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CIV-SU-398-0

FABRICATION OF STRUCTURAL AND MISCELLANEOUS STEEL

APPLICATION: ONSHORE

This document is the confidential property of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Neither


the whole nor any part of this document may be disclosed to any third
party without the prior written consent of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Neither the
whole nor any part of this document may be reproduced, stored in any
retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic,
mechanical, reprographic, recording or otherwise) without the prior
written consent of Chevron U.S.A. Inc.

Rev Date Description Author Sponsor


N 03/04 Revision HNEW
O 12/09 Some content is reproduced and used under ADIP MULI
PIP’s Membership Agreement.

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Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel CIV-SU-398-0

CONTENTS

1.0 Scope ..........................................................................................................................3


2.0 References ..................................................................................................................3
2.1 ......Purchaser Documents ......................................................................................3
2.2 ......Industry Codes and Standards .........................................................................3
3.0 Terminology ................................................................................................................5
3.1 ......Definitions .........................................................................................................5
3.2 ......Acronyms .........................................................................................................6
4.0 General Requirements ...............................................................................................6
4.1 ......Quality Control ..................................................................................................6
4.2 ......Submittals .........................................................................................................8
4.3 ......Performance Requirements .............................................................................8
5.0 Products and Materials ..............................................................................................9
6.0 Connections .............................................................................................................10
6.1 ......Engineer-Designed Connections ....................................................................10
6.2 ......Fabricator-Selected Connections ...................................................................11
6.3 ......Fabricator-Designed Connections ..................................................................11
6.4 ......Bolted Connections ........................................................................................12
6.5 ......Welded Connections ......................................................................................13
6.6 ......Shop and Field Connections ..........................................................................14
6.7 ......Bracing Connections ......................................................................................14
6.8 ......Connections for Concrete Fireproofed Members ...........................................15
7.0 Erection and Shop Drawings ..................................................................................15
8.0 Fabrication ................................................................................................................16
9.0 Galvanizing ...............................................................................................................17
9.1 ......General ...........................................................................................................17
9.2 ......Galvanizing of Steel Hardware .......................................................................18
9.3 ......Inspection of Galvanized Steel .......................................................................18
9.4 ......Repair of Galvanized Steel .............................................................................18
10.0 Handling and Shipping ............................................................................................19
11.0 Delivery .....................................................................................................................19
12.0 Surface Preparation and Coating ...........................................................................20
Appendix A Additional References .................................................................................21

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Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel CIV-SU-398-0

1.0 SCOPE
1. This specification defines the minimum technical requirements for fabrication and erection of
structural steel.
2. Some content is reproduced and used under PIP’s Membership Agreement.
3. This specification covers fabrication of typical Purchaser steel structures; it is not appropriate
for all types of work.
4. Large building frames, offshore structures, large reactor support structures, and other
structures that use higher-strength steels and require more stringent fabrication and inspection
procedures are not within the scope of this specification.

2.0 REFERENCES
1. The following documents are referenced herein and are considered part of this specification.
2. Use the latest edition of each document referenced below unless otherwise specified.
3. Refer to Appendix A for additional references not cited in the text of this specification.

2.1 Purchaser Documents


CIV-DR-398 Documentation Requirements Sheet for Fabrication and Erection of
Structural Steel
COM-SU-5191 Coating Systems

2.2 Industry Codes and Standards


American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC)
303 Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges
325 Steel Construction Manual - 13th edition
326 Detailing for Steel Construction
348 Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts
360 Specification for Structural Steel Buildings
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
Section VIII, Division 1, Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
A1 Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Tee Rails
A 6/A 6M Standard Specification for General Requirements for Rolled Structural Steel
Bars, Plates, Shapes, and Sheet Piling
A 36/A 36M Standard Specification for Carbon Structural Steel
A 53 Standard Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated
Welded and Seamless
A 106/A 106M Standard Specification for Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High-
Temperature Service
A 108 Standard Specification for Steel Bar, Carbon and Alloy, Cold-Finished

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A 123/A 123M Standard Specification for Zinc (Hot-Dip Galvanized) Coatings on Iron and
Steel Products
A 143/A 143M Standard Practice for Safeguarding Against Embrittlement of Hot-Dip
Galvanized Structural Steel Products and Procedure for Detecting
Embrittlement
A 153/A 153M Standard Specification for Zinc Coating (Hot-Dip) on Iron and Steel
Hardware
A 283/A 283M Standard Specification for Low and Intermediate Tensile Strength Carbon
Steel Plates
A 307 Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs, 60,000 PSI Tensile
Strength
A 325 Standard Specification for Structural Bolts, Steel, Heat Treated, 120/105 ksi
Minimum Tensile Strength
A 325M Standard Specification for Structural Bolts, Steel, Heat Treated 830 MPa
Minimum Tensile Strength (Metric)
A 384/A 384M Standard Practice for Safeguarding Against Warpage and Distortion During
Hot-Dip Galvanizing of Steel Assemblies
A 385/A 385M Standard Practice for Providing High-Quality Zinc Coatings (Hot-Dip)
A 490 Standard Specification for Structural Bolts, Alloy Steel, Heat Treated,
150 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength
A 490M Standard Specification for High-Strength Steel Bolts, Classes 10.9 and
10.9.3, for Structural Steel Joints (Metric)
A 500/A 500M Standard Specification for Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel
Structural Tubing in Rounds and Shapes
A 501 Standard Specification for Hot-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel
Structural Tubing
A 563 Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts
A 563M Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts (Metric)
A 572/A 572M Standard Specification for High-Strength Low-Alloy Columbium-
Vanadium Structural Steel
A 759 Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Crane Rails
A 780/A 780 M Standard Practice for Repair of Damaged and Uncoated Areas of Hot-Dip
Galvanized Coatings
A 786/A 786M Standard Specification for Hot-Rolled Carbon, Low-Alloy, High-Strength
Low Alloy, and Alloy Steel Floor Plates
A 992/A 992M Standard Specification for Structural Steel Shapes
A 1011/A 1011M Standard Specification for Steel, Sheet and Strip, Hot-Rolled, Carbon,
Structural, High-Strength Low-Alloy with Improved Formability, and Ultra-
High Strength
B 695 Standard Specification for Coatings of Zinc Mechanically Deposited on
Iron and Steel

