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NATIONAL TRAINING MATERIALS

CONSTRUCTION STUDIES

AUSTRALIAN
NATIONAL TRAINING
AUTHORITY

CCC512 GENERAL INDUSTRY


SKILLS
DEVELOPED IN COLLABORATION BETWEEN INDUSTRY AND TAFE QUEENSLAND WITH THE
SUPPORT OF THE AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL TRAINING AUTHORITY
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Produced by the Construction Curriculum Consortium, TAFE Queensland.

Managing Agent : Recognition Directorate, Vocational Education, Training And


Employment Commission (VETEC)

© Australian National Training Authority (ANTA) 1997

All rights reserved. This work has been produced initially with the assistance of funding provided by the
Commonwealth Government through ANTA. This work is copyright, but permission is given to trainers
and teachers to make copies by photocopying or other duplicating processes for use within their own
training organisation or in a workplace where the training is being conducted. This permission does not
extend to the making of copies for use outside the immediate training environment for which they are
made, nor the making of copies for hire or resale to third parties. For permission outside these
guidelines, apply in writing to Australian Training Products Ltd.(formerly ACTRAC Products Ltd).

The views expressed in this version of the work do not necessarily represent the views of ANTA. ANTA
does not give warranty nor accept any liability in relation to the content of this work.

Published by Australian Training Products Pty (formerly ACTRAC Products Ltd),


Australian National Training Authority.
GPO Box 5347BB, MELBOURNE, Victoria 3001, Australia
Telephone +61 03 9630 9836 or 9630 9837;
Facsimile +61 03 9639 4684

First Published October 1997

DP2120512LRG

Printed by Document Printing Australia


NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION STUDIES

RESOURCE PROJECT

STAGE 3

FIELD OF WORK SKILLS

LEARNING PACKAGE

CCC512 GENERAL INDUSTRY SKILLS


PUBLISHED: 1998

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS:

AUTHOR:

Construction Training Queensland


South Brisbane, Queensland

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGNER:

Construction Curriculum Consortium


TAFE Queensland

This learning package was developed as part of the AVTS Training Program in Construction Studies

This project was managed by the Construction Curriculum Consortium, TAFE Queensland

For further details contact:

Noel Ryan
Manager
Construction Curriculum Consortium
Yeronga Institute of TAFE
PO Box 6045
FAIRFIELD GARDENS QLD 4103

Telephone: (07) 3892 0457


Facsimile: (07) 3892 0457
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................... 15
OVERVIEW .................................................................................................................. 17
WHAT IS PROVIDED................................................................................................. 19
WHAT YOU PROVIDE?............................................................................................. 19
HOW TO USE THIS PACKAGE............................................................................... 20
GETTING TO “KNOW THE PACKAGE” ........................................................................... 21
KEY TO SYMBOLS............................................................................................................... 22
MODULE INFORMATION: FROM THE TRAINING SPECIFICATIONS ..... 23
ASSESSMENT INFORMATION............................................................................... 25
ASSESSMENT SPECIFICATION............................................................................. 26
ASSESSMENT TASKS ................................................................................................ 27
ASSESSMENT TASK 1:........................................................................................................ 27
ASSESSMENT TASK 2:........................................................................................................ 28
ASSESSMENT TASK 3:........................................................................................................ 30
ASSESSMENT TASK 4:........................................................................................................ 32
SECTION 1 - COMMUNICATE AT WORK........................................................... 33
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 33
1. EFFECTIVE SITE COMMUNICATION................................................................... 34
2. TWO-WAY COMMUNICATIONS ............................................................................. 45
3. DOCUMENTATION .................................................................................................. 55
4. GROUND CONDITIONS .......................................................................................... 71
5. CONTROLS AND OPERATING TECHNIQUES...................................................... 71
6. MACHINE OPERATING PROBLEMS ..................................................................... 71
SUMMARY............................................................................................................................. 73
EXERCISE 1: COMMUNICATE AT WORK ...................................................................... 75
DEMONSTRATION............................................................................................................... 78
ACTIVITY 1: UNDERPIN A PARTICULAR STRUCTURE.............................................. 79
SUMMARY............................................................................................................................. 80
SECTION 2 - ORGANISE WORK ............................................................................ 81
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 81
1. PLANT PRODUCTIVITY........................................................................................... 82
2. EARTHWORKS CALCULATIONS..........................................................................139
3. EARTHWORK QUANTITIES ..................................................................................152
4. ESTIMATING, OWNING AND OPERATING COSTS ...........................................169
5. WORK SCHEDULING ............................................................................................187
SUMMARY...........................................................................................................................196
EXERCISE 2: ORGANISE WORK .....................................................................................197
DEMONSTRATION.............................................................................................................199
ACTIVITY 2: UNDERPIN A PARTICULAR STRUCTURE............................................200
SECTION 3 - PROMOTE SAFETY/OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH ...................201
INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. 201
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY .................................................................... 202
1. MOBILE PLANT OPERATIONS SAFETY REQUIREMENTS .............................. 203
2. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE).................................................. 213
3. FIRST AID TECHNIQUES...................................................................................... 215
4. WARNING SIGNS.................................................................................................... 216
5. MANUAL HANDLING ............................................................................................ 234
6. FIRE IN EARTHMOVING ...................................................................................... 238
SUMMARY........................................................................................................................... 243
EXERCISE 3: PROMOTE OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY....................... 244
DEMONSTRATION ............................................................................................................ 247
ACTIVITY 3: RISK ASSESSMENT................................................................................... 248
SUMMARY........................................................................................................................... 249
SECTION 4 - READ AND INTERPRET PLANS ..................................................251
INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. 251
1. PLAN IDENTIFICATION........................................................................................ 252
2. LOCALITY PLANS .................................................................................................. 252
3. TYPE CROSS-SECTION PLANS ............................................................................ 256
4. THE WORKING PLANS.......................................................................................... 258
5. DRAINAGE CROSS-SECTION PLANS.................................................................. 265
6. CROSS-SECTION PLANS....................................................................................... 268
7. STANDARD DRAWINGS ........................................................................................ 270
8. LAYOUT PLANS FOR INTERSECTIONS AND DIVIDED ROADS ..................... 270
9. RESUMPTION PLANS AND DRAINAGE EASEMENT PLANS ........................... 270
SUMMARY........................................................................................................................... 291
EXERCISE 4: READ AND INTERPRET PLANS ............................................................. 293
DEMONSTRATION ............................................................................................................ 294
ACTIVITY 4: READ AND INTERPRET PLANS ............................................................. 295
SUMMARY........................................................................................................................... 296
CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................................... 297
ANSWERS....................................................................................................................299
EXERCISE 1: COMMUNICATE AT WORK .................................................................... 299
EXERCISE 2: ORGANISE WORK..................................................................................... 303
EXERCISE 3: PROMOTE OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY....................... 305
EXERCISE 4: READ AND INTERPRET PLANS ............................................................. 309
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Page

Figure 1 COMMUNICATING-ENCODING-DECODING .......................................35


Figure 2 CONTROLS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS ....................................................48
Figure 3 CONTROLS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS ....................................................52
Figure 4 CONTROLS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS ....................................................54
Figure 5 CIVIL OPERATIONS TIME SHEET (FACING PAGE) ............................57
Figure 6 CIVIL OPERATIONS TIME SHEET...........................................................58
Figure 7 TIME SHEETS AND WAGES RECORD ...................................................59
Figure 8 HIRE DOCKET .............................................................................................60
Figure 9 INSPECTION CHECKLIST .........................................................................61
Figure 10 TYPICAL DAILY PROGRESS RECORDS/REPORTS.............................62
Figure 11 PROJECT SUPERVISOR'S DAILY REPORT............................................63
Figure 12 HAUL VEHICLE SCHEDULE ....................................................................64
Figure 13 DAILY CULVERT CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS RECORD................65
Figure 14 CULVERT CONSTRUCTION RECORD ...................................................66
Figure 15 WORK ACTIVITY CHECKLIST - GUIDELINES.....................................67
Figure 16 WORK ACTIVITY CHECKLIST - GUIDELINES.....................................68
Figure 17 WORK ACTIVITY CHECKLIST - GUIDELINES.....................................69
Figure 18 WORK ACTIVITY CHECKLIST - GUIDELINES.....................................70
Figure 19 DIESEL ENGINES TROUBLESHOOTING CHART ................................72
Figure 20 SCRAPERS (PERCENTAGE LOAD TO LOADING TIME) ....................90
Figure 21 MACHINE SELECTION (ECONOMIC HAUL DISTANCE TO TOTAL
RESISTANCE)................................................................................................................90
Figure 22 PUSH LOADING METHODS .....................................................................92
Figure 23 TOTAL RESISTANCE AND CYCLE TIME FOR .....................................97
Figure 24 TOTAL RESISTANCE AND CYCLE TIME FOR .....................................97
Figure 25 TOTAL RESISTANCE AND CYCLE TIME FOR .....................................98
Figure 26 TOTAL RESISTANCE AND CYCLE TIME FOR .....................................98
Figure 27 TOTAL RESISTANCE AND CYCLE TIME FOR TWIN .........................99
Figure 28 TOTAL RESISTANCE AND CYCLE TIME FOR TWIN .........................99
Figure 29 TOTAL RESISTANCE AND CYCLE TIME FOR TWIN....................... 100
Figure 30 TOTAL RESISTANCE AND CYCLE TIME FOR TWIN....................... 100
Figure 31 ELEVATING SCRAPERS (HEAPED CAPACITY)................................ 101
Figure 32 TWIN POWERED SCRAPERS OPEN BOWL HEAPED CAPACITY . 102
Figure 33 OPEN BOWL SCRAPERS HEAPED CAPACITY.................................. 103
Figure 34 DOZER STRAIGHT BLADE .................................................................... 105
Figure 35 DOZER TILT BLADE................................................................................ 105
Figure 36 DOZER 'U' BLADE .................................................................................... 106
Figure 37 DOZER ANGLE BLADE........................................................................... 106
Figure 38 TRACKED DOZER - CLASSIFICATION BY MASS............................. 107
Figure 39 ESTIMATED TRACKED DOZER PRODUCTION STRAIGHT BLADE...
...................................................................................................................... 108
Figure 40 ESTIMATED RUBBER TYRED DOZER PRODUCTION STRAIGHT
BLADE ...................................................................................................................... 109
Figure 41 GRADE CORRECTION FACTOR ........................................................... 110
Figure 42 LOADER BUCKET CAPACITY .............................................................. 114
Figure 43 NOMOGRAPH - WHEEL LOADER ........................................................ 115
Figure 44 NOMOGRAPH – TRACK LOADER........................................................ 116
Figure 45 NOMOGRAPH - WHEEL LOADER ........................................................ 117
Figure 46 NOMOGRAPH - TRACKED LOADER ................................................... 118
Figure 47 WHEEL LOADERS - OPERATING LOADS........................................... 119
Figure 48 WHEEL LOADERS - OPERATING LOADS........................................... 120
Figure 49 TRACKED LOADERS - OPERATING LOADS ..................................... 121
Figure 50 STRAIGHT AND ARTICULATED GRADER SKETCHES................... 122
Figure 51 TYPICAL GRADER PASSES ................................................................... 125
Figure 52 GROSS MASS OF SELF-PROPELLED STEEL-WHEEL ROLLERS ... 132
Figure 53 GROSS MASS OF SELF-PROPELLED MULTI-WHEEL ROLLERS... 133
Figure 54 GROSS MASS OF SELF-PROPELLED VIBRATING ROLLERS......... 134
Figure 55 GROSS MASS OF TOWED ROLLERS ................................................... 135
Figure 56 SPEED GRADE PRODUCTION FOR TRUCKS..................................... 136
Figure 57 HIGHWAY TIP TRUCK PERFORMANCE CURVES ........................... 137
Figure 58 TRUCK CYCLES TIME FROM PAST RECORDS................................. 138
Figure 59 CUT ............................................................................................................. 139
Figure 60 SIDE CUT ....................................................................................................139
Figure 61 FILL..............................................................................................................139
Figure 62 VOLUME OF EARTHWORKS CALCULATIONS.................................140
Figure 63 AVERAGE END AREA CALCULATIONS.............................................141
Figure 64 EARTHWORKS EMBANKMENT AREA CALCULATIONS ...............141
Figure 65 EARTHWORKS EMBANKMENT AREA CALCULATIONS ...............142
Figure 66 TYPICAL DIMENSIONS CUT/FILL ........................................................144
Figure 67 TYPICAL DIMENSIONS CUT/FILL CALCULATIONS ........................144
Figure 68 END AREA CALCULATIONS..................................................................146
Figure 69 END AREA CALCULATIONS..................................................................146
Figure 70 END AREA CALCULATIONS..................................................................147
Figure 71 END AREA CALCULATIONS..................................................................147
Figure 72 END AREA CALCULATIONS..................................................................148
Figure 73 END AREA CALCULATIONS..................................................................149
Figure 74 END AREA CALCULATIONS..................................................................149
Figure 75 END AREA CALCULATIONS..................................................................150
Figure 76 END AREA CALCULATIONS..................................................................151
Figure 77 END AREA CALCULATIONS..................................................................151
Figure 78 END AREA CALCULATIONS..................................................................151
Figure 79 BORROW PIT CALCULATIONS .............................................................159
Figure 80 VOLUME OF A CONE ..............................................................................161
Figure 81 ANGLE OF REPOSE..................................................................................162
Figure 82 VOLUME OF TENT SHAPED STOCKPILES .........................................163
Figure 83 CALCULATION OF STOCKPILES ..........................................................164
Figure 84 CALCULATION OF STOCKPILES ..........................................................166
Figure 85 VOLUME OF FLATTENED TENT SHAPED STOCKPILES ................166
Figure 86 VOLUME OF FLATTENED TENT SHAPED STOCKPILES ................168
Figure 88 COMPONENT LINE GRAPH....................................................................179
Figure 89 HAZARD RISK CONTROLS ....................................................................210
Figure 90 EXAMPLE OF A COMPLETED RISK MANAGEMENT FORM..........211
Figure 91 EXAMPLE OF A COMPLETED RISK MANAGEMENT FORM..........212
Figure 92 REGULATORY SIGNS..............................................................................217
Figure 93 REGULATORY SIGNS..............................................................................218
Figure 94 HAZARD MARKERS................................................................................ 219
Figure 95 HAZARD MARKERS................................................................................ 220
Figure 96 HAZARD MARKERS................................................................................ 221
Figure 97 DELINEATORS.......................................................................................... 222
Figure 98 DELINEATORS.......................................................................................... 223
Figure 99 DELINEATORS.......................................................................................... 224
Figure 100 ROAD SAFETY FURNITURE .............................................................. 225
Figure 101 WARNING SIGNS.................................................................................. 226
Figure 102 GUIDE SIGNS......................................................................................... 227
Figure 103 GUIDE SIGNS......................................................................................... 228
Figure 104 TEMPORARY SIGNS ............................................................................ 229
Figure 105 TEMPORARY SIGNS ............................................................................ 230
Figure 106 HARDWARE .......................................................................................... 231
Figure 107 HARDWARE .......................................................................................... 232
Figure 108 HARDWARE .......................................................................................... 233
Figure 109 MANUAL HANDLING TECHNIQUES ............................................... 236
Figure 110 MANUAL HANDLING TECHNIQUES ............................................... 237
Figure 111 FIRE TRIANGLE .................................................................................... 240
Figure 112 KNOW YOUR PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHER .......................... 241
Figure 113 FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT............................................................. 242
Figure 114 DISTRICT MAP ...................................................................................... 253
Figure 115 INVENTORY STRIP MAP ................................................................... 254
Figure 116 CROSS-SECTION PLANS..................................................................... 255
Figure 117 HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT............................................................... 257
Figure 118 CHAINAGE............................................................................................. 259
Figure 119 CHAINAGE............................................................................................. 259
Figure 120 ANGENT POINTS T............................................................................... 259
Figure 121 BEARINGS.............................................................................................. 260
Figure 122 CHANGES TO BEARINGS ................................................................... 260
Figure 123 CURVE RADIUS .................................................................................... 260
Figure 124 TRANSITION CURVES......................................................................... 261
Figure 125 BITUMEN DETAILS.............................................................................. 262
Figure 126 DRAINAGE CROSS-SECTION PLANS .............................................. 264
Figure 127 CROSS-SECTION PLAN........................................................................267
Figure 128 LAYOUT PLAN FOR INTERSECTION AND DIVIDED ROADS.....269
Figure 129 RESUMPTION PLAN - DRAINAGE EASMENT PLAN ...................273
Figure 130 RESUMPTION PLAN - DRAINAGE EASMENT PLAN ....................274
Figure 131 RESUMPTION PLAN - DRAINAGE EASEMENT PLAN..................275
Figure 132 RESUMPTION PLAN - DRAINAGE EASEMENT PLAN..................276
Figure 133 RESUMPTION PLAN - DRAINAGE EASEMENT PLAN..................277
Figure 134 RESUMPTION PLAN - DRAINAGE EASEMENT PLAN..................278
Figure 135 RESUMPTION PLAN - DRAINAGE EASEMENT PLAN..................279
Figure 136 RESUMPTION PLAN - DRAINAGE EASEMENT PLAN..................280
Figure 137 RESUMPTION PLAN - DRAINAGE EASEMENT PLAN..................281
Figure 138 RESUMPTION PLAN - DRAINAGE EASEMENT PLAN..................282
Figure 139 RESUMPTION PLAN - DRAINAGE EASEMENT PLAN..................283
Figure 140 RESUMPTION PLAN - DRAINAGE EASEMENT PLAN..................284
Figure 141 RESUMPTION PLAN - DRAINAGE EASEMENT PLAN..................285
Figure 142 RESUMPTION PLAN - DRAINAGE EASEMENT PLAN..................286
Figure 143 RESUMPTION PLAN - DRAINAGE EASEMENT PLAN..................287
Figure 144 RESUMPTION PLAN -DRAINAGE EASEMENT PLAN...................288
Figure 145 RESUMPTION PLAN - DRAINAGE EASEMENT PLAN..................289
Figure 146 RESUMPTION PLAN - DRAINAGE EASEMENT PLAN..................290
Table 1 TYPES AND USES OF CONSTRUCTION PLANT ................................. 83
Table 2 COMMON SOIL SWELL FACTORS......................................................... 84
Table 3 ROLLING RESISTANCE FOR SURFACE CONDITIONS (10 kg/tonne =
1%) ........................................................................................................................ 85
Table 4 COEFFICIENT OF TRACTION.................................................................. 86
Table 5 SCRAPER LOAD AND ............................................................................... 91
Table 6 PUSHER CYCLE TIME (min)......................................................................... 92
Table 7 OPERATIONAL CORRECTION FACTORS........................................... 110
Table 8 BUCKET FILL FACTORS......................................................................... 115
Table 9 SOIL FACTOR TABLE.............................................................................. 153
Table 10 APPROPRIATE DENSITIES..................................................................... 155
Table 11 SWELL FACTORS..................................................................................... 157
Table 12 ESTIMATED TYRE SERVICE OF HAULING UNITS (TRUCKS AND
SCRAPERS) ................................................................................................................. 175
Table 13 COST ESTIMATE ...................................................................................... 180
Table 14 COST ESTIMATE ...................................................................................... 181
Table 15 COST ESTIMATE2A ................................................................................. 181
Table 16 SUBSECTION 9A ..................................................................................... 182
Table 17 SUBSECTION 12A .................................................................................... 182
CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY COMPETENCY FRAMEWORK

ALL STREAMS

STAGE 4 (& BEYOND) SPECIALISED SKILLS


• Advanced Technical Skills
• Supervisory Skills
• Management Skills
• Para-professional Skills
• Professional Skills

(Currently under development)

BASE TRADE Õ × × ×
FIELD OF WORK SKILLS
CIVIL OPERATIONS STRUCTURES FITOUT AND FINISH SERVICES
(NON-TRADE)
z z z z z
z z z z z z z SERVICE OFF-SITE
z z z z z
z TRADES

×
BASIC STREAM SKILLS
CIVIL OPERATIONS STRUCTURES FITOUT & FINISH SERVICES

× ××× Currently
Under
BASIC INDUSTRY SKILLS Development
CIVIL OPERATIONS STRUCTURES FITOUT & FINISH SERVICES

INCORPORATING INDUSTRY INDUCTION

Endorsed by Standards Committee 13/12/95 Every stage produces a range of practical skills
CCC512 General Industry Skills INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

CCC512 - General Industry Skills is a module intended for use by those


completing Stage 3 of a specific FIELD OF WORK within a SKILL STREAM of the
National Construction Industry Competency Framework.

The theoretical components of this package will enable you to complete the practical
requirements of this module. All set tasks, including the activities and
demonstrations will show how the theory or content can be applied in a practical
manner in on-site or simulated on-site conditions.

General Industry Skills is a module which deals with the knowledge and skills
required to understand the various components and diverse aspects of construction
and includes specific details on:

• communication;
• work organisation;
• safe work procedures; and
• plan reading and interpretation.

Four Assessment Tasks meet the requirements of the four Learning Outcomes:

Assessment Task 1

• Communicate at work.

Assessment Task 2

• Organise work.

Assessment Task 3

• Promote safety / occupational health.

Assessment Task 4

• Read / interpret plans.

This learning package has therefore been developed with four sequential sections,
each section being closely aligned with one of the four Assessment Tasks:

SECTION 1: This contains learning resource material self-checks and


practical exercises required for the successful completion of the
Assessment Criteria as shown in the Assessment Specification
for Task 1.

Australian National Training Authority 15


CCC512 General Industry Skills INTRODUCTION

SECTION 2: In a similar manner, this section contains the information and


practical work that will help you successfully complete Task 2.
SECTION 3: As with Section 2, this section contains the information as well
as practical work that will help you successfully complete Task
3.

SECTION 2: As Similarly, this section contains the information as well as


practical work that will help you successfully complete Task 4.

As well as the self-check exercises and practical activities, your instructor will
schedule additional oral and/or written tests which may be similar to the self-check
exercises. These tests will satisfy specific Assessment Criteria in the Assessment
Tasks and will apply to your work environment.

When you have achieved all the Assessment Criteria in Assessment Tasks 1 to 4, and
your work has been checked and certified by your instructor, you will have
successfully completed the four Learning Outcomes which make up the total off-the-
job component of the whole module CCC512 - General Industry Skills.

16 Australian National Training Authority


CCC512 General Industry Skills INTRODUCTION

OVERVIEW

CCC512 - General Industry Skills – A Stage 3 Module

The overall competencies for this module are summed up in the purpose statement:

PURPOSE: This module will provide Civil Operations Stream Plant


Operators of the Building and Construction Industry with
the theoretical knowledge and practical experiences for
operation in General Industry Skills.

In the next section on Module Details, you will find specific details about the
Training Specification and how you will be assessed.

In general terms, General Industry Skills covers:

The Skills/Competencies The Theory/Content required to achieve


required for this module these skills/competencies

• Communicate at work • Effective Site Communication


• Two-Way Communication
• Documentation
• Ground Conditions
• Controls and Operating Techniques
• Machine Operating Problems

• Organise work • Plant Productivity


• Earthworks Calculations
• Earthworks Quantities
• Estimating, Owning and Operating
Costs

• Promote safety / Occupational health • Work Scheduling


• Mobile Plant Operation Safety
Requirements
• Person Protection Equipment (PPE)
• First Aid Techniques
• Warning Signs
• Manual Handling
• Fire in Earthmoving

Australian National Training Authority 17


CCC512 General Industry Skills INTRODUCTION

The Skills/Competencies The Theory/Content required to achieve


required for this module these skills/competencies
• Read / interpret plans • Plan Identification
• Locality plans
• Type cross-section plans
• The working plans
• Drainage cross section
• Cross section plans
• Standard drawings

When you have successfully achieved all the Assessment Criteria for the four
Assessment Tasks, you will have completed the requirements for this module.

18 Australian National Training Authority


CCC512 General Industry Skills INTRODUCTION

WHAT IS PROVIDED

Your will be provided with the essentials to successfully complete this module,
including:

• a learning package;
• sets of relevant plans and specifications;
• materials, tools and equipment;
• access to work sites; and
• appropriate protective equipment.

WHAT YOU PROVIDE?

• appropriate personal protective clothing – to be advised by your


instructor.

Australian National Training Authority 19


CCC512 General Industry Skills INTRODUCTION

HOW TO USE THIS PACKAGE

The package has been designed so that you can work and learn at your own pace,
incorporating into your own learning program:

• demonstrations of practical skills by your instructor or experienced


tradesperson;
• planned and supervised practical application of your knowledge and
skills;
• instruction in, and application of, safe working practices; and
• personal progress indicators through self-check exercises and practical
activities.

It is suggested that you work through the four sections as they are presented.

At times, you will find an illustration on a facing page opposite the text. Such an
illustration will be referred to in the text.

By all means, fast-tract any aspects/areas where you feel confident.

Self-check Exercises have been included so that you can measure your own progress.
These exercises, however, are not part of the formal assessment of competency.

The module, General Industry Skills a nominal duration of 40 hours, but you may
take more or less time working at your own pace.

20 Australian National Training Authority


CCC512 General Industry Skills INTRODUCTION

GETTING TO “KNOW THE PACKAGE”

Here is a strategy which may help you become familiar with the contents of this
package.

• Survey Scan the whole package


Read the contents page and the introduction, then flip through
the pages – glance at the headings.
Notice that there are set tasks to be completed. The content
relates to these tasks.

• Ask Ask about any topics, terms or details that are not clear to you at
this stage.
• Read Read through the material, but do it actively. Jot down points,
underline or highlight.
Link the information with what you know already.
Let the headings and sub-headings help you organise
information.
Remember that you will need the content to complete the tasks.
• Review At various stages, you will be directed to review the main points
or complete a Self-Check Exercise to indicate how you are
progressing.
Make your own notes as well.
• Instructor Throughout this package, you will be required to attend
practical demonstrations and receive instruction in the use of
materials, tools and equipment.
Ask your instructor if you have any problems with:

 interpretation of content;
 procedures or processes; or
 availability of resources

Australian National Training Authority 21


CCC512 General Industry Skills INTRODUCTION

KEY TO SYMBOLS
Symbols are placed in the left hand margin to draw attention to the type of
information commencing at that point.

The symbols used in this package are:

Read This is the essential


READ information for the module.

Instructor At times, your instructor will


DEMONSTRATION Demonstration give practical advice and
demonstrate the use of
tool/equipment.

Self-Check These are your progress


SELF-CHECK Exercise indicators. Typical answers
are also included.

PRACTICAL Practical Activity These allow for the


ACTIVITY application of the theory
components.

Site Visit Your instructor will schedule


SITE VISIT visits to appropriate sites,
when appropriate.

22 Australian National Training Authority


CCC512 General Industry Skills MODULE DETAILS

MODULE INFORMATION: from the Training Specifications

MODULE TITLE GENERAL INDUSTRY SKILLS (PLANT)

Nominal Duration 40 Hours

Module Number CCC512

Purpose This module will provide Civil Operations Stream


Plant Operators of the Building and Construction
Industry with the theoretical knowledge and practical
experience for operation in General Industry Skills.

Relationship to National Building and Construction Industry


Competency Standards Competency Standards:

• CO3001 Transport machine


• CO3005 Carry out basic machine maintenance
• CO3007 Excavate, level site
• CO3009 Relocate material
• CO3014 Scrape / excavate / strip soil
• CO3015 Level site
• CO3018 Excavate / transport / discharge
materials
• CO3020 Make and spread stockpiles
• CO3023 Excavate site
• CO3025 Construct roads / earthworks
• CO3028 Compact materials
• CO3029 Roll materials
• CO3033 Maintain roads
• CO3034 Excavate, level, spread materials
• CO3038 Compact soil and landfill
• CO3040 Load, transport and unload material
• CO3041 Lay pipes
• CO3043 Excavate trenches

Pre-requisites • Basic industry skills


• Basic stream skills

A trainee may seek recognition through the R.P.L.


process for competencies already held.

Australian National Training Authority 23


CCC512 General Industry Skills MODULE DETAILS

Summary of Content • Communicate at work


• Organise work
• Promote safety / Occupational health
• Read / interpret plans

Delivery Delivery methods must provide for the demonstration


of competence in skills specified in all learning
outcomes, either on-site or simulated on-site
conditions.

Suggested Learning • Industry training manuals


Resources

24 Australian National Training Authority


CCC512 General Industry Skills MODULE DETAILS

ASSESSMENT INFORMATION

CCC512 - General Industry Skills is a module in the National Construction


Industry Competency Framework.

This program focuses on the achievement of learning outcomes measured against


assessment criteria based on National Competency Standards.

Both learning outcomes must be successfully achieved if you are to be awarded


competence in this module.

Your assessment will be recorded as:

• Competent; or
• Not Yet Competent

You will have completed the learning outcomes when you have successfully
achieved all the Assessment Criteria in Assessment Tasks 1 to 4. One or more of the
following assessment methods will be used:

• supervised assessment in the demonstration of techniques;


• a number of written and/or oral assessments; and
• practical activities, allowing for demonstrations of your ability to operate in
General Industry Skills

All projects are to be carried out on-site or in simulated on-site conditions.

Australian National Training Authority 25


CCC512 General Industry Skills MODULE DETAILS

ASSESSMENT SPECIFICATION

MODULE TITLE GENERAL INDUSTRY SKILLS

Module Number CCC512

Purpose of the Assessment To enable Civil Operations Streams Plant Operators


of the building and construction industry to
demonstrate the theoretical knowledge and practical
experience for operation on a construction site.

Instructions for the The following procedures could be carried out in


Assessee one or more projects:

Assessment Task 1

• Communicate at work.

Assessment Task 2

• Organise work.

Assessment Task 3

• Promote safety/occupational health.

Assessment Task 4

• Read and interpret plans.

Guidelines for the Assessor This is a supervised assessment.

This is an assessment of the final product however


some observation of the process will be involved.
This is detailed on the checklist.

