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mixture. Therefore, possible deviations depend on the step Dosing Pumps with Innovative Drive
The presented group contribution method is a useful tool to
predict limiting oxygen concentrations. The calculated values
achieved by the original method of Subramaniam and By Bernd Eggert*
Cangelosi compared to the experimental values according to
DIN 51649 however show high deviations. Furthermore, these
deviations lie on the ªunsafeº side of the explosion range. 1 Introduction
The purpose of the introduction of new group contribution
values was at least a better representation of the values Displacement pumps and particularly diaphragm pumps are
contained in CHEMSAFE. The predicted values correspond typically used for dosing in the low-pressure range up to
well to the measured values. In order to achieve an extensive approximately 20 bar. However, the design and drive of
validation of the method, more experimental LOC values conventional, mechanically driven diaphragm pumps, results
should be available. in relatively narrow limits to their performance, in terms of
Received: August 22, 2002, [K 2976] dosing and setting accuracy which affects the supply of
chemicals (see Fig. 1). In addition, solenoid-driven dosing
pumps produce ± due to their design ± strong pulsations, which
Symbols used reduce the lifetime of both the pump and adjacent system
components. The integration of the pumps into central process
management systems is another aspect that requires improve-
Omax% [mol.-%] limiting oxygen concentration
LAC [mol.-%] limiting air concentration
Os [±] stoichiometric number of oxygen moles
required per mole of combustible gas
NT [±] total nitrogen required per mole of
combustible gas
a [±] number of chlorine atoms in relation
to the number of hydrogen atoms
c [±] number of the carbon atoms
in the fuel gas
d [±] number of the chlorine atoms
in the fuel gas
h [±] number of the hydrogen atoms
in the fuel gas
n [±] number of the nitrogen atoms
in the fuel gas
Figure 1. Unexpected operating cost due to inaccurate dosing.
o [±] number of the oxygen atoms
in the fuel gas
s [±] number of the sulfur atoms
in the fuel gas 2 Design of Dosing Pumps

In dosing applications, where dosing accuracy is usually the

most important requirement, the preferred pump type is a
[1] European Standard EN 1127±1: Explosive Atmospheres ± Explosion displacement pump, e.g. diaphragm pump, piston pump and
Prevention and Protection ± Part 1: Basic Concepts and Methodology, piston diaphragm pump). In the low-pressure range up to
CEN, Brussels 1997, 6.
approximately 20 bar, mechanically actuated diaphragm
[2] T. K. Subramaniam, J. V. Cangelosi, Chem. Eng. 1989, 108.
[3] M. G. Zabetakis, Flammability Characteristics of Combustible Gases and pumps are the most economical. The advantage over piston
Vapors, Bureau of Mines Bulletin 627, U.S. Government Printing Office, pumps lies in their simple and leakage-free design, i.e. given
Washington D.C. 1965.
[4] CHEMSAFE ± Database for Rated Safety Characteristics, Database normal operating conditions there is no risk of contaminating
inhouse version 1.4, BAM, PTB, DECHEMA, Frankfurt/M. 2001. the environment with the dosing fluid. The high-pressure
[5] DIN 51649 Teil 1: Bestimmung der Explosionsgrenzen von Gasen und range is the field of application for hydraulically driven piston
Gasgemischen in Luft, Beuth Verlag GmbH, Berlin 1987.
[6] J. Stickling, Experimentelle und theoretische Bestimmung des Inertga- diaphragm pumps and process pumps. In applications with
seinflusses auf die Explosionsgrenzen organischer Verbindungen, Ab-
schlussbericht, Forschungsvorhaben AiF 10144, Paderborn 1997. ±
[*] Dipl.-Ing. B. Eggert, Product Manager Dosing Dumps, Grundfos GmbH,
This paper was also published in German in Chem. Ing. Tech. 2002, 74 (6), 827. D-23812 Wahlstedt, Germany.