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Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel CIV-SU-398-0

E 376 Standard Specification for Measuring Coating Thickness by Magnetic-Field


or Eddy-Current (Electromagnetic) Examination Methods
F 436/F 436M Standard Specification for Hardened Steel Washers
F 606/F 606M Standard Test Methods for Determining the Mechanical Properties of
Externally and Internally Threaded Fasteners, Washers, Direct Tension
Indicators, and Rivets
F 959/F 959M Standard Specification for Compressible-Washer-Type Direct Tension
Indicators for Use with Structural Fasteners
American Welding Society (AWS)
D1.1 CCRM Structural Welding Code - Steel - Reference Manual
D1.3/D1.3M Structural Welding Code - Sheet Steel
QC1 Standard for AWS Certification of Welding Inspectors
National Association of Architectural Metals Manufacturers (NAAMM)
MBG 531 Metal Bar Grating Manual
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
29 CFR Part 1910 Regulations (Standards)
Part 1926 Regulations (Standards)
Process Industry Practices (PIP)
STS05130 Erection of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel Specification
Steel Deck Institute (SDI)
Design Manual for Composite Decks, Form Decks and Roof Decks - No. 31
Steel Joist Institute (SJI)
Standard Specification of Load Tables and Weight Tables for Steel Joists and Joist Girders

3.0 TERMINOLOGY

3.1 Definitions
Contract documents—Any documents, including design drawings, that Purchaser has
transmitted or otherwise communicated, either by incorporation or reference, and made part of the
legal contract agreement or purchase order between Purchaser and Supplier (fabricator engineer of
record), Purchaser’s authorized representative with overall authority and responsibility for the
structural design.
Fabricator—The party responsible for furnishing fabricated structural and miscellaneous steel.
Professional engineer—An engineer registered or licensed to practice engineering as defined by
the statutory laws of the locality in which a project is to be constructed.

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Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel CIV-SU-398-0

3.2 Acronyms
Cbd—Complex Steel Building
FCAW—Flux Cored Arc Welding
GMAW—Gas Metal Arc Welding
NDT—Nondestructive Testing
PQR—Procedure Qualification Records
SAW—Submerged Arc Welding
SMAW—Shielded Metal Arc Welding
WPS—Welding Procedure Specification

4.0 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

4.1 Quality Control


1. Unless exempted by Purchaser, fabricator shall be certified for complex steel buildings (Cbd)
by the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC).
2. Fabricator shall be responsible for quality control of materials and workmanship.
3. Each piece of mill material shall be marked with the following:
a. Heat number
b. Size of section
c. Length
d. Mill identification marks (in accordance with ASTM A 6/A 6M)
e. Fabrication mill order number
4. Alternate material tracking procedures may be used if accepted by Purchaser.
5. Fabricator shall provide the following documents, which describe in detail how compliance
with this specification and the design drawings shall be achieved:
a. Material handling procedures
b. Quality control program
c. Inspection procedures
6. Shop inspection shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
a. Verification of conformance of materials with this specification and the drawings.
b. Limits of acceptability and repair of surface imperfections for structural steel in
accordance with ASTM A6.
c. Visual and dimensional inspection of shop-fabricated structural steel members and
assemblies in conformance with this specification and the drawings.
d. Nondestructive testing (NDT) and inspection of shop welds as stated in the purchase
order.

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Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel CIV-SU-398-0

7. Purchaser has the right to inspect materials and workmanship.


a. Purchaser shall have unrestricted entry to fabricator’s shop while work is being performed.
b. Purchaser inspection shall not relieve fabricator of responsibility to furnish materials and
workmanship in accordance with the contract requirements.
8. Purchaser may reject improper, inferior, defective, or unsuitable materials and workmanship.
9. Rejected materials and workmanship shall be repaired or replaced by fabricator as directed by
Purchaser.
10. Welding procedures and individual welders shall be qualified in accordance with the
requirements of AWS D1.1.
a. Written weld procedures and any code-required qualification test records shall be
submitted to Purchaser for review and acceptance.
b. Any other procedures shall be qualified by tests as specified in AWS D1.1, Section 5.
11. Welding procedures previously qualified for Purchaser may be used without re-qualification;
however, Purchaser reserves the right to require re-qualification of any questionable procedure
prior to fabrication.
12. Fabricator’s inspectors shall be either certified as AWS welding inspectors in accordance with
AWS D1.1 or AWS QC1, or trained by and working under the supervision of an AWS welding
inspector, or international equivalent. (Using international equivalent inspector shall be
subject to Purchaser approval.)
13. Certified mill test reports for each heat of structural steel and each lot of high-strength bolts
shall be available for review by Purchaser.
14. Purchaser may require that fabricator supply a quantity of representative samples of bolt
assemblies for testing.
15. Testing shall be in accordance with ASTM F 606/F 606M and shall be performed at
Purchaser’s expense.
16. No substitutions shall be made in material, size, or weight of members unless authorized by
Purchaser in writing.
17. If errors in detailing or fabricating work prevent accurate field fit-up, fabricator shall be
notified of such defects in writing.
a. If Purchaser’s operating schedule permits, fabricator shall be given reasonable opportunity
to inspect and correct defective designs, materials, equipment, or workmanship at
fabricator’s expense.
b. If fabricator fails to make such inspection and correction in a timely fashion, Purchaser,
after written notification to fabricator, may make the requisite corrections, the cost of
which shall be reimbursed by fabricator.

