:additional PHVs as necessary for high
speed data; Other: AAA Server, combined PCF/PDSN
■ Release 18.0
• Software: Mobile IP, Open Standard PDSN Interface
• Other Hardware: separate PCF/PDSN on R-P interface
■ IOS 4.0 - Supported in Release 18.0 - A1 and A2
interfaces required

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 104
3G 1x Motorola Upgrade Path
■ G16.0
• Software Upgrade: 3G Voice, Simple and Mobile IP, Open
R-P Interface
• Hardware:
• BSC: Motorola’s 3G feature set is compliant to IOS V4.0
and RP Interface (A1, A2, A10, A11)
• BTS: MCC and BBX upgrade similar to adding carrier.
SC4812 - Add IS-2000 1X MCC Cards and upgrade
BBX Transceiver Cards.
■ G16.1
• Software Upgrade: Packet Backhaul for voice services
• Hardware:
• BSC: CDU with CBSC capacity increase to 3000
erlangs
• BTS: For SC614 - Upgrade MAWI and add IS-2000 1X
ASIC cards
■ IOS 4.0

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 105
3G 1x Samsung Upgrade Path

■ Software Upgrade Only to 3G-1X


■ Higher Capacity BTS
• 108 CE versus 64
• Upgradable to 9 carriers
• Higher Power
■ IOS 4.0 Features Supported

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 106
Handset
Handset Development
Development
and
and Availability
Availability

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 107
CDMA 1xRTT Handset Development
COMMERCIAL
CHIPSETS PHONES AVAILABILITY
Qualcomm KYOCERA 3Q2001 ?
MSM5100 chipset
•AMPS
•IS95-A/B
SAMSUNG 3Q2001 ?
•CDMA2000-1x
•Bluetooth
•GPS AUDIOVOX 4Q2001 ?

MSM5105 chipset
•AMPS
LGIC ?
•IS95-A/B
•CDMA2000-1x
NEOPOINT
Out of Business
6-2001
Motorola

New Chipset MOTOROLA 1Q2002 ?

Nokia

New Chipset NOKIA 1Q2002 ?

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 108
New 1xRTT Data Devices Expected
Credit RCR News,
June 11, 2001
www.rcrnews.com

■ IS-95 Combined PDA/smart phone devices


are already on the market and will be
available in 1xRTT versions in early 2002
■ Kyocera’s QCP-6035 offers an 8 MB palm,
monochrome display, keypad flip
■ Samsung’s SPH-I300 offers an 8 MB palm,
color display, virtual onscreen keypad

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 109
Sprint PCS/Yiso Press Release June, 2001
Yiso Telecom and Sprint to Deliver First CDMA 3G (1xRTT) Compact Flash Card for Sprint PCS Nationwide
Wireless Network
Yiso Telecom to provide Sprint PCS with CF Card for PDAs and Laptops

Sprint PCS has chosen Yiso Telecom’s 3G 1xRTT Type II CF card as a connection solution option for
Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) and laptops to provide wireless access to the Internet and corporate
network applications. This new device will be part of the Sprint PCS Wireless Web for Business - a
portfolio of products and services aimed at providing solutions that allow enterprise customers to
wirelessly extend their corporate applications to the mobile workforce.
The CF card wireless modem will support both data and voice with 3G 1xRTT technology to leverage
high-speed packet data and voice capacity improvements. This high-speed, next generation wireless
technology will allow mobile users to access the Internet and corporate enterprise applications at peak
speeds of up to 144 kbps. This new device can be used for PDAs with a Type II CF slot and laptops with
PCMCIA Type II adapters.
"We’re pleased to work with Yiso Telecom to provide Sprint PCS business customers with a faster
wireless connection to the Internet and corporate information," said Phil Garrison, vice president and
general manager, subscriber equipment, Sprint PCS. "We continue to offer data solutions via the Sprint
PCS Wireless Web for Business, and provide 3G next generation connectivity products, like the 3G
1xRTT Type II CF card, that will enhance productivity for mobile professionals."
"It is a great honor for us to announce that Sprint PCS has chosen Yiso Telecom to deliver the 1xRTT
CDMA Type II CF Card," said Kyung-Min You, CEO of Yiso Telecom. "Sprint PCS is a market leader of
high-speed data solutions via the Sprint PCS Wireless Web for Business. This innovative CF Card will
be used as a launching point for a potential long term involvement between Sprint PCS and Yiso
Telecom."
Beginning later this year, Sprint PCS will implement the first phase of 3G deployment. This first phase,
3G 1x, will offer three key benefits to Sprint PCS customers including up to double voice network
capacity, a 10-fold increase in data speeds, from 14.4 kbps to up to 144 kbps and an increased handset
battery life in standby mode by approximately 50 percent.
By mid 2002, the entire Sprint PCS all-digital nationwide network will offer 3G 1x services.

