• The posttensioning tendon is at incipient yield at the total strain amplitude ç to fatigue life for mild steel reinforc
design drift. ing bars is given by Mander et al.:
• The posttensioning tendon is nonvarying and Un
bonded over the entire length of the frame. LIE
ç = = 8
0.0795(2Nf)° (1)
• Equal amounts of mild steel reinforcement are used in —
N Step 1
Establish material properties (see Table I) Step 11 E +i with k,,
,
1 = 1.0 (PRESSS)
for and use Eq. (2), PRESSS, or r,, , ‘
:
6,,, = 6,,,,,,, — 6,,,,,,.
Step 4
M,. L>(l—?7,,,., —)e,,,.,
Assume a value for Q) = ]4 Jig — 6,.,,
Mth,
(Initial estimate 0.5) = 0.81 (i,, 
L’
1 ‘‘,,‘•“
(1,
. ..,
,,.,
t
\. ç.,l)
L,,, (Required) L,, 2L,,
‘I, Step 5
0.11
= —
Step 6
j: .tp,d,.x
Step 7
Assume value for r(o.2%o.25%)
A.?,, (i — — o• 5P ILk.,)
0.5(1_f I11,kJ[’J
= •
1
p [
+
( . —
.,, .
;, ,,.
.1 , , , ,,,.
r. .
(2) 5
7°’
45
0.048nv° (5)
c =
Jv
Therefore, using Eq. (2), the value for c = 0.04 The mild steel reinforcement in the hybrid frame is sub
— s,,, = 0.08) andf, = 60 ksi (414 MPa) would be 1.37, which
,
1 jected to strains ranging from approximately zero (sn,,,, = 0) to
is close to the 1.35 values suggested by Stanton and Nakaki. a maximum design tension strain (e,,,,., = 2ev). Equation (5)
Similarly, the value for ç = 0.02 (that is, e,,,,,., s,,,,, = —
can be used to estimate the maximum design strain in the bar
0.04) andf, = 60 ksi (414 MPa) would be 1.2. for a given period of the structure. This suggested procedure
Celik and Sritharan also propose that overstrength factors is based on Mander and Panthaki’s work on ASTM A 615
3 However, they use a
be a function of the interface rotation. 4 It should be noted, however, that Mander et al. suggest
bars.
noncyclic stressstrain behavior for the mild steel reinforce that Eq. (1) can be used for all types of steel if the superscript
ment to arrive at their overstrength factors. Here, we propose on the (Nf) factor is changed from 0.448 to 0.5.
2
a cyclic approach utilizing the strain amplitude e as an im Tests on ASTM A 706 and ASTM A 615 bars are being
portant parameter. conducted at the University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee to ver
According to Chang and Mander,5 the equivalent num ify the validity of Mander and Panthaki’ s equation for bars
ber of equiamplitude cycles of building motion in a design other than ASTM A 615 and to develop a modified equation
earthquake N,. can be conservatively estimated using the fol for lowcycle fatigue if needed. A new equation based on re
lowing equation: sults of testing the ASTM A 706 and ASTM A 6t5 bars will
be proposed. In the meantime, the previously proposed equa
(3) tions can be used. Alternatively, the designer can select s
N,. =7T
3
based on any other rational criterion.
where
T = the fundamental period of the structure in seconds
The designer should consider Eq. (3) when choosing the NONDIMENSIONAL FORMULATION
number of design cycles ND, which can be assumed equal to
be a multiplier m times N,., as in Eq. (4): The availability of simpler procedures to design hybrid
frames would help this new technology gain more wide
ND = fiN,. (4) spread acceptance. One method would be to develop dimen
sionless parameters and equations applicable to most cases.
The stepbystep PRESSS procedures can be restated in a
Considering that the return period for the design earthquake nondimensional form as described in the following steps.
is significantly larger than the design life of the structure, one Figure 4 summarizes the resulting nondimensional proce
may argue that the multiplier fli should be equal to 1.0. How dure in a flowchart.
ever, one of the stated advantages of the hybrid frame is that
the structure recenters itself after an earthquake. Therefore, if Step 1: Determine the Material Properties and Relevant
in were set to 1.0, the structure would theoretically be recen Parameters
tered after the design earthquake occurs, but all of its lowcycle
fatigue capacity would be depleted. Therefore, the designer Table 1 identifies some of the design parameters for the
should consider these factors when selecting the value of m. hybrid frame components. The yield strength of the rein
Dutta et al. implicitly suggest that a structure should be capable forcement is multiplied by the material overstrength factors
of sustaining a foreshock, a main shock, and an aftershock.