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Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel CIV-SU-398-0

4.2 Submittals
1. Unless indicated elsewhere in contract documents, fabricator shall submit the following
documents (as a minimum) to Purchaser for review and acceptance prior to fabrication:
a. One set of checked, reproducible erection and shop drawings.
1) Fabricator’s erection drawings shall be referenced to Purchaser’s design drawings.
2) Detail sheets shall be referenced to related erection drawings.
3) Approval by Purchaser does not relieve fabricator of responsibility for fully
complying with Purchaser design drawings and specifications.
b. One set of sample engineering calculations for each type of the fabricator-designed
connection.
c. Quality control program and inspection procedures.
d. Welding procedure specification (WPS).
e. Procedure qualification records (PQR).
f. Welder(s) qualification records.
2. At least 10 working days prior to delivery of each steel shipment, one set of reproducible final
erection drawings, shop drawings, and field bolt lists shall be submitted to the field office
construction manager by next-day express courier.
3. If steel delivery is expected in less than 10 working days, then the above documents shall be
submitted by next-day express courier to the field office construction manager immediately
after notification of Purchaser acceptance of delivery.
4. A shipping list (including total weight of release and weight of shipment), a bolt list, and one
set of final erection drawings shall accompany the first shipment of each release.
5. Unless otherwise specified, Purchaser acceptance of these drawings shall be required.
6. At least five working days prior to arrival of each steel shipment, three copies of related bills
of material shall be submitted to Purchaser’s field office.
7. Fabricator shall submit, as a minimum, the following documents to Purchaser for record
purposes:
a. One set of reproducible final erection and shop drawings.
b. Records of quality control inspection test reports as requested by Purchaser.
c. One set of final sample engineering calculations for each type of fabricator-designed
connection, sealed and signed by the responsible professional engineer.
d. Records of calibration or recalibration performed on the tools or equipment used by
fabricator, if requested by Purchaser.

4.3 Performance Requirements


1. Work covered by this specification shall conform to AISC 303 or AISC 360; applicable
portions of OSHA 29 CFR Part 1910 and Part 1926; and any other applicable federal, state, or
local requirements.
2. If local specifications, codes, or standards that yield equivalent quality and performance exist
for the materials, section properties, design, and test methods covered by this specification,
they may be substituted with written acceptance by Purchaser.

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Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel CIV-SU-398-0

5.0 PRODUCTS AND MATERIALS


Unless otherwise specified in contract documents, material shall be of new stock and shall
conform to the following specifications.
1. Structural steel wide-flange shapes, including WT shapes, shall be in accordance with
ASTM A 992/A 992M or ASTM A 36/A 36M.
2. Other structural shapes, plates, and bars shall be in accordance with ASTM A 36/A 36M,
ASTM A 572 Grade 50, or ASTM A 6.
3. Pipe shall be in accordance with ASTM A 53 Type E or S Grade B, or ASTM A 106 Grade B.
4. Structural tubing shall be in accordance with ASTM A 501 or ASTM A 500 Grade B.
5. High-strength bolt assemblies shall be in accordance with Table 1.

Table 1: High-Strength Bolt Assemblies

Bolt ASTM A 325/A 325M Type 1 or ASTM A 490/A 490M,


if specified on design drawings
Washer ASTM F 436/F 436M
Direct tension indicator ASTM F 959/F 959M, when specified in contract documents
(DTI) washer
Heavy hex nut ASTM A 563/A 563M Grade DH

6. Standard bolt assemblies shall be in accordance with Table 2.

Table 2: Standard Bolt Assemblies

Bolt ASTM A 307 Grade A heavy hex


Washer ASTM F 436/F 436M
Heavy hex nut ASTM A 563/A 563M Grade A

7. Headed studs shall be in accordance with ASTM A 108 Grade 1010 through Grade 1020,
AWS D1.1 Section 7, Type B.
8. Welding filler metal shall be in accordance with AWS D1.1, Section 3.3 (including Table 3.1),
low hydrogen with an electrode strength of 58 ksi (400 MPa) minimum yield strength and
70-ksi (480-MPa) minimum tensile strength.
a. For example, use E70XX for shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), F7XX-EXXX for
submerged arc welding (SAW), ER70S-X for gas metal arc welding (GMAW), and
E7XT-X for flux cored arc welding (FCAW).
b. E60XX electrodes may be used for tack welding.
9. Crane rails shall be in accordance with the following:
a. Rails 60 lb/yd to 84 lb/yd (30 kg/m to 42 kg/m) - ASTM A 1
b. Rails 104 lb/yd to 175 lb/yd (52 kg/m to 88 kg/m) - ASTM A 759
10. Checkered-floor plate shall be in accordance with ASTM A 786/A 786M Pattern 4 or
Pattern 5, and ASTM A 36/A 36M.

