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7/9/2018 Chemical Properties

Study of Matter Compounds Elmhurst College


Atoms Physical Properties Mixtures Chemistry Department
Elements Chemical Properties Virtual ChemBook

What are Chemical Properties and


Changes?
Chemical Properties:

Chemical properties of matter describes its


"potential" to undergo some chemical change or
reaction by virtue of its composition. What elements,
electrons, and bonding are present to give the potential
for chemical change.

It is quite difficult to define a chemical property


without using the word "change". Eventually you
should be able to look at the formula of a compound
and state some chemical property. At this time this is
very difficult to do and you are not expected to be able
to do it.

For example hydrogen has the potential to ignite and


explode given the right conditions. This is a chemical
property.

Metals in general have they chemical property of


reacting with an acid. Zinc reacts with hydrochloric
acid to produce hydrogen gas. This is a chemical
property.

Chemical Changes or Reactions:

Chemical change results in one or more substances of


entirely different composition from the original
substances. The elements and/or compounds at the start
of the reaction are rearranged into new product
compounds or elements.

A CHEMICAL CHANGE alters the composition of


the original matter. Different elements or compounds
are present at the end of the chemical change. The
atoms in compounds are rearranged to make new and
different compounds.

Magnesium reacts with oxygen from the air producing


an extremely bright flame. This is a chemical change
since magnesium oxide has completely different
properties than magnesium metal shown on the left.
Safety: Do not try this without supervision and DO
Click for larger image
NOT LOOK DIRECTLY AT THE LIGHT!

The atoms are rearranged - diatomic oxygen molecules


are split apart so that one oxygen atom combines with
one magnesium atom.
Oxidation of Iron - a chemical change:

For example iron has the potential to rust given the


right conditions. This is a chemical property.

If iron does rust, this is a slow chemical change since


rust is an iron oxide with different properties than iron

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7/9/2018 Chemical Properties

metal.

In the graphic on the left, iron or steel wool is burning


in a fast reaction with oxygen as contrasted with the
slow rusting of iron also with oxygen.

In the element iron only atoms of iron are in contact


with each other. In the element oxygen each oxygen is
joined with one other to make a diatomic molecule.
These atoms and molecules are rearranged so that two
iron atoms combine with three atoms of oxygen to form
a new compound.

Alka Seltzer
The reactions in both of the (left and lower)
cases start when a solid tablet is dropped into
water. The chemicals in dry solid form must
dissolve in the water before a reaction may take
place. In both cases gas bubbles are observed.
This is an initial chemical reaction. A flaming or
glowing splint is used to test for the identity of
the gases by using their chemical properties.

Reactions:

Alka-Seltzer: (Baking soda or sodium


bicarbonate) NaHCO3 + Citric acid ---> CO2 +
H2O + Sodium Citrate

QUES.: Define chemical property. Then use this


definition to describe the behavior toward the
flaming splint for carbon dioxide in the example
Click for larger image on the left.

Answer: A chemical property defines whether a


chemical reaction will or will not take place.
Because the flame goes out, this shows that the
chemical property of carbon dioxide gas is that
no combustion reaction can take place in its
presence.

Efferdent

The reactions in both of the (left and upper) cases


start when a solid tablet is dropped into water.
The chemicals in dry solid form must dissolve in
the water before a reaction may take place. In
both cases gas bubbles are observed. A flaming
or glowing splint is used to test for the identity of
the gases.
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7/9/2018 Chemical Properties

Reaction:
Efferdent: (sodium perborate - a source of
hydrogen peroxide) = H2O2 + catalyst ---> O2 +
H2O

QUES.: Define chemical property. Then use this


definition to describe the difference in behavior
toward the flaming splint for both gases in the
above examples.

Click for larger image


Zinc and Iodine Reaction

The reaction in this case is between two


elements, zinc metal and iodine. Both look sort of
grayish in the photo. The reaction is started
between the dry powders by adding a few drops
of water. The reaction occurs as a combination
reaction between the two elements to produce a
single compound. During the reaction zinc metal
gives two electrons to two iodine atoms to
produce zinc +2 ions and iodide -1 ions.

The reaction is: Zn metal + I2 ----> ZnI2

The reaction between the two elements to


produce zinc iodide is very exothermic. Some of
the unreacted iodine solid is heated to a gaseous
iodine which is purple in color.

QUES.: A molecule is only defined as the


Click for larger image simplest part of a compound with two or more
atoms. (True or False)

QUES.: For an exothermic reaction, heat is given


off in the process. (True or False)

QUES.: The fact that unreacted iodine changes


to gaseous iodine is a: chemical or physical
change?

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