Learning Outcome Assessment Assessment Assessment Assessment


Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Task 4
CCC512.1 Yes
CCC512.2 Yes
CCC512.3 Yes
CCC512.4 Yes

26 Australian National Training Authority


CCC512 General Industry Skills MODULE DETAILS

ASSESSMENT TASKS

ASSESSMENT TASK 1:

• Give directions which are able to be understood and followed by


others; follow verbal instructions.
• State the meanings of signals.
• Work to signals without error.
• Receive and make calls on radio / cab phone.
• Explain radio / cab phone controls.
• Complete paperwork to the supervisor’s satisfaction.
• Describe ground conditions and explain the implications of wet, dry
and windy or icy conditions for machine operation.
• Explain the controls and operating techniques of a given machine
well enough to enable a new operator to carry out simple operations
at a basic level.
• Explain in clear detail any problems with operation of a machine to
enable service or mechanics to assess whether machine may
continue in use.

The procedures above could be carried out in one or more projects.

Assessment Task 1 incorporates Learning Outcome 1:

Communicate at Work.

Item Assessment Criteria Achieved


1. Learner’s directions are understood and executed by others.
2. Verbal instructions carried out without error.
3. Meanings of signals stated correctly.
4. Signals obeyed without error.
5. Calls made and received properly.
6. Phone controls explained correctly.
7. paperwork completed to supervisor’s satisfaction.
8. Ground conditions described correctly.
9. Implications of adverse weather conditions explained correctly.
10. Machine controls and operating techniques correctly explained.
11. Operation of machine problems successfully explained.
All work practices must ensure that current OH&S requirements are adopted.

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ASSESSMENT TASK 2:

• Using job specifications, produce reasonable estimates of types and


numbers of machines required, fuel requirements and number of
cycles for the machines nominated.
• Translate estimates into number of days required to complete the
job.
• List work sequence and compile a job schedule for each machine.
• Calculate total costs of a job.
• Produce a final quote for a customer.
• Describe and explain the planning processes that held production.
• Describe operating techniques for selected machines to increase
production.
• Describe the main causes of loss of production relevant to the
operator.
• Arrange haul trucks for maximum productivity, main haul road.
• Select a team of labourers and direct the team in basic tasks such as
finding services, checking levels or developing guidance signals.
• Selecting starting point for excavation taking into account weather
and ground conditions.
• Arrange for support machines to be fully occupied.
• Organise supply of materials, schedule service and repairs to
minimise loss of time.
• Organise float shifts to minimise loss of time.

The procedures above could be carried out in one or more projects.

Assessment Task 2 incorporates Learning Outcome 2:

Organise Work.

Item Assessment Criteria Achieved


1. Reasonable estimates produced.
2. Number of delays required is calculated from estimate.
3. Accurate list of work sequences and job schedules for machine
produced.
4. Job cost accurately calculated.
5. Final quote produced.
6. Planning processes to help production described and explained
correctly.
7. Appropriate operating techniques (to increase production)
described correctly.
8. Main causes of loss of production described correctly

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9. Haul trucks arranged.


10. Haul road maintained.
11. Team of labourers selected.
12. Team carried out basic tasks as per instructions.
13. Appropriate excavation started selected.
14. Support machines fully occupied.
15. Supply of materials organised.
16. Service and repairs properly scheduled.
17. Floats shifts properly organised.

All work practices must ensure that current OH&S requirements are adopted.

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ASSESSMENT TASK 3:

• Walk a machine between two given points on-site, choosing a course


which avoids hazards, without mistake.
• Given a choice of two routes across the site, select the safer route.
• Explain why the selected route is better in terms of safety.
• Identify the purpose of protective gear and describe situations when
each item should be used.
• Follow safety procedures in the manufacturer’s manual for starting,
operating, parking and shutdown of a given machine.
• Either produce a current first aid certificate from a recognised
organisation, such as St John or Red Cross; or demonstrate first aid
techniques for common injuries; describe the emergency procedures
for serious injuries on-site.
• Identify warning signs and interpret their meanings without
mistake.
• State local safety regulations which apply to the site.
• Obtain agreement from a supervisor that safety regulations are
compiled with as a matter of habit.
• Identify high risk situations for operators and describe ways of
reducing the risk.
• Demonstrate safe ways to lift, carry, push and pull heavy objects
manually.
• Describe and explain the main causes of fire in earthmoving;
identify and describe the uses of the different types of fire
extinguishers.

The procedures above could be carried out in one or more projects.

Assessment Task 3 incorporates Learning Outcome 3:

Promote Safety/Occupational Health.

Item Assessment Criteria Achieved


1. ‘Walk’ machine without mistake.
2. Safer route selected.
3. Correctly explain why selected route safer.
4. Purpose identified correctly.
5. Situations for using each item described correctly.
6. Safety procedures as per manufacturer’s manual followed without
error.
7. Current recognised first aid certificate produced, OR first aid
techniques are demonstrated correctly.

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8. Warning signs identified without error.


9. Meanings interpreted without error.
10. Local safety regulations stated correctly.
11. Agreement obtained.
12. High risk situations for operators identified without error.
13. Ways of reducing risks described correctly.
14. Heavy objects manually moved safely, without error.
15. Main causes of fire described and explained without error.
16. Uses of fire extinguishers identified and described without error.

All work practices must ensure that current OH&S requirements are adopted.

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ASSESSMENT TASK 4:

• Given a plan of the site, identify the locations of all power, water
and telephone services.
• Describe what is written on survey pegs at the site, and explain what
these mean in terms of machine operating.
• Identify written levels without mistake.
• Given a plan of the site, identify features without mistake.
• Decipher abbreviations used on construction pegs.
• Describe how to establish depth and grade from site plans.
• Identify on a site plan bedding requirements for drainage, hunching
requirements for sewer lines, depth of core foundation in dam walls,
etc.

The procedures above could be carried out in one or more projects.

Assessment Task 4 incorporates Learning Outcome 4:

Read and Interpret Plans.

Item Assessment Criteria Achieve


d
1. Locations of services identified as per plan, without error.
2. Information written on survey pegs is correctly described.
3. Information in terms of machine operating is explained.
4. Written levels identified, without error.
5. Features identified to plan, without error.
6. Abbreviations deciphered, without error.
7. Procedure to establish depth and grade to site plans, described
correctly.
8. Requirements, as listed, identified without error.

All work practices must ensure that current OH&S requirements are adopted.

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SECTION 1 - COMMUNICATE AT WORK

READ

INTRODUCTION

This first section of this package deals with the following aspects:

• issue understandable directions and follow instructions;


• meanings of and working to signals;
• radio / cab phone ñ calls and controls;
• completing paperwork; and
• communicate machine operation problems.

These areas include the essential information you will need to complete Assessment
Task 1 which addresses the first Learning Outcome:

Communicate at work.

The information presented in this section will allow you to cover the following
specific associated operations:

• give directions which are able to be understood and followed by others;


follow verbal instructions;
• state the meanings of signals;
• work to signals without error;
• receive and make calls on radio/cab phone;
• explain radio/cab phone controls;
• complete paperwork to the supervisors satisfaction;
• describe ground conditions and explain the implications of wet, dry and
windy or icy conditions for machine operation;
• explain the controls and operating techniques of a given machine well
enough to enable a new operator to carry out simple operations at a basic
level; and
• explain in clear detail any problems with operation of a machine to
enable service or mechanics to assess whether machine may continue in
use.

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The details required to complete the above learning outcomes will be presented under
the six topics:

• Effective Site Communication


• Two-Way Communication
• Documentation
• Ground Condition
• Controls and Operating Techniques
• Machine Operating Problems

1. EFFECTIVE SITE COMMUNICATION

Methods of communication on a construction site come in many forms, such as


verbal instruction, written instruction, plans, sketches, two-way radio, signage and
site meetings, to mention a few. They are all used to convey or receive messages or
information. Whether the information is received and understood depends on how
clearly and accurately it is given. Many activities and issues rely on this
communication being effectively carried out, not least of which is site safety.
Therefore, to avoid misunderstandings – which may lead to costly errors or someone
being injured – clear and concise communication is critical.

What is meant by communication? The term ‘communication’ can be applied in


three ways. Firstly, it can be applied to the act of communicating. Talking, singing,
writing, miming, gesturing, signalling, drawing, sketching, kissing, hugging, hitting,
punching or kicking are examples of communicating acts. All these acts of
communication carry a message of some kind.

Secondly, the term ‘communication’ can also be applied to the message that is being
communicated. These messages may be about emotions, feelings, wants, needs,
thoughts, ideas, opinions, facts, knowledge, information, warnings or any one of the
many things people need to impart to others. For example, the communicating act of
talking enthusiastically about your role in a new plan, in addition to the information
you are conveying, imparts a communication message that you are upset. The
communicating act of extending your arm forward and upward with your hand flexed
upward and palm toward the viewer imparts the communication message that you
want that person to halt.

Thirdly, the term ‘communication’ can be applied to the means of communicating.


For example, an audiotape, on which you have recorded yourself talking about your
part in the new play, and which you will send to an interstate friend, is a means of
communicating. The accompanying letter that you have written is also a means of
communicating. So too is a sign you have drawn to advertise the play, a means of
communicating.

Communication, then, can be understood as either the act, the message or the means
of communicating with another person or group of people. The question is, what is
communicating? Communicating, simply put, is getting another person or group of
people to understand what you want them to understand.

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Unless they understand exactly as you want them to understand, your communication
has been unsuccessful: you have not been communicating.

Communication has only been successful when the person or group toward whom the
message has been directed (often called the receiver) has understood the message
exactly as the person who imparted the message (often called the sender) intended it
to be understood. This does not mean that successful communicating is the sole
responsibility of the originator of the message. On the contrary, successful
communicating is also the responsibility of the receiver of the message. Both sender
and receiver share the responsibility for successful communication.

There are many impediments to effective communication. These impediments,


sometimes called ‘barriers’ or ‘blocks’, can exist in the environment in which the
people are communicating; in the system by which they communicate; or in the
people who are trying to communicate.

Figure 1 COMMUNICATING-ENCODING-DECODING

Barriers to communication can be conveniently categorised as physical, emotional,


psychological or intellectual.

Physical barriers may exist in the environment, in the communication system or in


people. Machinery noise that is too loud can prevent speech; light that is too poor
can affect the visibility of a signal or a warning sign. In a telephone or two-way radio
communication system, interference can interrupt contact. In people, disabilities
such as deafness or failing hearing, and blindness or failing eyesight can create a
barrier to communication.

Emotional barriers, of course, occur in people. Emotions such as anger, resentment,


frustration, dislike and hatred can get in the way of good communication. The
presence of these emotions in the sender can override the content of the message.
The presence of these emotions in the receiver can distort the perception of the
message. In such cases the underlying emotional state of either the sender or the
receiver is likely to interfere with the communication process so that frank, open and
honest communication is unlikely to occur.

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Psychological barriers also occur in people. People’s psychological characteristics


can influence the communication process. For example, people who as senders are
continually aggressive, arrogant, judgemental, manipulative, confrontational or guilt-
inducing in their communication behaviour are unlikely to encourage the feedback
that is essential to successful communicating. Similarly, people who as receivers
avoid, make light of, refuse to acknowledge or divert communicating messages, are
avoiding communicating about an issue.
People also have intellectual barriers to good communication. A person’s lack of
knowledge can limit their effective use of complicated communicating systems such
as computers. Not understanding the language of signs or instructions might
jeopardise a person’s safety. Similarly, the lack of a shared language could cause
serious misunderstanding between a sender and receiver. In the workplace, the use of
language that is too technical with beginners, or the use of jargon with the
uninitiated, can lead to problems. Also, the inability to read technical plans correctly
can lead to expensive mistakes.

How do we overcome these barriers? Firstly, we mustn’t make the assumption that it
is the receiver’s responsibility to understand the message we are trying to impart. If
it’s our message, it is our responsibility to get it across. The only way we can be
certain that our message has been received is by obtaining feedback. Of course, if we
are lucky enough to be dealing with a receiver who is a good communicator, that
person will voluntarily give feedback to try to ensure that s/he understands what we
want them to understand. Secondly, we must anticipate the possibility of the
operation of physical, emotional, psychological or intellectual barriers to
communication, and by imagining ourselves in the shoes of the receiver, try to make
sure that our communicating avoids these barriers.

There are several ways of receiving a message sent by the word ‘Communication’.
They are:

• Electronically – by use of satellites / computers / lasers /


microwave etc.
• Written – from the scrolls of ancient Egypt, to the memo
of today.
• Verbally – sounds from one person to another.
• Physically – with the use of gestures.

The nature of communication is that we communicate:

• Downwards – superior to subordinate


• Sideways – peer to peer
• Upwards – subordinate to superior

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Communication has two well defined characteristics:

(a) One-way communication:

• Fast – no time spent on discussion;


• It protects from criticism and will hide weaknesses;
• Good to address large group but can cause inattentiveness;
• It protects the receiver from hasty response; and
• Meanings are not always clear – the sender has no way of knowing if his
communication is clear.

(b) Two-way communication:

• Can be slow, depending upon question and discussion;


• Is limited to small group;
• Allows correct and accurate meaning, the receiver can check with the
sender to ensure he has the correct meaning;
• Is efficient – it exposes the sender to criticism and may cause him to
modify his communication to a more efficient quality; and
• Is more likely to motivate the receiver to act in the desired way.

The Basic Communication Process

The basic communication process is what we, as individuals, do in order to send or


receive a piece of communication. An example of this basic process is:

SENDER
RECEIVER
Idea Decode
Communicate

Encode Same Idea

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The Means of Communication

There are many means of communicating. They vary from message sticks to flying
the National Flag upside down. Some of the more common means of communicating
are:

• Telephone
• Radio
• Message pad
• Signals
• Verbally
• Instructions
• Meetings
• Newsletters
• Noticeboards
• Formal reports
• Minutes
• Memos
• Gestures
• Individual conversations
• Counselling sessions
• Formal lectures
• Conferences

There are three dimensions to communication:

• the physical (verbal and written);


• the manner (formal or informal); and
• the content (technical or social).

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Verbal Communication

Speech is the basic means of communicating. Usually before you compose a letter or
list there has been some verbal exchange on the subject and as with all things, this
has its advantages and disadvantages. Some of these are:

(a) Advantages

The advantages of verbal communication are as follows:

• Personal contact can more positively motivate the receiver and give him a
more concrete aim to pursue.
• If one style or argument is ineffective it can be changed. For example, if
the receiver cannot understand why the task must be completed, the
sender can explain to him what might occur if it is not.
• If a point is not understood it can be repeated and rephrased.
• Reactions can be observed.
• The listener can influence the sender (alternate plan) and persuade him,
without loss of time, to alter his point.
• A large number of people can be addressed at one time, although in this
case most of the advantages listed above are reduced or lost.

(b) Disadvantages

Four disadvantages of verbal communication are as follows:

• The person communicating cannot edit or polish his message once has
allocated a task; if he tries to it only serves to confuse the aim and lessen
the impact of his message.
• The listener has no permanent record to refer to and he may recall the
communication out of context or place his own interpretation on what is
required.
• If a large group is involved, it is difficult to get all concerned together at
the same time, particularly if they are you peers or immediate
subordinates.
• It is not always possible to plan your communication so it will fit into a
set time frame. Some points may take longer to explain than you would
have anticipated.

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Written Communication

The advantages and disadvantages of written communications are given on the


following page.

(a) Advantages

Three advantages of written communication are as follows:

• It is the quickest way to cover a large group of people.


• A written communication provides a permanent record.
• The arguments for and against can be thoroughly thought out and
supported with charts, tables and graphs.
(b) Disadvantages

The disadvantages of written communication are:

• A written communication has no immediate feedback. Misinterpretation


can remain uncorrected.
• Response to a written communication takes time and the intention of the
sender cannot be modified quickly.
• There is no personal contact (face-to-face) with written communication.

Some Forms of Communication

• Rigid

Rigid organisations with narrow, well defined channels of communication (chain of


command), permit very speedy communications. However, they entail filtering of
information by subordinates so that superiors are not always as well informed as they
ought to be. This restricts the wide spread of information and can prevent the best
information being made available to the decision makers. Below is a diagram of a
rigid organisation communications net.

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• Multi-Channel

More flexible organisations allow multi-channel communication. This ensures that


the maximum number of people contribute to the discussion of a task and therefore
more people are informed and know what is going on. On the other hand, the process
gets slower as the net gets larger and one person can receive more information than
he can assimilate. An example of a multi-channel net is indicated on the following
page.

• Informal Communications

Informal communications occur at all levels. It is commonly called the ‘grape vine’,
or is addressed as ‘Rumour has it …’. The characteristics are speed and power of
distortion. If formal communications are good the ‘grape vine’ handles trivial
gossip; if formal communications are bad, important information gets transmitted
along the ‘grape vine’ with inevitable distortion.

• Technical Communications

These communications relate exclusively to the job, both the sender and receiver
share a common technical background, therefore ambiguity is usually avoided.

• Social Communications

Any communication that affects a person as a human being has social content.

Elements of Communications

It can be said that the type of communications chosen should depend upon the
considerations of the Aim, the Means, the Content and the need for Feedback.
Before starting the Communication Process, it is necessary to determine the elements
of a communication. These elements, in relation to the sender are:

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• The Aim

The aim can be decided by answering the following questions:


 Why am I communicating?
 What must I get across to be successful?

• The Means

The means can be selected:

 With whom do I wish to communicate?


 Do I wish to communicate with one person, several people or a large
number of people?

• Decide on the Content

To decide on the content you answer the question, ‘Is the receiver “tuned in” on this
subject?’ If the receiver’s attention or mind is on some other subject, then he will not
understand what is required of him. By answering the questions as follows it will
assist in deciding on the content:

 Is the receiver well disposed towards me? Will he cooperate in the


process?
 Will other people be affected? Should they be told? If so, at what stage?
 Will the communication be in keeping with the normal policy and
customs of the organisation?
 Are there any time restrictions? It is essential that the communication be
made before a particular event or should it be delayed until a particular
time?

• Feedback

The answers to the following questions will assist you in deciding the need for
feedback:

 Do I require feedback?
 Will the communication be one-way or two-way?
 How will I know if the communication is understood or if the task is
completed?

The answer to these questions will assist you in deciding the need for feedback.

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The Receivers Part

The receiver also has a part to play when communication is taking place. The
receiver is required to:

(a) Receive

The receiver is to listen to what is being said or read the order or instruction
without putting different interpretations on what is actually said or written.

(b) Digest

Understanding the message will depend upon the receiver’s past experiences, his
knowledge and his attitude. The receiver must make every effort to understand
what is being communicated.

(c) Clarify

If the receiver has difficulty in understanding the communication or part(s) of it,


then the receiver must seek more information in order to confirm the exact
requirement of the communication (feedback).

(d) Same Aim

At the end of the receiving process the receiver should have the same aim as the
sender and be able to tell the sender, in words of his own choosing, what is
required as a result of the communication.

Causes of Distorted Communication

There are many reasons why communications become distorted and we fail to get our
message across to the receiver. They are:

• Size of the group


• Distraction
• Attitude of person to subject
• Status – ego – experience
• Wrong words
• Prejudice
• Inattentiveness
• Priorities – values
• Delivery errors
• Distance
• Time
• Emotion

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Barriers to Communication

• Physical Barriers

• Competing sound (noisy work site)


• Poor eye sight
• Tiredness
• Poor health

• Inattention

• Usually caused by lack of interest, poor listening skills or being easily


distracted.

• Emotions

• Emotions such as fear, anger and hate can result in irrational behaviour
and poor communication.

• Assumption

• Assuming that others think or feel the same.

• Jumping to Conclusions (Presumptions)

• Hearing part of a message, presuming to know the rest and then


switching off.

• Individual Differences

 Culture differences – where different customs and traditions affect the way a
message is interpreted.
 Age – the so-called ‘generation gap’ can result in different interpretations
of situations.
 Educational differences – members of a profession can use jargon not
understood easily.
 Language barriers – speakers of languages other than English and those
with strong accents may have problems communicating effectively.
 Personal belief differences – areas such as religion and politics can
interfere in communication.

• Lack of feedback

 One of the most important barriers. The communication circuit is not


complete without feedback. Feedback ensures the message or
information has been received and interpreted accurately.

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Capturing and Holding Attention

In order to communicate effectively, we must have the ability to capture and hold the
attention of our audience. The factors to consider when doing this are:

• Eliminate distraction
• Generate interest
• Develop motivation
• Emphasis
• Repetition
• Use of senses
• Understanding
• Participation
• Logical sequences
• Simplicity
• Knowledge

Conclusion

Remember, communication is not just a tool and limited to a classroom atmosphere –


it is a craft that we use constantly throughout our lives. We should firstly attempt to
understand and consolidate our own thoughts on communication and secondly, we
should endeavour to recognise and develop communication skills in our work
environments.

2. TWO-WAY COMMUNICATIONS

Handheld, Vehicle Mounted Radios

Looking back over the past ten years, we have seen changes in radio
communications. Developments have taken us from the simply crystal controlled
sets to today’s phase locked looped circuitry. In the next ten years, if industry
forecasts are to be believed, the speed of technological change will at least be
consistent with the past if not increase, as new materials become available.

Use of two-way radios is increasing each day. Operators of the radios are required to
comply with standard operating procedures.

(a) Know the radio regulations

It is an offence to:

• disclose or make use of any information not intended for your station
• impersonate another person
• use another person’s call sign
• transmit a misleading or false message
• use profane or offensive language
• transmit on the emergency channels

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(b) Identify all features on the set

• ON / OFF switch
• CHANNEL control
• SQUELCH control
• VOLUME control
• microphone button
• battery pack / batteries
• antenna
• other features

(c) Adjust the squelch and volume controls to the correct level

• assemble the radio / battery


• turn on radio
• adjust the volume
• adjust squelch until quiet
• select the correct channel

(d) Identify call signs

• use call sign at beginning of transmission e.g. … (operator’s name) …


TO … (operator’s name) … OVER
• other person to know your call sign

(e) Transmit the message

• listen until others finish


• wait 1 - 2 seconds then depress microphone button; wait 1 – 2 seconds,
then:
• speak slowly and clearly
• use correct call signs
• follow the procedure for the type of equipment being used

(f) Place the two-way in its battery charger

• turn off radio before charging


• place radio into charger
• RESTRICT conversation to work only
• ensure set properly seated in charger
• check battery charge light is on

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HANDHELD RADIO

• Operating Procedure to Receive

 Turn the unit ON by rotating the Volume Control clockwise.


 Set the Channel Selector Switch to the desired channel.
 Set the Volume Control to a comfortable listening level.
 Listen to the background noise from the speaker. Turn the Squelch
Control slowly clockwise until the noise just disappears (no signal
should be present). Leave the control at the setting. The SQUELCH is
now properly adjusted. The receiver will remain quiet until a signal is
actually received. Do not advance the control too far, or some of the
weaker signals will not be heard.

• Operating Procedure to Transmit

CAUTION: The transceiver Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (V.S.W.R.)


measurement must be performed prior to the use of the transmitter.
A.V.S.W.R. ratio in excess of 2:1 may damage the transmitter

 Operators to ensure they are familiar with Department of Communications,


rules and regulations prior to operating the transmitter.
 Select the desired channel.
 If the channel is clear, depress the push-to-talk switch on the microphone
and speak in a normal voice.

• Preventative Maintenance

At six to twelve month intervals, the following system checks should be made:

 Check Standing Wave Ratio (SWR).

• Operator Troubleshooting

Should the unit malfunction or not perform properly, the operator should perform the
procedures indicated below:

• If the transceiver is completely inoperative:


 Check the battery.
• If trouble is experienced with receiving:
 Check ON / OFF VOLUME CONTROL setting.
 Be sure SQUELCH is adjusted properly. Is the radio over-
squelched?
 Check to see that the radio is switched to an operational mode.
• If trouble is experienced with transmitting:
 Check to see that the antenna is securely connected to the
ANTENNA CONNECTOR.

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• Controls and their Functions

Figure 2 CONTROLS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS


(HANDHELD RADIOS)

1. OFF / VOL CONTROL

Turn clockwise to apply power to the radio and to set the audio volume to the
desired listening level. Fully counterclockwise to turn the radio OFF.

2. CHANNEL SELECTOR SWITCH

This switch selects the desired channel for transmission and reception. All
channels, except channel 11 may be used for Call Channel. Channel 11 has been
reserved by the D.O.C. for emergency communications involving the immediate
safety of individuals or immediate protection of property. Channel 11 also my be
used to render assistance to a motorist. This is the D.O.C. rule and applies to all
operators of citizens band radios.

3. SQUELCH CONTROL

This Squelch Control is rotated to cut off or eliminate received background noise
in the absence of an incoming signal. For maximum receive sensitivity, it is
desired that the control be rotated only to this point where the receive background
noise or ambient background noise is eliminated. Turn the control fully
counterclockwise, then slowly rotate clockwise until the receive noise disappears.
Any signal to be heard must now be slightly stronger than the average received
noise. Further clockwise rotation will increase the threshold level which a signal
must overcome in order to be heard. Only strong signals will be heard at the
maximum clockwise setting.

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4. DUPLEX / SIMPLEX SWITCH

Allows the transceiver to operate via a repeater station when switched to channels
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8. The set receives on these channels but automatically
transmits on channel 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37 or 38 respectively. When this
switch is on the ‘simplex’ position the set receives and transmits normally on the
same channel (simplex transmission).

5. POWER HI-LOW SWITCH

This selects the RF output power. In HIGH mode, the output power is 1.5W
(rated output) and LOW 150mW.

In LOW mode, power consumption is decreased to enable long hours of


operation. For a short distance communication, it is suggested to operate on low
power.

6. TX / BATT LOW

Light Emitting Diode (LED) indicates red while transmitting. If the LED does
not indicate red when the PTT switch is depressed, this phenomenon indicates
battery is exhausted. In this case it is recommended to recharge or replace the
battery.

7. PRESS-TO-TALK-MICROPHONE

This will changeover the mode to either transmit or receive. Depress it to fall in
the transmit mode, and release to return to the receive mode.

8. ANTENNA CONNECTOR

Connect the flexible antenna provided with the UH-005. Fit the connector tip of
the antenna to the connector on the top panel then press and rotate it clockwise
till it stops with a click sound. An external antenna can be used in the same
manner as the flexible antenna.

9. SP/EAR JACK

When you attempt to use an external speaker or an earphone, connect it to this


jack. The speaker is required to be wired with the supplied earphone plug.

When this jack is plugged, the built-in speaker will not work but the external
speaker or the earphone will.

10. DC POWER JACK

This jack permits connection of the DC power to the transceiver.

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11. CHANNEL LAMP SWITCH

If desired to know proper channel No. in the night operation, turn on this switch,
the channel light will light and be able to read it out clearly.

12. EXTERNAL MICROPHONE JACK

When you wish to use an external microphone, connect it to this jack after wiring
the supplied microphone plug with the microphone cable.

VEHICLE MOUNTED RADIO

• Operating Procedure to Receive

1. Be sure that the power source, antenna and microphone are connected to the
proper connectors before going to the next steps.
2. Turn the unit ON by rotating the OFF / VOLUME Control clockwise.
3. Use the CHANNEL SELECTOR knob to select the desired channel.
4. Set the OFF / VOLUME Control to a comfortable listening level.
5. Listen to the background noise from the speaker. Turn the SQUELCH Control
slowly clockwise until the noise just disappears (no signal should be present).
The receiver will remain quiet until a signal is actually received. Do not
advance the control too far, or some of the weaker signals will not be heard.

• Operating Procedure to Transmit

CAUTION: The transceiver Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (V.S.W.R.)


measurement must be performed prior to the use of the transmitter.
A.V.S.W.R. ratio in excess of 2:1 may damage the transmitter.

1. Select the desired channel.


2. If the channel is clear, depress the PRESS-TO-TALK switch on the
microphone and speak in a normal voice.

• Preventative Maintenance

At six to twelve month intervals, the following system checks should be made:

1. Check Standing Wave Ratio (SWR).


2. Inspect all electrical connections to ensure that they are tight.
3. Inspect antenna coaxial cable for wear or breaks on shielding.
4. Inspect all screws and other mounting hardware for tightness.

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• Operator Troubleshooting

Should the unit malfunction or not perform properly, the operator should perform the
procedures indicated below:

1. If the receiver is completely inoperative:

 Check the power cord and fuse.

2. If trouble is experienced with receiving:

 Check OFF / VOLUME control setting.


 Be sure SQUELCH is adjusted properly. Is the radio over-squelched?
 Check to see that the radio is switched to an operational mode.

3. If trouble is experienced with transmitting:

 Check to see that the transmission line (coaxial cable) is securely


connected to the ANTENNA CONNECTOR.
 Be sure that the antenna is fully extended for proper operation.
 Be sure that all transmission line (coaxial cable) connections are secure
and free of corrosion.

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• Controls and their Functions

Figure 3 CONTROLS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS


(VEHICLE MOUNTED RADIOS - FRONT)

1. PRESS-TO-TALK MICROPHONE

The receive and transmit are controlled by the PRESS-TO-TALK switch on the
microphone. Press the switch on the microphone to activate the transmitter;
release the switch to receive. When transmitting, hold the microphone two
inches from the mouth and speak clearly in a normal voice.

2. TONE CALL SWITCH

This switch is reserved for optional SELCALL operation. Push the T.CALL
switch, (when this action is taken, TX indicator will flash), then, TONE SIGNAL
will be generated and transmitted.

3. TONE SQUELCH SWITCH

This switch is reserved for optional SELCALL operation.

4. S-INDICATOR

The signal indicator will illuminate to show the relative strength of the received
signal.

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5. TX INDICATOR

This LED indicates red while transmitting.

6. RX INDICATOR

Lights during the receive mode whenever a transmission is being received, or


whenever the SQUELCH control is adjusted fully counterclockwise.

7. TONE CALL INDICATOR

When a SELCALL module is installed. The unit’s SELCALL Code is received


this LED will be ON.

8. DUPLEX INDICATOR

When the displayed channel is programmed to operate in DUPLEX mode, this


LED is ON.