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Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel CIV-SU-398-0

11. Grating shall be as follows:


a. Grating shall be manufactured to tolerances and specifications of the National Association
of Architectural Metal Manufacturers (NAAMM) as listed in NAAMM MBG 531, except
that cross bars shall be flush or lower than the bearing bars.
b. Unless otherwise specified, grating shall conform to the standard marking system
W-19-4 STEEL.
c. Grating shall be galvanized unless other finish is specified by Purchaser.
d. Bar grating shall be welded and have semi-circular serrations formed by punching, as
shown in Table 3.

Table 3: Bar Grating

Punch Minimum Maximum


Radius of Punch 1/8 in. (3 mm) 7/32 in. (6 mm)
Depth of Cutout 3/32 in. (2 mm) 11/64 in. (4 mm)
Punch Center-to-Center 7/16 in. (11 mm) 1/2 in. (12 mm)

e. Expanded metal grating is not recommended; however, if used it shall be supported


according to this specification and manufacturer recommendations, and it shall be
fabricated so that the walking surface provides skid resistance in all directions.
f. Grating shall be galvanized before punching unless other finish is specified by Purchaser.
12. Steel decks shall be in accordance with SDI Design Manual for Composite Decks, Form Decks
and Roof Decks - No. 31.
13. Removable decking shall not be provided in sections greater than 30 ft.2 (2.79 m2).
14. Steel joists shall be in accordance with SJI “Standard Specification of Load Tables and Weight
Tables for Steel Joists and Joist Girders.”
15. Sheet and strip shall be in accordance with ASTM A 570 Grade 33 or 36, or A 611 Grade C.

6.0 CONNECTIONS

6.1 Engineer-Designed Connections


1. Engineer-designed connections shall be detailed on design drawings and furnished as shown.
a. Design drawings shall show the following:
1) Fastener sizes, arrangement, dimensions, quantities, and grades
2) Connection material
3) Weld types, sizes, and lengths for each member or part to be joined
b. Fabricator shall reflect the above information on shop drawings.
2. Requests by fabricator to deviate from specific details of any engineer-designed connection
shall be in writing, with written acceptance by the engineer of record.
3. Acceptance of this submittal constitutes acceptance by the engineer of record of design
responsibility for the structural adequacy of the changed detail.

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Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel CIV-SU-398-0

6.2 Fabricator-Selected Connections


1. Fabricator-selected connections shall be those for which the engineer of record has authority
and responsibility for design adequacy, and fabricator has authority and responsibility for
detailing.
2. Fabricator-selected connections are usually simple connections (shear only). Fabricator shall
detail these connections by selecting standard details from accepted standards listed in
Section 2.0 of this specification and shall meet other requirements in contract documents.
3. Acceptance by the engineer of record for shop drawings of fabricator-selected connections
constitutes acceptance of design responsibility for structural adequacy, but not detailing, of
fabricator-selected connections.

6.3 Fabricator-Designed Connections


1. Fabricator-designed connections shall be designed to carry loads shown on design drawings or
as provided in contract documents.
2. Fabricator shall enlist a professional engineer to design or supervise the design of connections.
3. Fabricator-designed connections shall meet requirements of contract documents.
a. Design shall consider the entire joint (including beams, girders, columns, and bracing) and
shall take into account bolt shear, combined bolt tension and shear, prying action, local
bending, coped beam capacities, block shear, web buckling, etc.
b. Fabricator shall design and furnish stiffeners for column webs, column flanges, and
elements of other members involved as required.
4. Sample engineering calculations for each type of fabricator-designed connection shall be
sealed and signed by the professional engineer who designed or supervised design of the
connections.
5. When required by contract documents, shop drawings containing fabricator-designed
connections shall be sealed and signed by the responsible professional engineer.
6. Review of shop drawings, fabricator-designed connections, and engineering calculation sheets
by the engineer of record does not relieve fabricator of responsibility for design adequacy and
detailing of connections.
7. One-sided beam connections or shear-tabs shall not be permitted unless specified on Purchaser
design drawings.
a. For beam connections (axial loading), design drawings shall normally indicate the axial
load value, which fabricator shall use as the basis of connection design.
b. Where design drawings do not indicate such loading values, bolted brace connections
shall consist of at least two bolts.
c. WT and single-angle braces shall normally have single-shear connections.
d. Connections for W-shape braces shall be double-shear (plates connected to web).

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Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel CIV-SU-398-0

8. For moment connections, primary beam-to-column (strong axis) moment connections shall be
designed to develop full bending capacity of the weakest connected member, unless the design
moment is noted on design drawing.
a. If horizontal and vertical reactions are significant, they shall be shown on Purchaser’s
design drawing.
b. Moment connections for a beam-to-column weak axis shall be specified by Purchaser on
the drawing.

