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3 Answers to end-of-chapter questions

1 D [1]
2 C [1]
3 B [1]
4 B [1]
5 C [1]
6 B [1]
7 C [1]
8 D [1]
Structured questions
9 a One point for each column correct:
Volume of Volume of water Final concentration
10% betalain added/cm3 of standard
added/cm solution/%
10.0 0.0 10.0
8.0 2.0 8.0
5.0 5.0 5.0
4.0 6.0 4.0
2.0 8.0 2.0
1.0 9.0 1.0
0.0 10.0 0.0 [3]

b One point required:

• To wash away the pigment that seeps out of the vacuole when the beetroot disc is
• If the discs were not rinsed, the final colour at end of the experiment would be
more intense than it should be; results would not be reliable or valid [1]

c i One point required:

• Stir contents of both sets of test tubes
• Place test tubes in front of plain white paper [1]

ii As temperature increased, the colour intensity increased [1]

At 30 °C, the colour corresponded to 2% betalain
At 50 °C, the colour corresponded to 5% betalain
At 80 °C, the colour corresponded to 10% betalain [1]

iii Each cause and effect 1 mark:

• Betalain diffused out of the vacuoles in to the water
• Betalain passed from the vacuole across the tonoplast through the cytoplasm
and across the plasma membrane
• As temperature increased, there was more kinetic energy, and so more rapid
diffusion of betalain
• There were also more vibrations in the protein molecules in the membrane
which broke the hydrogen bonds of their tertiary structure
• The proteins were denatured in both the tonoplast and plasma membrane
• This allowed the membrane to become more permeable to the pigment

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• The phospholipids also became more fluid
• This allowed for the passage of more of the soluble pigment [max 4]

iv One point required:

• Increasing temperature increases the permeability of the cell membrane
• Increasing temperature denatures the proteins of the membrane making it more
• Increasing temperature disrupts the components of the cell membrane making it
more permeable [1]

d Limitations (one point required):

• Based on colour matching the colour standard and experiment tubes. This is
• Intermediate results would have to be estimated
• Any valid point [1]

Sources of error (two points required):

• Not all the discs would be the same thickness
• Discs not rinsed until water was clear
• Discs not dried after rinsing so could have pigment on surface before experiment
• Depending on the apparatus used to measure the water for each tube, the volume of
water added to each tube may not be the same
• Any valid point [2]

10 a The amount by which the dissolved solute lowers the water potential of a solution [1]

b So that the contents of the cell would be easily visible under the microscope [1]

Well drawn [1]

Drawing showing a fully plasmolysed plant cell 3 labels [1]

d Concentration of sucrose solution/M 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Total number of cells observed 50 50 50 50
Number of cells plasmolysed 8 18 38 48 2 correct [1]
Percentage plasmolysis 16 36 76 96 4 correct [max 2]

e Three points required:

• Not all the cells in each sample had the same water potential
• Hence not all the cells behaved exactly the same way in each sample

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• In 0.2 M sucrose solution, only 16% of the cells were plasmolysed.
This shows that the solution may have had the same water potential
(isotonic) as most of the cells or higher water potential (hypotonic)
than the cells
• From 0.4 M to 0.8 M sucrose solution, there was increasing
plasmolysis. The solutions had a lower water potential than the cells
• Water moved from a higher water potential inside of the vacuoles of
cells through the cell membrane to each of the solutions
• 0.8 M had the most negative solute potential and therefore the lowest
water potential [max 3]

f Axes labelled with appropriate units: concentration of sucrose on x-axis – ½ mark; %

plasmolysis on y-axis – ½ mark; points plotted accurately and clearly marked – 1 mark;
Points joined to show cause and effect relationship / best fit – 1 mark.

Percentage plasmolysis/%

Concentration of sucrose/M

Graph showing the effect of sucrose concentration on

plasmolysis of onion cells [max 3]

g 0.45 M [1]

h From table: 1280 kPA [1]

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i Discrepancy in counting cells – same cells can be counted more than
once or some cells not counted at all. [1]

11 a • ‘Fluid’ refers to the fact that the molecules in the membrane are in
constant motion, moving around within their own phospholipid
monolayer [1]
• ‘Mosaic’ refers to the way the membrane would look if viewed from
above – ‘protein icebergs in a lipid sea’ [1]

b I – intrinsic glycoprotein / transmembrane protein

II – cholesterol
III – phospholipid bilayer
IV – extrinsic protein
V – extrinsic protein 6–7 points [3]
VI – glycoprotein 4–5 points [2]
VII – channel / intrinsic / integral protein 2–3 points [1]

c i Y [1]

ii Because exterior surface (X) has the glycocalyx / carbohydrate

chains which act(s) as receptor site / mechanical support [1]

d Extrinsic – do not interact with the hydrophobic fatty acid tails of the
phospholipid bilayer / they are usually bound to the membrane
indirectly by interactions with integral membrane proteins or directly by
interactions with lipid polar head groups 1 point [1]
Intrinsic – each arranged in an amphipathic structure; that is, with the
ionic and highly polar groups protruding from the membrane into the
aqueous environment, and the nonpolar groups largely buried in the
hydrophobic interior (fatty acid tails) of the membrane 1 point [1]