9. CHANNEL INDICATOR

LED indicates the channel number in use.

10. FRONT MICROPHONE SOCKET

11. OFF / VOLUME CONTROL

Turn clockwise to apply power to the radio to set the audio volume to the desired
listening level. Turn fully counterclockwise to turn the radio OFF.

12. SQUELCH CONTROL

This SQUELCH Control is rotated to cut off or eliminates received background


noise in the absence of an incoming signal. For maximum receive sensitivity, it
is desired that the control be rotated only to this point where the receive
background noise or ambient background noise is eliminated. Turn the control
fully counterclockwise, then slowly rotate clockwise until the receive noise
disappears. Any signal to be heard must now be slightly stronger than the
average received noise. Further clockwise rotation will increase the threshold
level which a signal must overcome in order to be heard. Only strong signals will
be heard at the maximum clockwise setting.

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13. DUPLEX SWITCH

To program semi-duplex operation for channel 1 through channel 8. Select the


channel you would like to use as repeater channel (check your local repeater
station frequency first) and push the DUP switch. The DUP indicator will turn
on. Select next repeater channel and push the DUP switch again and so on. To
put the channel back to normal simplex operation, just select the DUPLEX
programmed channel using the channel selector and push the DUP switch again.
The DUP indicator turns off.

14. CHANNEL SELECTOR KNOB

This knob selects the desired channel for transmission and reception.

Figure 4 CONTROLS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS


(VEHICLE MOUNTED RADIOS - REAR)

15. EXTERNAL SPEAKER

The External Speaker Jack is used for remote receiver monitoring. The external
speaker should have 8-ohm impedance and be rated to handle at least 4.0 watts.
When the external speaker is plugged in, the internal speaker is automatically
disconnected.

16. POWER

This jack permits connection of the DC power to the transceiver. A power cord
is supplied with the radio.

17. ANTENNA CONNECTOR

This female connector permits connection of the transmission line cable male
connector (M-Type) to the transceiver.

Memory Backup: Channels maintained in the SUNDOWNER UH-011 memory


are protected from loss by a built-in capacitor which protects
the memory for up to 12 hours when you disconnect the DC
Power Cable.

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• Servicing your Transceiver

It is the user’s responsibility to see that this radio is operating at all times in
accordance with the SMA Citizens Radio Service Regulations.

We highly recommend that you consult a qualified radio-telephone technician for the
servicing and alignment of this UHF CB radio product.

Review Operating Procedures

1. Connect the 13.8 Volt power lead, microphone and antenna.


2. Rotate the SQUELCH control (12) fully counterclockwise.
3. Switch the radio on by turning the OFF / VOLUME control (11) clockwise.
Adjust the volume to a comfortable level, and adjust the Squelch to its threshold
level.
4. Rotate the CHANNEL SELECTOR knob (14) to select the required channel.

• Transmitting

To transmit, depress the PRESS-TO-TALK Switch ((1) Figure 3) on the microphone.


Hold the microphone 5 – 10 cm from your mouth and slightly to one side so that your
voice does not project directly into the microphone (this provides best results).
Speak at a normal level. Never raise your voice or shout into the microphone.
Whenever the PTT switch is pressed, the TX indicator ((5) Figure 3) will light.

3. DOCUMENTATION
• Time Sheets

Basically, construction workers are paid a base rate through an award, and on top of
this, a margin for skill-based on what work they are carrying out. Certain conditions
and extra payments or allowances are then added according to where the person is
working. Because of the variations to basic rates of pay due to special allowance,
overtime rates etc. records of hours worked by employees are kept on daily time
sheets.

• Travel Allowance

If workers are not picked up and returned from work they become entitled to receive
a daily allowance for travel.

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• Overtime

This can occur during the week (outside normal working hours) when a worker is
asked to work after hours, during a lunchtime or on a weekend. Overtime on a
Saturday attracts time and a half for the first two hours and double time thereafter.
This is with a minimum of three hours’ work or three hour’s pay. Sunday is at
double time for all hours worked and a minimum of four hours work or four hours’
pay. Time sheets vary from contractor to contractor, two examples are shown on the
following pages (Figures 5 and 6).

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Figure 5 CIVIL OPERATIONS TIME SHEET (FACING PAGE)

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Figure 6 CIVIL OPERATIONS TIME SHEET


(REVERSE PAGE)

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Figure 7 TIME SHEETS AND WAGES RECORD

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Operators on hire will be required to complete hire dockets. An example of a hire


docket is shown in Figure 8.

Figure 8 HIRE DOCKET

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Operators are required to undertake daily maintenance checks of their machines. An


example of a inspection checklist is shown in Figure 9.

Figure 9 INSPECTION CHECKLIST

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Figure 10 TYPICAL DAILY PROGRESS RECORDS/REPORTS

Records of works completed and to be completed as well as maintenance problems,


weather conditions, industrial action and other factors affecting construction progress
should be recorded. Some typical examples of records are shown in the following
pages.

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Figure 11 PROJECT SUPERVISOR'S DAILY REPORT

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Figure 12 HAUL VEHICLE SCHEDULE

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Figure 13 DAILY CULVERT CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS RECORD

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Figure 14 CULVERT CONSTRUCTION RECORD

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Site Records

On the job site, coordination of machines and materials is imperative for the timely
progression of the project. This coordination and passage of information can take
many forms, including toolbox meetings, consultative committee meetings and work
activity briefings. An example
of the format for work activity briefings is set in the following pages.

PROJECT NAME / IDENTIFICATION:

1. SCOPE OF WORKS
Outline of works associated with this activity.
2. PROGRAM / DEPENDANT WORKS
Activities critical to these works, plus activities that are dependant on these
works.
Who or what may we have to work together with to produce the best results.
3. QUALITY
Specification requirements, lot numbers, Inspection and Test Plans, Special
Construction Processes i.e. process requiring additional information, skills
or machinery.
4. COST CODES
Including daily costing if required.
5. CONSTRUCTION
5.1 Services Location, approvals, any planned
services
5.2 Survey As required, as builds, set out checking
5.3 Method Access, storage of materials, step-by-
step process, housekeeping
requirements
Potential problems Downtime, machinery, absenteeism,
weather, materials
Safety / Environment Hazards involved in each step or any
outside influences, environmental
hazards which need to be controlled
5.4 Plant / Labour requirements alternatives if equipment / labour not
available
5.5 Tools / Materials What might need to be ordered now or
in the future? How we backup?
6. ACTION PLAN
What? Who? When?
(a)
Figure 15 WORK ACTIVITY CHECKLIST - GUIDELINES

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PROJECT NAME / IDENTIFICATION:

COORDINATOR:

1. SCOPE OF WORKS
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

2. PROGRAM / DEPENDANT WORKS


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

3. QUALITY – SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS / LOT Nos. / ITP’s


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

4. COST CODES / DAILY COSTING


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

5. CONSTRUCTION
5.1 Services
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
5.2 Survey – Set out, As-Con, Check Survey, Other Information required

_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Figure 16 WORK ACTIVITY CHECKLIST - GUIDELINES

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Figure 17 WORK ACTIVITY CHECKLIST - GUIDELINES

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5.4 Plant / Labour


Requirements

5.5 Tools /
Materials

6. ACTION PLAN
WHAT WHERE WHO WHEN

Figure 18 WORK ACTIVITY CHECKLIST -


GUIDELINES

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4. GROUND CONDITIONS

Refer to Construction Site Geography.

5. CONTROLS AND OPERATING TECHNIQUES

Refer to Individual Machine Modules.

6. MACHINE OPERATING PROBLEMS

In many instances, operators stop machinery or seek mechanical support when a little
elementary knowledge would have kept them operating. To assist the operator, the
following flow chart identifies some of the more common mechanical faults.

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Figure 19 DIESEL ENGINES TROUBLESHOOTING CHART

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SUMMARY

In this section you have covered information on communicate at work.

The information you have been given so far will assist your understanding of the
communication process. The practical activities will establish the importance of this
understanding.

Self-check Exercises in this package are on yellow pages. The first exercise has
been designed to test your understanding of the information you have covered so far.
Remember that the self-check exercises are not part of the formal assessment of
competency for this module.

Answers to the self-check exercises are on the blue pages at the end of this package.

Your may find it useful to make your own brief summary / notes below of the six
topics for Communicate at Work.

Effective Site Communication:

Two-way Communication:

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Documentation:

Ground Conditions:

Controls and Operating Techniques:

Machine Operating Problems:

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SELF-CHECK

EXERCISE 1: COMMUNICATE AT WORK


1. What are four (4) advantages of verbal communication?

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

2. What are two (2) disadvantages of verbal communication?

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

3. What are three (3) advantages of written communication?

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

4. What are three (3) disadvantages of written communication?

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

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5. List six causes of distorted communication.

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

6. List four (4) barriers to communication.

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

7. On the accompanying troubleshooting chart, identify the possible causes of the


following symptoms:

(a) Excessive smoke under load

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

(b) Lower power or loss of power

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

(c) Engine dies

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

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(d) Coolant temperature too high

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

(e) Lubricant oil too hot

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

(f) Low lubricant pressure

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

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DEMONSTRATION

Your instructor will determine the nature and type of demonstration before you begin
the practical activity.

It could be a demonstration on: Using two-way radios and drawing up a work


schedule.

Example 1:

Using correct procedure, establish and maintain contact using two-way radios.

Example 2:

Explain the process of developing a work schedule.

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PRACTICAL
ACTIVITY

ACTIVITY 1: UNDERPIN A PARTICULAR STRUCTURE

(a) Use two-way radios.

(b) Using the accompanying forms, plan a work schedule and allocate resources.

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SUMMARY

You have now completed Practical Activity 1(a) and (b) where you used two-way
radios and prepared a work schedule.

All your assessment procedures are practical and are covered in the Assessment
Criteria for Assessment Task 1.

Your activities during Section 1 will have ensured that you have established the base
to now proceed to Section 2 – Organise Work.

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SECTION 2 - ORGANISE WORK

READ

INTRODUCTION

Section 2 of this package deal with the following aspects:

• produce estimates of types and numbers of machines for specific job;


• translate estimates into number of days required for job;
• make a machine work sequence and job schedule;
• calculate job cost and produce final quotation;
• planning procedures;
• machine operating techniques;
• cause of production loss, relevant to operator;
• arrange haul vehicles and maintain haul road;
• select and direct a team of labourers for basic tasks;
• select an excavation starting point;
• organise materials supply; and
• schedule service and repairs and work shifts to minimise loss of time.

These areas include the essential information you will need to complete Assessment
Task 2 that addresses the second Learning Outcome:

Organise work.

The information presented in this section will allow you to cover the following
specific associated operations:

• using job specifications, produce reasonable estimates of types and


numbers of machines required, fuel requirements, number of cycles for
the machines nominated;
• translate estimates into number of days required to complete the job;
• list work sequence and compile a job schedule for each machine.
calculate total costs of a job.;
• produce a final quotation for a customer;
• describe and explain the planning process that helps production;
• describe operating techniques for selected machines to increase
production;
• describe the main causes of loss of production relevant to the operator;
• arrange haul trucks for maximum productivity, maintain haul road;

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• select a team of labourers and direct the team in basic tasks such as fining
services, checking levels or developing guidance signals;
• select starting point for excavation taking into account weather and
ground conditions;
• arrange for support machines to be fully occupied;
• organise supply of materials, schedule service and repairs to minimise
loss of time; and
• organise float shifts to minimise loss of time.

The details required to complete the above learning outcomes will be presented under
the following five topics:

• Plant Productivity
• Earthworks Calculations
• Earthwork Quantities
• Estimating, Owning and Operating Costs
• Work Scheduling

1. PLANT PRODUCTIVITY

On road construction and earthwork's plant hire charges are assuming an ever
increasing proportion of the overall job cost. Correct plant selection will have a
notable effect on the quality and quantity of the final result for a given budget.

Over the last decade a number of new designs and improvements to plant have been
made and their introduction has caused the need for regular re-appraisal of
production performance.

Road construction earthworks are covered under the following headings:

• Clear
• Win
• Load
• Transport
• Spread (dump)
• Compact
• Finish
• Reinstate

Each of the above operations can be accomplished by utilising one or more of a


number of different types of construction plant and those most commonly used are
given in Table 1.

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DOZER SCRAPER LOADER GRADER TRUCK


ROLLER

CLEAR Main use

WIN Main use Main use If easy in-bank Possible use


digging
LOAD With open Main use Main use
bowl scrapers
TRANS- Very short Main use Very short Main use
PORT hauls hauls
SPREAD Possible use Main use Possible use Main use Possible use

COMPACT Assist during Main use


travel
FINISH Possible use Main use Main use

REINSTATE Main use Possible use Possible use Possible use Possible use

Table 1 TYPES AND USES OF CONSTRUCTION PLANT

Factors Determining Plant Production

When selecting earthmoving plant a number of factors have a major bearing on plant
performance and thus production. These factors fall into three categories, those that
can be determined, those that can be controlled and the uncontrollable.

• Determined Factors

Factors that can be determined are subdivided into four headings:

(i). Volume characteristics


(ii). Resistances
(iii). Machine slippage
(iv). Utilisation efficiency

 Volume Characteristics

Material in its normal (in-bank) state will swell when disturbed. Similarly, it
will reduce in volume when compacted. Thus when stockpiling and
transporting material a swell factor is used (Table 2).

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EXAMPLE:

If a truck was to be loaded with 10 bank cubic metres (BCM) of common earth, it
would require a body capable of holding 12.5 cubic metres, this being the swell factor
for the materials in the loose state using Table 2.

Besides this swell factor some items of plant have a load carrying factor and
this will be covered under the respective machine’s production estimates.

MATERIAL STATE SWELL FACTOR


Sand Bank 1.00
Loose 1.11
Compact 0.95
Common Earth Bank 1.00
Loose 1.25
Compact 0.90
Gravel Bank 1.00
Loose 1.20
Compact 0.93
Clay Bank 1.00
Loose 1.43
Compact 0.90
Rock Bank 1.00
Loose 1.67
Compact 1.40
Table 2 COMMON SOIL SWELL FACTORS

 Resistances

When transporting, a vehicle has to overcome a rolling resistance and a grade


resistance. Rolling resistance is the resistances within the machine, in the
flexing of the tyres, and in tyre penetration into the haul road.

This rolling resistance does not apply to tracked machines since they lay their
own steel roads which are always hard and smooth. Only internal friction in
the power train needs to be taken into account when considering rolling
resistance for tracked machines. This factor remains relatively constant and is
compensated by the difference between flywheel power and drawbar power.
Pull measured at the drawbar already reflects the effect of any internal losses in
the power train.

Table 3 gives accepted standards of rolling resistance for plant on various haul
road surfaces, and these include the internal friction of the machine.

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A smooth, hard, stabilised, surfaced road 2%


without penetration under load, watered,
maintained.
A firm, smooth, rolling road with dirt or light 3.5%
surfacing, flexing slightly under load or
undulating, maintained, watered.
A dirt road rutted, flexing under load, poor 5%
maintenance, no water, 25 mm to 50 mm tyre
penetration.
Loose sand or gravel 10%
Soft, muddy, rutted road, no maintenance. 10 – 20%
Table 3 ROLLING RESISTANCE FOR SURFACE
CONDITIONS (10 kg/tonne = 1%)

Various tyre sizes and inflation pressures will greatly reduce or increase the
rolling resistance. The values given in Table 3 are sufficiently accurate for
estimate purposes.

EXAMPLE:

If a scraper having a gross vehicle of 80,000 kg is travelling on loose sand, then it


has to overcome a resisting force of 8,000 kg (10%). This value is used when
calculating the net traction force (rim pull) from manufacturer’s performance
charts.

Grade resistance is the force of gravity which must be overcome when going
uphill. It acts against the total mass of all machines. Each 1% of positive
grade (uphill) produces a retarding force of 1% of gross vehicle mass (GVM).

In downhill grades the force assists the machine.

Therefore total resistance = Rolling resistance ± grade resistance.

 Machine Slippage

During transport operations there is a certain amount of slippage between the


tyres or tracks and the ground, this slippage is called the coefficient of traction
and varies greatly from one surface to another.

Actual speed (km/h) = Speedometer indicated speed x coefficient of traction.

Table 4 (next page ) gives the coefficients of traction for common materials.

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TYPES OF SURFACE TYPE OF DRIVE


RUBBER TYRES TRACKS
DRY WET DRY WET
Smooth blacktop 1.0 0.9 – –
Rough concrete 1.0 1.0 0.6 0.6
Hard smooth clay 1.0 0.3 0.7 0.4
Hard clay loam 0.8 0.4 0.9 0.9
Firm sandy loam 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.0
Spongy clay loam 0.6 0.3 1.0 0.9
Rutted clay loam 0.5 0.3 1.0 0.9
Rutted sandy loam 0.4 0.5 1.0 1.0
Gravel road, firm 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9
Gravel, not compacted 0.5 0.6 0.9 1.0
Gravel, loose 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.8
Sand, loose 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.7
Table 4 COEFFICIENT OF TRACTION

 Utilisation Efficiency

This efficiency stems from the following five factors:

(i). Operator skills ranging from 100% to less than 50%.


(ii).Operator fatigue caused by working conditions and time.
(iii).
Minor repairs and adjustments to plant.
(iv).Personnel delays due to tea breaks, toilet requirements and receiving job
instructions.
(v). Job layout causing plant congestion and waiting time.

Utilisation efficiency is termed in minutes per hour and approximate figure for
estimating is a 50-minute hour or 83%.

EXAMPLE:

If a loader is capable of loading 4 cubic metres per minute, then the average
hourly production equals 4 cubic metres multiplied by 50 minutes, i.e. 200
m3/hour.

• Controlled Factors

Controlled factors which relate to job planting and organisations are:

 Haul Distances

The haul road distance is dependent on the location of borrow pits, and the
selection of haul roads taking into account grades and sharp curves. Time can
be saved by the use of flagmen and spotters for traffic control.

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 Haul Road Condition

As seen from the rolling resistance and coefficient of traction tables, road
surface condition greatly influences plant efficiency. The amount of grading,
watering, rolling and sheeting will have to be economically worked out against
increased production.

 Loading Conditions

This can be influenced by the size of material, work area, pit floor, and pre-
wetting of material, all of which affect production and safety.

 Plant Selection

The characteristics of a balanced fleet are plant items with compatible


capacities creating little or no waiting time, for example:

(i). push dozer power to scraper capacity;


(ii). number of scrapers per push dozer;
(iii). loader bucket size to truck body capacity;
(iv). number of trucks per loader; and
(v). number of rollers for material spread for compaction.

The age of the machine will have a major bearing on production performance.
As a machine gets older it is superseded by later models with improved
performance and down time increases due to non-availability of ‘off-the-shelf
parts’. Experience indicates a loss in production of 3% per year of machine
age, i.e. ten year-old machine will only produce 70% of its original production
performance.

 Time Spent on Unproductive Work

Camp establishment and management, relocation of services (power lines,


Telecom cables and water pipes), reinstatement of borrow pits, etc.

• Uncontrolled Factors

Consideration must be given for factors beyond control, that occur due to the
following:

 Weather

This can have a number of delaying effects:

(i). plant traction is reduced on wet and slippery soils;


(ii). extra water has to be carted during hot dry spells;
(iii). reduced production and increased hazards result from wind and dust; and
(iv). operator performance drops during extremes in weather.

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Staff Sickness

Every job has one or two key operators and organisers, and time lost by one or
more of these can have a major effect on work output. For example, at certain
times of the year flu epidemics occur resulting in general absenteeism.

 Industrial Unrest

This is often a national problem rather than localised, and cannot be catered
for, when estimating job costs.

 Major Plant Breakdown

Plant breakdown can result from numerous causes, many of which could be
averted given the necessary service, standard of operator and correct
application on the job. Age of machine and local parts backup affect the
duration of breakdown.

 Unforeseen Problems

This can result from a rising water table, rock, Aboriginal sacred sites,
landowners, conservationists, dieback disease, etc.

Probably the biggest major uncontrollable factor is the weather, and local
climatic conditions have to be taken into account. Work during the wet season
in the tropical north could expect a factor of 40% or less, whereas in the drier
southern and central areas it could be as high as 95%. These factors combined
are called the overall job efficiency.

Production Estimating

There are four methods by which production can be estimated:

• Calculation
• Observation
• Past records
• Rule of thumb

Calculation is carried out using manufacturers performance data. It tends to be


lengthy and involves a number of assumptions.

Observation of jobs under similar conditions is the most accurate but not always
available.

Past records give good guidelines but often are not available.

Rule of thumb is intelligent guess work and is the method which can be used to fill
the gaps not covered by information available from other sources.
The best method to adopt is probably a combination of all four.

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SCRAPERS

Scrapers are an efficient means of loading, moving and depositing earth over short to
medium distances. There are two basic types, those that load themselves and those
that require push loading.

In recent years elevating self-loading scrapers have increased their percentage of the
market due to their independence. They can work alone or as a fleet with equal
efficiency, the cost, planning and supervision problems are eliminated and coarse or
hard soils are broken into small lumps or pulverised, reducing voids thus assisting in
compact loads and easy to spread. Push loaded open bowl scrapers have a better load
carrying ability since they do not carry the extra weight of the elevator loading
equipment. However, they do require a dozer to push load them, and are only
economic, when working as a fleet of two or more.

There are all-wheel drive versions of both the self-loading and push loaded scrapers
and these are used in conditions of poor traction and/or steep gradients. The
suitability of any particular unit for a job is governed by the following considerations:

• Machine type
• Loading efficiency
• Bowl capacity
• One-way travel times
• Typical fixed times

• Machine Type

A guide to the selection of the most suitable machine for the job is given in Figure 20
(next page).

• Loading Efficiency

Figure 21 shows the decrease in loading rate with increase in loading time.

• Bowl Capacity

Scraper bowls are rated by their manufacturers to SAE standards having heaped loads
with 1:1 slope, this is considerably steeper than under normal operating condition.
From Figure 21 it can be seen that it is not economic in time to load the bowl to its
full rated heaped capacity. Approximately 85% of full heaped load is considered the
most economic and therefore this value should be used in production estimating.

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Figure 20 SCRAPERS (PERCENTAGE LOAD TO LOADING TIME)

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• One-Way Travel Times

In order to assess the production of a scraper, manufacturers provide a series of


performance charts. These give tractive effort (rim pull) and ideal maximum haul
speeds. They also produce one-way travel times that give average haul times under
average conditions.

These one-way travel times (loaded and empty) together with fixed load and spread
are similar for most makes and sizes of machines for the following reasons:

 Strong competitive market.


 Power to weight ratios are balanced, thus travel speeds are similar.
 Bowl opening is proportional to bowl capacity so percentage load and
spread rates are similar.

One-way travel times have been drawn up as mean average values for each type of
scraper.

For the purpose of estimating production the use of one-way travel time together with
accepted fixed load and spread times is the easiest method, giving a fair degree of
accuracy.

• Typical Fixed Times

Table 5 gives typical fixed times for scraper loading and spread.

Load (min) Spread (min)


Self-loading 0.9 0.7
Push-loaded 0.7 0.7
Table 5 SCRAPER LOAD AND
SPREADING TIMES

• Push Dozer Selection

When considering open bowl scrapers the size of the push dozer and the number of
scrapers per dozer must be determined. A rule of thumb frequently used to determine
adequate push power states one kilogram of push is needed for every kilogram of
scraper load, i.e. push (draw bar pull) must be equal to or greater than the rated load
of the scraper.

In order to determine the number of scrapers the push dozer can handle, we need to
know the cycle time of the scrapers. Having estimated this, the scraper cycle time is
divided by the average dozer loading cycle time to give the number of scrapers per
push dozer.

Figure 22 (next page ) illustrates common methods of push loading scrapers, and
Table 6 gives push dozer cycle times for these methods.

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Figure 22 PUSH LOADING METHODS

Table 6 PUSHER CYCLE TIME (min)


Back-tracking loading 1.3
Chain loading 0.9
Shuttle loading 0.9

NOTE: Elevating scrapers should not be push loaded since to do so may damage
the levator mechanism and the bowl frame, structurally not designed to
withstand such loading.

Production Estimating

When estimating scraper production the following job information is required:

• Type and quantity of earth to be moved.


• Time available to complete the job.
• Haul road surface material, condition and depth of type penetration.
• Haul road maintenance to be carried out over the duration of the job.
• Haul road grade variations over full length for both haul and return with
distances.

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• Weather forecast fur duration of job if possible.


• Hire cost of plant available.
• Example of Calculations of Scraper Production

Job information:

 Material to be moved is 25,000 cubic metres of common earth.


 Time available to complete job is 20 working days of 10 hour duration.
 Haul road is firm smooth gravel with slight flexing under load.
 Haul road is graded and watered as required.
 Grade variations taken from job grade sheets are as shown, and return trip
is over the same haul road.
 Weather forecast fine.

Plant hire rates from local contractors are:

 m3 (rated) open bowl – $50 per hour


 Push dozer to suit – $70 per hour
 m3 (rated) elevating scraper – $60 per hour

Calculations:

Total resistance = rolling resistance + grade resistance


From Table 3, rolling resistance = 3.5%

∴ Total resistance for haul are:


500 m + 300 m at 3.5% + 0% = 3.5%
700 m at 3.5% + 4% = 7.5%
400 m at 3.5% – 4% = –0.5% (0%)

Total resistances for return are:


500 m + 300 m at 3.5% + 0% = 3.5%
700 m at 3.5% – 4% = –0.5% (0%)
400 m at 3.5% + 4% = 7.5%

Note: When total resistance (-ve) resistance is assumed to be zero since retard and
brakes are used for safety.

Use travel time Figures 23 and 25 for loaded haul.

Haul Time Elevator (min) Open Bowl (min)


800 m at 3.5% 1.80 1.65
700 m at 7.5% 2.85 2.55
400 m at 0% 0.75 0.68
Total time 5.40 4.88

Use travel time Figures 22 and 24 for empty return.

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Return Time Elevator (min) Open Bowl (min)


800 m at 3.5% 1.35 1.20
700 m at 0% 1.14 0.97
400 m at 7.5% 1.05 0.95
Total time 3.54 3/12

From Table 2:

Coefficient of traction for firm dry gravel = 0.8

∴ Actual travel time = total haul and return time


coefficient of traction

= 5.40 + 3.54 = 11.18 min for elevating scraper


0.8

= 4.88 + 3.12 = 10.00 min for open bowl scraper


0.8

Typical fixed times to load and spread materials are 1.60 min for an elevating scraper
and 1.40 min for an open bowl scraper (refer Table 5).

∴ Total cycle time for elevating scraper = 11.18 + 1.60


= 12.78 min
Total cycle time for open bowl scraper = 10.00 + 1.40
= 11.40 min

From Table 2:

Common earth has a swell factor of 1.25 when in a loose state. Utilisation efficiency
for estimating use 83% (this is assuming average conditions).

Economic load of scraper bowl = 85% of rated capacity (refer Figure 21)

Scraper production per hour = Economic bowl load x utilisation factor x


60 min
swell factor x cycle time

For elevating scraper: 15 x 0.85 x 0.83 x 60


1.25 x 12.78
= 39.75 bank cubic metres / hour

For open bowl scrapers: = 15 x 0.85 x 0.83 x 60


1.25 x 11.40
= 44.56 bank cubic metres / hour

Having obtained the production of each of the scrapers we now need to know the
most economic fleet for the job.

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From Table 6:

Using a chain loading method for the push dozer, the average dozer cycle time = 0.9
min
∴ one push dozer can handle the following number of scrapers:

Scraper cycle time = 11.4 = 13 machines


Dozer cycle time 0.9

NOTE: Although the number of scrapers one push dozer can handle in this
operation is high, it may be more expedient to complete the job in less
than that available. Factors influencing this decision are the availability
of support machines, i.e. graders and rollers and the continuity of work
for the labour force.

Self-loading scrapers will have a fixed cost per bank cubic metre irrespective of the
number of machines used.

∴ cost per bank cubic metre = hire charge = $60 / hr


production 39.75 m3 / h

= $1.51 per bank cubic metre

Push loaded scrapers have a diminishing cost with the increase in the number of
scrapers used per dozer.

The amount of earth to be moved is 25,000 bank cubic metres over a period of 200
hours (20 days of 10 hours).

∴ material to be moved per hour = 25,000 = 125 BCM


200
∴ number of open bowl scrapers required = 125 = 3
44.56

Since one push dozer can easily handle 3 scrapers the cost per BCM

= cost of dozer + (no. of scrapers x cost of scraper)


no. of scrapers x production of scraper

= 70 + (3 x 50)
3 x 44.56

= $1.65 / BCM

If the job were to be completed in half the time the cost per BCM using open bowl
scrapers

= 70 + (6 x 50)
6 x 44.56

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= $1.38 / BCM

∴ job costing using elevating scrapers = 25,000 x 1.51


= $37,750

Job costing using open bowl scrapers over full time available
= 25,000 x 1.65
= $41,250

Job costing using open bowl scrapers half of the time available
= 25,000 x 1.38
= $34,500

NOTE: If the push dozer worked its scraper capacity (13 machines), then the job
cost would be substantially reduced, but extra support machines would be
required.

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Figure 23 TOTAL RESISTANCE AND CYCLE TIME FOR


ELEVATING SCRAPERS LOADED ONE-WAY

Figure 24 TOTAL RESISTANCE AND CYCLE TIME FOR


ELEVATING SCRAPERS EMPTY ONE-WAY

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Figure 25 TOTAL RESISTANCE AND CYCLE TIME FOR


OPEN BOWL SCRAPERS LOADED ONE-WAY

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Figure 27 TOTAL RESISTANCE AND CYCLE TIME FOR TWIN


POWER OPEN BOWL SCRAPERS LOADED ONE-WAY

Figure 28 TOTAL RESISTANCE AND CYCLE TIME FOR TWIN


POWER OPEN BOWL SCRAPERS EMPTY ONE-WAY

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Figure 29 TOTAL RESISTANCE AND CYCLE TIME FOR TWIN


POWER ELEVATING SCRAPERS LOADED ONE-WAY

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Figure 31 ELEVATING SCRAPERS (HEAPED CAPACITY)

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Figure 32 TWIN POWERED SCRAPERS OPEN BOWL HEAPED CAPACITY

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Figure 33 OPEN BOWL SCRAPERS HEAPED CAPACITY

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DOZERS

Crawler or track dozers are the most powerful earthmovers available to a road
engineer. Generally their tractive effort is considerably greater than that of their
rubber-tyred counterparts for most materials in both wet and dry conditions.