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 110
CDMA2000
CDMA2000 Protocol
Protocol Stack
Stack
Layer
Layer Functions
Functions

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 111
cdma2000 Layering

■ Earlier sections of these courses have considered the physical


layers, codes, and channels in detail
■ The beauty of cdma2000 is supported by the physical layer but the
real flexibility comes from the Link and Upper Layers
■ The Upper Layers define the services and applications supported
by cdma2000
• New services and applications will be developed and defined
throughout the entire service lifetime of the 3G technology
• The layer features and definitions make it possible for
application developers to plan and exploit standardized
capabilities
■ The Link Layers give protocol support and perform the functions
necessary to map the data transport needs of the upper layers into
specific capabilities and characteristics of the physical layer

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 112
CDMA2000 Structure: The Protocol Stack
Packet Data Voice Circuit Data
OSI Layers 3-7
Upper Layers

Application Services Application Definitions & Legend


Signaling
Services
IP
Internet Protocol
TCP UDP LAC
High Speed
Circuit Network Link Access Control
Layer Services MAC
IP
Medium Access Control
PPP
OSI
Open System Interconnect
PPP
Point-to-Point Protocol
LAC LAC Protocol Null LAC QoS
OSI Layer 2
Link Layer

Quality of Service
RLP
Radio Link Protocol
MAC Best Effort Delivery TCP
Control State RLP Transmission Control
MAC Protocol
UDP
Multiplexing QoS Control User Datagram Protocol
Layer 1

New in
OSI

CDMA2000!
Physical Layer

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 113
Link Layer: Media Access Control (MAC)

■ The MAC Sublayer provides 3


important functions:
Packet Data Voice Circuit Data ■ MAC Control State: Supports
OSI Layers 3-7
Upper Layers

Application Services Application


multiple instances of an
Signaling
Services

TCP UDP advanced-state machine


High Speed

IP
Circuit Network
Layer Services
• An instance for each active
PPP packet circuit or circuit data
instance
LAC LAC Protocol Null LAC ■ Best-effort delivery: reasonably
OSI Layer 2

reliable radio transmission


Link Layer

MAC Best Effort Delivery


using RLP radio link protocol
MAC
Control State RLP at a best-effort level of delivery
Multiplexing QoS Control
■ Multiplexing and QoS control
• Enforcement of negotiated
Layer 1
OSI

Physical Layer
QoS levels by mediating
and prioritizing conflicting
requests

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 114
Just What IS the MAC Layer?
■ Located in OSI Link Layer 2, the MAC and LAC sublayers provide:
• A wide performance range of upper layer services at speeds of 1.2
kbps to > 2 Mbps.
• Multimedia services: combinations of voice, packet data, and circuit
data services operating simultaneously.
• QoS control mechanisms: balance the varying QoS requirements
of the multiple concurrent users and services.
■ The MAC Layer supports THREE important functions:
• Best Effort Delivery: Reasonably reliable transmission over the
radio link via an RLP (Radio Link Protocol) that supplies a “Best
Effort” level of reliability.
• Multiplexing and QoS control: Enforcement of negotiated QoS
levels by mediating conflicting requests from the competing
services and by the appropriate prioritization of access requests.
– Accomplished using PLICFs, Physical Layer Independent
Convergence Functions
• Short Data Bursts: This capability is available when the mobile is
in a Dormant Data Service instance.
■ Active, Control Hold, Suspend, and Dormant are the Packet Data
Service States, since all the states do not reside in the MAC Sublayer.