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0930-7516/03/0404-0433 $ 17.50+.50/0 433

large dosing quantities and relatively low pressures (approx. 3 Dosing with Constant, Full Piston Stroke
2 m3/h against 5 bar), where accuracy requirements are less
strict, the preferred and most economical choice is a feed Recently developed dosing pumps by Grundfos, Fig. 3, are
pump with a flow meter integrated into the control loop. characterized by their harmonic oscillating actuation via a
Characteristic Q/H curves for centrifugal, diaphragm and crank-cam gear and their constant diaphragm drive. The
piston pumps, Fig. 2, illustrate that piston and piston pumps are driven by a stepper motor with synchronous belt
diaphragm pumps are best suited for accurate dosing, as they transmission, or a synchronous motor with synchronous belt
provide the highest volumetric efficiency together with an transmission. While the typical compact dosing pump used in
almost pressure-stable pump curve, i.e. the flow/dosing low pressure applications has a solenoid drive and a spring-
quantity (Q) is virtually independent of pressure (H). loaded return, the digital dosing concept of these pumps relies
on forced control, i.e. positive diaphragm action throughout
the entire suction and discharge cycle. With forced control, the
diaphragm position and thus the delivered dosing quantity can
be precisely defined at any time. Microprocessor-based
control with plain character display and control panel
provides a clear, easy-to-operate user interface.

Figure 2. Typical Q/H curves of centrifugal, diaphragm and piston pumps.

The essential advantage of dosing pumps is their ability to

deliver a specified quantity per pump lift, revolution or time
unit and that this quantity can be controlled. In other words, a
certain quantity of fluid can be dosed, depending on the flow Figure 3. Sectional view of a DME dosing pump: 1 ± maintenance-free drive
rate of the main flow, regardless of the counter pressure. For unit with synchronous belt/cam actuation, 2 ± PTFE dosing head with ceramic/
PTFE valves, 3 ± PTFE-coated diaphragm, 4 ± microprocessor control, 5 ± step
dosing applications, the main difference between a piston motor controlling the diaphragm action throughout suction and discharge
pump and a simple, mechanically actuated diaphragm pump is phase, 6 ± housing (enclosure class IP 65).
the higher structural flexibility of those diaphragm pump
components that are in contact with the liquid. In diaphragm Unlike conventional compact dosing pumps with stroke
pumps, the diaphragm etc. gives way to considerably higher adjustment, these pump systems can continuously operate at
counter pressures. Rising counter pressure reduces the dosing full stroke. The dosing quantity is changed, by adjusting the
quantity (Q) per pump lift resulting in a declining Q/H curve in stroke frequency and velocity. In particular, when operating in
the upper pressure range. continuous operation, the stepper motor drive with constant
In hydraulically driven piston diaphragm pumps, a piston piston lift enables virtually pulsation-free dosing without any
moving in hydraulic oil drives the dosing fluid by oscillation pressure peaks, Fig. 4. This so-called smooth dosing not only
and via an intermediate liquid (e.g., oil) across a PTFE ensures optimum dosing accuracy by harmonized valve
diaphragm. In most cases, this is the optimum solution as it kinematics, but it also minimizes the mechanical load on the
combines the advantages of both pump types. diaphragm and the entire dosing system which again
Apart from high-pressure applications, this pump type is considerably prolongs the lifetime of all components involved.
widely used in the chemical industry, where safety and Conventional dosing pumps, on the contrary, produce
reliability of pumps and systems are as important as high pressure peaks of up to 2.5 times the operating pressure,
dosing accuracy. Therefore, the higher initial cost is not the which are extremely wearing conditions for the diaphragm
only decisive factor when choosing a pump. The most and often cause failure.
important point when handling aggressive, toxic or otherwise The new pumps operate with constant piston lift, which
dangerous media is the protection of both personnel and ensures an optimum dead space ratio throughout the entire
environment from any hazard. performance range. As a result, even crystallizing liquids can