Since dozer’s pushing force is determined by multiplying the total operating weight
by the coefficient of traction for the material on which it travels the track machine
normally will easily out-produce a wheel machine of the same weight.

Rubber-tyred or wheel dozers have travel speeds up to three times higher than track
machines and can travel over ground with little or no damage to the surface. The
choice between track or wheel dozers depends on the coefficient of traction of the
ground, the likelihood of tyre damage, and the mobility required. The following
considerations must be assessed for efficient use of dozers:

• Type of blades
• Classification by mass
• Factors determining production
• Ripper production

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• Type of Blades

When winning material the straight bulldozer blade is the most productive, except in
loose light material that can be handled by the larger capacity ‘U’ blade. Angle dozer
blades have a production of 75% or less than that of the straight blade.

The main types of dozer blades used are shown in Figures 34 to 37.

Figure 34 DOZER STRAIGHT BLADE

Figure 35 DOZER TILT BLADE

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Figure 36 DOZER 'U' BLADE

Figure 37 DOZER ANGLE BLADE

• Classification by Mass

Due to variations in the method by which some manufacturers specify engine rated
power, dozers have been classified by rare shipping mass in accordance with
Australian Standard D4 - 1964 (refer Figure 38). Bare shipping mass is the basic
tractor mass with no attachments (blade, canopy, rippers etc.) and an empty fuel tank.

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Figure 38 TRACKED DOZER - CLASSIFICATION BY MASS


Factors Determining Production

In order to estimate dozer production, Figures 39 (track) and 40 (wheel) have been
drawn up using the following assumptions:

Dozer is equipped with a straight blade.


Dozer has powershift transmission.
Average cut length is 15 metres, then load is drift bladed to dump.
Material has a density of 1,800 kg/bank m3 and a swell factor of 1.30.
Utilisation factor is 100% (60 min/hour).
Coefficient of transaction:

− Track machine should be 0.5 or better


− Wheel machine should be 0.4 or better

NOTE: For wheel machine production falls of rapidly below a coefficient of 0.4.

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Figure 39 ESTIMATED TRACKED DOZER PRODUCTION STRAIGHT BLADE

Having made these assumptions the following factors (Table 7) together with the
swell factor (Table 1) and the grade correction factor (Figure 41) have to be
considered.

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Figure 40 ESTIMATED RUBBER TYRED DOZER PRODUCTION STRAIGHT BLADE

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Track Wheel
Machine Machine
Operator –
Excellent 1.00 1.00
Average 0.75 0.60
Poor 0 – 0.60 0 – 0.50
Material
Loose stockpile 1.20 1.20
Hard to cut –
with tilt cylinder 0.80 0.75
without tilt cylinder 0.70 –
Hard to drift –
non-cohesive or very 0.80 0.80
sticky material
Rock ripped or blasted 0.60 – 0.80 –
Slot dozing 1.20 1.20
Visibility
Dust, rain etc. 0.80 0.70
Utilisation efficiency –
50 min/hour 0.83 0.83
40 min/hour 0.67 0.67
Direct drive transmission 0.80 –
Angle dozer blade 0.50 – 0.75 –
Table 7 OPERATIONAL CORRECTION FACTORS

Figure 41 GRADE CORRECTION FACTOR

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EXAMPLE:

Determine the average hourly production of a 25,000 kg track dozer having a straight
blade equipped with hydraulic tilt moving hard packed clay an average distance of 60
metres down a 10% grade.

Hard packed clay has a density of 2,000 kg/bank m3


Plant operator is average
Utilisation efficiency is 83%

From Figure 39 uncorrected maximum production = 370 loose cubic metres per
hour.

Applicable correction factors:

Hard packed clay is hard to cut material 0.80 – refer Table 7


Grade correction from Figure 41 1.15
Average operator 0.75 – refer Table 7
Weight correction (1800 / 2000) 0.90
In-bank correction (1.30 / 1.43) 0.91 – refer Table 2
Utilisation efficiency 0.83

Production = maximum production x correction factors


= 370 x 0.80 x 0.15 x 0.75 x 0.90 x 0.91 x 0.83
= 174 loose cubic metres per hour

Both tracked and tyred dozers are often equipped with rear mounted rippers for work
in hard materials. Determination of whether or not a rock can be ripped is something
of an art, and although seismic velocity testing is indicative very often a conclusive
answer cannot be obtained. Test by trial is often the best approach. Physical
characteristics which favour ripping may be summarised as follows:

Fractures, faults and planes of weakness of any kind.


Weathering, resulting from temperature and moisture changes.
Brittleness and crystalline nature.
High degree of stratification or lamination.
Large grain size.
Moisture permeated clay, shale and rock formation.
Low compression strength.

• Ripper Production

Assuming the material is capable of being ripped there are three general methods of
estimating ripper production.

The best method is to cross-section the area and record the time spent ripping. After
the material has been removed, cross-section the area again to determine the volume
of material removed.

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The volume divided by the time spent ripping is the ripping rate in terms of bank
cubic metres per hour. Another method is to record the time spent ripping and to
count the scraper or truck loads over a period of time. Weighting or estimating the
average load per haul unit will yield data which can be converted to bank cubic
metres per hour.

The least accurate method, but one often used, is timing the ripper over measured
distances. An average rate in km/h or m/min can be calculated from a number of
passes. Turn around or back-up must be included. Measure the average depth of
penetration and the distance between passes. This data will give the volume per unit
of time from which the production BCM/hour can be calculated. Experience has
shown results obtained by this method are about 15% to 30% higher than the more
accurate method of cross-sectioning.

EXAMPLE:

Data
kg dozer with single tyne ripper
Space between passes = 1 metre
Average speed throughout = 2 km/h or 33 m/min
Length of each pass = 100 metre
Average penetration = 0.5 metre
Raise, pivot, turn and lower of tyne/pass = 0.3 minutes

: Time per pass = 60 x 100 + 0.3 = 3.3 minutes


2,000
Utilisation efficiency = 45 – min hour or 75% (assumed)

Passes per hour = 45 = 13.6


3.3
Volume ripped = 100 x 1 x 0.5 = 50 BCM
Production = 50 x 13.6 = 680 BCM/hour

LOADERS

The front end loader is a versatile item of road construction plant, its main purpose is
to load trucks, but it is also used for excavating, backfilling, site clean-up etc.
Tracked loaders are slower in mobility and are used in confined works areas, and
where conditions are not suited to rubber tyres.

Wheel loaders are made with either rigid or articulated frames. Articulated models
have the advantage of a tighter turning circle and therefore a faster loading cycle.
They also handle better on slippery or loose surfaces, and some have the ability to
oscillate at their pivot giving more stability and traction on uneven ground.

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Some factors to be considered in assessing the performance of a loader are:

• Production
• Cycle time
• Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) standards
• Bucket fill factor
• Machine selection

• Production

Unlike dozers and scrapers, loader production is not always critical since it is often
tied to the size of a truck fleet. During truck loading operations the loader cycle time
is only a fraction of a minute and therefore the truck cycle time is more important.

The best method of obtaining loader production is by observation, but manufacturers


do produce performance calculation data.

• Cycle Time

The main interest in loader performance lies with loading trucks. A cycle time of 0.5
minutes for an articulated loader working under good conditions is normally
applicable. This cycle time should be slightly increased for rigid frame loaders,
tracked loaders and poor conditions.

• SAE Standards

Loaders have three SAE standards:

Struck Capacity

Defined as the volume of material retained in the bucket after heaped load is struck by
drawing a straight edge across the width of the bucket with one end of the straight edge
resting on the cutting edge and the other end resting on the uppermost portion of the
bucket back plate or spill guard.

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Heaped or Rated Capacity

This is obtained by positioning the bucket so the struck line is parallel to the
ground and then piling additional material on top of the struck load at a 2:1
angle of repose. The total volume so obtained is the Rated Capacity of the
Bucket (see Figure 42).

Figure 42 LOADER BUCKET CAPACITY

Static Tipping Load

This is defined as the minimum weight at the centre of gravity of the ‘SAE
Rated’ bucket which will rotate the machine to a point where the rear wheels
are clear of the ground under the following conditions:

– Loader on a hard, level surface and stationary.


– Unit at standard operating weight.
– Bucket tilted back.
– Load at its maximum forward position in the raise cycle.
– Unit with standard equipment as described in specification.

In order to comply with SAE standards the operating load of wheel loaders
should not exceed 50% of the full turn Static Tipping Load of the machine
equipped with attachments needed to do the job (for tracked loaders, 35%).

• Bucket Fill Factor

Table 8 indicates the approximate amounts of material as a percentage of rated


bucket capacity which will actually be delivered per bucket cycle. This is known as
the ‘Bucket Fill Factor’.

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Type Description Fill Factor


Loose material Mixed moist aggregates 90 – 100%
Uniform aggregates up to 3 mm 95 – 100%
3 mm up to 9 mm 85 – 90%
12 mm up to 20 mm 90 – 95%
24 mm and over 85 – 90%
Blasted material Well blasted 80 – 85%
Average 75 – 80%
Poor with slabs or blocks 60 – 65%
Table 8 BUCKET FILL FACTORS

• Machine Selection

When selecting the correct size of loader for the job we need to determine the
number of cycles per hour and the desired production in loose cubic metres.

We then refer to nomographs at Figure 43 for wheel loaders and Figure 44 for
tracked loaders and read off the required bucket size.

Figure 43 NOMOGRAPH - WHEEL LOADER

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Figure 44 NOMOGRAPH – TRACK LOADER

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Figure 45 NOMOGRAPH - WHEEL LOADER

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Figure 46 NOMOGRAPH - TRACKED LOADER

EXAMPLE:

A wheel loader is required to produce 200 loose cubic metres per hour in a truck
loading application. Estimated cycle time is 0.5 minutes, working a 50-minute hour.
The material is 9 mm gravel having a loose density of 1,700 kg/m3.

Determine bucket size and machine capacity. Number of cycles per hour = 50 =
100

0.5
On the nomograph at Figure 43 enter the required hourly production on scale B (200
m3) and the number of cycles per hour on scale A (100). Next connect A through B
to C; this gives a required payload volume of 1.85 m3/cycle. Enter the bucket fill
factor (Table 8) on scale D (85%) and connect C through scale D to scale E for the
required bucket size (2.3 m3). Using nomograph at Figure 44 (Figure 45 for tracked
loaders) enter the material density on scale F (1,700 kg/m3), connect C through scale
F to scale G to obtain payload weight in bucket per cycle (3,200 kg). This means we
require a loader having a tipping load in excess of 3,200 kg equipped with 2.3 m3
bucket. In order to obtain hourly tonnage rate, draw a straight line from scale G
through scale A to scale I (320 tonne) or load x cycles = 3,200 x 100 = 320
tonne.

By inspection of Figure 47 it can be seen that the Cat. 930 I.H.C. 530 Clark 55, JD
644 and Fiat Allis 645 would be suitable.

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Figure 47 WHEEL LOADERS - OPERATING LOADS

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Figure 48 WHEEL LOADERS - OPERATING LOADS

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Figure 49 TRACKED LOADERS - OPERATING LOADS

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GRADERS

A grader’s job is to move material short distances in repetitive passes. It is


principally used for shaping and finishing rather than digging or transporting. Two
types of grader are available, the rigid frame and the articulated frame models (Figure
50).

Figure 50 STRAIGHT AND ARTICULATED GRADER SKETCHES

Articulated frame graders have an advantage over the rigid frame model since with
two points of turn (see Figure 50) they can make U-turn in less than one and a half
times their overall length. Also when driven in the crab steer position the tandem
drive wheels travel on a pregraded surface well clear of windows thus avoiding tyre
damage. When grading using the crab steer method any side thrust can be countered
by leaning or turning the front wheels. The main consideration in assessing the
suitability of a grader are:

• Performance
• Production
• Length of pass

• Performance

A grader’s load moving ability is determined by the weight of the machine


concentrated on its drive wheels multiplied by the coefficient of traction of the
material for the working surface.

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If the weight of a 12,000 kg grader was concentrated on an all wheel drive machine
and the coefficient of traction for the material was 0.70, then the grader could move
8,400 kg per pass. However, since most graders are conventionally rear driven, only
a portion of the machine’s total weight can be used as the traction factor to determine
its load moving ability. In most cases the load carried on the tandem drive wheels is
70% to 75% of the total weight. As with other machine production, grader
production is subject to many variables, operator efficiency and the material being
worked influence grader production even more than that of other machines.

• Production

Grader production in effect is measured in terms of area covered or cubic metres


moved.

The area covered per hour depends on the width of the grader blade, the actual speed
of the grader and the number of passes required. When grading a road surface not all
passes will be at the same speed; that is, with each successive pass the material will
become easier to work, thus allowing faster travel speeds.

EXAMPLE:
From trial, in order to maintain a haul road properly a grader must make one pass in
third gear and then two passes in fourth gear. The grader averages 50 productive
minutes per hour. If the speed for the grader is 9 km/h in third gear and 16 km/h in
fourth gear and the road surface material has a coefficient of traction of 0.8, how long
will it take to complete one full maintenance over 8.5 kilometres of road?

Time for one pass in third gear = 8.5 km = 1.18 h


9 km/h x 0.8

Time for two passes in fourth gear = 8.5 km x 2 = 1.33


16 km/h x 0.8

Since there are only two turns and gear changes involved in this operation the slight
amount of unproductive time can be ignored.

∴ time to complete effective maintenance grade


= (1.18 + 1.33) 60 = 3.01
50

• Length of Pass

When machines work in a number of passes these can be carried out either as
forward pass only or on both forward and return passes.

The time spent in turning and changing gear between passes is unproductive and for a
grader can be assumed at 0.5 minutes.

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Each pass should be as long as the task and conditions allow and the operating speed
as high as practical. To illustrate this point, consider the operation of a grader
travelling 500 metres and 1,500 metres respectively and look at the percentage of
time lost in relation to pass length and turning the machine.
Time (T) for a single pass in minutes = (L x 60) + t
(S x 1,000)

where L = length of pass (m)


S = speed of machine (km/h)
t = turning time (min)

Allowing in each case turning time of 0.5 minutes and an operating speed of 5 km/h.

(a) 500 m travel

T = (500 x 60) + 0.5 = 6.50 m


(5 x 1,000)

(b) 1,500 m travel

T = (1,500 x 60) + 0.5 = 18.5 min


(5 x 1,000)

% loss in time due to turning for each respective pass:

500 m travel 0.5 x 100 = 7.7%


6.50

1,500 m travel 0.5 x 100 = 3%


18.5

Now consider the following example:

If it takes six passes of a grader to mix gravel, in a water binding operation, how long
does it take to carry out this operation over a 1,500 metre length using (a) short
lengths of 500 metres and (b) alternatively travelling the full 1,500 metres?

(a) Number of 500 metre long passes required to mix 1,500 metres of pavement
material
= 6 x 1,500
500
= 18

In addition to the 6 passes, there is an extra non-productive pass (500 m in this


example)
necessary to position for the start of each succeeding section. Assuming that the
grader returns to the initial starting point (see Figure 51 next page).

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Figure 51 TYPICAL GRADER PASSES

The total number of passes = 18 + 4 = 22

From previous example time for one pass 500 m long = 6.50 min.

Total mixing time = number of passes x cycle time


= 22 x 6.50
= 143 minutes

(b) Number of 1,500 metre passes required to mix 1,500 metres of pavement
material
= 6 x 1,500
1,500
= 6

From previous example time for one pass 1,500 m long = 18.5 min.

Total time taken = 6 x 18.5


= 111 minutes

Time saved by mixing in 1,500 m long passes


= 143 – 111
= 32 minutes

% saving in time = time saved x 100


longest time

= 32 x 100
143
= 22.4%

As time saved is money, it is evident from these calculations that it is essential to


carry out an operation on passes which are as long as the task and conditions allow.
The length of the pass must be determined by the amount of roadwork that can be
covered during the working day and other relevant factors.

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Where operation requires the grader to stop, turn and reset its blade, the length of the
pass should never be less than 100 metres. If the length of pass is less than this it is
generally more advantageous to reverse the machine even though the reverse pass is
unproductive. To illustrate, if the time taken for a grader to turn is 0.5 minutes and it
can reverse at a speed of 14 km/h, would it be quicker to reverse or turn where the
length of the pass is 40 metres?

Travel time in reverse = 40 x 60


14 x 1,000

= 0.17 minutes

Therefore with a turning time of 0.50 minutes there would be a saving of 0.33
minutes if the grader were backed (i.e. 20 seconds).

NOTE: Under certain road construction operations it can be more economical to


use two graders working together in order to obtain the maximum length
of pass per day. More than two graders are often used but this could lose
any advantage due to work area congestion.

• Grader Operating Speeds

Operation Speed Range


km/hr
Maintenance 10 – 20
Spreading 5 – 12
Mixing 12 – 20
Ditching 4–6
Bank Sloping 4
Stripping 4–6
Finishing 6 – 12

• Grader Blade Capacity

Height of blade = H
Width of blade = W
Constant = 0.96
Blade capacity = H2W
0.96

• Material Moved
When moving material in a side casting operation the amount is the capacity of the
blade multiplied by the actual speed of the grader over a distance equal to the width
of the blade face.

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EXAMPLE:

Gravel is dumped 9 LCM heaps on the edge of a road construction formation. The
formation is to have 11 metres in width of basecourse consisting of well mixed gravel.
The road under construction is 2 km in length and the grader to be used has a blade of
3.66 m wide and 0.61 m high. After trial the ideal actual travel speed for mixing was
found to be 9 km/h. How long would it take to mix the gravel over the length of the
job assuming single passes, and the mixing operation involves moving the gravel twice
across the road surface.
Grader blade capacity = WH2
0.9
= 3.66 x 0.612
0.96
= 1.4 LCM

Number of passes to move 9 LCM heaps = 9 = 7


1.4

Number of passes to cover road surface twice = 11 x 2 = 6


3.66

Number of passes to mix gravel = 7 x6 = 42

Fixed manoeuvre turn time/pass = 0.5 minutes

Utilisation efficiency = 50 minute per hour

Grader travel per hour = 9000 x 50 = 7500 m


60

Time to complete one pass = 2000 = 0.267


7500

Time to complete mixing = (0.267 x 42) + 0.5 x 42


60
= 11.55 hours

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ROLLERS

Rollers are used on road construction for soil compaction and pavement finish.

There are a number of types available being both self-propelled and towed models.

• Smooth drum steel wheel rollers apply static pressure to the material.
• Rubber tyred multi-wheeled rollers applying pressure through flexible
tyres which tend to knead the material.
• Vibrating roller applying pressure by momentary high cyclic forces.
• Sheepsfoot, wedge foot and pad foot roller applying pressure through
tamping and kneading the material.
• Grid or crush rollers are used to fracture material by impact at speed and
compact by applying pressure through point loading.

The selection of a roller for any particular aspect of road construction should first
consider the following:

• Soil characteristics
• Roller characteristics
• Production

• Soil Characteristics

In order to select the correct roller for the job some detail of the soil characteristics is
required.

Soil characteristics and properties are generally known and are available from the
soils laboratories or in standard textbooks on soil mechanics, but broadly speaking,
soils may be considered to have properties either cohesive or non-cohesive.

Cohesive material – generally comprises material of the silt and clay classes, which
have large air pockets and a multitude of fine pores.

Non-cohesive material – generally comprises materials of the gravel and sand classes
with a multitude of large pores. The successful use of soil material for roadworks
depends on adequate compaction in order to eliminate voids which may contain air
and water, to prevent change of shape subsequent to construction due to further
compaction by traffic.

The moisture content of a material is critical to the density achieved by roller


compaction. The Optimum Moisture Content is the moisture content of the soil at
which a specified amount and type of comparative effort will produce the maximum
dry density.

If the moisture content is lower than optimum, internal friction reduces the possibility
of achievement of maximum density of material, whilst if above optimum, the excess
water has to be forced out of the voids before maximum compaction can be achieved.

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For a particular roller, the density that can be achieved in a material is limited and the
rate of increase in density falls rapidly with the increase in the number of roller
passes. In practice it is important therefore, to determine the optimum moisture
content for the roller to be used and for the approximate number of passes to be
applied.

• Roller Characteristics

Tests have shown the benefits of vibratory compaction for achieving density, depth
of penetration and economy of compaction. Both machine and material factors
contribute to its success. Many such factors exist; they are interrelated and each
varies in effect and importance with differing material and working condition.

A drum’s static weight applies a compacting force, however by inducing vibration to


the drum the compacting force is increased. The momentary high cyclic forces of the
vibrating drum overcome frictional and cohesive resistance of the material being
compacted, facilitating greater density. For all materials, vibrating increases the
effective pressure exerted due to tamping action.

Satisfactory compaction of material with low moisture content is achieved using a


vibrating smooth drum roller on non-cohesive material, and a vibrating sheepsfoot on
cohesive materials. Wedgefoot and pad foot rollers are used for materials between
the extremes of cohesion.

For satisfactory surface finish, in most instances it is necessary to use water together
with either a rubber-tyred or steel-wheel roller.

Heavy rubber-tyred rollers should be ballasted to stress a base material during rolling
more than the usual traffic load.

The density achieved with a given number of passes falls with increase in speed of
rolling, however this loss can readily be made up by a small increase in the number
of passes, so that in practice it is economical to operate rollers at maximum speed
feasible under the circumstances.

Generally high amplitude and low frequency of vibrating roller gives depth of
compaction and low amplitude and high frequency is used for surface finish.

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• Production

Roller production is expressed in compacted cubic metres per hour.

To calculate roller production we require the following information:

Width of roller ground contact


Travel speed
Thickness of compacted lift
Number of passes required.

The number of passes required depends on the material being compacted and its
moisture content. This is normally determined by test rolling a section at the start of
the job.

The sequence of calculations to determine the production of a roller involves:

(a) Roller width in metres x travel speed in metres per hour = m2/hr
(b) Compacted m2/hour x thickness of compacted lift = compacted m3/hr

The results of these calculations are ideal, in practice inefficiencies occur in the
control of spreading, overlap of passes, variation in moisture content and time losses
at the end of each pass. For estimating purposes the calculated production can be
multiplied by 0.75 and the job efficiency factor.

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EXAMPLE:

A steel roller having an overall width of 2.5 m is to compact gravel that from trials
requires six passes to achieve specified density. The roller operating speed is 8 km/hr,
the formation is 7.4 m wide over a length of 5000 m. How long will it take to complete
the job assuming an efficiency hour of 50 minutes?

If the compacted lift is 75 mm, how many cubic metres are compacted?

Number of passes to cover formation = 7.4


2.5
= 3

Total area to be compacted = 7.4 x 5000


= 37000 m2
Actual area compacted per hour by the roller = 2.5 x 8000 x 0.75 x 50
6 x 60
= 2083 m2

Actual time taken for job = 37000


2083
= 18 hours

Cubic metres compacted = 37000 x 0.075


= 2775 m3

Figures 52 to 55 inclusive, list various rollers by gross mass.

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Figure 52 GROSS MASS OF SELF-PROPELLED STEEL-WHEEL ROLLERS

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Figure 53 GROSS MASS OF SELF-PROPELLED MULTI-WHEEL ROLLERS

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Figure 54 GROSS MASS OF SELF-PROPELLED VIBRATING ROLLERS

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Figure 55 GROSS MASS OF TOWED ROLLERS

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TRUCKS

Trucks can be classified as either highway machines that meet the State Traffic
Regulations, or large off-highway machines that are not restricted by size or mass.
Highway trucks are classified by the number of axles they have.

• Production

For estimating truck fleet production we only require the average cycle time since the
load is a determined mass (legal axle loading) and wages and truck hire are given
under the award rates.

The best and simplest means of obtaining cycle time is by observation since it is
relatively cheap and easy to send a loaded truck over the haul route prior to
estimating. The loader cycle time is approximately 0.5 minutes per bucket load and
the bucket size should be sufficient to load the truck in four or five cycles.

Figures 56 and 57 give a guide to the truck travel speed for relative grades, loads and
power. Figure 58 is drawn up from past records and allows for queuing, loading and
tipping times.

EXAMPLE:
From Figure 56 a truck having an 80 kW (net) diesel engine would travel up a 5%
adverse gradient at 25 km/h with an all-up gross vehicle mass of 20,000 kg. For level
or downhill grades local speed limits and top working gear apply.

Figure 56 SPEED GRADE PRODUCTION FOR TRUCKS

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Figure 57 HIGHWAY TIP TRUCK PERFORMANCE CURVES


(The G.V.M. that 1 kW will pull up various grades at various speeds)

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Figure 58 TRUCK CYCLES TIME FROM PAST RECORDS

If the G.V.M. of a truck was 20,000 kg and the engine power 100 kW,
then the G.V.M./kW = 20,000 = 200 kg
100
Reading across Figure 57 on the 200 kg (G.V.M./kW) scale the truck could travel at
26 km/hr on a 5% adverse grade, 31 km/hr on a 4% adverse grade, 38 km/hr on a 3%
adverse grade, 50 km/hr on a 2% adverse grade and 75 km/hr on a 1% adverse grade.

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2. EARTHWORKS CALCULATIONS

Having determined machine outputs, it now becomes necessary to work out the
amount of material to be moved when working in:
• Cuts and fills
• Borrow pits
• Stockpiles

Basic Definitions

• Cut

The earth or rock that is removed to


permit placing the road below the natural
surface of the ground is called cut. The
term cut is also used to designate the
space originally occupied by the removed
material (Figure 59)

Figure 59 CUT

• Side Cut

A side is an excavation forming a bench or shelf in a transverse slope crossing the


alignment (Figure 60).

• Fill

The bank of earth, rock or other material constructed above the natural surface of the
ground for the support of the road, or the space occupied by such material is known as
fill or embankment

Figure 60 SIDE CUT Figure 61 FILL

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• Subgrade

The surface to which the cut or fill extends in earthworks construction is the
subgrade, which means lower grade. Usually the subgrade is below the selected fill
section of the pavement.

Volume Calculation

Volume is obtained by multiplying an area by length.

In the calculation of the volume of earthworks we first calculate the area of a cross-
section and then multiply by the distance between two cross-sections (i.e. the length).

Figure 62 VOLUME OF EARTHWORKS CALCULATIONS

In the sketches above, if the end areas A and B of the cut (or fill) are equal, the
correct volume would be obtained by multiplying either area by the distance D.

However, in practice the ends areas are seldom equal, and so the Average End Area
Method of calculating the volumes of cut and fills is generally accepted.

Average End Area Method

In the following sketch showing a length of fill, let Area A and Area B represent the
areas of the two adjacent cross-sections in square metres, and D the distance in
metres between the cross-sections.

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Figure 63 AVERAGE END AREA CALCULATIONS

Then the approximate volume of the length of fill (in cubic metres) is obtained by
taking the average of Areas A and B, and multiplying by the distance D, i.e.:
Volume = (Area A + Area B) x Distance D
2

This Average End Area Method of obtaining volumes may be used to determine the
solid volume of cuts, fills, and side cuts as follows:

• Calculate Area A
• Calculate Area B
• Add A and B, then divide by 2 to find the average area
• Multiply the average area by the distance D between the cross-sections.

In using the average and area method for volume calculations it is desirable to use at
least every cross-section given in the job documents for the section of roadway under
consideration. The omission of any intermediate section over a length of road can
lead to appreciable errors in the volume so calculated.

EXAMPLE (one section only):


Calculate the volume of earthworks in the embankment section shown in Figure 64.

Figure 64 EARTHWORKS EMBANKMENT AREA CALCULATIONS

Using the Average End Area formula:


Volume = (Area A + Area B) x Distance D
2

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In this example:
• Area A = 80 m2
• Area B = 185 m2
• Distance = 50 m2

Therefore Solid Volume of Earthworks:


= (80 + 185) x 50
2
= 265 x 50
2
= 6,625 m3

EXAMPLE (multiple sections):

Figure 65 EARTHWORKS EMBANKMENT AREA CALCULATIONS


(MULTIPLE SECTIONS)

Details given:
• The embankment shown in the sketch above is divided into segments by
plan cross-sections at the chainages shown.
• The formation changes from cut to fill at chainage 220 m and this must
be regarded as the first cross-section with an area of 0 m2.
• The next cross-section is at chainage 250 m and its area is 45 m2.
• Other chainage and area details are as shown.
• At chainage 390 m there is a change back from fill to cut. Thus the area
at chainage 390 m is 0 m2.

So, volume of first segment = (sum of the 2 cross-section areas) x distance


between them
2
= 0 + 45 x 30 m
2
= 22.5 x 30
= 675 m3
Volume of segment = 45 (at chainage 250) + 90 (at chainage 300) x 50
m
2
= 135 x 50 m
2
= 3375 m3

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Volume of third segment = (90 + 60) x 50


2
= 150 x 50
2
= 3750 m3

Volume of fourth (and last) = (60 + 0) x 40


segment 2
= 60 x 40
2
= 1200 m3

The total volume of earthworks in the embankment is obtained by adding together


the volumes of the individual segments, in other words:

Volume = 675 + 3375 + 3750 + 1200


= 9000 m3

Cross-Section Area

The most important calculation in the computation of earthwork volumes is the


Cross-Section Area of a cut or fill.

It is normal practice to breakdown the cross-section into rectangles and triangles and
to calculate the area of each of them separately and then add them together to find the
total area.

Let us now consider the computation of cross-sections in:

• Cuts
• Fills
• Side cuts

The typical dimensions and levels normally given on cut and fill cross-sections are as
shown in Figure 66 next page.

All other dimensions required to calculate the cross-section area are found by
computation or scaling off the drawing if it is drawn to scale.