6.4 Bolted Connections


1. Design, detailing, and fabrication of bolted connections shall be in accordance with AISC 325
or AISC 360.
2. Connection design shall conform to standards of AISC 325 and AISC 326.
3. The minimum design capacity of bolted or mixed bolted and welded framed-beam
connections shall be the member end reaction shown on design drawings.
4. When the member end reaction is not shown, minimum design capacity shall be one-half the
total uniform load capacity for the given beam size, span, and grade of material, unless
otherwise specified in the contract documents. Refer to AISC 325 for more information.
5. ASTM A 325/A 325M high-strength bolts, 3/4 in. (20 mm) in diameter, shall be used in bolted
structural connections unless otherwise noted in contract documents; however, larger ASTM
A 325/A 325M bolts may be used when required to meet connection capacity requirements.
6. ASTM A 307 bolts, 5/8 in. (16 mm) or smaller diameter (but not less than 1/2 in. [10 mm]),
are permitted for ladder, stair tread, purlin, girt, door frame, and handrail connections; ASTM
A 307 bolts larger than 5/8 in.(16 mm) shall not be used.
7. The minimum number of bolts in a framed-beam connection shall be two.
8. High-strength bolted connections shall be bearing type with threads included in the shear
plane (type A325-N); slip-critical type (type A325-SC) shall be used when noted in the
contract documents.
9. Bolt holes shall be shop-punched or drilled.
10. Bolt holes shall be standard holes with a diameter of 1/16 in. (1 mm) larger than the nominal
bolt diameter unless otherwise specified on design drawings or noted in items 11–23 below.
11. For framed-beam bearing connections, horizontal short-slotted holes may be used in the
outstanding leg of clip angles if accepted by Purchaser.
12. For framed-beam slip-critical connections, oversized or horizontal short-slotted holes may be
used in the outstanding leg of clip angles if accepted by Purchaser.
13. For slotted holes, the long direction of the slot shall be perpendicular to the load direction,
unless otherwise accepted by Purchaser.
14. Slotted or oversized hole dimensions shall be per Table 1 of AISC 348.
15. Hardened washers shall be provided under bolt heads and/or nuts adjacent to any ply with
oversized or slotted holes.
16. For standard holes, a minimum of one hardened washer shall be supplied with each bolt.
17. If used, direct tension indicator washers shall conform to ASTM F 959/F 959M and shall be
installed according to manufacturer’s published specifications.

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Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel CIV-SU-398-0

18. A minimum of 5 percent extra quantities of each bolt size and length, including nuts and
washers, shall be furnished by fabricator for field erection.
19. Mechanically galvanized nuts or bolts shall not be interchanged with hot-dipped galvanized
nuts or bolts.
20. Column splices shall be field-bolted and shall conform to AISC 326, Appendix C.
21. Nuts for high-strength bolts shall be wax-dipped to reduce torque during installation.
22. Each bolt component shall be clearly marked with manufacturer’s identification.
23. As required by OSHA 29 CFR 1926 Subpart R, when two structural members on opposite
sides of a column web, or a beam web over a column, are connected sharing common
connection holes, fabricator shall provide a means of supporting one member while erecting
the other member.
a. Unless the means of support is indicated in contract documents, fabricator may provide
one additional row of bolts in the member to be erected first, an erection seat for the
member to be erected first, or other suitable means.
b. Unless additional loading is indicated, the erection seat shall be sized and attached to the
column or supporting beam web with sufficient bolts to support the dead weight of the
member. See OSHA 29 CFR Parts 1910 and 1926 for additional information.
24. If high-strength bolting is used, turn-of-nut, calibrated-wrench, or load-indicating-washer
method may be used for bolt tightening.
a. Temporary shop erection bolts shall be removed and replaced with high-strength bolts.
b. Calibration shall be performed using an approved device capable of indicating actual bolt
tension to assure that minimum required bolt tensions are being obtained in accordance
with the AISC 348.
25. Structural bolts for galvanized steel and bolting for connections between galvanized and
ungalvanized surfaces shall be galvanized.

6.5 Welded Connections


1. Design, detailing, and fabrication of welded connections shall be in accordance with
AISC 325.
2. ASD-based welded connection design shall conform to AWS D1.1, AISC 325, and AISC 326.
3. LRFD-based welded connection design shall conform to AWS D1.1, AISC 325, and
AISC 326.
4. The minimum design capacity of welded framed-beam connections shall be the member end
reaction shown on design drawings.
5. When the member end reaction is not shown, minimum design capacity shall be one-half the
total uniform load capacity for the given beam size, span, and grade of material, unless
otherwise specified in contract documents. Refer to AISC 325 for more information.
6. The minimum fillet weld size is 3/16 in. (5 mm) for structural welds. Seal welds may be
1/8 in. (3 mm) minimum fillet weld.
7. Welds shall be continuous unless otherwise accepted by Purchaser.
8. Fabricator shall design and install erection clips for field-welded connections.
9. Fabricator shall remove run-off bars and extension tabs.

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Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel CIV-SU-398-0

10. Welding shall be performed by one of the following processes: SMAW, GMAW, FCAW, or
SAW.
11. The interrupted-arc GMAW process shall not be used for anything other than floorplate.
12. Carbon content (product analysis) shall be limited to 0.35 percent for forgings intended for
welding.
13. Weld-through primers shall not be used unless approved in writing by Purchaser.
14. Wind velocities shall not exceed 5 miles per hour in the weld area for gas-shielded processes
and 20 miles per hour for self-shielded electrodes.
15. Shop-welded members with butt welds thicker than 1 1/4 in. (32 mm) (1 1/2 in. [38 mm] if
preheat is maintained to minimum temperature of 200°F [93°C] during welding), or with
double fillet welds exceeding 7/8 in. (22 mm) leg dimensions, shall be stress-relieved at
1100°F to 1200°F (593°C to 649°C) for 1 hour for each inch of weld thickness.
a. Heating rate shall not exceed 400°F (204°C) per hour.
b. Cooling may take place in furnace or in still air.
c. Refer to ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1,
Table UCS-56 for more information.