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 115
cdma2000 MAC State Transitions
RC-Release.
Indication(dtch,dmch,SR)

cdma2000 RC-Release.
MAC Indication(dtch,dmch)

RC-Release. RC-Release RC-Release


Indication(dtch) .Indication(dmch) .Indication(SR)

Control
Active Suspended Dormant
Hold
State State State
State
AllocateAndLock
.
Confirm(dtch)
RC-Release.
Indication(dmch,SR)
AllocateAndLock.
Confirm(dtch, dmch)

AllocateandLock
.Confirm(dtch, dmch,SR)

! PC & Control ! No Dedicated ! No Dedicated


Channels Channels Channels
! Traffic, PC, & ! No BS, MSC
Assigned ! RLP & PPP State
Control Channels Resources
! Very Fast Traffic Maintained
Assigned ! PPP State
Channel ! "Virtual Active Set"
Reassignment ! Slotted Submode Maintained
! Small Data Bursts

10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 116
Active State

■ Active State is specified as part of the Traffic Channel Substate.


■ Attributes in Active State of Traffic Channel Substate:
• The Call Control Instance is in the Conversation Substate.
• Pilot_Gating_Use_Rate is set to ‘0’ (reverse pilot continuously
transmitted, NOT gated)
– Important: If the mobile station has user data to send, then
the Pilot_Gating_Use_Rates must be ‘0’ to request
continuous reverse pilot and user traffic transmission.
• Flow of data traffic is permitted by the Multiplex Sublayer.
■ Packet data service processing can exist in two states:
• Inactive State: mobile does not provide packet data svcs.
• Active State: mobile station provides packet data services
■ ACTIVE state is described in two parts:
• in Layer 2 (MAC Layer) under RLP and Packet Data Svcs. text
• in Layer 3 (Upper Layer Signaling) Traffic Ch. Substate text
10-2001 Intro. to CDMA2000 through 1xRTT v1.40 (c)2001 Scott Baxter 2 - 117
Control Hold State
■ Control Hold State: Now described, functionally, within the scope of
the IS-2000.5 (Upper Layer Signaling) document as part of the Traffic
Channel Substate.
■ The following are the attributes when the mobile station is the Control
Hold State of the Traffic Channel Substate:
• The Call Control Instance is in the Conversation Substate.
• Pilot_Gating_Use_Rate is set to ‘1’ (i.e. the reverse pilot is gated at
some interval).
• Flow of data traffic is blocked by the Multiplex Sublayer.
■ Within the Mobile’s Capability Information Record, which describes the
features that are supported by the mobile, if the CHS_Supported field
is set to ‘1’ then the mobile supports the Control Hold State.
Otherwise, the mobile sets this field to ‘0’. (i.e. The Control Hold State
is optionally supported by the Mobile Station.)
■ Main point: The Control Hold State is now only described within the
Layer 3 (Upper Layer Signaling) Traffic Channel Substate text. It is no
longer referenced within the MAC Sublayer of the IS-2000-A standard
text.

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Suspend State
■ Suspend State: Not actually mentioned by name in the IS-2000-A
text, but implied in its functionality description, this packet data service
state now available as part of IS-2000.5 (Upper Layer Signaling).
■ Simply stated, if the mobile station stores its Service Configuration
Record (SCR), and the USE_SYNC_IDs is equal to ‘1’, the mobile
station may include the Sync_ID field as part of it’s message. If this
occurs while the mobile is in a Dormant Data Service instance, then the
mobile is in the Suspended State.
■ Main Point: The Suspended State is only described within the Layer
3 (Upper Layer Signaling) Traffic Channel Substate text. It is no longer
referenced within the MAC Sublayer text.
• Depending on whether the SCR (Service Configuration Record) is
stored or not on the the mobile station, its packet data service state
maybe as Suspended or Dormant.