To illustrate how we can calculate the other dimensions, let us find h, d1 and d2 in
Figure 67.

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Figure 66 TYPICAL DIMENSIONS CUT/FILL

Figure 67 TYPICAL DIMENSIONS CUT/FILL CALCULATIONS

To find the height ‘h’ of the embankment:

Subtracting the natural surface (ground) RL from the finished RL of the embankment,
we can determine the height b d (i.e. h).

So, h = RL 800 – RL 0.00


= 8m
To find width ‘d’ of the embankment:

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1. Find the length a b in the triangle, a b d.


From our basic maths we know that for a right-angle triangle with a 1 to 1
hypotenuse slope the base length = height, in other words:

a b = b d (= h, since b e = h)
= 8m

2. Next, find length b c, since b c = d


We know that b c (i.e. d1) = D1 – a b,
but distance D1 is shown on the drawings as 15 m and a b from calculations =
8 m.
Therefore, to find d1 (= b c) we take 8 m from 15 m, in other words:
d1 = 15 – 8
= 7m

3. Then find d
As the cross-section is equal on both sides of the control line we know that
d2 – d1 = 7m
So that the formation width is:
d1 + d2 = d
7 + 7 = 14

We have now calculated all the dimensions required to find the cross-section area of
the embankment.

Types of Cross-Sections

Let us now consider the various types of cross-sections in cuts, fills and side cuts.
They can be divided into:

• Regular Sections – where the ground is level and the control line is the
centre of the cross-section.

• Irregular Sections

Case 1 – where the ground is level and the control line is not in the
centre of the cross-section.
Case 2 – where the ground is not level and the control line is in the
centre of the cross-section.
Case 3 – where the ground is not level and the control line is not in
the centre of the cross-section.

• Combination Sections – where there is a double carriageway


embankment that can be a combination of Regular and Irregular Cross-
Sections.

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• Regular Sections

Regular Cross-Sections (Fills)

Figure 68 END AREA CALCULATIONS


Area A = Area D = D1 d1 x h
2
Area B = Area C = d1 x h
So Total Area of Cross-Section = 2 [(D1 – d1) x h) + (d1 x h)]
2

Regular Cross-Sections (Cut)

Figure 69 END AREA CALCULATIONS

The calculation of areas in cuts or regular cross-section is done in the same way
as fills or regular cross-sections.
• Irregular Sections

Irregular Cross-Sections (Case 1)

– Regular fill
– Control line offset

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Figure 70 END AREA CALCULATIONS

Calculate all the areas (A, B, C and D) separately and add to obtain the total
cross-section area.

Irregular Cross-Sections (Case 2)

– Fill on sloping ground


– Control line central

Figure 71 END AREA CALCULATIONS

The areas for A, B, C, D can be found as for a regular cross-section of depth h


1.

Next find Area E:

1. Find h3
h3 = h2 – h1

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2. Find length a b.
For a slope of 1 : 1,
ab = h1 + d1 + d2 + h1
But h1 + d1 = D1 and d2 = d1
Therefore a b = 2D1

3. Area E = ab x h3 = 2D1 x h3
2 2

Then add all these areas (A, B, C, D and E) together to find the total cross-
section area. The total area may be shown thus:

Area = 2 (D1 – d1) x h1 + 2 (d1 x h1) + 2D1 x


h3
2 2

Irregular Cross-Sections (Case 2 continued)

– Cut on sloping ground


– Control line central

Figure 72 END AREA CALCULATIONS

This Cut Cross-Section area is calculated in the same manner as the fill on
sloping ground with control line central (Figure 70).

Irregular Cross-Sections (Case 2 continued)

– Side cut
– Control line central

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Figure 73 END AREA CALCULATIONS

Area A in Cut = D1 x h1
2
Area B in Fill = D2 x h2
2

Irregular Cross-Sections (Case 3)

– Fill on sloping ground


– Control line offset

Figure 74 END AREA CALCULATIONS

Calculate Areas A, B, C, D in accordance with Irregular Cross-Section – Case


1, i.e. regular fill with control line offset.

Next fine Area E:

1. Find h3
h3 = h2 – h1

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2. Find length a b.
For a slope of 1 : 1,
ab = h1 + d1 + d2 + h1
= 2h1 + d1 = d2

3. Area E = 2h1 + d1 + d2 x h3
2

Then add all these areas (A, B, C, D and E) together to find the total cross-
section area.

Irregular Cross-Sections (Case 3 continued)

– Cut on sloping ground


– Control line offset

Figure 75 END AREA CALCULATIONS

The Cut Cross-Section area is calculated in the same way as for Fill on sloping
ground with Control line offset (Figure 73).

Irregular Cross-Sections (Case 3 continued)

– Side cut
– Control line offset

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Figure 76 END AREA CALCULATIONS

Area A in Cut = D1 + D3 x h1
2
Area B in Fill = D1 – D3 x h2
2

• Combination Sections

Figure 77 END AREA CALCULATIONS

Figure 78 END AREA CALCULATIONS


The steps in calculating the total cross-section area of combined sections are as
follows:

Divide the area into segments as shown in the sketch in Figures 77 and
78.
Calculate the area of each segment.
Add together the areas of all segments.

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3. EARTHWORK QUANTITIES

Material on the move has four properties that are of vital concern in earthworks
operations. These properties are:

• Weight
• Swell
• Load factor
• Compactability

In the calculation of earthwork quantities we have to consider two of these factors,


viz:

• Swell
• Compactability

Soil in its natural state, having weathered and settled in place, contains few air voids
or spaces.

When its volume is measured in this undisturbed state, the measurement may be
called the ‘bank’, ‘solid’ or ‘in place’ volume. The three terms all mean the same.

The term ‘bank’ volume will be used in this document.

When disturbed the soil is known as ‘Loose’ cubic metres, and when placed and
compacted is known as ‘Compacted’ cubic metres.

The measurements set out in a Schedule of Quantities are normally ‘bank’


measurements.

Changes of Volume

The excavation of most natural materials, followed by tipping and compacting in a


new location, will involve changes in volume.

When the material has not been excavated its condition is in ‘Bank’.

After excavation has taken place and it is being moved either by truck or scraper, it is
in a ‘loose’ state.

When it is tipped and rolled to form an embankment the volume is decreased due to
the reduction of voids. It is then said to be in a ‘compacted’ state.

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For calculation purposes it is usual to divide soils into four main types and to assume
a single factor for the conversion from ‘loose’ to ‘bank’ measure. These types and
typical factors are:

Sand and gravel = 1.00


Common earth = 0.95
Clay = 0.83
Shattered rock = 0.67
The factors that can be used in converting the state of soils from one another, ‘Bank’,
‘Loose’ and ‘Compacted’ are given below (Table 9). These are typical factors,
whereas actual factors for a particular job may vary from those tabled when there is a
mixture of soil, rock, decomposed rock etc.

Convert to
No. Material State Bank Loose Compact
1 Sand Bank 1.00 1.00 0.92
Loose 1.00 1.00 0.92
Compact 1.09 1.09 1.00
2 Common Bank 1.00 1.05 0.88
Earth Loose 0.95 1.00 0.84
Compact 1.14 1.19 1.00
3 Clay Bank 1.00 1.20 0.80
Loose 0.83 1.00 0.75
Compact 1.25 1.33 1.00
4 Rock Bank 1.00 1.50 1.40
Loose 0.67 1.00 0.93
Compact 0.71 1.07 1.00
Table 9 SOIL FACTOR TABLE

EXAMPLE:

To illustrate the use of this table, let us assume a supervisor is using an 18 cubic metre
scraper to load and transport clay material. Determine the ‘compacted’ volume. Since
the material is clay we use Section 3 of Table 9 above.

The scraper will carry 18 cubic metres Loose, so to convert this to Compact
measurement:
Select Loose in the columns headed ‘State’ and read off the factor (0.75) under the
column ‘Compact’. Multiply the loose volume by this factor – 18 x 0.75 = 13.5 m3

The material in a ‘Compact’ state will occupy 13.5 cubic metres.

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Density, Compaction and Bulking

• Density

The density of a material is the mass (weight) of a unit volume of that material, for
example:
• A cubic metre of water has a mass of 1 tonne (1000 kg) therefore it has a
density of 1 tonne per cubic metre (t/m2), i.e. 1000 kg/m3
• A cubic metre of steel has a mass of 7850 kg so steel has a density of
7850 kg/m3
• Concrete has a density of 2400 kg/m3
The density of soil varies. Loose, it may weigh 1450 kg/m3 but if well compacted it
may weigh 1760 kg/m3

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To calculate density of a material we divide the mass of the material by its volume.

EXAMPLE:

If a quantity of gravel has a mass of 3.2 tonnes and a volume of 2 m3, find the density
of gravel.

Density = Mass = 3.2 t/m3 = 1.6 t/m3


Volume 2

Tonnes per cubic metre


(t/m) Loose measure
No. Material Wet Dry
1 Sand and gravel 1.90 1.60
2 Earth, loam 1.80 1.20
3 Clay 1.80 1.02
4 Sandstone – 1.30
5 Limestone – 1.60
Table 10 APPROPRIATE DENSITIES
OF MATERIAL

• Loose Density

The weight of a cubic metre of soil placed loosely is called its loose density.

A box 1 m wide, 1 m long and 1 m deep – that is, 1 m3 is filled loosely with soil from
a stockpile then levelled across the top. Assuming the box weighed 15 kg empty, it
would probably weigh 1445 kg when full of loose soil. This means that one cubic
metre of loose soil weighs 1430 kg; that is the solid has a loose density of 1430
kg/m3.

• Compacted Density

The weight of a cubic metre of compacted solid is called its compacted density.

Assume a sledge hammer was used to pack down the soil in the box, more soil added
and packed down then the surface struck off level. We would probably find the box
with the compacted soil would weigh about 1760 kg. This means the weight of the
compacted soil is 1745 kg; that is, the soil has a compacted density of 1745 kg/m3.
This is what happens with earthworks. Earth in the field is not compacted. When a
truck or grader passes over it, it is easily compressed in the wheel tracks, therefore it
is a little more compacted than loose stockpiled earth and it has a slightly greater
density than loose earth.

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• Bank Density

The density of the earth in a cutting before it is loosened is called its bank density.

Earth in the above example may have a bank density of 1600 kg/m3. When it is
loosened and loaded into trucks it expands or ‘bulks’. The same amount of earth
occupies a bigger space. It has a smaller density, 1430 kg/m3.

When it is placed in the fill it is compacted with heavy rolling equipment, in thin
layers, until it has reached the required compaction. At this stage it has been reduced
down to a smaller volume. It has a much greater density. It may have a compacted
density of 1780 kg/m3.

• Compaction of Earth

If we were to measure the earth handled in one day in each of the three stages we
would find the following:

The hole left in the cutting might measure 1000 m3. Measured as the number of
loads in the scrapers, multiplied by the volume of the scraper, the loose measurement
would be 1150 m3.

The same earth compacted into the fill would measure 820 m3. So 1000 m3 of this
particular type of earth out of the cutting is required to make 820 m3 of compacted
fill. This reduction in volume is as a result of compaction. The design staff in
calculating the design and the quantities of cuts and fills make allowances for this
compaction.

When estimating how much is left in the cutting, and how much is required to
complete the fill, compaction should be allowed for.

• Bulking of Rock

So far we have only spoken about earth. Hard rock behaves differently. Hard solid
unbroken rock (solid granite) has no air gaps (voids) between particles. It can have a
bank density of 2400 kg/m3. When it is shattered it is broken up into a lot of small
pieces with air gaps between the pieces. The same amount of rock now occupies a
much larger volume – it has a smaller density about (1720 kg/m3) – it has ‘bulked’.

When an attempt is made to compact rock the reduction in volume is only small.
Rolling breaks down some of the pieces and rearranges them so that they lock
together, but there is little compaction. The broken rock may end up with a
compacted density of 2000 kg/m3 but still ‘bulked’ compared with the original solid
rock.

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• Earth and Rock

Many jobs are a mixture of earth and rock. Providing there is sufficient earth to
prevent most of the rocks from touching each other the material will behave as earth
but with slightly less compaction than for earth alone.

If all the rocks are touching and there is just enough earth to fill the space between
the rocks then 1000 m3 in the cutting may measure 1000 m3 in the fill.

If there is not enough earth to fill the space between the rocks there will be some
bulking but less than for rock alone.
Earth bulks or swells when removed from the natural state but does not reduce much
in volume when compacted.

The following figures can be used as a guide in estimating earthworks but are by no
means accurate. They all refer to a volume of 1000 m3 in the undisturbed cutting
(bank).

Bank Loose in Compacted


Volume trucks in fill
Sand clay 1000 1100 900
Clay 1000 1200 850
Loam 1000 1150 820
Solid rock 1000 1400 1300
Rock and earth 1000 1150 1050
(rock touching)
Table 11 SWELL FACTORS

Borrow Pits

The measurement of the volume of material that can be obtained from a Borrow Pit
is normally carried out by a method known as Volume from Spot Levels.

This method is used to calculate earthworks involved in the excavation for borrow
pits, culverts and other similar works where the sides are assumed to be vertical.

The calculation is simplified if the formation is to be fixed level or to fixed falls, or


the borrow pit is split up into several benches of known levels.

Having located the outline of the borrow pit on the ground the following procedure is
carried:

• The area is divided up into sections which can take the shape of squares,
rectangles or triangles.
• Levels are taken at each of the corner points.

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This data is then used to prepare a Borrow Pit Site Plan from which volumes of
material can be calculated.

The procedure that is normally adopted is similar to the method used in the Average
End Area of calculating volumes of material in Cuts and Fills, instead we substitute
height for the horizontal distance.

The steps in calculating the volume of material in a Borrow Pit are:

• The levels which are taken at each of the corner points are subtracted
from the corresponding formation levels to obtain the height of each
truncated prism formed by the division of the pit area into separate
sections.
(The prisms are called truncated because unless the ground and formation
levels are parallel the end planes are not parallel to each other.)
• The corner heights are added together and the mean (i.e. average) height
of each truncated prism found.
• The volume of each prism is found by multiplying the plan area of the
prism by its mean height.

EXAMPLE:

Figure 79 shows the reduced levels of a rectangular plot which is to be excavated to a


RL of 00. Assuming the sides to be vertical, calculate the volume of earth to be
excavated.

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Figure 79 BORROW PIT CALCULATIONS

1. Draw the area out on a sheet of paper and divide it up into rectangular area,
write in the levels at the corner points of each area (see Figure 79).

2. Calculate the depth of excavation for each corner point and tabulate, for
example:
Station A: 40 – 00 = 40

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Station Depth (m) of


excavation
A 40
B 30
C 40
D 20
E 25
F 35
G 10
G 15
J 10

3. Calculate the mean depth for each of the Areas 1, 2, 3 and 4. For example:

Area Mean depth


(m3)
A 40 1 28.75
B 30 2 32.50
D 20 3 17.50
E 25 4 21.25
115 = 28.75

4. Calculate the columns of each of the Areas 1, 2, 3, 4 by multiplying the mean


depth x the end area. For example:

Area 1, Area = 40 x 50
= 2000 m2
Volume = 28.75 x 2000
= 57,500 m3

5. Add all the volumes to obtain the total volume.

Area Volume (m3)


1 57,500
2 65,000
3 35,000
4 42,500
Total 200,000

Topsoil

Overlaying all pits we have a layer of organic material, topsoil which cannot be used
in road construction works. This has to be calculated and deducted from the volume
of material available from the Borrow Pit.

The normal method that is adopted to determine the average volume of topsoil is to
find the depth of topsoil by investigation and multiply by the area of the pit.

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Stockpiles

Materials when placed in piles will stand with slopes taking up a natural ‘angle of
repose’ and this varies between 20° to 45° according to the type of material.

The natural ‘angle of repose’ can be obtained, for example, by measuring the angle a
stockpile of material makes with the ground, which has been placed by a truck,
conveyor belt or front end loader, as shown in Figure 81.

• The angle of repose of sand or gravel is 37° approximately.


• The angle of repose of crushed stone is 40° approximately.

For example, a conical stockpile of crushed stone 10 m high has a capacity of 2,100
tonnes. A stockpile of gravel or sand has a capacity of 2,500 tonnes. The reason for
this is because the crushed stone assumes a steeper angle or repose. Its stockpile
capacity (volume) is less.

When materials are placed in stockpiles they can take up various shapes:

• Conical shaped piles


• Tent shaped piles
• Flattened tent shaped piles.

• Volume of Conical Shaped Piles

The volume of a conical shaped pile is calculated as follows:

1. Measure the diameter of the pile – D.


2. Measure the height of the pile – H.
3. Using the diameter D calculate the radius and then the base area.
Base Area = • r2
4. Calculate the volume – from the basic mathematics, the volume of a cone
is:

D x height x π2

Figure 80 VOLUME OF A CONE

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Figure 81 ANGLE OF REPOSE

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• Volume of Tent Shaped Stockpiles

Figure 82 VOLUME OF TENT SHAPED STOCKPILES

The volume of a Tent Shaped Stockpile is calculated as follows:

1. Measure the width of the pile. – W

2. Measure the height of the pile. – H

3. Measure the overall length of the pile.– OL

4. The ends of the stockpile normally form two half cones and the centre
section a triangular prism.
To calculate the volume of the stockpile, find the volumes of the:
a. Cone which has a diameter equal to the width of the pile and the same
height.
b. Triangular prism which has the same width and height as the cone,
and a length equal to the overall measured length minus the diameter
of the cone.

5. Using the width, height and length of the centre triangular prism section,
calculate the volume of the triangular prism.
1 x width x height x (overall length – width)
2

6. Calculate the volume of the cone.


D x π2 height

7. Add the volumes together to obtain the total volume of the tent shaped
stockpile.

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Figure 83 CALCULATION OF STOCKPILES

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EXAMPLE (Conical Stockpile):


A conical stockpile of sand has a height of 10 metres and a base diameter of 26
metres. Determine the volume of material in the stockpile.

Volume = D x height x π2

= D x π2 132 x 10

= 1769 m3

EXAMPLE:

A tent shaped stockpile of crushed stone has a height of 9 metres, a width of 20 metres
and an overall length of 60 metres. Determine the volume of material in the stockpile.

1. Width = 20 metres

2. Height = 9 metres

3. Overall length = 60 metres

4. Calculate the end area of the triangular prism.


½ x width x height

= ½ x 20 x 9

= 90 m2
The length of the triangular prism:
= overall length – width of stockpile
= 60 – 20
= 40 m
Calculate volume of the triangular prism:
= 90 x 40
= 3600 m3

5. Calculate volume of the two half conical ends:


D x π 102 x 9

= 943 m3

6. The total volume of the tent shaped stockpile of crushed stone, i.e. the
addition of Step 4 and Step 5:
3600 m3 + 943 m3
= 4542 m3

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Figure 84 CALCULATION OF STOCKPILES


• Volume of Flattened Tent Shaped Stockpiles

Figure 85 VOLUME OF FLATTENED TENT SHAPED STOCKPILES


The volume of a flattened tent shaped stockpile is calculated as follows:

1. Measure the width of the pile at the base – W


2. Measure the width of the pile at the top – W1
3. Measure the length of the pile at the top – L
4. Measure the overall length of the pile at the base – OL
5. Measure the height of the pile – H

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6. The ends of the stockpile can be thought of as being joined so as to give a


tent shaped volume similar to Figure 83 and the centre section as a
flattened triangular (trapezoidal) prism.
To calculate the volume of the stockpile, find the volume of:
(a) the tent shaped ends joined together having an overall length equal
to the width of the base of the stockpile and a length of prism equal
to width of the pile at the top.
(b)the remaining trapezoidal prism.

7. Calculate the volume of the tend shaped ends.


Volume = Volume of cone + Volume of triangular prism
= D x (W – W1)2 1 H + 1 x (OL – L) x H x W1
4 2
= 1 x (W – W1) 2 H + 1 x (OL – L) x H W1
12 2

8. Calculate the volume of the trapezoidal prism.


Volume = End area x length (refer to Figure 84)
= W + W1 x H x L
2

9. Add the volumes together to obtain the total volume of the flattened tent
shaped stockpile.

EXAMPLE:

A flattened tent shaped stockpile of screenings has a height of 3 metres, a base width of
10 metres, a top width of 6 metres, an overall length at the base of 50 metres and length
at the top of 40 metres. Determine the volume of material in the stockpile.

1. Width base W = 10 m

2. Width top W1 = 6m

3. Length top L = 40 m

4. Overall length OL = 50 m

5. Height H = 3m

6. Calculate the volume of the ten shaped ends.


Volume = 1 x (W – W1)2 H + 1 x (OL – L) x H x W1
12 2
2
= 1 x (10 – 6) 3 + 1 x (50 – 40) x 3 x 6
12 2
3
= 13 + 90 m
= 103 m3

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7. Calculate the volume of the trapezoidal prism.


Volume = (W + W1) x H x L
2
= (10 + 6) x 3 x 4
2
= 960 m3

8. The total volume of the flattened tent shaped stockpile is the addition of
Step 6 and Step 7.
= 103 + 960 m3
= 1063 m3

A less accurate calculation may be carried out on the same flattened tent shaped
stockpile by assuming that the corners are square.

Figure 86 VOLUME OF FLATTENED TENT SHAPED STOCKPILES

Volume = average length x average width x height


= (OL + L) x (W + W1) x H
2 2

EXAMPLE:

Calculate the previous example using this method.


Volume = (50 + 40) x (10 + 6) x 3
2 2
= 45 x 8 x 3
= 1080 m3

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4. ESTIMATING, OWNING AND OPERATING COSTS

Machine users must balance Productivity and Costs to achieve optimum


performance; that is, achieve the desired production at the lowest cost. The approach
most often used to measure machine performance is the simplest equation:

Lowest Possible Hourly Costs = Top Machine Performance


Highest Possible Hourly Productivity

This section considers the cost aspect of performance.

Hourly Owning and Operating Costs for a given model of machine can vary widely
because they are influenced by many factors: the type of work the machine does,
local prices of fuel and lubricants, shipping costs from the factory, interest rates, etc.
No attempt is made here to provide precise hourly costs for each model. Users must
be able to estimate with a reasonable degree of accuracy what a machine will cost per
hour to own and operate in a given application and locality. Therefore, this section
provides a suggested method of estimating hourly owning and operating costs when
coupled with local conditions, will permit accurate estimates to be made.

The method suggested follows several basic principles:

• No prices provided for any items. For reliable estimates, these must
always be obtained locally.
• Calculations are based on the complete machine. Separate estimates are
not necessary for the basic machine, dozer, control, etc.
• The multiplier factors provided will work equally well in any currency
expressed in decimals.
• Because of different standards of comparison, what may seem a severe
application to one machine owner may appear only average to another.
Therefore, to better describe machine use, operating conditions and
applications are defined in zones.
• Unless otherwise specified, the word ‘hour’, when used in this section,
means clock or operating hours, not Service Meter Units.

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Estimating Owning Costs


(See Table 13 Line Items 1 through 7)

To protect his investment in equipment and be able to relate it, the machine owner,
for accounting purposes, estimates loss of market value in a piece of equipment by
establishing depreciation schedules according to the various uses of the equipment.
Proper financial and tax assistance is highly recommended when establishing
depreciation schedules.

The machine depreciation method suggested here is not based on or related to any tax
considerations, but rather is a simple straight line write-off based solely on the
number of years or hours the owner expects to use the machine gainfully.
Considering today’s economic conditions worldwide and the trend toward larger,
more expensive equipment, many users choose to keep these units on the job well
after they have been fully depreciated for tax purposes. On the other hand, tax
incentives in many areas may favour trading a machine well before it approaches the
limits of its useful life.

Accordingly, it is imperative that careful consideration be given to the selection of


depreciation period, and that for owning and operating costs calculation they be
based on useful life rather than tax write-off life. Recognise, however, that factors
other than operating conditions can influence machine depreciation periods – an
owner’s wish to accelerate recovery of his investment, purchase of a machine for a
job of specific duration, local economic conditions, availability for foreign exchange
to buy a replacement, and many others.

Maintenance practices are not considered in this table but play an important part in
determining economic life of machinery. For example, operating conditions may
suggest a 12,000 hour depreciation period for a machine, but poor maintenance could
make it uneconomical to retain the unit beyond 10,000 hours. Good, regular
maintenance often can extend economical machine life.

Therefore, a knowledge of the intended use, operating conditions and maintenance


practices, plus any special factors, is essential in establishing expected machine life
for depreciation purposes.

• Delivered Price
(Table 13 Line Item 1(a), (b) and (c)).

Delivered price should include all costs of putting a machine to work on the user’s
job including transportation and any applicable sales taxes.

On rubber tyred machines, tyres are considered a wear item and covered as an
operating expense.

Accordingly, some users may wish to deduct tyre costs from the delivered price
particularly for larger machines.

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• Residual Value at Replacement


(Table 13(a) Line Item 2 and Table 15)

Any piece of earthmoving machinery will have some residual value at trade-in time.
While many owners prefer to depreciate their equipment to zero value, others
recognise the residual amount representing resale or trade-in value. This is at the
option of the estimator, not as in the depreciation periods, today’s higher equipment
costs almost dictate that resale value be considered in determining the net depreciable
investment. And if machines are traded early for tax incentive purposes, resale value
becomes even more significant.

For many owners, potential resale or trade-in value is a key factor in their purchasing
decisions, since this is a means of reducing the investment they must recover through
depreciation charges. The high resale value of machines can reduce hourly
depreciation charges, lower total hourly owning costs and improve the owner’s
competitive position.

When resale or trade-in value is used in estimating hourly owning and operating
costs, local conditions must be considered, as used equipment values vary widely
around the world. However, in any given used equipment market, factors which have
greatest influence on resale or trade-in value are the number of hours on the machine
at the time of sale or trade, they type of jobs and operating conditions in which it
worked, and the physical condition of the machine. Your local dealer is your best
source for determining current used equipment values.

Subsection 2A (Table 15) can be used to calculate the estimated residual value. If
recent auction process for used machines are used as a guide, then the value (or
percentage) should be adjusted downward to remove the effect of inflation.
Governmental indices of the cost of construction equipment or Dealer records of
process can be used to calculate the amount of inflation for the appropriate useful
life. Another way to estimate residual value is to compare the current value of used
machines to the current price of a new machine provided major product changes
haven’t occurred.

• Value to be Recovered Through Work


(Table 13 Line Item 3(a) and (b)).

The delivered price less the estimated residual value results in the value to be
recovered through work, divided by the total usage hours, gives the hourly cost to
protect the value of the asset.

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• Interest
(Table 13 Line Item 4)

Many owners charge interest as part of hourly owning and operating costs, while
other prefer to consider it as general overhead in their overall operation. When
charged to specific machines, interest is usually based on the owner’s average annual
investment in the unit.

Interest is considered to be the cost of using capital. The interest on capital expended
for a machine purchase must be considered, whether the machine is purchases
outright or financed.

If the machine will be used for N years (N = number of years of use), calculate the
average annual investment during the use period and apply the interest rate and
expected annual usage.

[(N + 1) x Delivered Price] x Simple Interest % rated


2N
hours / year

• Insurance and Taxes

The cost of insurance and property taxes can be calculated in one of two ways. If the
specific annual costs is known this figure should be multiplied by the estimated usage
(hours/years) and used. However, when the specific interest and tax costs for each
machine are not known, the following formulas can be applied:

Insurance
N = No. of Years
(N + 1 x Delivered Price) x Insurance rate %
2N
hours / years

Property Tax
N = No. of Years

(N + 1 x Delivered Price) x Tax rate %


2N
hours / years

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Estimating Operation Costs

• Fuel Consumption
(Table 14 Line Item 8)

Fuel consumption can be closely measured in the field. However, if no opportunity


exists to do this, consumption can be predicted when the machine application is
known.

Application determines engine load factor which in turn controls engine fuel
consumption. An engine continuously producing full rated horsepower is operating
at a load factor of 1.0. Earthmoving machines may reach a 1.0 load factor
intermittently, but seldom operate at this level for extended periods of time. Periods
spent at idle, dozer and pusher travel in reverse, haul units travelling empty, close
manoeuvring at part throttle and operating downhill are examples of conditions
which reduce load factor.

To estimate hourly fuel cost, determine the load factor based on application and
ascertain hourly consumption. Then:

Hourly consumption x Local Unit Price of Fuel = Hourly Fuel Cost

When determining fuel usage, keep in mind the many variables which can affect
consumption. Two operators of different temperament or attitude operating identical
machines side by side in the same material can have as much as 10 – 12% difference
in their consumption rates.

Keep in mind also that a fuel consumption study measured over a short period of
operation will give higher fuel consumption than overall: (1) the study will be at
100% efficiency, without breaks or idle time, and (2) the operators will know they’re
‘under the gun’ to produce and look good.

• Lube Oil, Filters, Grease


(Table 14 Line Item 9 and Table 16)

Guide for estimating local hourly cost of filters.

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The approximate hourly costs are determined by using the formula below:

Filters Change # Filters Cost ** Filters / Total cost


interval* (hr) ($) 2000 hr ($)
Engine 250
Transmission 500
Hydraulic 500
Fuel - Primary 2000
Secondary 1000
Air - Primary 2000
Secondary

Total Filter Cost / 2000 hr = $


Total Cost $ / 2000 hr = $ Hourly Filter Cost

* Recommended change interval may vary with machine and sulfur content of
diesel fuel. Always consult Lube and Maintenance Guide.
** Cost of filter is suggested consumer list price. For the small excavators, we
assumed an average of $6.50 per filter.

NOTE: The approximate hourly filter costs do not include labour. To determine
your labour cost you can apply your hourly rate to 5 minutes per each
filter change. For example, if your labour rate is $20.00 per hour, then
your labour cost for one filter would be $1.66.

Total number of filters changes over a 2000 hour period. Includes engine crankcase,
transmission, hydraulic, fuel (primary and final) and air (primary and secondary).

• Tyres

Tyre costs are an important part of the hourly cost of any wheel machine. The best
estimate of this item is obtained when tyre life figures based on experience are used
with prices the machine owner actually pays for the replacement tyres.