6.6 Shop and Field Connections


1. Field connections shall be bolted and shop connections shall be either bolted or welded, unless
otherwise shown on design drawings.
2. To ensure electrical continuity when shop-applying non conductive coatings (i.e., epoxies),
contact surfaces shall be masked unless otherwise noted in contract documents.
3. No-paint locations or areas requiring full masking or strip masking shall be noted on shop
drawings.
4. Shop assembly shall be as complete as possible in order to minimize field connections, and
shall be consistent with the feasibility and economy of handling and shipping the assembled
units.

6.7 Bracing Connections


1. Unless otherwise noted on design drawings, connections for pre-assembled bracing and truss
members shall be designed for the forces shown on design drawings, but not less than
50 percent of allowable tension capacity of the member or 6 kips, whichever is greater.
a. The allowable tension capacity shall be calculated using the gross cross section of the
member.
b. A minimum of two bolts per connection is required.
2. Cross bracing shall be bolted at intersections with a one-bolt minimum for angles and a
two-bolt minimum for tees.
3. Heavy bracing connections, including gusset plates, shall be designed according to AISC 325.
4. Gusset and stiffener plates shall be a minimum of 3/8 in. (10 mm) thick.
5. Vertical bracing and knee bracing shall have gusset plates on column centerlines, unless
otherwise noted on design drawings.

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6. Unless otherwise noted on design drawings, the following working points shall be used:
a. For vertical bracing at the intersection of a column, beam, and brace, gusset plate shall be
connected to both the beam and column. The working point shall be the point at which the
beam and the column centerlines intersect.
b. For the connection of K-braces to nominal beams 10 in. (250 mm) or smaller, the working
point shall be the intersection of the horizontal centerline of the beam and the centerline of
the bay.
c. For the connection of K-braces to nominal beams 12 in. (300 mm) or larger, the working
point shall be the intersection of a horizontal line 5 in. (125 mm) below the top flange
when the brace is above the beam, or 5 in. (125 mm) above the bottom flange when the
brace is below the beam and the centerline of the bay.

6.8 Connections for Concrete Fireproofed Members


1. Connections for members fireproofed with concrete shall be detailed to minimize blockouts in
shop-applied fireproofing.
2. Gusset plates for vertical or horizontal bracing members and single-plate shear connections for
beams shall extend outside fireproofing for a sufficient length to make the connection with the
fireproofing in place.
3. Handrails shall not be connected to fireproofed columns.

7.0 ERECTION AND SHOP DRAWINGS


1. Shop drawings and erection drawings shall be prepared in accordance with the AISC
documents referenced in this specification.
2. Erection drawings shall reference the corresponding design drawings.
3. Shop drawings shall reference the corresponding erection drawings.
4. Shop drawings shall clearly show the specification and grade of steel to be used.
5. Erection and shop drawings shall be grouped in sets and identified separately for each
building, structure, or yard area.
6. Erection drawings shall clearly show the mark number and position for each member.
7. Purchaser’s purchase order number shall be shown on erection and shop drawings.
8. Shop drawings shall state the welding electrode to be used.
9. Surface preparation and shop-applied coatings, including areas to be masked, shall be noted on
shop drawings.
10. Fabricator shall provide a bolt list and a list of other fasteners giving the number, grade, size,
and length of field bolts and other fasteners for each connection. Such lists may be shown on
either shop drawings or separate sheets.
11. In the event that drawing revisions are necessary, fabricator shall clearly mark shop drawings
to indicate changes showing the latest revisions.

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Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel CIV-SU-398-0

8.0 FABRICATION
1. Fabrication shall be in accordance with AISC 303 and AISC 360, as applicable, subject to
modification by contract documents, state or local laws, and building codes.
2. Welding shall be in accordance with AWS D1.1.
3. Shop splices, substitutions of member sizes, or changes in details or dimensions shall be
permitted only with written acceptance from the engineer of record.
4. Beams (except for cantilevers) shall be fabricated with natural mill camber in the up position.
5. Re-entrant corners shall be shaped notched-free to a radius.
6. When performing shop assembly work, fabricator shall not exceed tolerances specified in
AISC 303, Section 7.11.
7. Pieces shall be marked with a permanent identifying erection mark number.
a. Fabricator shall obtain Purchaser acceptance of the method and location of marking.
b. Fabricated steel sections shall be match-marked for field assembly with numbers or letters
corresponding to field erection drawings.
c. A separate numbering system shall be assigned to each complete structure; for example,
each building and equipment support structure, complete pipe way support system, and
platform on any large single piece or grouping of similar equipment.
d. Bundles of bagged items shall have either cloth tags with waterproof ink or tags of pressed
metal.
e. Large items shall be marked in one of the following ways:
1) Welded or stamped so that marks are legible when received at the site, or
2) Painted with an indelible “paint stick” marker of a sharp contrasting color to that of
the primer.
8. Before surface preparation, fabricator shall remove sharp corners, burrs (including bolt hole
burrs), weld spatter, slag, weld flux, loose mill scale, and other foreign matter.
9. Platforms, stairways, and handrails shall be shop-assembled in the largest units suitable for
handling and shipping.
a. Ladder cages shall be shop-assembled on ladders.
b. Regarding ladders and platforms for columns or other vessels, the purchase order or
drawing shall indicate whether the platform and ladder-supporting clips are to be supplied
by vessel Supplier or fabricator.
c. If fabricator is specified, clips shall be fabricated and bolted to the proper members before
shipment.
10. The method for fastening grating shall be as specified on design drawings.
a. If bolted, a minimum of two fasteners per panel shall be used at each support, with a
minimum of four fasteners per panel.
b. If welded, platform grating shall be fastened by 3/16-in. (5 mm) fillet welds 1 1/2 in.
(300 mm) long at intervals not exceeding 18 in. (460 mm) at edge supports, or with a
minimum of four welds per panel.

