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( x, y ) ( y, x ) x y x G X A B

(x, y) (y, x) x y x

G X

A B A

B

= B

= A B = X A B = A

A B n A B

2n n 1

A n

B n G

B B 1 ,

A 1 n A 1 ,

A B G 0 A

B

A B 1 1 A B 2 2 A B 3 3 A B 4
A
B
1
1
A
B
2
2
A
B
3
3
A
B
4
4

B A (A i , B j ) i j

G G G

G 0 (A 1 , B 1 ) (A 3 , B 4 ) C 0

C 0

A B 1 1 A B 2 2 A B 3 3 A B 4
A
B
1
1
A
B
2
2
A
B
3
3
A
B
4
4

C 0 C 0 C 0

G 0

G 0

A A 2n C 1 n C[i] j (A i , B j ) 1 A i

C G

a a a

C G a G a C G a a

A B 1 1 A B 2 2 A B 3 3 A B 4
A
B
1
1
A
B
2
2
A
B
3
3
A
B
4
4
A
B
5
5
A
B
6
6