As an additional assist in estimating hauling unit tyre life, Goodyear Tyre and Rubber
Co has furnished the following information which is included here with their
permission. Read the preamble carefully.

“… at present, there is no completely accurate, fool-proof method of forecasting tyre


life. Tyre engineers have many theoretical methods … but these generally are so
involved and time consuming that they are impractical for field use.

“However, the tyre industry has many surveys of tyre performance and arrived at a
system which can give rough estimates of tyre life. Studies done by the major tyre
companies and by at least two major equipment manufacturers are in close
agreement. The table (which follows) shows how to apply this system …”

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No. Condition Factor


I Maintenance
– Excellent 1.090
– Average .981
– Poor .763
II Speeds (maximum)
– 10 mph - 16 km/h 1.090
– 20 mph - 32 km/h .872
– 30 mph - 48 km/h .763
III Surface Conditions
– Soft earth - no rock 1.090
– Soft earth - some rock .981
– Well maintained - gravel road .981
– Poorly maintained - gravel road .763
– Blasted - sharp rock .654
IV Wheel positions
– Trailing 1.090
– Front .981
– Driver (rear dump) .872
– Driver (bottom dump) .763
– Self-propelled scraper .654
V Loads (see No. VIII None)
– T&RA / ETRTO* Recommended Loading 1.090
– 20% Overload .872
– 40% Overload .545
VI Curves
– None 1.090
– Medium .981
– Severe .872
VII Grades (drive tyres only)
– Level 1.090
– 5% maximum .981
– 15% maximum .763
VIII Other Miscellaneous Combinations (see note below)
– None 1.090
– Medium .981
– Severe .872
Table 12 ESTIMATED TYRE SERVICE OF HAULING
UNITS (TRUCKS AND SCRAPERS)

Condition VIII (Table 12) is to be used when overloading is present in combination


with one ore more of the primary conditions of maintenance, speeds, surface
conditions and curves. The combination of severe levels in these conditions, together
with an overload, will create a new and more serious condition which ill contribute to
early tyre failure to a larger extend than will the individual factors of each condition.

Replacement tyre process should always be obtained from local tyre company
sources.

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Since tyres are considered a wear item in this method of estimating, owning and
operating costs, total tyre replacement cost is deducted from machine delivered price
to arrive at a net figure for depreciation purposes. Outlay for tyres is then included as
an item in operating costs:

Hourly Tyre Cost= Replacement Cost of Tyres


Estimating Tyre Life in Hours

Recapping can sometimes lower hourly tyre cost. Considerations are availability of
moulds, local recapping costs, and experience with recap life.

• Undercarriage
(Table 14 Line Item 10(b))

Undercarriage expense can be a major portion of the operating costs for track-type
machines, and these costs can vary independently of basic machine costs, that is, the
undercarriage can be employed in an extremely abrasive, high-wear environment
while the basic machine may be in an essentially easy application, and vice-versa.
For that reason, it is recommended that the hourly cost of undercarriage be calculated
separately as a wear item rather than being included in the repair reserve for the basic
machine. Notice that the repair reserves (Line Item 11) DO NOT include provision
for undercarriage replacement.

Three primary conditions affect probable life-expectancy of track-type undercarriage.

Impact

The most measurable effect of impact is structural – that is, bending, chipping,
cracking, spalling, roll-over, etc. and problems with hardware and pin and
brushing retention.

Impact ratings:

High – Non penetrable hard surfaces with 150 mm (6”) or higher


bumps.
Moderate – Partially penetrable surfaces and bumps of 75 – 150 mm (3-6”)
height.
Low – Completely penetrable surfaces (which provide full show plate
support) with few bumps.

Abrasiveness

The tendency of the underfoot materials to grind away the wear surfaces of
track components.

Abrasiveness ratings:

High – Saturated wet soils containing a high proportion of hard,


angular or sharp sand or rock particles.

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Moderate – Slightly or intermittently damp soils containing a low


proportion of hard, angular or sharp particles.
Low – Dry soils or rock containing a low proportion of hard, angular
or sharp sand or rock ship particles.

Impact and abrasiveness in combination can accelerate wear rates beyond their
individual effects when considered alone, thus further reducing component life.
This should be taken into account in determining impact and abrasiveness
ratings or, if preferred, the combination can be included in selecting the ‘Z’
factor.

‘Z’ Factor

Represents the combined effect on component life of the many intangible


environmental, operation and maintenance consideration on a given job.

– Environment and Terrain

Earth which may not be abrasive itself can pack in sprocket teeth, causing
interference and high stress as the teeth engage the bushings. Corrosive
chemicals in the materials being moved or in the natural soil can affect
wear rates, while moisture and temperature can exaggerate the effect.
Temperature alone can play its own role – hot slag and hard-frozen soils
being the extremes. Constant side-hill work can increase wear on the
downhill sides of components.

– Operation

Some operator practices tend to increase track wear and cost if not
controlled on the job. Such practices include high-speed operation,
particularly in reverse; tight turns or constant corrections in direction; and
stalling the tractor under load forcing the tracks to slip.

– Maintenance

Good maintenance – proper track tension, daily cleaning when working


in sticky materials etc. – combined with periodic wear measurement and
timely attention to recommended services can extend component life and
lower costs by minimising the effects of these and other adverse
conditions.

While impact and abrasion should be too difficult to judge, selection of the
proper ‘Z’ factor will require careful analysis of job conditions such as weather,
tendency for soil packing, side-hill loading, corrosive environment, etc.;
operational factors such as high-speed reverse, tight turns, track slippage under
overload etc.; and maintenance considerations such as proper tensioning etc.

Selection of the ‘Z’ multiplier is strictly a matter of judgment and common


sense, but is effect on cost can be the difference between profit on a controlled
job and heavy loss where control is allowed to slip. To assist in arriving at an

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appropriate value for the ‘Z’ factor, consider that proper maintenance – or the
lack thereof – will represent about 50% of its effect, environment and terrain
30%, and operator practices 20%. Thus even a good operator working under
good field conditions can be counterbalanced by poor maintenance practices to
yield a fairly high ‘Z’ factor. On the other hand, close attention to
maintenance, tension and alignment can more than offset a bad underfoot
condition resulting in severe sprocket packing, and lead to selection of a
moderate to low ‘Z’ factor. Obviously, flexibility in selection of a ‘Z’ factor
has been built into the system, and use of this flexibility is encouraged.
Further, a considerable measure of control can be maintained over the ‘Z’
factor and any reduction of its effects is money in the bank. Your Dealer can
be invaluable in this endeavour for and undercarriage cost control program.

• Repair Reserve
(Table 14 Line Item 11)

Repairs are normally the largest single item in operating costs and included all parts
and direct labour (except operator’s wages) chargeable to the machine. Shop
overhead can be absorbed in general overhead or charged to machines as a
percentage of direct labour cost, whichever is the owner’s normal practice.

Hourly repair costs for a single machine normally follow an upward stairstep pattern
since major outlays for repairs usually come in spurts. However, when broad
averages are considered, the stairstep becomes a smooth, upward curve. Since this
hourly repair cost curve starts low and gradually rises over the life of the machine,
hourly operating costs must be adjusted upward as the unit ages. Alternatively an
average repair cost can be used which provides a straight line graph. Most owners
prefer the average method, and it is the one suggested here.

Since repair costs are low initially and rise gradually, averaging them produces extra
funds at first which are reserved to cover the higher costs to be experienced later.

Machine applications, operating conditions and maintenance attention determine


repair costs. In any specific application, actual cost experience on similar work
provides the best basis for establishing the hourly repair reserve.

The cost per hour resulting from application of these basic factors and multipliers
will be the average hourly cost over the entire period. This should produce an excess
in the early hours (or a ‘sinking fund’) to cover normal increases in actual repair costs
as the machine ages.

As stated, repair costs are affected by application, operations, maintenance, and age
of the equipment. The most significant effects on cost will be those factors affecting
major component life. A second significant factor is whether the repair is performed
before or after catastrophic failure. A before failure repair of a major component can
be one-third of an after failure repair with only a moderate sacrifice in life (see Figure
87 next page). The before failure repair point should be just prior to failure to
achieve optimum cost per hour. Maintenance practices are significant because of
scheduled, before failure repairs.

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Another important factor in the use of repair reserve estimates is the Service Meter
Unit (SMU) or hour basis. The cost estimate should flexed depending on the duty
cycle of the machine. Fuel consumption is often a good indicator of duty cycle, and
this factor may override the application zone. All of these factors are significant to
estimating repair costs and should be weighed carefully.
(Table 14 Line Item 12 and Table 17)

Figure 87 COMPONENT LINE GRAPH

• Special Wear Items

All costs for high-wear items such as cutting edges, ripper tips, bucket teeth, body
liners, router bits etc. and welding costs on booms and sticks should be included
here. These costs will vary widely depending on applications, materials and
operating techniques. Consult your Dealer Parts Department for estimated life under
your job conditions.

• Operating Hourly Wage


(Table 14 Line Item 15)
This item should be based on local wage scales and should include the associated on
costs.

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HOURLY OWNING AND OPERATING COST ESTIMATE


Date
(1) (2)
Machine designation
Estimated ownership period (years)
Estimated usage (hours/year)
Ownership usage (total hours)
Owning Costs
1. (a). Delivered price (inc. attachments)
(b) Less tyre replacement cost if desired
(c) Delivered price less tyres
2. Less residual value at replacement (%) (%)
(see subsection 2A)
3. (a) Value to be recovered through work
(line 1(c) less line 2)
(b). Cost per hour
Value (1) (2)
Hours
(1) (2)
4. Interest Costs
N = No. Yrs
N + 1 x Del. Price x Simple Int % Rate =
2N
Hours / Years
(1) +1 x ___ x _____%
_______________ (2) +1 x ___ x _____%
_______________
____ Hrs/Yr ____ Hrs/Yr
5. Insurance
N = No. Yrs
N + 1 x Del. Price x Insurance % Rate =
2N
Hours / Years
(1) +1 x ___ x _____%
_______________ (2) +1 x ___ x _____%
_______________
____ Hrs/Yr ____ Hrs/Yr
OR
$________ Per Year / ________ Hrs/Yr =
6. Property Tax
N + 1 x Del. Price x Tax Rate % =
2N
Hours / Years
(1) +1 x ___ x _____%
_______________ (2) +1 x ___ x _____%
_______________
____ Hrs/Yr ____ Hrs/Yr
OR
$________ Per Year / ________ Hrs/Yr =
7. Total Hourly Owning Cost
(add lines 3(b), 4, 5 and 6)

Table 13 COST ESTIMATE

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HOURLY OWNING AND OPERATING COST ESTIMATE


8. Fuel: Unit Price x Consumption
(1) ____ x ____ = (2) ____ x ____ =
9. Lube oils, filters, grease:
(see subsection 12A on back)
(1) (2)
10. (a) Tyres: Replacement Cost
Life in Hours
Cost (1) ____ Cost (2) ____
Life Life
(b)Undercarriage
(Impact + Abrasiveness + Z Factor) x
Basic Factor
(1) ( ___ + ___ + ___ ) (2) ( ___ + ___ + ___ )
= _____ x _____ = = _____ x _____ =
(Total) (Factor) (Total) (Factor)
11. Repair reserve
Extended Use Multiplier x Basic Repair Factor
(1) ____ x ____ = (2) ____ x ____ =
12. Special Wear Items
Cost
Life (see Subsection 12A on back)
13. Total Operating Costs
(add lines 8, 9, 10a (or 10b), 11 and 12)
14. Machine Owning Plus Operating
(add lines 7 and 13)
15. Operator’s Hourly Wage
16. Total Owning and Operating Costs

Table 14 COST ESTIMATE

Subsection 2A: Residual Value at Replacement (1) (2)


Gross Selling Price
(1) ( _____ %) _____ (2) ( _____ %) _____
Less (a) Commission
(b) Make-ready costs
(c) Inflation during ownership period*
Net Residual Value ( _______ %) ( _______ %)
of original delivered price

Table 15 COST ESTIMATE2A


* When used equipment auction prices are used to estimate residual value, the
effect of inflation during the ownership period should be removed to show in
constant value what part of the asset must be recovered through work.

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Subsection 9A: Lube Oils, Filters, Grease


Unit Price x Consumption = Cost / Hour
Engine (1) __________ x __________ = __________
Transmission __________ x __________ = __________
Final Drives __________ x __________ = __________
Hydraulic __________ x __________ = __________
Grease __________ x __________ = __________
Filters __________ x __________ = __________
Total (1) __________
Engine (2) __________ x __________ = __________
Transmission __________ x __________ = __________
Final Drives __________ x __________ = __________
Hydraulic __________ x __________ = __________
Grease __________ x __________ = __________
Filters __________ x __________ = __________
(Enter total on Total (2) __________
line 9)
Table 16 SUBSECTION 9A

Subsection 12A: Special Items (cutting edges, ground engaging tools,


bucket teeth, excavator stick repair etc.)

(1) Cost / Life = Cost / Hour


1. __________ / __________ = __________
2. __________ / __________ = __________
3. __________ / __________ = __________
4. __________ / __________ = __________
5. __________ / __________ = __________
6. __________ / __________ = __________
Total (1) __________
(2) Cost / Life = Cost / Hour
1. __________ / __________ = __________
2. __________ / __________ = __________
3. __________ / __________ = __________
4. __________ / __________ = __________
5. __________ / __________ = __________
6. __________ / __________ = __________
Total (2) __________
Enter total on line 12
Table 17 SUBSECTION 12A

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Example 1: Estimating Hourly Owning and Operating Costs of a Track-


Type Tractor

Assume a power shift track-type with straight bulldozer, hydraulic control, tilt
cylinder and three shank ripper, is purchased by a contractor for $135,000, delivered
price at a job site.

Application will be production dozing of bank gravel. Minimal ripping will be


required to loosen material.

In the following calculations, refer as necessary to the course material already


reviewed.

• Owning Costs

To determine Residual Value at Replacement:

Enter delivered price, $135,000, in space provided

Since the machine being considered is a track-type tractor, no tyres are involved.
This particular owner’s experience is that at trade-in time, the tractor will be worth
approximately 35% of its original value. This $47,250 trade-in value is entered
leaving a net of $87,750 to be recovered through work. Enter the value to be
recovered through work.

Indicated ownership period is 7 years with annual usage of 1200 hours per year or
8400 hours of total ownership usage.

Divide the Net Value, $87,750, by Ownership Usage, 8400 hours, and enter result
$10.45.

• Interest, Insurance and Taxes

In this example, local rates are assumed as follows:

Interest 16%
Insurance 1%
Taxes 1%
18%

Using the following formula:


N = 7:
(7 + 1 x $135,000) x 0.16 = $10.29
2 x 7

Enter $10.29 in space provided.

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Insurance and property taxes can also be calculated using the same formula as shown
for the interest cost, and entering them on lines 5 and 6.

Items 3(b), 4, 5 and 6 can now be added and the result, $22.02 entered in space -
Total Hourly Owning Costs.

• Operating Costs

Fuel

The intended application, production dozing, indicates a medium load factor.


Assume that the estimated fuel consumption is 18.1 litre/hour (4.8 US gal.
hour). Cost of fuel in this locality is $0.34/litre ($1.25/US gal.).

Consumption Unit Cost Total


18 litre. hr x $0.34 litre = $6.12

Enter this figure in the space provided.

Lube Oils, Filters, Grease

Assume an approximate hourly cost for lube oils, filters and grease (materials
and labour) for this tractor of $0.46. Enter this figure in space provided.

Tyres

Since this example considers a track-type tractor, this space is left blank.

Undercarriage

Our estimating reference gives an undercarriage cost basic factor of 6.2 for this
tractor. It is anticipated that with some ripping on the job, impact loadings of
the track components will be medium, indicating an ‘I’ multiplier of 0.1. The
gravel-sand mix in the bank, being dry, should be only moderately abrasive for
an ‘A’ multiplier of 0.1. In analysing the miscellaneous conditions: there is
enough clay in the bank to produce some packing of the sprockets; the operator
is careful, but is forced into some tight turns because of space limitations; there
is good drainage in the pit; track tension is checked weekly; and all track-type
equipment on the job is enrolled in the Custom Track Service program.
Accordingly, the ‘Z’ multiplier is judged to be somewhat greater than low level
– 0.3 in this case.

It should be noted that in applying particularly the ‘Z’ factor, rather wide
latitude for flexibility it provided and was used in the above example. Such
flexibility is intended and its use encouraged. Then:

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Cost per hour = Basic Factor x (I + A + Z)


Basic Factor = 6.2
Conditions Multipliers: I = 0.1
A = 0.1
Z = 0.3
Cost per hour 6.2 (0.1 + 0.1 + 0.3) = $3.10 which is entered in the space
provided.

Repairs

In determining the depreciation period, we established the intended use of the


machine as a Zone B application. The Repair Reserve graph for track-type
tractors indicates that the mid-range for our tractor is approximately 4.50 on the
basis of 10,000 hours of use. The tractor is to be used over 8,400 hours, so the
Extended-life Multiplier in this case is 1.0.

Therefore, Repair Reserve = 1.0 x 4.50 = $4.50 per hour, which is entered
in the space provided.

Special Items

Assuming the tractor is equipped with a three-shank ripper and an ‘S’ dozer,
allowance must be made for ripper tips, shank protectors, and dozer cutting
edges.

Assume your knowledge of the operation indicates the ripper will be used only
about 20% of total tractor operating time. Estimated tip life while in use is 30
hours. Therefore, tips will be replaced:

30 hours = each 150 hours of tractor operation


0.20

Shank protector life is estimated at three times tip life or 450 hours of tractor
operation. In this medium duty application, no shank replacement is expected
in the 8,400 hour depreciation period of the tractor.

Cutting edge life is estimated to be 500 hours.

Using local prices for these items, hourly costs are estimated as follows:

Tips: 3 @ $35.00 each = $0.70 per hour


150 hours

Shank Protectors: 3 @ $55.00 each = $0.37 per hour


450 hours

Cutting Edges: $125 per set = $0.25 per hour


500 hours

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The total of these, $1.32; is entered.


Items 8, 9, 10(b), 11 and 12 can now be added and the result, $15.63, entered in
the space provided.

Total Owning Costs, Total Operating Costs and Operator’s Hourly Wage are
now added together and the result, $57.65, is entered. The itemised estimate of
Hourly Owning Costs is now complete.

Example 2: Estimating Hourly Owning and Operating Costs of a Wheeled


Vehicle

With only a few simple changes, owning and operating costs for a wheeled vehicle
are calculated using the same format as that used for the Track-Type Tractor. Only
the differences will be explained as we look at example calculations for a wheel
loader.

• Owning Costs

To Determine Residual Value at Replacement:

Enter delivered price. The cost of tyres is deducted since they will be treated as a
wear item. For purposes of illustration, the Wheel Loader is estimated to have a
potential 48% trade-in value at the end of the 5 year / 7500 hour ownership usage,
leaving a net value to be recovered through work of $34,320.

• Interest, Insurance and Taxes

Refer to the formulas using the same rates as before and 1500 operating hours per
year. The factor 4.22 is applied to the interest cost.

Insurance and property taxes can also be calculated using the same formula as shown
for the interest cost.

The sum of lines 3(b), 4, 5 and 6 gives the total hourly owning cost, line 7.

• Operating Costs

Fuel

See the fuel consumption tables and apply the actual cost of purchasing fuel in
the project area.

Lube Oils, Filters etc.

Use either the item-by-item worksheet or the summary of tables. Enter the total
item on line 9.

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Tyres

Use the tyre replacement cost and the best estimate of tyre life based on
experience and anticipated job conditions.

Repairs

Using applicable basic repair factor for Zone B application assume factor
(4.00). Again, the use period for the wheel Loader is 7500 hours, so the
Extended-life Multiplier is 1.0. Therefore, Repair Reserve = 1.0 x 4.00 =
$4.00 per hour.

Special Items

Ground engaging tools, welding, etc. are covered here. Use current costs for
cutting edges and similar items. Use your best estimate for the hours of life
which can be expected from them based on previous experience in like
materials. Enter the total on line 12.

The total of lines 8 through 13 represents hourly operating cost.

Operator’s Wages

To give a true price of operator cost, include associated on costs (line 15).

Total O & O

The total of lines 7, 13 and 15 is the total hourly owning and operating costs of
the machine. Keep in mind that this is an estimate and can change radically
from project to project. For the greatest accuracy, the hour cost reflected in
actual on-the-job cost records should be used.

5. WORK SCHEDULING

All operations involved in loosening, removing, depositing, or compacting earth, soil,


or rock are termed earthworks. Earthworks are one of the most important
construction operations and require careful planning and effort. In order to plan the
construction effort required, the quantity of earthworks, as well as the soil and
vegetation conditions must be known so that the most efficient type and number of
machines can be chosen, and the appropriate time allotted. Once volumes have been
calculated, earthwork operations can generally be divided into the following five
categories:

• clearing
• stripping
• formation of cuttings and embankments
• subgrade treatment and
• pavement construction.

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The accuracy with which earthwork calculations are made depends upon the class of
construction involved, the preciseness of field measurements, and the time available.
Deliberate calculations should be made whenever possible as their omission may
result in much wasted time and effort, and the misemployment of resources.

Having completed the earthwork calculations and machine operating costs, it then
remains for the work activities to be scheduled in logical sequence for the most
efficient and cost-effective outcome.

This and the following pages set out a typical process for works scheduling.

PROJECT NAME / IDENTIFICATION:

COORDINATOR:

1. SCOPE OF WORKS
Outline of works associated with this activity.
2. PROGRAM / DEPENDANT WORKS
Activities critical to these works, plus activities that are dependant on these
works.
Who or what may we have to work together with to produce the best results.
3. QUALITY
Specification requirements, lot numbers, Inspection and Test Plans, Special
Construction Processes i.e. process requiring additional information, skills or
machinery.
4. COST CODES
Including daily costing if required.
5. CONSTRUCTION
5.1 Services Location, approvals, any planned
services
5.2 Survey As required, as builts, set out checking
5.3 Method Access, storage of materials, step-by-step
process, housekeeping requirements
Potential problems Downtime, machinery, absenteeism,
weather, materials
Safety / Environment Hazards involved in each step or any
outside influences, environmental
hazards which need to be controlled
5.4 Plant / Labour requirements alternatives if equipment / labour not
available
5.5 Tools / Materials What might need to be ordered now or in
the future? How we backup?
6. ACTION PLAN
What? Who? When?
Page 1 of 4

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PROJECT NAME / IDENTIFICATION:

COORDINATOR:

1. SCOPE OF WORKS
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
2. PROGRAM / DEPENDANT WORKS
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
3. QUALITY – SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS / LOT Nos. / ITP’s
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
4. COST CODES / DAILY COSTING
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
5. CONSTRUCTION
5.1 Services
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
5.2 Survey – Set out, As-Con, Check Survey, Other Information required
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
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Page 3 of 4

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5.4 Plant / Labour


Requirements

5.5 Tools /
Materials

6. ACTION PLAN
WHAT WHERE WHO WHEN

Page 4 of 4

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SUMMARY

In this section you have covered information on Organise Work.

The information you have been given so far will assist you in producing cost
estimates for a works program. The practical activities will establish the importance
of this understanding.

Self-check Exercises in this package are on yellow pages. The first exercise has
been designed to test your understanding of the information you have covered so far.
Remember that the self-check exercises are not part of the formal assessment of
competency for this module.

Answers to the self-check exercises are on the blue pages at the end of this package.

Your may find it useful to make your own brief summary / notes below of the five
topics for Organise Work.

Plant Productivity:

Earthworks Calculations:

Earthwork Quantities:

Estimating, Owning and Operating Costs:

Work Scheduling:

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SELF-CHECK

EXERCISE 2: ORGANISE WORK


1. What are four (4) main factors determining plant productivity?

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

2. What are five (5) uncontrolled factors when determining plant productivity?

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

3. With reference to front end loaders, what is meant by ‘struct’ capacity?

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

4. What are the three (3) factors to consider when selecting a roller for a particular
aspect of road construction?

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

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5. What are the four (4) factors required for the calculation of roller production?

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

6. What is the generally accepted methodology of calculating the end areas of cuts
and fills?

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

7. What are the three (3) steps in this process?

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

8. In earthwork quantities explain what is termed as:


(a) ‘bank’

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

(b) ‘loose’

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

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DEMONSTRATION

Your instructor will determine the nature and type of demonstration before you begin
the practical activity.

It could be a demonstration on: Estimating / Calculating Earthwork Volumes.

Example 1:

The demonstration will include the calculation of machine productivity, earthwork


calculations, including stockpiles, estimating owning costs and work scheduling.

You will be shown how to produce a cost estimate for a particular aspect of a
construction project.

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PRACTICAL
ACTIVITY

ACTIVITY 2: UNDERPIN A PARTICULAR STRUCTURE

Using the diagrams provided, calculate the earthwork volumes, plant output and
machine operating costs.

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SECTION 3 - PROMOTE SAFETY/OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

READ

INTRODUCTION

Section 3 of this package deals with the following aspects:

techniques for “walking” machine;


select safer route and explain reasons why;
purposes of protective gear;
manufacturer’s manuals machine safety procedure;
first aid techniques;
identify warning signs;
local safety regulations and compliance of same;
high risk situations for operators;
safe ways to manually move heavy objects; and
fire in earthmoving – main causes and extinguishers.

These areas include the essential information you will need to complete Assessment
Task 3 which addresses the third learning outcome:

Promote safety/occupational health.

The information presented in this section will allow you to cover the following
specific associated operations:

walk a machine between two given points on a site, choosing a course which
avoids hazards, without mistake;
given a choice of two routes across the site, select the safer route;
explain why the selected route is better in terms of safety;
identify the purpose of protective gear and describe situations when each item
should be used;
follow safety procedures in the manufacturers manual for starting, operating,
parking and shutdown of a given machine;
either produce a current first aid certificate from a recognised organisation,
such as St John or Red Cross; or demonstrate first aid techniques for
common injuries; describe the emergency procedures of serious injuries
on site;
identify warning signs and interpret their meanings without mistake;
state local safety regulations which apply to the site;
obtain agreement from a supervisor that safety regulations are complied with as
matter of habit;

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identify high risk situations for operators and describe ways of reducing the
risk;
demonstrate safe ways to lift, carry, push and pull heavy objects manually; and
describe and explain the main causes of fire in earthmoving, identify and
describe the uses of the different types of fire extinguishers.

The details required to complete the above Learning Outcomes will be presented
under the following six topics:

Mobile Plant Operations Safety Requirements


Personal Protection Equipment (PPE)
First Aid Techniques
Warning Signs
Manual Handling
Fire In Earthmoving

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY

Occupational Health and Safety Legislation

Occupational Health, Safety and Welfare laws in Australia are developed by each
State. In recent years these laws have become very similar and have reflected
national standards, guidelines and codes of practice.

The law in each State normally has three parts. These are:

An Act of the State Parliament (Occupational Health, Safety And Welfare Act);
Regulations made under the Act;
Approved Codes of Practices made under the Act.

When the State Health and Safety law refers to National (Australian) Standard
AS1470–1986 (Health and Safety at Work) place duties on all people to prevent
injuries and occupational diseases. Employers have multiple duties because they
have the most control and influence over workplace. Employees have duties to look
after themselves and the people with whom they work.

Respective State Legislation

In addition to national standards, each state has health and safety obligations which
apply to each particular jurisdiction. Your instructor will advise you as to the
respective state regulations.

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1. MOBILE PLANT OPERATIONS SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

Techniques for ‘Walking’ and ‘Operating’ the various types of earthmoving


machinery, are many and varied, depending on task requirements and site conditions.
Operator’s should familiarise themselves with the manufacturers manual for the
particular machine they are operating. There are however, some general rules which
all operators should comply with.

Roll Over Protective Structures (ROPS)

For Plant Purchased after 1 January 1991. All new mobile plant (except for road
trucks, paving machines and hydraulic excavators) which requires the operator to be
positioned upon the machine to operate it, shall be fitted with Roll Over Protective
Structures (ROPS) and seat belts if purchased new.

Plant Maintenance

Plant and plant parts, for example, tyres, shall be maintained at a standard which
keeps the plant in good working order during operation. There should be a reporting
system for parts breakdown to ensure prompt repair, log books should be kept for all
plant, and these log books should be used to record all significant repairs undertaken
for that item of plant or be updated as repairs are undertaken.

Plant Operation

Mobile plant shall be operated at all times in a safe manner. Particular attention
should be paid to vehicle speed in relation to site conditions, for example, slow speed
for congested sites. Seat belts, when fitted, shall be worn at all times unless the
wearing endangers the operator or others, for example, by restricting movement or
vision.

Tandem Riding

Under the employer or principal contractor’s safety procedures, only the operator or
other authorised persons are permitted to ride on mobile plant, or access any fixed
plant items. Persons shall only be given authority to ride on plant with the operator
for specific purposes, for example, training or fault finding.

Truck Operators

Rear Dump or Tipper Trucks. Truck operators, including tandem riders or


passengers during loading operations, shall remain either:

Totally within the cab of the truck, or


At a distance from the truck so that falling rocks and other debris cannot come
into contact with them. Persons shall only approach the truck after the
loading operation is completed and the load has been placed in a stable
position, that is, with no risk of more debris falling while the truck is
stationery.

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Reversing

All mobile plant shall be fitted with an operating audible and visible reversing signal.
The signal shall be audible for at least seven seconds after reversing starts and shall
remain visible during the reversing procedure. If the reversing procedure takes less
than seven seconds, the signal shall be audible throughout the reversing procedure.

Parking

Mobile plant shall be secured against rolling or any other movement, with blades,
buckets or other implements lowered to the ground when parked.

Motor-Powered Mobile Work Platforms

All motor-powered mobile work platforms or elevating shall be used in accordance


with AS1418–Cranes (including hoists and winches), Part 10–Elevating work
platforms.

