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LECTURE THREE: PARTS OF SPEECH

Adjectives and Pronouns

An adjective qualifies a noun or a pronoun. It tells us more about a noun or a pronoun.

The types of Adjectives

1. Qualitative Adjectives. These are adjectives that denote Age, quality, size, length,
breath, height, weight, colour, nationality.
2. Quantitative Adjectives

They tell us about number or quantity – how many, how much e.g one, two, many, how much.
E.g. one, two, many, much, few, more, little, enough.

3. Demonstrative Adjectives.
They point to something e.g

This book these people

That man those boys.

4. Possessive Adjectives

They donate ownership e.g. our book, its voice, my, your, his/her/its, our, your, their.

5. Interrogative Adjective

They are used to ask questions. E.g. whose book is this? What work do you do?

Which action is more important?

6. Distributive Adjective

They denote an individual or each member of a group e.g each, neither, each one, everyone. For
example, Each student is……..

7. Emphatic adjective.

They are used to lay emphasis on the nouns they qualify.

e.g. This work is as a result of my own effort.

8. Indefinite Adjectives

They show an indefinite number e.g. some, any – Some men are generous, call any boy to do
the work. Most women are humble some are arrogant. Note this sentence ‘I don’t want any’ –
not an adjective in this context.
9. The Use of Past Participle as an Adjective

e.g. This looks like the stolen car.

A deserted village, educated monkey, an abandoned house, tarred road, painted building.

10. The use of the Present Participle as an Adjective

e.g. fishing boat, Dining hall , Walking stick.

PRONOUNS

Pronouns are words used in place of nouns. They help us to avoid repetition and clumsy
wording.

Types of Pronoun.

1. Personal Pronouns.
2. Possessive Pronouns
3. Reflexive Pronouns
4. Relative Pronouns
5. Demonstrative Pronouns
6. Interrogative Pronouns

Personal Pronouns

1. There are three forms of personal pronouns

Singular plural

1st I We

2nd You You

3rd He/ She They

Cases of personal pronouns.

1. Nominative – I, You, He/She, We, They.


2. Objective – me, You, Him/Her, Us, Them.

Common errors: This is between you and I. He is taller than me.

Possessive Pronouns
They indicate ownership of a thing or property.

e.g. mine, yours, his/hers/ ours, yours, theirs. COMMON ERROR your’s, her’s, it’s/its

Reflexive Pronouns

They are used when the action of the verb falls on the subject. They are sometimes used to show
emphasis. I did the work myself. The reflexive pronouns are:

Myself, yourself, himself, himself, herself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves

Relative Pronouns

Relative pronouns introduce a subordinate clause. They are used to join two or more clauses. e.g.
that, which, who, whom, whose. E.g. the man who came here yesterday is my uncle.

Interrogative Pronouns

They are used to ask questions. They are: who, whom, which, what, whose.

e.g. What do you want?

Which is more important?

Whose has been stolen?

Who is your best friend?

Whom should I listen to?

Demonstrative pronouns

They are used to specify something that one is talking about.

They are: This/ that these/those e.g

This is my book…..pronoun

This book is my book…..adjective