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c. Grating shall be tack-welded at 18-in. (460 mm) centers over intermediate members.
d. Removable grating panels shall be fastened to support members by U-shape clips, or by
other clips that do not create a tripping hazard.
11. Grating/checkered-plate openings dimensioned on design drawings shall be cut and banded in
the shop as shown on drawings.
12. Undimensioned grating/checkered-plate openings shall be cut in the field by others.
13. Joints perpendicular to the span of grating and checkered-plate flooring shall occur only over
support members.
14. Checkered plate shall have drain holes 1/2 in. (12 mm) in diameter provided for each 20 ft.2
(2 m2) of area, with a minimum of one hole per panel.
15. Platform plating shall be fastened to framing members as follows:
a. Unless shown to be seal-welded or removable on the drawing, plate shall be welded to
framing members with 3/16-in. (5-mm) fillet welds 1 1/2 in. (38 mm) long, or with
9/16-in. (14-mm) diameter plug welds at intervals not exceeding 18 in. (460 mm).
b. For galvanized construction, floor-plate welding shall be limited to pre assembled units
welded in the shop prior to galvanizing.
c. If shown removable on the drawing, plate shall be fastened with 3/8-in. (10-mm) diameter
galvanized steel countersunk flathead bolts at intervals not exceeding 18 in. (460 mm).
d. If seal welding is specified, it should be made with a 1/8-in. (3 mm) continuous fillet weld
around the perimeter of the plate.
16. Angles and clips shall be bolted or welded in place and holes shall be punched for bolted field
erection or for fit-up prior to welding for welded field erection.

9.0 GALVANIZING

9.1 General
1. Materials (except for ASTM A 490 bolts, ASTM A 490M bolts, and crane rails) shall be
galvanized, unless otherwise noted in contract documents.
2. Galvanizing of steel shapes, plates, and hardware shall be in accordance with the following
ASTM specifications:
a. Steel shapes and plates - ASTM A123.
b. ASTM A 325/A 325M bolts and corresponding nuts and washers - ASTM B 695
(or ASTM A 153/A 153M, when accepted by Purchaser).
c. ASTM A 36/A 36M threaded bar or ASTM A 307 bolts and corresponding nuts and
washers - ASTM A 153/A 153M or ASTM B 695.
3. Fabricator shall be responsible for safeguarding against embrittlement and warpage per
ASTM A 143 and ASTM A 384.
4. Fabrication details shall meet the requirements of ASTM A 385 to allow for creation of high-
quality zinc coatings.
5. When practical, cutting, drilling, and welding shall be performed before galvanizing.
6. Fabricator shall remove weld slag before galvanizing.
7. Edges of tightly contacting surfaces shall be completely seal-welded.

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Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel CIV-SU-398-0

8. Vent holes shall be provided for piping or tubular assemblies as required by ASTM A 385.
9. Potential problems that require design modification shall be brought to the attention of
Purchaser by fabricator before proceeding.
10. Material specified to be galvanized shall be hot-dip galvanized after fabrication on the same
day the surface is sandblasted or pickled.
a. Galvanizing shall occur before assembly by bolting.
b. Galvanizing procedures shall be in accordance with ASTM A 123, A 153, and A 385.
11. Clips and other structural members that are to receive welding or otherwise come in contact
with austenitic stainless steel shall not be galvanized or painted with zinc-rich coatings.
12. Material shall be properly prepared for galvanizing to prevent embrittlement.
13. Double-dipping shall be permitted only with Purchaser acceptance.

9.2 Galvanizing of Steel Hardware


1. Nuts shall be tapped oversize in accordance with ASTM A 563/A 563M.
2. Nut threads shall be retapped after hot-dip galvanizing to provide a proper fit.
3. Direct tension indicators, if used, shall be mechanically galvanized by the manufacturer
according to the requirements of Class 50 of ASTM B 695.

9.3 Inspection of Galvanized Steel


Purchaser reserves the right to inspect and reject galvanized steel in accordance with ASTM A 123
and ASTM E 376.

9.4 Repair of Galvanized Steel


1. Any damage to galvanizing shall be repaired in accordance with ASTM A 780.
2. Before repair of damaged galvanized coating, the exposed substrate metal shall be cleaned to
bright metal and shall be free of visual rust, oil, or grease.
3. Any non adhering galvanizing shall be removed to the extent that the surrounding galvanizing
is integral and adherent.
4. When surface defects exceed 2 percent of a member’s area, defects shall be repaired by
redipping the member in the zinc bath.
5. Cold repair using an organic zinc-rich coating shall be allowed if the following conditions are
met:
a. The damaged area is less than 1 percent of the total coated area of the member being
repaired, and
b. No single repair is greater than 2 in.2 (1,300 mm2) or 12 in. (300 mm) long.
6. Dry film thickness shall be 2 to 3 mils (0.05 to 0.08 mm) and contain a minimum of
65 percent zinc dust by weight.