Recommended Procedures for Plant Operations

Operators and persons-in-charge, that is, supervisors etc., should pay particular
attention to the following procedures. These are recommended during normal
operating conditions, that is, non-emergency situations:

Before Starting

Know the hand signals used on site.


Read and understand all warning signs in the cab.
Walk around the machine before mounting. Check for other people and safe
clearance. Look for signs of fluid leaks, tyre, track or implement
damage. Check mirrors, horn and lights and other safety devices.
Keep the windscreens, windows and mirrors clean. Ensure windscreen wipers
are in working order.
Check fire extinguishers, if fitted.
Inspect the machine for potential hazards. If a safety defect is found, the
machine should be tagged as such.
Mount and dismount the machine using the steps and grab handles. Use both
hands and face the machine. Keep all deck plates, steps and handles in
good repair and free of mud, grease and oil.
Inspect the seat belt, mounting hardware and seat suspension. Adjust the seat
and fasten the seat belt.
Make certain that no one is working on, under or close to the machine.
Check all fluid levels then move the transmission and implement controls into
neutral and engage parking brake.

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Plant Operation

Only allow authorised persons to ride in or on equipment.


Only get on or off a machine which is stationery. Never jump off a machine
during normal operations.
Ensure the machine is not overloaded.
Move off slowly and check that the brakes are working properly. Also check
that the steering is functioning correctly.
Make certain that the area in the direction of travel is clear of people and
obstructions. Use a spotter if necessary.
Only travel at a speed safe in the circumstances, for example, maintain a speed
which is safe for the condition of the roadway, grade, clearance, visibility
and traffic.
Never reverse a machine into or out of a line up. Leave adequate room to pull
out or drive through.
Only reverse a machine after you are sure there is no one behind the machine.
If in doubt take time to be certain.
Report any backup alarm which is not functioning correctly.
Yield right of way to a loaded machine. If in doubt, yield right of way in any
case.
Make sure there is adequate clearance from power lines.
Where practicable, avoid turning / working / travelling across a slope, as a
sharp turn up or down a hill may cause rollover.
When descending a grade use the same gear needed to climb it.
Follow other machines at a safe distance.
Stay a safe distance away the edge embankments.
Only pass in an allowed location. Only pass when given right of way. Only
pass when visibility is clear.
Only dig in an area after checking for the location of underground services.
Fit and use rotating flashing amber warning lights as per requirements of the
Traffic Act.
Use lights after dark and in dust or foggy conditions.

Shutting Down

Secure the machine before dismounting. Set parking brake and lower
attachments to the ground.
Check the wheels if the machine is to be left on an incline. Remove the
machine’s keys if these are used.
When parking at end of shift, leave room for service vehicles to pass.

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Risk Assessment

Employers and employees have a duty of care to prevent reasonably foreseeable harm
resulting from or associated with plant. The information gained through risk
management can guide a person as to the measures that should be taken in order to
prevent reasonably foreseeable harm associated with plant.

Since employers make up the majority of the people who have a duty of care with
respect to plant at a workplace, the following risk management procedure is aimed at
employers. However, the principles in risk management may also be useful for
employees and other people, as these principles can form the basis of other
techniques used to prevent reasonably foreseeable harm associated with plant.

Risk management is a logical and systematic approach to managing the uncertainty


regarding risk. Risk management is basically about:

identifying the hazards that exist in the workplace;


assessing the risks associated with those hazards; and
taking appropriate steps to eliminate or control those risks.

A hazard is something with the potential to cause injury or disease. A risk is the
probability of a hazard resulting in an injury or disease, together with the seriousness
of the injury or disease.

Plant has a number of phases during its life cycle. Risk management should address
all phases of the plant life cycle, including:

design
manufacture
storage
transportation
installation
commissioning
use
setting
cleaning
adjustment
maintenance and servicing.

A risk management process is a systematic method for making plant as safe as


possible. It can be implemented in various ways, but the basic steps remain the same.

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Principles of Risk Management

The principles of the risk management procedure are as follows:

Step 1: Identify the Hazards

In an example of a bulldozer, a hazard may be vibration existing in the cabin.

Identify the form the hazard takes, or the way it is manifested. In the example of the
bulldozer, the vibration may be transmitted via the seat or the controls.

There are a number of ways that can used to identify hazards associated with plant.
The type of plant and work processes involved will determine the method selected.
A combination of methods may give the most complete results. Methods of
identifying hazards associated with plant at a workplace include:

Walk-through survey of the workplace, preferably using a hazard checklist.


Work process evaluation, that is, procedures that have been devised for
evaluating work processes and identifying associated hazards, such as:
– HAZOP (Hazard and Operability Studies)
– HAZAN (Hazard Analysis)
– Fault Tree Analysis
– MORT (Management Oversight Risk Tree)
can be used to evaluate the tasks associated with plant that give rise to
hazards.
Consulting with other employees is one of the easiest and most effective means
of identifying hazards at the workplace. Employees are usually well
aware of what can go wrong and why, based on their experience with a
job.
‘Near miss’ incident, accident, injury, disease data relating to plant at a
workplace can be reviewed to help identify problem areas.
Manufacturer’s instructions are an important source of information regarding
the hazards associated with plant. They are usually statements of proper
use, that is, the risk controls for misuse.
Specialist practitioners and representatives of industry associations, union and
government bodies may be of assistance in gathering health and safety
information relevant to hazards associated with plant.

Step 2: Assess the Risk

Once a hazard has been identified, a risk assessment should be carried out in order to
determine the extent of the risk associated with the hazard. A risk assessment should
consider the risks to all people potentially affected by the hazard, including non-
employees such as sub-contractors and members of the public.

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A risk assessment should determine the following:

the occupations and tasks at risk;


the number of persons at risk;
the probability of a hazard resulting in an injury or disease;
the duration of exposure a person has to the hazard – this can range from
occasional to continuous exposure to the hazard;
the possible consequences (injury, disease, fatality) that may result.

Various techniques can be used to undertake a risk management. The Risk


Assessment Calculator is an example of one technique that can be used. The Risk
Assessment Calculator is intended as a rapid guide to identify the level of risk.

Methods outline above, can also be used to determine each of the elements in the risk
calculator, that is, probability, exposure, possible consequences.

To use the Risk Assessment Calculator:

select the appropriate point on the probability scale;


drawing a line, connect the point on the probability scale with the appropriate
point on the exposure scale;
extend the line so that it intersects with the tie line;
extend the line to the appropriate point on the possible consequences scale;
extend the line to the risk scare scale.

The risk score obtained can then be used to make a judgement about whether the
level of risk is acceptable or not. However, the risk score should only be used as a
basis for reasoned judgement about a risk and should be interpreted with caution, as
it has certain limitations, for instance, it is not possible to describe complex human
behaviour by numerical means.

If the risk score falls between very high risk and risk perhaps acceptable it has to be
reduced to the lowest level that is practicable.

Step 3: Determine what Control Measures to Take

Using the results of the risk assessment, determine what control measures, or what
action to take, in order to eliminate or reduce the risks.

Control measures can be categorised as listed below. These categories are listed in
order of preference:

Design – allows hazards to be designed out and control measures to be


designed in.
Substitution – replacing the material or process associated with plant with a
less hazardous one.
Redesign – redesigning plant or work processes involving plant to reduce or
eliminate risk.

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Separation – isolating the hazard from people.


Administration – adjusting the time or conditions of risk exposure.
Personal Protective Equipment – using appropriately designed and properly
fitting equipment where other control measures are not practicable.

Risks to occupational health and safety should preferably be dealt with by design,
substitution, redesign or separation. These control measures generally reduce or
minimise risk in a more reliable manner than administration or personal protective
equipment.

Control measures may be divided into short-term/immediate control measures and


long-term control measures. The long-term aim should always be to eliminated the
hazard at its source, but, whilst attempting to achieve this aim, other short-term
actions should be used.

Some of the methods that can be used to determine what control measures to take
include:

consulting with other employees;


referring to manufacturer’s instructions;
referring to specialist practitioners and representatives of industry associations,
unions and government bodies.

Step 4: Review, Apply and Monitor Control Measures

Review the control measures to be applied, in order to determine:

the potential effectiveness of the control measure, that is, would the risk be
reduced if that control measure were applied?
whether the application of a chosen control measure will introduce a new
hazard.

One of the ways to undertake this review is to re-do Steps 1 and 2 of the Risk
Management procedure. Some of the methods that can be used to review the control
measures to be applied also include:

consulting with other employees;


referring to manufacturer’s instructions;
referring to specialist practitioners and representatives of industry associations,
unions and government bodies.

If the control measure would not introduce any new hazard and if the control measure
would be effective, apply the control measure.

Monitor the effectiveness of control measures. One of the ways to do this is to


consult with employees.

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Risk Management is Ongoing

The result of risk management should be updated, whether or not the procedure is
complex, and whether or not the results are recorded.

The risk management procedure should be repeated at intervals and whenever there is
reason to suppose the results are no longer valid because, for instance: new plant is
introduced; plant is modified so that it deviates from the original design; there is a
change in work practices associated with plant.

Figure 88 HAZARD RISK CONTROLS

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Figure 89 EXAMPLE OF A COMPLETED RISK MANAGEMENT FORM

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Figure 90 EXAMPLE OF A COMPLETED RISK MANAGEMENT FORM

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2. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE)

Each employer or principal contractor needs to assess the risk of potential injury and
disease to the whole body or parts thereof of their employees. Risks arise from
general operation, for example, crush injuries to the feet from rolling objects, as well
as from systems failures, for example, being sprayed by hot oil from a broken line.
The current regulations are a guard against common injury situations. Where
compliance with them may create secondary injury risks, for example, falls from
roofs because steel capped boots are worn, employers or principal contractors should
ensure that these secondary injury risks are prevented.

The process of selecting personal protective equipment requires some basic


considerations.

The basic requirement is to be aware of the hazards and risks of the work process. A
risk assessment conducted on the basis of the guidelines will be useful to ensure that
all hazards and risks of work process are identified.

The next step in the process of selecting personal protective equipment in ensuring
that the item chosen is appropriate to the hazard and the risk.

Several types of personal protective equipment may be required to control multiple


risks presented by the same hazard or a combination of hazards. For example, using
a power saw to cut wood presents risks to the eyes (flying chips, dusts), lungs (dust),
whole of body (electrical), hands (cuts) and ears (noise).

Personal protective equipment should be selected which will best protect workers in
the circumstances. In some cases use of personal protective equipment may create a
secondary risk not identified in the original assessment. These risks should be
evaluated. An assessment of the effectiveness of the equipment chosen should be
made to ensure it is providing the desired protection and is not creating additional
health and safety concerns.

Finally, personal protective equipment should be checked to ensure that it fits


properly and is worn correctly. Comfort of personal protective equipment is an
important factor in ensuring its use.

The use of PPE has already been covered in previous training, however additional
information is provided on some relevant items.

Eye Protection

Eye protection shall be provided by the employer where there is a likelihood of injury
to the eyes of an employee or other person. Eye protection shall be selected and used
according to AS 1336 – Recommended practices for eye protection in the industrial
environment, and AS 1338 – Filters for eye protectors - Part 1-Filters for protection
against radiation generated in welding and allied operations.

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Hand Protection

Gloves shall be provided by the employer and worn by the employee where an
employee or other person is required to handle material, tools, equipment, or
substances which could harm the hands. These gloves shall be in accordance with
AS 161 – Industrial gloves and mittens (excluding electrical and medical gloves).

Suitable protective substances shall be provided where an employee or other person


is required to handle harmful substances or agents which could cause injury or
irritation to the skin.

Hearing Protection

The employer shall supply and the employee shall wear suitable hearing protection
where an employee or other person is exposed to noise which is likely to be above
acceptable level. Hearing protection shall be in accordance with AS 1270 –
Acoustics-Hearing protectors.

High Visibility Safety Garments

The employer or principal contractor shall provide high visibility safety garments to
employees working in or adjacent to traffic. This includes traffic in quarries,
construction haul roads and other areas where the wearing of high visibility safety
garments will reduce the risk to the health and safety of an employee. High visibility
safety garments, for example, red/orange and lime/yellow shall include the following
materials:

fluorescent materials for work during the day


retro-reflective materials for work at night
fluorescent and retro-reflective materials for use during the day and night.

High visibility safety garments which are designed to outline the human body, offer
an increased degree of protection to the wearer, for example, fluorescent and/or retro-
reflective edging around the outside of the garment and strips on legs and arms are
easily distinguished as being worn by people.

Life Jackets and Rescue Equipment

Suitable life jackets and rescue equipment shall be provided by the employer and
kept ready for immediate use where water exists on or adjacent to a project, into
which an employee or other person may fall and either drown or be injured. Boats
supplied for emergency use should be of adequate size to carry the anticipated loads
safely, that is, without the risk of capsizing.

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Protective Footwear

For most construction activities, steel capped safety boots complying with AS 2210 –
Safety footwear, will be needed to protect against injury to the foot will be required,
for example, footwear which protects against water, chemicals, hot splashes,
penetration injuries to the underside of the foot and ankle twist injuries from rough
terrain.
Protective Headgear

Protective headgear ranges from industrial safety helmets for protection against crush
injuries, to broad brimmed hats to protect against eye damage and skin cancer caused
by exposure to the sun. Where both risks exist, that is, falling objects and sun
exposure, industrial safety helmets with brims should be worn. Industrial safety
helmets to protect against crush injuries shall comply with AS 1800 – The selection,
care and use of industrial safety helmets.

Respiratory Protective Equipment

Suitable respiratory equipment, protective clothing and ventilation shall be provided


where and injuries (e.g. gas, vapour, dust, or other atmospheric contaminant) are
present, cannot be suppressed at the source of emission, and are likely to be injurious
to the health and welfare of an employee or other person, or are likely to produce an
unsafe condition. Respiratory protection shall be in accordance with AS 1715 –
Selection, use and maintenance of respiratory protective devices, and AS 1716 –
Respiratory protective devices.

Safety Belts and Harnesses

The employer shall supply and the employee shall wear a safety belt or harness where
an employee is required to work on any part of a site or structure and they cannot
practicably be protected from the risk of falling by the provision of work platforms,
guard rails, etc. Safety belts and harnesses shall be designed according to AS 1891 –
Industrial safety belts and harnesses. They shall be selected and used according to
AS 2626 – Industrial safety belts and harnesses-Selection, use and maintenance.

3. FIRST AID TECHNIQUES

First aid is a specialise area and candidates should undertake a senior first aid
certificate course for qualification in this area.

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4. WARNING SIGNS

Warning signs are put in place to alert the public to possible dangers. Reproduced
here are various signs under the following headings:

Regulatory signs
Hazard markers
Delineators
Road safety furniture
Warning signs
Guide signs
Temporary signs
Hardware

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Figure 91 REGULATORY SIGNS

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Figure 92 REGULATORY SIGNS

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Figure 93 HAZARD MARKERS

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Figure 94 HAZARD MARKERS

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Figure 95 HAZARD MARKERS

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Figure 96 DELINEATORS

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Figure 97 DELINEATORS

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Figure 98 DELINEATORS

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Figure 99 ROAD SAFETY FURNITURE

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Figure 100 WARNING SIGNS

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Figure 101 GUIDE SIGNS

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Figure 102 GUIDE SIGNS

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Figure 103 TEMPORARY SIGNS

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Figure 104 TEMPORARY SIGNS

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Figure 105 HARDWARE

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Figure 106 HARDWARE

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Figure 107 HARDWARE

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5. MANUAL HANDLING

Australia has up to 100,000 cases of occupational back injuries a year. A total of


45% of these cases involve five or more days off work and almost 10% result in
periods of up to six months lost from work.

Employer Duties of Care

Employers must provide a workplace designed to minimise risk of back injury. This
design includes plant equipment and containers used in the workplace. In cases
where manual handling is necessary, employers must provide one or more of the
following as applicable:

mechanical lifting aids;


personal protective equipment;
sufficient staff to allow team lifting procedures;
adequate information, instruction, training and supervision to enable employees
to work safely and without risk to health and safety.

The manual handling policies and procedures of an organisation should be subject to


discussion between employers and the employees who are required to carry out the
manual handling, as well as the representatives on health and safety issues.

Employee Duties of Care

Employees must follow instructions and act in a way that does not place at risk their
own health and safety of that of any other person. Where training in correct manual
handling techniques has been received, employees must ensure that wherever
possible:

correct procedures are followed;


mechanical aids, personal protective equipment or team lifting procedures are
used.

Lifting Weights

From the standing position it is advisable not to lift loads over the range of 16–20 kg.
As weight increases for 16 kg to 55 kg, the percentage of healthy adults who can
safely lift, lower or carry the weight decreases sharply. Mechanical assistance and/or
team lifting arrangements should be provided to reduce the risk of injury associated
with these heavier weights.

Repetitive manual handling and lifting from unusual positions requires special
consideration. For example, when carrying out seated work it is advisable not to lift
loads in excess of 4.5 kg.

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Facts on Backs

Methods of materials handling involving human effort account for a large number of
industrial accidents. Strained backs, damaged spinal discs, hernias, injured hands
and feet are common.

Many of these injuries result in permanent disabilities and thousands of work days
are lost as a result of incorrect methods of lifting and handling.

The adoption of correct lifting, moving and handling techniques using kinetic
methods is strongly recommended. In simple terms kinetics is the science of
movement and the action and reaction of forces imposed on matter.

In manual handline of materials all human movement should be rhythmical. Jerky


movements should be avoided.

The Spine

The human spine is naturally adapted to an erect posture. It is unsuitable for lifting
loads when the upper part of the body is sharply inclined because of the forces
imposed on the lower back region (lumbar region).

When the back is bent, the mere weight of the inclined upper part of the body
subjects the lumbar discs to stress. It is not surprising that 95% of all disc injuries
occur in the three lowest discs where spinal movement and stress are greatest.

Figure 1 in Figure 108 shows the configuration of the intervertebral disc in a straight
back. Figures 2 and 3 show a normal disc in the vertical and horizontal sections.

In a 74 kg person, the trunk, head and arms weigh about 50 kg. If lifting with a bent
back (Figure 4) the intervertebral discs are compressed on the internal side of the
backbone and stretched over the external side. This can result in severe strains or
ruptured discs as shown in Figures 5 and 6.

Method of Manual Lifting

Determine the Best Technique

All factors should be taken into account when determining the best technique. The
best handling technique involves suitable balance and avoidance of unnecessary
bending, twisting and reaching. A person undertaking a lift should lift efficiently and
rhythmically, minimising bending of the lower back. The knees should be bent, but
preferably not at a right angle.

Securing Grip

Take a secure grip on the object being handled. The grip helps to determine how safe
the task will be. Whenever possible, a comfortable power grip with the whole hand
should be used rather than a hook or precision grip with fingers only.

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Pull Load Close to Body

Pull the load in close to the body. For lifting in particular, it is important to have the
centre of gravity of the load close to the body to prevent excessive stress on the back
and to use the strongest muscles of the arms to hold the load. It is important to
minimise the effects of acceleration by lifting slowly, smoothly and without jerking.

Vary Tasks

Vary heavy handling tasks with lighter work. The job or task should be designed so
as to provide alternative tasks that do not heavily stress the same muscles.
Throughout the workshift, heavier handling tasks should be alternated with lighter
tasks which allow the active muscles to recover.

Figure 108 MANUAL HANDLING TECHNIQUES

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Team Lifting

To enable load sharing, lifting partners should be of similar height and build and
should be trained in lifting techniques. There should be a person nominated as team
leader to coordinate the lift. Team lifting should not be used as a first option in risk
control.

Manual Lifting

It is difficult to generalise the optimum or maximum weight of a load to be lifted,


because there are so many factors involved besides the actual weight to be lifted.
Access Problems On/Off Vehicles

Access to many vehicles associated with construction is poor. The main risk factors
are:

too high a first step (>400 mm);


swinging first step (unstable);
handholds too high off the ground, often of limited length, often too small a
diameter bar is used (<30 mm), at times handholds are not coordinated
with footholds, for example, on bulldozers;
subsequent steps are difficult to climb up and down especially with a load in
the hand;
footholds and handholds may be slippery when wet or muddy due to
smoothness of texture etc.;
very high step to get on, needing a strong pulling action by one man; and
jumping is necessary in getting off, that is, the rear leg leaves the track
before the front leg touches the ground.

Figure 109 MANUAL HANDLING TECHNIQUES

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6. FIRE IN EARTHMOVING

Because of the work environment, large machinery containing large fuel and oil
compartments, fuel and oil spillage, fuel and oil leaks and possible overheating of
engines, transmissions or hydraulic components, it is imperative that an operator is
fully aware of the probability of their machine catching fire. Damage and injury
through fires, especially during fire fighting and scrub clearing operations, is a very
serious hazard. An operator must be able to recognise hazards and be able to take
appropriate action to prevent them occurring on the machinery.

Most vulnerable locations are:

Contractors huts
Materials stores in the open
Plant and equipment
Building structures
Waste containers
Heating appliances
Storerooms

Most common causes are:

Misused, faulty or poorly maintained petroleum gas, electrical, solid fuel or oil
appliances.
Cigarette ends.
Misused or faulty oxy and welding equipment.
Spontaneous combustion.
Malicious ignition.
Children playing with fire.

Preventative measures are:

Make sure the site is secure. Fence or board in completely localised areas such
as flammable liquids and materials stores.
Remove rubbish daily.
Clean dry vegetation from site area regularly.
If rubbish is burned on site, use an incinerator, observe safety precautions and
keep an extinguisher close at hand.
Check fire extinguishers in the machines weekly to make sure they are properly
charged.
Carry full knapsack spray on machine during fire fighting operations.

Some of the more common fire hazards are:

build-up of oil, grease, and dust on engines and transmission.


rubbing in belly plates, sticks, leaves, rags, etc.
leaking fuel and injector lines.
loose battery frames, brackets, cables and terminals.
broken or damaged cables and/or electrical insulation.

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Precautions for fire prevention are:

rectify hazards.
ensure extinguishers are serviceable.
normal safety precautions during refuelling including:
ensure fuel line is in contact with machine to earth it;
no smoking;
machine is switched off;
prevention of spillage, and
secure fuel cap after refuelling.
if welding repairs are to be carried out, extra extinguishers should be made
available.
clear scrub around dumps.
clear firebreak around machines when parking in scrub.

Sequence of extinguisher on a machine is:

dump load in inflammable (where appropriate);


stop engine;
switch off isolation switch;
use extinguisher;
smother fire with earth if extinguisher exhausted; and
seek assistance.

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Figure 110 FIRE TRIANGLE

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PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS Produced by the Australian Fire Protection Association


IMPORTANT: Read Operating Instructions on Extinguishers First floor, 689 Burke Road, Hawthorn East, VIC, 3123
Tel: 03 9882 2800 Fax: 03 9882 4748
CLASS OF FIRE A B C (E)
TYPE OF FIRE Ordinary Flammable Flammable Fire Fire
combustibles and gases involving involving
(wood, paper, combustibl energised cooking
etc.) e liquids electrical oils and
equipment fats
IDENTIFYING TYPE OF
COLOURS EXTING- EXTINGUISHER SUITABILITY CAUTION
UISHER

WATER YES NO NO NO NO ELECTRICALLY


CONDUCTIVE

RED
YES
WET YES NO NO NO Most ELECTRICALLY
CHEMICAL Suitable CONDUCTIVE

OATMEAL
ALCOHOL YES ELECTRICALLY
RESISTANT YES Suitable for NO NO NO CONDUCTIVE
FOAM alcohol
fires
AFF TYPE
YES YES NO NO NO ELECTRICALLY
Not CONDUCTIVE
BLUE FOAM suitable for
alcohol
fires
AB (E) DRY
CHEMICAL YES YES YES YES NO
POWDER
B (E) DRY NO YES YES YES YES
CHEMICAL
POWDER
RED
CARBON Depletes oxygen
DIOXIDE YES YES NO YES YES in confined
(CO2) spaces

RED
HALON Depletes oxygen
(1211) BCF YES YES YES YES NO in confined
Vaporising spaces
liquid

RED
Figure 111 KNOW YOUR PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHER

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Figure 112 FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT

Fighting Fires with Extinguishers

1. Select the correct extinguisher and know how to use it.


2. Where possible have another person back you up with another extinguisher.
3. Make certain you always have a clear retreat from the fire.
4. Do not get too close to the fire and keep low to avoid smoke.
5. Aim contents of extinguisher at base of fire not at smoke.
6. Remember do not replace a used extinguisher back on its bracket. Have the
extinguisher serviced as soon as possible.

Use of Hose Reels

1. Where possible, seek assistance to run out hose reel to ensure hose runs freely
and does not get caught around projections.
2. Remember to turn on the water supply at the reel before running out hose. The
water is then turned ‘on and off’ at the nozzle.

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SUMMARY

In this section you have covered information on occupational health and safety.

The information you have been given so far will assist you in employing Safe Work
Practices. The practical activities will establish the importance of this understanding.

Self-check Exercises in this package are on yellow pages. The first exercise has
been designed to test your understanding of the information you have covered so far.
Remember that the self-check exercises are not part of the formal assessment of
competency for this module.

Answers to the self-check exercises are on the blue pages at the end of this package.

Below are the areas/topics in the adjustment methods of operation for weather
effects. You may find it useful to make your own brief summary/notes of the six
topics in Promote Safety Occupational Health

Mobile Plant Operations Safety Requirements:

Personal Protection Equipment (PPE):

First Aid Techniques:

Warning Signs:

Manual Handling:

Fire in Earthmoving:

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SELF-CHECK

EXERCISE 3: PROMOTE OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND


SAFETY
1. Complete the following spaces on requirements for before starting a machine:

• Know the hand ....................... used on site.


• Read and understand all ....................... ....................... in the cab.
• ....................... the machine before mounting. Check for other
....................... and safe clearance. Look for signs of ......................., tyre,
track or ........................ . Check mirrors, horns and lights and other
safety devices.
• Keep the ......................., windows and mirrors clean. Ensure windscreen
wipers are in working order.
• Check fire extinguishers, if fitted.
• Inspect the machine for ....................... ....................... . If a safety defect
is found, the machine should be ....................... as such.
• Mount and dismount the machine using the ....................... and
....................... handles. Use both hands and ....................... the machine.
Keep all deck plates, steps and handles in good repair and free of
......................., ....................... and ....................... .
• Inspect the machine for ....................... ......................., mounting,
hardware and seat suspension. Adjust the seat and ....................... the seat
belt.
• Make certain that ....................... is working on, under or close to the
machine.
• Check all ....................... ......................., then move the transmission and
implement controls into neutral and engage parking brake.

2. Complete the following spaces for operation and shutting down of plant
machinery.

• Only allow ....................... persons to ride in or on equipment.


• Only get on or off a machine which is ....................... . Never jump off a
machine during normal operations.
• Ensure the machine is not ....................... .
• Move off slowly and check that the ....................... are working properly.
Also check that the ....................... is functioning correctly.

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• Make certain that the area in the ....................... of ....................... is clear


of people and obstructions. Use a spotter if necessary.
• Only travel at a ....................... ....................... in the circumstances, for
example, maintain a speed which is safe for the ....................... of the
roadway, grade, clearance, visibility and traffic.
• Never ....................... a machine into or out of a line up. Leave adequate
room to pull out or drive through.
• Only ....................... a machine after you are sure there is no one behind
the machine. If in doubt take time to be certain.
• Report any ....................... ....................... which is not functioning
correctly.
• Yield ....................... ....................... to a loaded machine. If in doubt,
yield right of way in any case.
• Make sure there is adequate ....................... from power lines.
• Where practicable, avoid ....................... / ....................... / .......................
across a slope, as a sharp turn up or down a hill may cause rollover.
• When ....................... a grade use the same gear needed to climb it.
• Follow other machines at a ....................... distance.
• Stay a safe distance away from the edge of ....................... .
• Only pass in an ....................... location. Only pass when given
....................... ....................... . Only pass when ....................... is clear.
• Only dig in an area after checking for the location of .......................
....................... .
• Fit and use rotating flashing amber ....................... ....................... as per
requirements of the Traffic Act.
• Use ....................... after dark and in dust or ....................... conditions.
• Secure the machine before ........................ Set parking brake and
....................... ....................... to the ground.
• ....................... the wheels if the machine is to be left on an incline.
Remove the machine’s keys if these are used.
• When ....................... at the end of shift, leave room for service vehicles
to pass.

3. What are the four (4) principles (steps) of risk management?

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

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4. List five (5) vulnerable locations for the outbreak of fires.

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

5. Give four (4) common fire hazards on machinery

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

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DEMONSTRATION

Your instructor will demonstrate the correct starting and stopping procedure for
machine operating; the correct use of PPE; and conduct a risk assessment using the
nomograph.

It could be a demonstration on on: Safe starting and stopping procedures.

This demonstration will involve the use of PPE equipment and an earthmoving
machine.

Example 1:

Your instructor will demonstrate the correct starting and stopping procedure for
machine operating; the correct use of PPE; and conduct a risk assessment using the
nomograph.

Example 2:

Observe videos:
Danger Zone
Civil Construction Safety

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PRACTICAL
ACTIVITY

ACTIVITY 3: RISK ASSESSMENT

(a) Conduct a series of risk assessments using the nomographs.

(b) Discuss aspects of safety videos.

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SUMMARY

You have now completed Practical Activity 3 where you conducted a risk
assessment.

All your assessment procedures are practical and are covered in the Assessment
Criteria for Assessment Task 3.

Your activities during Section 3 will have ensured that you have established the base
to now proceed to Section 4 – Read and Interpret Plans.

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SECTION 4 - READ AND INTERPRET PLANS

READ

INTRODUCTION

Section 4 of this package deals with the following aspects:

identify site services;


survey pegs;
levelling;
identify site features;
abbreviations on construction pegs;
establish depth and grade;
identify drain / drainage requirements; and
identify depth of core foundation in dam walls.

These areas include the essential information you will need to complete Assessment
Task 4 which addresses the fourth learning outcome:

Read/Interpret Plans.

