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EN5001 - Electrical Machines

Laboratory 2

Three-phase transformer test

Team
Kevin Cubas
Alonso Moquillaza
Jose Narro
2018 - 2

 
1. Introduction:
The transformer are static machines the are used to change the voltage (V) and the
intensity (I) values in case used in the transport and distribution lines to raise or reduce
the voltage values. The transformer it is responsible for transforming energy levels to
one to another voltage level using electromagnetic interaction.

The function of the transformer becomes a source of electrical energy field of


magnetic a magnetic action, the engine of the site originates in a magnetic robustness
of which produces the electromotive force that will feed and that the functionality.

Now a days the most useful transformers are the three-phase circuit, because are
economic to replace. In this experience the team test and the polarity and connection
of the transformers.

2. Objective
2.1. Master the testing method for determination of 3-phase transformer polarity.
2.2. Master the testing method for determination of 3-phase transformer connection.

3. Equipment and Measurement Instrument


N Descripción  Cant. 

1 Lucas Nulle-ST8008 POWER SUPPLY (6B-4F-3J-4M) (0-400Vac; 0/250Vdc) 1
2 Lucas Nulle-CO3636 TRANSFORMER TRAINER (6B-4F-3J-4M) 1
3 Lucas Nulle-CO5127-1Z ANALOG-DIDITAL MULTIMETER 1

4. Experinces
4.1. Determination of Polarity
(1) Determine the polarity between different phases
● Use multimeter to measure the value of resistor of the windings. The high
voltage winding must have higher value. Use A, B, C, X, Y, Z to label high
voltage winding terminals. And use a, b, c, x, y, z to label the low voltage
winding.
● Complete the connection based on the following figure 1. A, X terminals are
connected to U, V terminals respectively, Y and Z is short circuited.
● Apply ac voltage of 50% U N to A and X terminals.
● Measure the following voltage value: U BY , U CZ , U BC , if
| | | |
U BC = |U BY − U CZ | , then the labels are correct; if U BC = |U BY + U CZ | , then
the labels are not correct. The head and tail label for either phase B or phase C
would be changed.
● Then repeat the previous steps for phase B with applied voltage, and then
determine the rest phase head and tail labels.

Figure1. Schematic connection diagram for phase to phase polarity

(2) Determine the high voltage and low voltage polarity


● Temporarily label the low voltage windings as a,b, c, x, y, z as figure 2.
● Apply 50% U N to high voltage winding, and measure voltage value of
U AX , U BY , U CZ , U ax , U by, U cz , U Aa , U Bb , U Cc , if U Aa = U AX − U ax , then
phase A high and low voltage winding is at the same phase and head A and a
are the dotted terminals. If U Aa = U AX + U ax , then A and a are not dotted
terminals.
● Repeat the previous process, then determine the B, b and C, c polarity.

*Figure2. Schematic connection diagram for Determination of the polarity for high and low
voltage windings.
Measurements (V) Calculated (V) Error (%)

U ​AX =​ 117.4 V U ​Aa = 82.7


​ V U ​Aa = ​ 82.6 V 0.1
U ​ax = ​ 34.8 V

U ​BY = ​ 114.8 V U ​Bb =​ 79.3 V U ​Bb =​ 79.1 V 0.2


U ​by =​ 35.7 V

U ​CZ = 114.6
​ V U ​Cc = 79.1
​ V U ​Cc = 79.1
​ 0
U ​cz = ​ 35.5V

4.2. Y/Y—12​ ​connection phasor group check

Y/Y—12​ ​Connection

4.2.1. Test Procedure:


① According to the Y/Y—12 connection above,the high voltage winding connects to the
three phase power supply. Connect A-a, please note the dotted terminals.

② Apply voltages.

③ Measure UAB、Uab、UBb、UCc、UBc ,Record the measurements in the


following table.

4.2.2. Test Result Table


Measurements Calculations

Connection U​AB U​ab U​Bb U​Cc U​Bc U​Bb U​Cc U​Bc


Y/Y—12 200.5 60.9 139.8 139.30 178.7 139.6 139.6 178.04

4.2.3. Draw the phasor diagram


4.2.4. Calculate UBb、UCc、UBc,and compare the calculated values with the
measurements.

4.2.5. If the calculated values of UBb、UCc、UBc are equal to the measurements,


then connection is correct, which is Y/Y-12.

4.3. Y/Y—6​ ​connection phasor group check

Y/Y—6 Connection

4.3.1. Test Procedure:


① According to the Y/Y—6 connection above,the high votlage winding connects to the
three phase power supply. Connect A-x, please note the dotted terminals.

② Apply voltages.

③ Measure UAB、Uab、UBb、UCc、UBc ,Record the measurements in the


following table.

4.3.2. Test Result Table


Measurements Calculations

Connection U​AB U​ab U​Bb U​Cc U​Bc U​Bb U​Cc U​Bc


Y/Y—6 200.3 60.9 260.2 259.1 235.4 261.2 261.2 236.7

4.3.3. Draw the phasor diagram.

4.3.4. Calculate UBy 、UCz、UBC,and compare the calculated values with the
measurements.
4.3.5. If the calculated values of UBb、UCc、UBc are equal to the measurements,
then connection is correct, which is Y/Y—6.

4.4. Y /△—11 connection phasor group check

Y /​△​—11​ Connection

4.4.1. Test Procedure:


① According to the Y /△—11 connection above,the high voltage winding connects to
the three phase power supply. Connect A-a.

② Apply the voltages.

③ Meausre UAB、Uab、UBb、UCc、UBc,Record them in the following table.

4.4.2. Test Result Table


Measurements Calculations

Connection U​AB U​ab U​Bb U​Cc U​Bc U​Bb U​Cc U​Bc

Y /△—11 200.3 35.8 170.5 170.6 171.1 170.24 170.24 170.24


4.4.3. Draw the phasor diagram

4.4.4. Calculate U​Bb ​、​U​Cc​、​U​Bc​,and compare the calculated values with the
measurements.

4.4.5. If the calculated values of UBb、UCc、UBc are equal to the measurements,


then connection is correct, which is ​Y /△—11​.

Such as the values of measurements and calculated voltage are almost the same, we can
asseverate that it configuration correspond to Y /△—11
4.5. Y /△—5 connection phasor group check

Y /​△​—5​ Connection

4.5.1. Test Procedure:


① According to the ​Y /​△​—5 ​connection above,the high voltage winding connects to
the three phase power supply. Connect A-x, please note the dotted terminals.

② Apply voltages.

③ Meausre UAB、Uab、UBb、UCc、UBc,Record them in the following table.

4.5.2. Test Result Table


Measurements Calculations

Connection U​AB U​ab U​Bb U​Cc U​Bc U​Bb U​Cc U​Bc

Y /​△​—5 200.2 35.7 231.6 230.2 230.8 231.81 231.81 231.81


4.5.3. Draw the phasor diagram.

4.5.4. Calculate U​By ​、​U​Cz​、​U​Bz​,and compare the calculated values with the
measurements.
If the calculated values of UBb、UCc、UBc are equal to the measurements,then
connection is correct, which is Y /​△​—5.

Such as the values of measurements and calculated voltage are almost the same, we can
asseverate that it configuration correspond to Y /△—5.
CONCLUSION
❏ To implement a three-phase transformer, 3 single-phase transformers can be used because if a
fault occurs, the repair cost will be lower.
❏ It is important to know the values ​of the primary and secondary windings of each connection
since it is thus possible to determine the voltage and see the margin of error of each
measurement.
❏ For this configuration Y has a better performance on the high voltage side and the neutral
grounded.