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DME 100% Solenoid DME 50% DME anticav intermittent dosing as performed by solenoid-driven dia-
phragm pumps, the dosing process is virtually continuous.
Even for extremely small dosing quantities, continuous dosing
results in steady injection of the additive into the starting
This innovative drive concept has many benefits:
9 l High Dosing Accuracy ± by having virtually constant
volumetric efficiency, the displaced volume is constant.
With highly concentrated and therefore expensive addi-
7 tives, precise dosing combines both cost reduction and
simultaneous environmental protection.
Magnet-P. l Smooth Dosing ± continuous smooth dosing eliminates
water hammer load on the diaphragm, which is an important
quality factor in many dosing applications. In the chemical
3 industry, for instance, continuous dosing prevents over-
heating or eliminates the need for static mixers.
l Easy, High-Precision Control ± 'plug & play' with easy
1 calibration, input of dosing quantity in L/h or mL/h and easy
operating mode setting. A multi-voltage, power supply
0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 module (100±240 V, 50/60 Hz) is available.
l Reliable and safe operation ± Forced control and operation
at full piston lift optimizes the dosing process even with
degassing and crystallizing liquids, and the optional BUS
connection allows an easy integration into process manage-
ment systems and facilitates validation.

4 Drive Concepts

The pump motor is electronically controlled and driven by

Figure 4. (a) Virtually pulsation-free liquid transport by a DME dosing pump
compared to other drive concepts illustrated as the pressure development over one of the following driving concepts. Differing from the
time for approx. 2 suction and pressure strokes: - dark blue: DME at 100 % traditional way of setting the dosing quantity by varying stroke
dosing quantity, yellow: DME at 50 % dosing quantity, light blue: DME at 100 % frequency and stroke length (mechanical displacement con-
dosing quantity, but in cavitation mode, violet: magnet driven dosing pump.
(b) Pumps of the DME type enable very long supply phases, even with small trol), the microprocessor-controlled stepper motor of the
quantities. DME pump type adjusts the stroke velocity during the
pressure stroke of the diaphragm. By continuous, micropro-
be pumped to some extent without problems. However, the cessor-controlled operation, the stepper motor enables very
real advantage of these pumps shows when gassing liquids long discharge phases for small quantities, with the decisive
such as sodium hypochlorite or hydrogen peroxide are advantage that the pump simply doses better and steadier,
pumped. The liquid has no time to degas as it is driven out thus ensuring optimum concentration throughout the process,
of the pump head with every piston lift (always at full stroke), Fig. 4b. Furthermore, the stepper motor and processor control
and therefore gas cannot accumulate in dead spaces. Thus, of these pumps offer a variety of additional features, which
even with smaller dosing volumes the pump offers high simplify operation and optimize the respective processes.
operating safety and dosing accuracy, unlike conventional Manual operating modes, pulse control, batch dosing,
dosing pumps where reducing the piston lift negatively affects analogue signal control, (0/4±20 mA), timer control or control
the active dosing volume/dead space ratio. As a result these via a BUS interface are available.
conventional pumps have to be stopped regularly ± sometimes The advanced motor electronics of the synchronous motor
even daily ± to be vented or need to be equipped with an extra fitted to pumps of the DMS type adjusts the stroke frequency
vent valve. according to the set dosing quantity. The synchronous motor
Pulse-controlled dosing, as widely used in industrial operates at full stroke and stops between cycles if necessary,
practice today, an also benefit from the new dosing pump Fig. 5. In other words, the dosing quantity is adjusted to the
technology. As soon as the desired dosing quantity per pulse is requirements by automatic stroke frequency control.
set, the pump ensures virtually constant additive supply over For dosing fluids of higher viscosity (up to 500 mPa) and for
the entire pulse period, since the control electronics adjust the small suction heads, pumps of the DME type offer a special
stroke velocity according to the period between two pulses operating mode which increases suction stroke time, thus
and the set dosing quantity per pulse. Unlike the typical minimizing the cavitation risk and increasing dosing accuracy.

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5.4 Batch Dosing via Timer

The set quantity is dosed in batches at maximum stroke

velocity or according to the set value of the maximum dosing
quantity. The dosing period for the first and all subsequent
batches can be set in minutes, hours and days. The maximum
period is limited to 9 days, 23 h and 59 min, while the minimum
period is 1 min.

Figure 5. Setting of the dosing quantity in DMS pumps.