The information presented in this section will allow you to cover the following
specific associated operations:

given a plan of the site, identify the locations of all power, water and telephone
services;
describe what is written on survey pegs at the site, and explain what these mean
in terms of machine operating;
identify written levels without mistake;
given a plan of the site, identify features without mistake.;
decipher abbreviations used on construction pegs;
describe how to establish depth and grade from site plans; and
identify on a site plan bedding requirements for drainage, hunching
requirements for sewer lines, depth of core foundation in dam walls, etc.

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The details required to complete the above Learning Outcomes will be presented
under the following nine topics:

Plan Identification
Locality Plans
Type of Cross-Section Plans
The Working Plans
Drainage Cross-Section
Cross-Section Plans
Standard Drawings
Layout Plans for Intersections and Divided Roads
Resumption Plans and Drainage Easement Plans

1. PLAN IDENTIFICATION

The job plans convey the requirements of the road designers to the construction
personnel. The ability to read and understand the information supplied in the plans
and to transfer the information to the actual job is an essential part of the construction
process.

Type of Plans

The types of plans which will be discussed are as follows:

Locality plans (district map and inventory strip map)


Type cross-section plans
Working plans
Drainage cross-section plans
Standard drawings
Layout plans for intersections and divided roads
Resumption and drainage easement plans

2. LOCALITY PLANS

Two locality plans are included in the job documents:

District map
Inventory strip map

The District map (Figure 113) has the job site, extent chainages and job number
marked on it.

The Inventory Strip Map (Figure 114) usually has the following information marked
on it:

An accurate plot of the horizontal alignment.


Chainages of important features.
The extent of the numbered plans.

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Changes to the inventory section numbering system, which are used to update
office records.

Figure 113 DISTRICT MAP

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Figure 114 INVENTORY STRIP MAP

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Figure 115 CROSS-SECTION PLANS

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3. TYPE CROSS-SECTION PLANS

Refer to the sample plan in Figure 115 opposite.

The main Type cross-section encountered is – the ‘Roadway Excavation and


Embankment’.

Other type cross-section used are:

‘Roadway Excavation in Rock Cuttings’


‘Surface Formation’
‘Make up Shoulders’
‘Making Trafficable’
‘Widening’

The Type cross-section is intended to be general, but cover all possible variations
which apply to the particular job. It should show the roadway partly in cut and partly
in fill. More than one Type cross-section is included if it is not possible to show all
variations on a single Type cross-section.

The main features are:

1. Location of base line and control line where applicable.


2. Cut and fill batter slopes and rounding details.
3. Berm details.
4. Table drain widths and slopes.
5. Method used for calculation of earthwork quantities, for example,
including and excluding shoulders).
6. Catch drain and catch bank details.
7. Revegetation of batters treatment.
8. Pavement and shoulder crossfalls (usually for a straight section).
9. Treatment in rock cuttings.
10. Subsoil drainage details.
11. Formation width.
12. Pavement width (including traffic lane widths).
13. Shoulder width (paved and unpaved as applicable).
14. Kerb details.
15. Levees.
16. Prime coat width.
17. Seal coat width.
18. Guardrail location.

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Figure 116 HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT

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4. THE WORKING PLANS

Refer to the sample plan in Figure 116 opposite.

A working plan can be divided into three main sections:

The horizontal alignment (plan view).


The longitudinal section (or vertical view).
Miscellaneous additional information.

Before considering each of these sections of the working plan in detail it should be
mentioned that a scheme may be designed by one of two methods:

1. With the aid of the computer. Construction tables are included in the
scheme documents in the case of a computer calculated scheme and
these should be read in conjunction with the working plans. Cross-
sections may or may not be included in a computer calculated
scheme.

2. By manual calculations. In a manually calculated scheme the


working plans should be read in conjunction with the drawn cross-
sections and such details as superelevation will be given in tabular
form on the detail plans.

The Horizontal Alignment

In this document a change in terminology results in the following:

Base line replaces pegged line, pegged centre line, surveyed line, working
survey or construction traverse.
Control line replaces shift line, shift centre line, construction centre line. While
SHIFT is still authorised terminology for a deviation from the base
(pegged) line, the resultant calculated alignment is termed the
CONTROL LINE.

The horizontal alignment is a plan view of the base line in relation to other relevant
features.

Information shown on this plan view includes:

The Base line.


The Control line.
Bearings of straights on the base and control lines.
Curve details, for example, transition and tangent lengths.
Peg positions on the base line, as shown in Figure 117 (next page).
Offset pegs usually every 200 m, at curve tangent, and secant points as shown
in Figure 118 (next page).
Curve tangent points and points of intersection.
Bench Marks (BM) and Permanent Survey Marks (PSM).

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Existing features such as roadways, culverts, rock outcrops, scours, waterways,


direction of water flow, tree types, soil types, fences, structures, power
lines, telephone lines etc.
Property boundaries and descriptions.
Cadastral survey marks located by the survey.
Resumption boundaries and associated Resumption Plan number.
Parish name.
North point.
Adjacent working plans numbers.

Figure 117 CHAINAGE

Figure 118 CHAINAGE

Control Line Shifts

Base line and control geometry are identical except the designer has employed a shift
away from the base line after the survey has been carried out. Control line chainage
will be continuous along the shift and an equality will be used to bring chainages
together.

Figure 119 ANGENT POINTS T

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The construction tables printed by the computer will contain the offsets from the base
line to the control line and the equivalent chainages.
Bearings and chainages of control lines are normally shown with sloping figures as
shown in Figure 120 below.

Figure 120 BEARINGS

When surveyed curves are cancelled by shifts a line is shown drawn through the
surveyed radius, as shown in Figure 121 below.

Figure 121 CHANGES TO BEARINGS

The complete geometric detail relating to the shift such as bearings, chainage
equalities etc., will always be given. It will be shown on the alignment if possible
but in some cases it may be drawn on a larger, even distorted scale, to show all the
necessary details.

The presence of a shift is also indicated on the longitudinal section by the word
SHIFT between arrows, and in the ‘Curve Data’ column, as shown below in Figure
122.

The survey normally pegs his base line with straights and curves, which may be
circular or transitioned.

The control line can be set out from the base line using the offsets given in the
Construction tables or elsewhere in the scheme documents.

Figure 122 CURVE RADIUS

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The presence of transition curves will be evidenced by the transition length (L) in
addition to the other curve data, as shown in Figure 123 below.

Figure 123 TRANSITION


CURVES

The Longitudinal Section

The longitudinal section is a vertical plot of the control line grade and the natural
surface relative to a level datum. The vertical scale is distorted 10 times the
horizontal scale for clarity. Information shown on the longitudinal section is
discussed below, and is indicated on the sample plan.

The grade line consists of a series of straights joined by vertical curves. Radii
of the vertical curves and grade percentages of the straights are shown.
Changes and levels are given at grade line tangent points.

The natural surface on the base line is drawn as full line. The natural surface
on the control line is drawn with a broken line.

The level datum (for example, Derived Australian Height Datum) is indicated
in the title block. When another Datum has been used, an adjacent figure
to convert this level datum to Derived AHD is given. (Australian Height
Datum is a particular sea level adopted as a common datum for level
throughout Australia and derived equivalents are adopted in local areas.)

Watershed Areas (for example, 112 ha) of the various waterways are given at
the top of the longitudinal section with the extent of boundaries of the
catchment indicated and the direction of flow. If the boundaries of the
catchment are unknown the watershed areas will be shown with the
culvert description.

Culverts are indicated on the longitudinal section, for example, 2K 5/1200 x


600 R.C.B.C. means that five 1200 mm x 600 mm R.C.B.C.’s are
required – ‘2’ refers to Plan No. 2 of the scheme and ‘K’ denotes that it is
the tenth culvert referred on Plan No. 2. This system is used for cross-
referencing to the ‘Drainage Cross-Sections’ plans. The letter ‘I’ is not
used as a culvert reference.

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Pavement Details (depths and widths) are given across the longitudinal
section. If the same width and depth cover the whole plan, no extent
lines are shown. Plans will show the same width of pavement over the
full length of plan even though local widening does occur. The widening
is covered by a noting on the longitudinal section.

Figure 124 BITUMEN DETAILS

The construction tables will show the actual width.

Special Requirements such as tapers, table drain widening, blocks in table


drains, special table drain treatment, diversion drains, extent of
guardrails, visibility benching and extent of subsoil drains may also be
shown on the longitudinal section.

Auxiliary Plan Numbers: This column shows all the numbers of all the plans
covered in the scheme.

Metric Note: Plans carry the note ‘Dimensions in metres except where shown
otherwise’. Culvert sizes are in millimetres.

Scales: The horizontal and vertical scales are shown.

Offset Peg Table: The table of offset pegs is plotted from the surveyor’s field
notes. In the table, chainages, distances left and right, and R.L.’s of the
offset pegs are given. Offset pegs can be used to reinstate the base line if
the centre line pegs are lost.

Bench Mark Table: This table can be used to assist in finding bench marks.
Bench marks are usually placed at the following intervals:

The start and end of the survey


One kilometre
One at every major stream crossing (two where distance between banks
exceeds 60 m).

The bench mark origin of the survey is given in the Bench Marks Table on
every working plan depicting that survey.

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Title Block, Job Number, Plan Numbers

Through Chainage: The main purpose of this information is to permit ready


location of the section of the road. The distance is the total surveyed
distance from a point in a well-known town or road junction.

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Figure 125 DRAINAGE CROSS-SECTION PLANS

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Field Books, Level Books and Squared Section Numbers: The field book and
level book numbers refer to the books used by the surveyor in the working survey
and from which the job was designed. The squared section number refers to the
number of the squared section the designer used to determine the grade line.

The Design Speed: This is shown at the bottom of the working plan. If the job
has been designed for varying speeds the extent of each will be shown.

5. DRAINAGE CROSS-SECTION PLANS

Refer to the sample plan in Figure 125 opposite.

Usually one cross-section for each drainage structure (culvert) is shown. The cross-
section is given at the culvert centre line along the line of the culvert.

Each drainage cross-section will normally show the following information:

The Natural Surface will be shown with a full line if the natural surface has
been surveyed along the line of the culvert. If the natural surface has
been established by the designer interpolating between adjacent cross-
sections, it will be shown with a broken line.

The Roadway Embankment.

The Culvert with invert levels at inlet and outlet and lengths left and right of
the control line.

A Datum Line drawn as a horizontal broken line passing through the


construction centre line at the level of the natural surface at the base line.

The Control Line shown as a full line if it is coincidental with the base line, or
as a broken line if it is on a shift.

The Culvert Reference, for example, 2E refers to the fifth culvert occurring on
the second plan of the scheme.

The Culvert Type, Length, Class and Chainage on the Control Line, for
example, 2/1200 R.C.P. (13,42) (2) 1775.

Excavation and Backfill Quantities: Excavation at inlets and outlets of


culverts with an area of more than 1 square metre and of all culverts at a
distance of more than 15 m from the culvert is to be shown on the
drawing. Bedding material is not scheduled as a separate item.

Wing Walls and Aprons where applicable by type and dimension.

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Concrete, Steel and Rubble Masonry Quantities in the case of cast-in-situ


culverts (R.C.C.’s), and for cast-in-situ base slabs and aprons for precast
R.C.B.’s.

Reference may be given to the Standard Drawings where applicable.

Some special considerations relating to drainage structures are discussed on the


subsequent pages.

Skew Culverts

When a culvert is to be constructed on a skew, the skew angle is given with the
drainage cross-section. The skew angle is the angle the culvert is skewed away from
a line drawn perpendicular to the control line.

An exception is the case of corrugated steel pipes in which case a skew number is
used in addition to the skew angle. The skew number is the number of degrees from
the road centre line to the culvert centre line in a clockwise direction. A number only
will be stated without the degrees symbol. It can be seen that a culvert with a skew
number of 80 has skew of 10, and a culvert with a skew number of 90 has no skew.

In the case of skew culverts, the overall length as well as the distance between the
outside faces of the headwalls is given with the culvert description. The overall
length is the length of culvert to be ordered.

Zero Projection Method of Laying R.C.P.’s

When R.C.P.’s are to be laid by this method the words ‘Zero Projection Method of
Laying. See Special Provision No. … ’ will be shown on the Drainage Cross-section.

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6. CROSS-SECTION PLANS

Refer to the sample plan in Figure 126 opposite.

Cross-section plans are always included in manually calculated schemes. They are
not always included in computer calculated schemes because a cross-section can be
drawn from the information supplied in the Construction Tables.

Cross-sections are normally given where the surveyor has taken a cross-section
during the working survey. They are taken at regular intervals and at changes in
topography.

The following information is normally shown on the cross-sections:

The natural surface.


The required finished surface and the pavement.
The base line – shown as a full line.
The control line – shown as a broken line in the case of a shift.
A datum line – a horizontal broken line at the same RL as the natural surface at
the base line.
The extent of horizontal curves – base and control lines.
Special details – drainage diversions, etc.

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7. STANDARD DRAWINGS

The plans will sometimes refer to standard drawings. These drawings are used where
the work to be done is the same from job to job, for example, guardrails, headwalls to
culverts, locations of warning signs, grids etc.

Each foreman, overseer, engineer etc, should have a copy of the following manuals:

Standard Specification and Contract Provisions


Standard Drawings – Roads
Standard Drawings – Bridges

8. LAYOUT PLANS FOR INTERSECTIONS AND DIVIDED ROADS

Refer to the sample in Figure 127 on the facing page.

These will vary from job to job depending on the complexity of the job and the
method used to carry out the initial survey etc.

The initial survey normally carried out is a traverse survey in which the base line
consists of a series of intersecting straights.

The traverse survey will often run along existing footpaths for the convenience of the
surveyor. Secondary traverse lines will run along side streets or other areas of
interest.

Control lines may be drawn by the designer on the plans for which offsets are
calculated from the base line. Setting out information for medians, islands, kerbing
and channelling, pavement edges etc. is then given on the plan relative to the control
lines. Longitudinal sections may also be given relative to these lines, particularly in
the case of divided roads.

These situations where base or control lines are inconvenient or unsafe as a source of
setting out, and a horizontal setting out line may then be employed clear of
obstruction, for example, buildings, service poles, trees, etc. This line is tied to the
base line or known survey points, and once established, it is used for setting out
horizontal detail, for example, island, kerbs, pavement markings.

9. RESUMPTION PLANS AND DRAINAGE EASEMENT PLANS

Resumption and Drainage Easement plans are not part of the scheme documents.
However, they may at times have to be used by construction personnel to establish
new property and easement boundaries.

Resumption plans are required whenever the taking of land for road purposes is
involved.

A Drainage Easement plan is required whenever part of a property is required for


drainage purposes only.

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Main purposes of Resumption plans are:

To enable the property owner to readily identify the land to be resume, or on


which the easement is to be declared.
To provide the surveyor with sufficient information to survey the boundaries of
the land which has been resumed or easement declared.

Two types of resumption plans could be encountered:

Plans for rural and urban areas where the land has been surveyed into portions
or lots. Normally these plans have been prepared from tracings or
working plans.
Plans for rural areas where the road turns through large holdings. These plans
are made from an alignment plotted onto a cadastral map.

Drainage Easement plans would normally only occur with the first case.

List below is a summary of some main information on resumption plans.

1. Local features, for example, large creeks, rivers, directions of flow,


vegetation, wells, windmills, dams, soil types, power lines, telegraph
lines, fences, buildings and bridges etc.

2. The surveyed line will be labelled the base line and the construction
line will be labelled the control line.

3. Offsets to the property boundary. These offsets are measured from


the base line. Offsets are measured square from straights and
radially from curves.

4. Sometimes a locality sketch will be drawn on the resumption plan in


the case where the plan does not show sufficient detail to be easily
located.

5. Under each property affected by resumptions a statement will be


made showing whether the land is freehold or leasehold. Common
symbols used are:
F = FREEHOLD
SL = SPECIAL LEASE
AF = AGRICULTURAL FARM
VCL = VACANT CROWN LAND
R = RESERVE

The number after special leases and agricultural farms will also be
shown, for example, 23 AF 822.

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6. Subdivided and re-subdivided portions will be shown such that the


portion number is at the top and the following subs. and resubs.
listed below. The property description is then read from the bottom
towards the top, for example:
22
SUB. 2
RESUB. 1
SUB. 3
RESUB. 2
F

The correct property description for above would read Resub. 2 of


Sub. 3 of Resub 1 of Sub. 2 of Portion 22, Parish of .............. County
of ..............

However, more recent subdivision do away with these cumbersome


descriptions. A typical description would be Lot 15 on R.P. 117682
(Registered Plan No. 117682).

Sometimes two areas will be shown:


Area to be resumed.
Severance area (area left after resumptions). A vincula shown as means that
the same property description applies to both sides of the division.
Land owners will more readily recognise local features, even if they are
not on his property, than property boundaries. So when describing the
section of land to be resumed to land owners these local features should
be pointed out.

The accompanying set of plans (refer to Figures 128 to 145) are included as examples
only, typical for work in sub-divisional areas.

Many engineers and surveyors have their own variations of workings and symbols for
survey control. In an attempt to overcome the many difficulties associated with this
practice, Thiess Contractors have developed a ‘standardisation survey control’.

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Figure 128 RESUMPTION PLAN - DRAINAGE EASMENT PLAN

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Figure 129 RESUMPTION PLAN - DRAINAGE EASMENT PLAN

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Figure 130 RESUMPTION PLAN - DRAINAGE EASEMENT PLAN

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Figure 133 RESUMPTION PLAN - DRAINAGE EASEMENT PLAN

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Figure 134 RESUMPTION PLAN - DRAINAGE EASEMENT PLAN

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Figure 135 RESUMPTION PLAN - DRAINAGE EASEMENT PLAN

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Figure 137 RESUMPTION PLAN - DRAINAGE EASEMENT PLAN

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Figure 140 RESUMPTION PLAN - DRAINAGE EASEMENT PLAN

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Figure 141 RESUMPTION PLAN - DRAINAGE EASEMENT PLAN

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Figure 143 RESUMPTION PLAN -DRAINAGE EASEMENT PLAN

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Figure 144 RESUMPTION PLAN - DRAINAGE EASEMENT PLAN

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Figure 145 RESUMPTION PLAN - DRAINAGE EASEMENT PLAN

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SUMMARY

In this section you have covered information on plan reading and interpretation.

The information you have been given so far will assist you understand job
requirements. The practical activities will establish the importance of this
understanding.

Self-check Exercises in this package are on yellow pages. The first exercise has
been designed to test your understanding of the information you have covered so far.
Remember that the self-check exercises are not part of the formal assessment of
competency for this module.

Answers to the self-check exercises are on the blue pages at the end of this package.

You may find it useful to make your own brief summary/notes below of the nine
topics.

Plan Identification:

Locality Plans:

Type Cross-Section Plans:

The Working Plans:

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Drainage Cross-Section Plans:

Cross Section Plans:

Standard Drawings:

Layout Plans for Intersection and Divided Roads:

Resumption Plans and Drainage Easement Plans:

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SELF-CHECK

EXERCISE 4: READ AND INTERPRET PLANS


1. List six (6) types of plans.

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

2. Working plans can be divided into three (3) main sections. What are they?

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

3. What information is normally shown on cross-sections plans?

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

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DEMONSTRATION

Your instructor will determine the nature and type of demonstration before you begin
the practical activity.

It could be a demonstration on: Extracting information from a set of plans.

This demonstration will involve using the accompanying set of plans.

Example 1:

You will be shown how to extract information from the plan drawing.

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PRACTICAL
ACTIVITY

ACTIVITY 4: READ AND INTERPRET PLANS

To carry out this activity you will require the accompanying plans.

Your instructor will nominate selected information for you to extract from the plans.

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SUMMARY

You have now completed Practical Activity 4 where you learned to read and interpret
plans.

All your assessment procedures are practical and are covered in the Assessment
Criteria for Assessment Task 4.

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CONCLUSION

This learning package has combined the theoretical and practical components
required for Module CCC512 General Industry Skills.

Having successfully completed the requirements of this module, you now understand
the procedures for communicating effectively on the job site, calculating earthwork
volumes and machine productivity, job site requirements and plan reading and
interpreting. In addition, you have applied the knowledge and skills in a real life on-
site situation.

You can expect to apply your knowledge and skills on most civil construction
projects.

Those who developed this package hope that you have found its style and
presentation easy to use.

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CCC512 General Industry Skills

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CCC512 General Industry Skills SECTION 1

SELF-CHECK
ANSWERS

EXERCISE 1: COMMUNICATE AT WORK


1. What are four (4) advantages of verbal communication?

• Personal contact can more positively motivate the receiver and give
him a more concrete aim to pursue.
• If on style or argument is ineffective it can be changed. For example,
if the receiver can not understand why the task must be completed,
the sender can explain to him what might occur if it is not.
• If a point is not understood it can be repeated and re-phrased.
• Reactions can be observed.
• The listener can influence the sender (alternative plan) and persuade
him, without loss of time, to alter his point.
• A large number of people can be addressed at one time, although in
this case most of the advantages listed above are reduced or lost.

2. What are two (2) disadvantages of verbal communication?

• The person communicating can not edit or polish his message once
he has allocated a task; if he tries to it only serves to confuse the aim
and lessen the impact of his message.
• The listener has no permanent record to refer to and he may recall
the communication out of text or place his own interpretation on
what is required.
• If a large group is involved it is difficult to get all concerned together
at the same time, particularly if they are your peers or immediate
subordinates.
• It is not always possible to plan your communication so it will fit into
a set time frame. Some points may take longer to explain than you
would have anticipated.

3. What are three (3) advantages of written communication?

• It is the quickest way to cover a large group of people.]


• A written communication provides a permanent record.
• The arguments for and against can be thoroughly thought out and
supported with charts, tables and graphs.

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CCC512 General Industry Skills SECTION 1

4. What are three (3) disadvantages of written communication?

• A written communication has no immediate feedback.


Misinterpretation can remain uncorrected.
• Response to a written communication takes time and the intention of
the sender cannot be modified quickly.
• There is no personal contact (face-to-face) with written
communication.

5. List six causes of distorted communication.

• Size of the group


• Distraction
• Attitude of person to subject
• Status – ego – experience
• Wrong words
• Prejudice
• Inattentiveness
• Priorities – values
• Delivery errors
• Distance
• Time
• Emotion

6. List four (4) barriers to communication.

• Physical barriers:
(a) Competing sound (noisy work site)
(b) Poor eyesight
(c) Tiredness
(d) Poor health

• Inattention – usually caused by lack of interest, poor listening skills


or being easily distracted.
• Emotions – such as fear, anger and hate can result in irrational
behaviour and poor communication.
• Assumption – assuming that others think or feel the same.
• Jumping to Conclusion (Presumption) – hearing part of a message,
presuming to know the rest and then switching off.
• Individual differences:
(a) Cultural differences – where different customs and traditions
affect the way a message is interpreted.
(b) Age – the so-called ‘generation gap’ can result in different
interpretations of situation.
(c) Educational differences – members of a profession can use
jargon not understood easily.

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(d) Language barriers – speakers of languages other than English


and those with strong accents may have problems
communicating effectively.
(e) Personal belief differences – in areas such as religion and
politics can interfere in communication.
• Lack of feedback – One of the most important barriers. The
communication circuit is not complete without feedback. Feedback
ensures the message or information has been received and
interpreted accurately.

7. On the accompanying troubleshooting chart, identify the possible causes of the


following symptoms:

(a) Excessive smoke under load

(b) Lower power or loss of power

(c) Engine dies

(d) Coolant temperature too high

(e) Lubricant oil too hot

(f) Low lubricant pressure

See Figure 19

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CCC512 General Industry Skills SECTION 2

SELF-CHECK ANSWERS

EXERCISE 2: ORGANISE WORK


1. What are four (4) main factors determining plant productivity?
Volume characteristics

Resistances

Machine slippage

Utilisation efficiency

2. What are five (5) uncontrolled factors when determining plant productivity?
Weather - This can have a number of delaying effects:

(a) Plant traction is reduced on wet and slippery soils.


(b) Extra water has to be carted during hot dry spells.
(c) Reduced production and increased hazards result from
wind and dust.
(d) Operator performance drops during extremes in weather.

Staff sickness - Every hob has one or two key operators and organisers,
and time lost by one or more of these can have a major effect on
work output, for example, at certain times of the year flu epidemics
occur resulting in general absenteeism.

Industrial unrest - This is often a national problem rather than localised,


and cannot be catered for when estimating job costs.

Major plant breakdown - Plant breakdown can result from numerous


causes, many of which could be averted given the necessary services,
standard of operator and correct application on the job. Age of
machine and local parts backup affect the duration of breakdown.

Unforeseen problems - This can result from a rising water table, rock,
Aboriginal sacred sites, land owners, conservationists, dieback
disease, etc.

3. With reference to front end loaders, what is meant by ‘struct’ capacity?


Defined as the volume of material retained in the bucked after heaped load
is struck by drawing a straight edge across the width of the bucket with
one end of the straight edge resting on the cutting edge and the other end
resting on the uppermost portion of the bucket back plate or spill guard.

4. What are the three (3) factors to consider when selecting a roller for a particular
aspect of road construction?
Soil characteristics
Roller characteristics

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Production
5. What are the four (4) factors required for the calculation of roller production?
Width of roller ground contact

Travel speed

Thickness of compacted lift

Number of passes required

6. What is the generally accepted methodology of calculating the end areas of cuts
and fills?
In practice, the ends areas are seldom equal, and so the Average End Area
Method of calculating the volumes of cuts and fills is generally accepted.

7. What are the three (3) steps in this process?


Calculate Area A

Calculate Area B

Add A and B then divide by 2 to find the average area

8. In earthwork quantities explain what is termed as:


(a) When the materials has not been excavated its condition is in
‘bank’.

(b) After excavation has taken place and it is being moved either by
truck or scraper, it is in a ‘loose’ state.

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CCC512 General Industry Skills SECTION 3

SELF-CHECK ANSWERS

EXERCISE 3: PROMOTE OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND


SAFETY
1. Complete the following spaces on requirements for before starting a machine:

• Know the hand signals used on site.


• Read and understand all warning signs in the cab.
• Walk around the machine before mounting. Check for other people and
safe clearance. Look for signs of signs and fluid leaks, tyre, track or
implement damage. Check mirrors, horns and lights and other safety
devices.
• Keep the windscreen, windows and mirrors clean. Ensure windscreen
wipers are in working order.
• Check fire extinguishers, if fitted.
• Inspect the machine for potential hazards. If a safety defect is found,
the machine should be tagged as such.
• Mount and dismount the machine using the steps and grab handles. Use
both hands and face the machine. Keep all deck plates, steps and handles
in good repair and free of mud, grease and oil.
• Inspect the seat belt, mounting, hardware and seat suspension. Adjust
the seat and fasten the seat belt.
• Make certain that no one is working on, under or close to the machine.
• Check all fluid levels, then move the transmission and implement
controls into neutral and engage parking brake.

2. Complete the following spaces for operation and shutting down of plant
machinery.

• Only allow authorised persons to ride in or on equipment.


• Only get on or off a machine which is stationary. Never jump off a
machine during normal operations.
• Ensure the machine is not overloaded.
• Move off slowly and check that the brakes are working properly. Also
check that the steering is functioning correctly.
• Make certain that the area in the direction of travel is clear of people
and obstructions. Use a spotter if necessary.
• Only travel at a speed safe in the circumstances, for example, maintain a
speed which is safe for the condition of the roadway, grade, clearance,
visibility and traffic.

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• Never reverse a machine into or out of a line up. Leave adequate room
to pull out or drive through.
• Only reverse a machine after you are sure there is no one behind the
machine. If in doubt take time to be certain.
• Report any backup alarm which is not functioning correctly.
• Yield right of way to a loaded machine. If in doubt, yield right of way in
any case.
• Make sure there is adequate clearance from power lines.
• Where practicable, avoid turning/working/travelling across a slope, as
a sharp turn up or down a hill may cause rollover.
• When descending a grade use the same gear needed to climb it.
• Follow other machines at a safe distance.
• Stay a safe distance away from the edge of embankments.
• Only pass in an allowed location. Only pass when given right of way.
Only pass when visibility is clear.
• Only dig in an area after checking for the location of underground
services.
• Fit and use rotating flashing amber warning lights as per requirements of
the Traffic Act.
• Use lights after dark and in dust or foggy conditions.
• Secure the machine before dismounting. Set parking brake and lower
attachments to the ground.
• Chock the wheels if the machine is to be left on an incline. Remove the
machine’s keys if these are used.
• When parking at the end of shift, leave room for service vehicles to pass.

3. What are the four (4) principles (steps) of risk management?

(a) Identify the hazards.


(b) Assess the risk.
(c) Determine control measures.
(d) Review.

4. List five (5) vulnerable locations for the outbreak of fires.

• Contractors huts
• Materials stores in the open
• Plant and equipment
• Building structures
• Waste containers
• Heating appliance
• Store rooms

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5. Give four (4) common fire hazards on machinery

• build up of oil grease, and dust on engines and transmissions


• rubbish in belly plates, sticks, leaves, rags, etc.
• leaking fuel and injector lines
• loose battery frames, brackets, cables and terminals
• broken or damaged cables and/or electrical insulation

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CCC512 General Industry Skills SECTION 4

SELF-CHECK ANSWERS

EXERCISE 4: READ AND INTERPRET PLANS


1. List six (6) types of plans.

• Locality plans (district map and inventory strip map)


• Type cross-section plans
• Working plans
• Drainage cross-section plans
• Cross-section plans
• Standard drawings
• Layout plans for intersections and divided roads
• Resumption and drainage easement plans

2. Working plans can be divided into three (3) main sections. What are they?

• The horizontal alignment (or plan view)


• The longitudinal section (or vertical alignment)
• Miscellaneous additional information

3. What information is normally shown on cross-sections plans?

• The natural surface


• The required finished surface and the pavement.
• The base line – shown as a full line.
• The control line – shown as a broken line in the case of a shift.
• A datum line – a horizontal broken line at the same RL at the natural
surface at the base line.
• The extent of horizontal curves – base and control lines.
• Special details – drainage diversions etc.

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