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Dormant State
■ Defined within Layer 2 (MAC Sublayer) -- [IS-707.A-2 --Chapter 12:
High Speed Packet Data Service Option 33 text)]
■ In the Dormant State, the Packet Service Option is disconnected, but
PPP link is still connected.
■ Essentially, when the mobile station exits activity on the Traffic
Channel, it enters into the Call Control instance of Dormant.
• Again, depending on whether the SCR (Service Configuration
Record) is stored or not on the mobile, its packet data services
state is categorized as Suspended or Dormant.
■ Main Point: While Active, Control Hold, and Suspend states are
functionally defined in Layer 3 - Upper Layer Signaling, the Dormant
state is only defined within the Layer 2 - MAC Sublayer.

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Service Configuration and Negotiation
■ During Traffic Channel operation, the MS and BS communicate by
exchanging frames on the Forward and Reverse Traffic Channels
■ The MS and BS use a common set of attributes (i.e. a service configuration)
consisting of negotiable and non-negotiable parameters:
• Forward and Reverse Multiplex Options
• Forward and Reverse Traffic Channel Configurations
• Radio Configurations/other attributes of FWD/REV traffic channels.
• Forward and Reverse Traffic Channel Transmission Rates
• can include all or just a subset of rates supported by the associated
FWD/REV multiplex option
■ Multiplex Options: divide frames into primary, secondary, signaling bits
■ Rate Set: defines the supported frame structures and transmission rates
■ Service Option Connection: fully describes one traffic channel instance
• Includes service option, Forward traffic type, Reverse traffic type, and
service option connection reference identifier (sr_id).
• Sr_id - Service Reference Identifier: A unique number assigned to each
connected service option instance. Service Reference 1 (sr_id 1) is
assigned to service instance 1, Service Reference 2 is assigned to
service instance 2, and so on.

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Packet Data Service Call Control States
The mobile station performs a packet data service call control function
consisting of the following states:
■ Null State:
• Call control functionality is in this state when packet data service
has not been activated.
■ Initialization State:
• In this state, the mobile station attempts to connect a packet data
service option.
■ Connected State:
• In this state, the packet data service option is connected. (Note: A
connected service option that is required for all ACTIVE packet
data services to function.)
■ Dormant State:
• In this state, the packet data service is disconnected.
■ Reconnect State:
• In this state, the mobile station attempts to connect a previously
connected packet data service option.

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Packet Data States

■ Active State
• Dedicated traffic channels (e.g., fundamental or
supplemental) are allocated;
• The Activity Timer starts when no traffic is exchanged and
reset when there is traffic to be exchanged;
• Traffic channel is released when the Activity Timer expires.
■ Control Hold State
• A dedicated control channel is maintained on which MAC
control commands (e.g., to begin a high speed data burst)
can be transmitted.
• Power control is also maintained so that high speed burst
operation can begin with minimum delay.

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Packet Data States (cont’d)

■ Suspended State
• No dedicated channels to or from the user are maintained
• The state information for RLP is maintained
• The base station and the user maintain a “virtual active set” which
permits either the user or the base station to know which base station
can best be used (accessed by the user, or paged by the base
station) in the event that packet data traffic for the user occurs.
• Supports a slotted substate that permits the user’s mobile device to
preserve power in a highly efficient manner.

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Packet Data Service State Parameters (1)
■ Control Hold Mode: Within the Mobile’s Capability Information
Record, if CHS_Supported is set to ‘1’, then the mobile can also
include the Gating_Rate_Set field which indicates the set of Reverse
Pilot gating rates that it supports.
■ Active/Inactive Clarification: There are only TWO states defined for
Mobile Station Packet Data Service processing -- Active and Inactive.
However, as stated earlier, there are FIVE packet data service call
control functions performed by the mobile:
• Null State ……………. (part of Inactive State processing)
• Initialization State …… (part of Active State processing)
• Connected State ……... (part of Active State processing)
• Dormant State ……….. (part of Active State processing)
• Reconnect State ……… (part of Active State processing)
■ Suspend State: Sync_ID: Service Configuration
Synchronization Identifier. This is a 16-bit CRC computed over the
entire Service Configuration information record and Non-negotiable
Service Configuration information record and used for determining
whether these two information records should be included in the
Service Connect Message sent by the base station to the mobile
station. (cont. …)