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7. Hot repairs shall be made in the shop if any of the following conditions exists:
a. Total damaged area is greater than 1 percent but less than 2 percent of the total coated area
of the member being repaired, or
b. Any single repair is at least 2 in.2 (1,300 mm2) in area, or
c. Any single repair is 12 in. (300 mm) or more long.
8. Hot repairs shall be made using zinc alloy rod or powder manufactured for the repair of
galvanized steel.
9. Flux, heavy ash, or heavy dross inclusions shall be removed by brushing, grinding, or filing as
required.
10. Galvanized steel that has been rejected shall be stripped, re-galvanized, and re-inspected.
11. Correction of excessive warpage (exceeding ASTM A 6/A 6M criteria) shall be by press-
straightening when possible.
12. The application of localized heating to straighten shall be accepted by Purchaser.
13. If galvanized tension control bolts are used, bare steel surfaces (i.e., bolt ends) shall be repair-
galvanized per this section.

10.0 HANDLING AND SHIPPING


1. Bolts, washers, and nuts shall be packaged and delivered in rigid (not cardboard) weatherproof
containers.
2. Railcars and/or trucks shall be loaded and cribbed so that others can readily unload them, and
in such a manner that continuous drainage occurs.
3. Fabricator shall ensure that steel and its coatings are protected from damage caused by
handling, storage, or shipping before receipt by Purchaser.
4. Fabricator shall ensure that adequate protection is provided for threads on sag rods and other
threaded components to prevent damage during shipping and handling.
5. Except as directed by Purchaser, stair stringers, trends, grating clips, and handrails shall be
shipped with related structural framing system.
6. When galvanized material is specified, delivery of fabricated steel and grating to the
galvanizer after fabrication and to the construction site after galvanizing shall be the
responsibility of fabricator.
7. Unless otherwise noted on purchase order, fabricator shall notify Purchaser at least 5 days
prior to shipping so that arrangement can be made for inspection.

11.0 DELIVERY
1. Delivery of steel shall be made in the order needed for erection. Unless otherwise noted in
contract documents or arranged by Purchaser, the delivery sequence shall be as follows:
a. Loose base plates
b. Steel embedded in concrete
c. Erection bolts
d. First-tier columns and framing for all levels (including stairs and handrail)
e. Second-tier columns and framing

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2. Fabricator shall be responsible for delivering materials and documentation to the job site in
good condition.
3. Materials and documentation shall be inspected by Purchaser immediately upon receipt to
verify the following:
a. All items on the bill of materials have been supplied.
b. Required documentation has been included.
c. No damage has been incurred.
4. Purchaser reserves the right to reject damaged or below-quality material or documentation.
5. Each load of fabricated steel delivered to the job site (including shipments from the
galvanizer) must be accompanied by a shipping list that include the following information:
a. Piece-mark number of each piece in shipment.
b. Ship order numbers (or area number on multiple unit projects).
c. Weight of each piece.
6. Fabricated steel from more than one shop order shall not be shipped together without prior
acceptance from Purchaser.

12.0 SURFACE PREPARATION AND COATING


1. Unless otherwise specified, steel work shall be given a shop prime coat of paint. The following
are exceptions:
a. Steel work to be galvanized
b. Contact surfaces at high-strength bolted connections
c. Machine-finished surfaces
d. Surfaces adjacent to field welds
2. Prior to coating, material surfaces except those listed above shall be prepared by blast cleaning
in accordance with data sheets in COM-SU-5191.
3. On the day that the surface is sandblasted, a primer coating in accordance with the data sheets
in COM-SU-5191 shall be applied.
a. Minimum dry film thickness shall be in accordance with COM-SU-5191, except the
minimum dry film thickness on surfaces inaccessible for painting after assembly shall be
4 mils minimum.
b. This includes surfaces under concrete fireproofing.
4. Machine-finished surfaces shall be protected against corrosion by a rust-inhibiting coating that
can be easily removed prior to erection or that has characteristics that make removal
unnecessary prior to erection.
5. If high-strength bolting is used, contact surfaces of members to be joined by friction type
connections shall be left unpainted.
6. Material shall not be shipped until the shop coating is thoroughly dry.
7. Inspection of surface preparation and shop coating shall be performed to verify that it
conforms with this specification.

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Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel CIV-SU-398-0

APPENDIX A
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

The following references are not cited in this specification but are listed here for further reference.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)


M 164M Standard Specification for Structural Bolts, Steel, Heat Treated
830 Mpa Minimum Tensile Strength (Metric) (Same as ASTM A 325M)
M 253M Standard Specification for High-Strength Bolts, Classes 10.9 and 10.9.3, for
Structural Steel Joints (Metric) (Same as ASTM A 490M)
M 291M Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts (Metric) (Same as
ASTM A 563M)
M 293/M 293M Standard Specification for Hardened Steel Washers (Same as ASTM F 436/
F 436M)
American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC)
316 Manual of Steel Construction, Allowable Stress Design (ASD)
317 Manual of Steel Construction: Volume II Connections (ASD/LRFD)
Engineering for Steel Construction: A Source Book on Connections
335 Specification for Structural Steel Buildings: Allowable Stress Design and
Plastic Design
350 Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Specification for Structural
Steel Buildings
M015L Manual of Steel Construction, Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)
S337 Allowable Stress Design (ASD) of Simple Shear Connections
S338 Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) of Simple Shear Connections
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
18.22.1 Standard for Plain Washers
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
B18.23.1 Beveled Washers - Reaffirmation and Redesignating of USAS B27.4-1967
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
A 569/A 569M Standard Specification for Steel, Carbon (0.15 Maximum, Percent), Hot-
Rolled Sheet and Strip Commercial
A 570/A 570M Standard Specification for Structural Steel, Sheet and Strip, Carbon, Hot-
Rolled
A 611 Standard Specification for Structural Steel (SS), Sheet, Carbon, Cold-Rolled

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