e • transport proteins – carrier and channel

• enzymes
• receptor sites for hormones, neurotransmitters
• attachment for cells (e.g. form tight junctions etc.)
• markers on cells for cell recognition Any 2 points [2]

f • The hydroxyl groups of the amino acids and other R groups that have
small electrical charges are attracted to the charged poll heads
of the phospholipids [1]
• The hydrophobic regions of the protein are attracted to the
hydrophobic lipid tails, by hydrophobic interactions [1]

g Phospholipid bilayer
• Constituent of each phospholipid: phosphate, glycerol, two fatty acids
• Condensation reaction to form an ester linkage
• Made up of hydrophilic phosphate head oriented towards the aqueous
• With two nonpolar / hydrophobic fatty acid tails oriented away from
the aqueous medium [2]

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Essay questions
12 a i
glycoprotein – made up
glycolipid – made up of channel of carbohydrate chain
carbohydrate chains attached to proteins – attached to a protein, extrinsic protein – located
phosphate head of transmembrane found on exterior of on surfaces of membrane;
phospholipid phospholipids, found on exterior protein with a membrane do not interact with
bilayer – made pore hydrophobic part of
up of membrane
hydrophilic Drawing neat
oriented and clear [1]
towards Any 5
the aqueous annotations [3]
medium and
two cholesterol – 3–4 annotations
hydrophobic Transmembrane / integral made up of polar [2]
fatty acid tails protein – spans entire head, which is
oriented away membrane, the polar aligned to polar 1–2 annotations
from the groups protruding from the head of [1]
aqueous membrane into the phospholipid, and
a nonpolar tail
Drawing with
medium aqueous environment, and
the nonpolar groups aligned with fatty no annotations
largely buried in the acid tails of but 5 or more
hydrophobic interior (fatty phospholipid
acid tails) of the
labels [1]
membrane [max 4]

ii Functions
• Phospholipid – a barrier which separates cell contents from
exterior / allows for diffusion of lipid-soluble compounds /
prevents entry of hydrophilic substances
• Cholesterol – helps to maintain the fluidity of the membrane,
preventing it from becoming too stiff when temperatures are
low, or too fluid when temperatures are high / prevents entry
of polar substances / mechanical stability of membrane
• Proteins – as transport proteins / carrier proteins for active
transport / channel proteins for facilitated diffusion / as
enzymes / for cell adhesion / as markers for cell recognition
• Glycolipids and glycoproteins – as receptor sites / cell
signalling for hormones, neurotransmitters / as an antigen Any 3 points [3]

b i Oxygen and carbon dioxide – by diffusion: down a concentration

gradient without the use of ATP (passive) Process well described [1]

ii • Sodium and potassium ions – by active transport / use of Na+–

K+ pump: direct active transport where the ions are moved
against a concentration gradient with the use of ATP and
carrier proteins
• Sodium and potassium ions – by facilitated diffusion:
uses channel proteins / down a concentration gradient / without use
of ATP Processes well described [2]

iii Water – by osmosis: from an area of high water potential to an area of

lower water potential / down a water potential gradient / across a
partially permeable membrane Process well described [1]

iv Glucose – by facilitated diffusion: uses channel protein / down

concentration gradient / no ATP

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Glucose – by indirect active transport: cotransported with Na+
ions / uses symport protein / ATP required / against a
concentration gradient Processes well described [2]

v Enzymes – by exocytosis: vesicle containing enzyme merges

with plasma membrane / membrane is fluid and easily breaks
and rejoins / enzyme released outside of cell / uses ATP. Processes well described [2]

13 a Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or ions down their

concentration gradient (from a place where they are in high
concentration to a place where they are in lower concentration) [1]

b i smaller molecules diffuse faster / can pass between the phospholipid molecules /
have more kinetic energy [2]

ii as temperature increases, more kinetic energy / more movement / faster diffusion [2]

iii more soluble in lipids, the rate of diffusion increases / can pass faster across
hydrophobic fatty acid tails [2]

iv steeper the concentration gradient, faster the diffusion rate [2]

c Similarities
• Both involve the use of transport proteins
• Both are selective
• Both become saturated
• Both are inhibited by substances which denature proteins 2 similarities [2]

Active transport Facilitated diffusion
• uses ATP • does not require ATP
• substances move against a • substances move down a
concentration gradient concentration gradient 3 differences [4]
• transport protein changes • transport protein does not 2 differences [3]
shape / carrier proteins change shape / channel protein 1 difference [2]

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14 a i Isotonic solution – same water potential as cell: no net movement of water; no
change in size of cells

Red blood cell in isotonic solution Plant cell in isotonic solution [3]

ii Hypotonic solution – water potential outside cell is greater than inside cell

Red blood cell in hypotonic solution

Plant cell in hypotonic solution

iii Hypertonic solution – water potential outside cell is less than inside cell
[insert diagram 1-4 on bottom of page 65 figure 3.11] [3]

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b • Acetylcholine – by exocytosis
• Vitamin A – diffusion through hydrophobic fatty acid tails
since it is fat-soluble
• Vitamin C – by facilitated diffusion through water-filled
channel proteins / cannot pass through hydrophobic
membrane since it is water soluble 2 points each[6]

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