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Packet Data Service State Parameters (2)
■ Pilot_Gating_Rate: Reverse pilot gating rate on the Reverse Pilot Channel.
■ Pilot_Gating_Use_Rate: Reverse pilot gating rate enable indicator.
• indicates whether ‘1’ or not ‘0’ the Reverse Pilot Channel is gated
• Gating allows the mobile to send the reverse pilot channel intermittently (i.e.
not continuously) in order to save battery power. Data is only transmitted
when pilot gating is turned OFF.
■ SYNC_ID - Service Configuration Synchronization Identifier:
• a 16-bit CRC computed over the entire Service Configuration information
record and Non-negotiable Service Configuration information record
• used for determining whether these two information records should be
included in the Service Connect Message sent by the base station to the
mobile station.
• mobile generates based on the configuration information and sends it to the
base station in Origination Message or Page Response Message.
• base station computes based on records sent to the mobile
• If the computed value matches the one sent by the mobile station, then
base station does not send these two information records over the air and
expects the mobile station to start using the stored ones.
• (i.e. If SYNC_ID is used to help determine if the Mobile is using the it’s
stored SCR’s. If so, then the mobile is in the Suspended State.)

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Operation of PLICFs

■ What is a PLICF?
• Physical Layer Independent Convergence Function, one of
the three sub-layers of the MAC layer
■ The PLICF for a data service instance incorporates all of the
state information for that instance only
■ Each PLICF requests (from Resource Control) logical channels
as needed for proper operation
■ Resource Control requests physical channels to support the
logical channels requested by PLICFs (from the Mux and QoS
Sublayer)
■ If all of the logical channels that are associated with a physical
channel have been released, then Resource Control performs
the same resource release procedure for the associated
physical channel

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Functional Entity Definitions

■ Signaling
• Performs Channel Assignment, Service Negotiation,
Handoff, etc
■ Packet/Circuit/Voice PLICF
• Interacts with the Resource Control and the Peer PLICF to
coordinate state transitions between the MS and BS
■ RMAC PLICF
• Controls the behavior of the BS/MS when in Dormant State
■ MUX & QoS
• realtime prioritization of the use of dedicated traffic
resources
• Mux/de-Muxing of the logical channels from/to different
PLICFs based on the Service Reference

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Resource Control

■ Acts as a central clearinghouse for all


resource requests
■ Locks and Unlocks resources and
harmonizes state transition across CR1 CR2
multiple PLICFs
■ Maintains a database to control the
operating configuration of the mobile,
including dtch ✓
• the current logical to physical
channel mapping, and
dmch ✓ ✓
• the currently defined physical
channel configuration (e.g.,
dedicated vs. common control … … …
operation; number of active SCHs;
DCCH vs. FCH; etc.).
✔ = Locked
blank = unlocked
CR = Connection Reference
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Resource Allocation States
Resource 'r' Resource 'r' is not in use by this PLICF;
is in use other PLICFs may be using it

Resource Does Not Exist Resource Exists

Resource Control Resource r Resource Control Resource r


Resource r Receives Receives
Allocated and Allocated and
Null State RC-AllocateAndLock. RC-Unlock.
Request (r) Locked State Request (r) Unlocked State

Resource Control Recieves


Last Unlock for Resource r;
Resource Control Sends
RC-ResourceReleased.
Indication (r) to all
Associated
Entities

■ Resources are released only when all the services that using the
resource do not need it
■ Example of resources are:
• dtch: dedicated traffic channel
• dmch: dedicated MAC channel
• etc...

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Multiple Services

■ Multiple services with different QoS requirements may be


connected simultaneously.
■ The Resource Control coordinates between multiple services
■ State transitions within each PLICF are synchronized
■ This synchronization is necessary because each state (e.g.,
Active, Suspended) has a certain set of attributes that
correspond to the behavior of the BS/MS as a whole
• For example, in the Suspended - slotted substate the MS
operates in slotted mode and RC assures that all the
PLICFs transition to this state simultaneously.