5.5 Batch Dosing via Pulse Input

All pump components in contact with the liquid are made of
corrosion resistant materials suited for aggressive liquids. The
The set quantity is dosed in batches at maximum stroke
textile reinforced EPDM diaphragm has a PTFE coating. The
velocity or according to the set value of the maximum dosing
pumps of the DME/DMS series are also suited for dosing
quantity. The dosing batch is released via a received pulse and
chemical solutions e.g. in the treatment of operating, process,
accordingly dosed. Pulses received while a batch dosing is in
heating, boiler feed and cooling water. This includes alkaline
process are ignored.
or acid flocculents, phosphates and silicates, dissolved
chemicals like aluminum chloride, chloramine, ferric sulfate,
acetic acid, hydrofluoric acid, milk of lime, potassium
permanganate, and sulphuric acid. Pump heads and valves 5.6 Anti-cavitation Mode
are available in a great variety of materials to suit the different
liquids. The pumps may be equipped with an anti-cavitation mode.
If this mode is activated the suction stroke is slowed down
resulting in softer suction. The anti-cavitation mode is useful
5 Operating Modes for media with high viscosity or a high-gas content, long
suction tubes and long suction height.
5.1 Manual Operation

The dosing quantity in L/h or mL/h (also Gallons/hr) is set 5.7 Limiting the Maximum Dosing Quantity
via the pump's control panel and remains constantly.
This feature reduces the maximum dosing quantity at
100 %. The new, reduced maximum dosing quantity then
5.2 Pulse applies to all other menu functions, except the quick venting
key. So, the pump size is virtually reduced which, combined
In specific embodiments of the pumps, the dosing quantity with the still valid setting range of 1:1000, offers several
depends on pulses received, e.g., from a water meter. There is advantages:
no direct correlation between the number of received pulses l adjustment of the smooth and constant dosing curve with
and the diaphragm action. The pump's integrated electronic excellent mixing results even for small dosing quantities,
unit automatically determines the optimum stroke velocity for improved dosing in systems with long discharge pipes and
the preset dosing quantity per pulse. The pump adjusts its improved dosing of fluids of higher viscosity;
stroke velocity and frequency according to the following l wider range with only one pump size;
parameters: (a) frequency of the received pulses; (b) preset l adjustment of the pump to 4±20 mA input signal.
dosing quantity/pulse. Consequently, the pump can be used for very small
quantities without changing the input signal. For example: a
DME 48 pump receives an input signal of 12 mA which
5.3 Control via Analogue Input 0/4±20 mA corresponds to a 50 % dosing quantity, that is 24 L/h. Due to a
change in operating conditions, the required quantity is
These pumps dose according to the external analogue signal reduced to only 2 L/h, the input signal still being 12 mA. This
received. The dosing quantity is directly proportional to the 0/ means the maximum dosing quantity limit is to be set to 4 L/h
4±20 mA input signal (0/4 mA = 0 %; 20 mA = 100 %). Signal so that now 20 mA = 4 L/h and 2 L/h = 50 % (Fig. 6). In the
input may also be inversely proportional: 20±0/4 mA. The timer and pulse controlled batch dosing mode or in the
dosing rate depends on the input for the maximum dosing calibrating phase, where the pump is always working at
quantity (see below). 100 % always relates to the value set for maximum dosing quantity, limiting the maximum dosing
the maximum dosing quantity. quantity also has a corresponding effect on the stroke velocity.

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and actual fluid throughput can be established. Via the menu,

the dosing pump can be configured to trigger an alarm or even
actuate an additional electric venting valve as soon as the
monitoring device responds. When the dosing tank is refilled
or the pump head vented, the pump will automatically return
to normal operation.

6 Summary

The described pumps of the DME and DMS types offer

quite a number of valuable advantages useful for the chemical
and process industries. They have a wide setting range of max.
Figure 6. Limitation of the maximum dosing quantity. 1:1000 with constant dosing accuracy. The cam-crank drive
eliminates the water hammer problem of solenoid driven
diaphragm pumps. Furthermore, many users will welcome the
5.8 Dosing Monitoring outstandingly easy handling: once the dosing quantity in L/h
or mL/h is set, the pump's microprocessor control will take
By means of a dosing monitor, that is available as an care of the rest.
accessory, the connection between actual performed stroke Received: July 25, 2002 [K 3013]


Chem. Eng. Technol. 26 (2003) 4, Ó 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim 0930-7516/03/0404-0437 $ 17.50+.50/0 437