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QoS Classes and Objectives
Class of Service Typical Applications Main Objectives
Voice, Video Telephony, video Low time delay, information
Conversational
games delivered in same order sent
Streaming Multimedia:
Preserve time relation of packets;
Streaming meetings, seminars,
delay is not very critical
presentations
Request/Response pattern;
Interactive Web Browsing; Network Games
preserve data integrity
Destination is not expecting the
Background Email download;
Background data within a certain time.
Non-critical telemetry
Preserve data integrity.

■ This table shows the four main categories or classes of payload


data and the types of applications which produce them
■ Each class has specific requirements relating to delay, accuracy of
transmission, and order of transmission
■ The widely differing transmission requirements of the various
classes are generally compatible

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MAC Summary

■ cdma2000 MAC provides:


• Management of logical resources (channels)
• Logical to physical channel mapping
• Coordination of resources between multiple services
• Quality of Service and multiplexing for packet and circuit data
• Best effort delivery for packet data

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The LAC Sublayer

■ The Link Access Control (LAC)


sublayer provides transport of
Packet Data Voice Circuit Data data over the air interface
OSI Layers 3-7
Upper Layers

Application Services Application


between corresponding upper-
Signaling
Services

TCP UDP
High Speed
level modules
Circuit Network
IP Layer Services ■ The LAC uses a variety of
PPP
protocols to deliver the
appropriate QoS
LAC LAC Protocol Null LAC
■ Some upper layer entities
OSI Layer 2
Link Layer

need higher QoS than is


MAC Best Effort Delivery
Control State RLP provided directly by the MAC,
MAC
so the LAC may use
Multiplexing QoS Control
• End-to-end reliable ARQs
Layer 1
OSI

Physical Layer • ACKs-NAKs


• Packet retransmission

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LAC Sublayer Operation
■ Link Access Control (LAC) Sublayer: the upper sublayer of Layer 2
• implements data link protocol for transport and delivery of Layer 3
signaling messages
• Uses services provided by Layer 1 and MAC Sublayer
■ LAC Signaling Planes:
• Data Plane (contains protocol, where PDUs are generated,
processed, and transferred)
• Control Plane (where processing decisions are made).
■ LAC Sublayer provides:
• services to Layer 3 in the Data Plane. SDUs are passed between
Layer 3 and the LAC Sublayer.
• proper encapsulation of the SDUs into LAC PDUs, which are
segmented and reassembled and transferred as LAC PDU
fragments to the MAC sublayer
■ Processing within the LAC Sublayer is done sequentially in the Data
Plane, with processing entities passing the partially formed LAC PDU
to each other in well established order -- (Note: sublayers are
coordinated in the Control Plane).
■ Logical Channels: SDUs and PDUs are processed and transferred
along functional paths, without the need for the Upper Layers to be
aware of the radio characteristics of the physical channels.

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LAC Sublayer Functions on Dedicated Channels
■ LAC Sublayer performs the following functions on dedicated channels:
• Delivery of SDUs to Layer 3 peer entities using ARQ techniques for
reliability (see ARQ sublayer).
• Assembling and validating PDUs for carrying the SDUs
• Segmentation of encapsulated PDUs into LAC PDU fragments of
sizes suitable for transfer by the MAC Sublayer
• Reassembly of LAC PDU fragments into encapsulated PDUs
• Access control through “global challenge” authentication
• Address control to ensure delivery of PDUs based upon addresses
which identify particular mobile stations
■ Service Access Point (SAP): Layer 3-to-Layer 2, Layer 2-to-Layer 1,
and LAC Sublayer-to-MAC Sublayer exchanges use an interface
known as a Service Access Point.
• At the SAP, Layer 3 and Layer 2 exchange SDUs and Message
Control and Status Blocks (MCSBs) using a set of primitives.
– Primitive: An atomic, well-defined conceptual method of
transferring data and control information between two adjacent
layers or sublayers. It is conventionally represented as a
function invocation, with the data and control information
passed as parameters.

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