6 for tension and compression, respectively) to
(‘‘.,d and
Substituting ND from Eq. (4) for Nf in Eq. (1) yields calculate the stress in the reinforcement at a certain design
strain specified by the engineer.
= 5
7°’
45
0.024m° Table 2 lists the mean overstrength factors and their cor
responding bar strains as proposed in the PRESSS report.’
Table 1. Material Properties and Relevant Parameters for Hybrid Frame Components
The design overstrength factors for tension and compres Step 5: Estimate Neutral Axis Parameter at Design
sion, as suggested by the PRESSS report, are 1.35 and
= Drift
= 1.0, respectively.
Section 3.3.3 of ACE Tl.203, Special Hybrid Moment Assume an initial value for i (relative position of neutral
Frames Composed of Discretely Jointed Precast and Post axis from the compression face at the design drift). The fol
Tensioned Concrete Members, specifies that, in the absence lowing was suggested in the PRESSS report:’
of test data on stressstrain properties of the mild steel rein
7 the tensile strength of the reinforcement should
forcement, 0.1
be taken as the specified minimum tensile strength f and =
the reinforcement’s compressive strength must be taken as
1.25ff. However, a more rational procedure based on inelas
tic cyclic behavior of reinforcing steel bars (as shown previ =
ously) is desirable when calculating the reinforcing steel’s An approximate value of may be used in lieu
overstrength factors in tension and compression as well as
the maximum permissible steel strain. of the PRESSS suggestion as discussed in a following section
in this paper. The initial estimate of the neutral axis loca
tion will be adjusted, as necessary, during the iterative design
Step 2: Obtain Mde. and °de.
procedure.
Design loads can be obtained using either forcebased
Step 6: Calculate Strain in the Prestressing Tendon at dey
0
design (FBD) or the preferred displacementbased design
(DBD) methods.
8 Interface rotations °drs can be calculated
The following proposed procedure is slightly different
from the drift ratio using the geometry of the system.
from the PRESSS procedure in that the strain (and not the
stress) in the posttensioning tendon is checked to ensure that
Step 3: Determine the NonDimensional Parameter
the tendon does not yield. From Fig. 3, the axial deformation
Related to Beam Geometry
of the posttensioning steel 4 is
L
= _in L1 = 0deyhg(057lde)
Jig
where
where hg the height of the beam and the grout pad
=
= Y2 L for spans of equal length along the entire The corresponding change in posttensioning strain z1E is
length of frame
= (mge ospas)
for spans of unequal length A 0
= span length (centertocenter of columns) Ae =—e=—(0.5— de ) (6)
Step 4: Determine Proportion of Moment Capacity The posttensioning steel should not yield and, therefore,
Contributed by PostTensioning and Deformed its strain s should be kept at or below yield:
Reinforcement
8
p
=E.+L1E
p p
ae py (7)
Assume a value for w for the ratio of posttensioning mo
ment to design moment:
where
= the effective posttensioning strain after losses
Mp,des
a = a factor introduced to afford the designer the flex
Mde., ibility to control and limit strain in the posttension
ing tendon to any desired level below yield
A good initial assumption is w = 0.5. = posttensioning tendon yield strain
September—October 2006 115
The a parameter proposed here was not included in the orig where
inal PRESSS procedures. The ability to maintain the strain in 9
b = the width of the grout pad (same as width of beam)
the posttensioning tendon below yield (a 1) is crucial for Fed,, = compressive force in concrete corresponding
the stability of the entire frame. Therefore, further research on to de,
the choice of an appropriate value of a is warranted.
The posttensioning steel stress fp(Ies can then be obtained Fcaes = Fpdes ÷ F,dC, — F,’des
from the stressstrain relationship for Grade 270 (1860 MPa)
prestressing strands as follows:
9
where Fp,aes, Fsde,, and F,d, refer to tension force in the
posttensioning steel, tension force in the mild steel rein
For e, e= 0.0086
forcement, and compression force in the mild steel reinforce
ment, respectively (Fig. 3).
where
E = the modulus of elasticity of posttensioning steel Fsdes = A, .as,desf,y
Celik and Sritharan also propose that the calculation often
don stress be based on a calculation of tendon strain, 3 using
a stressstrain equation for strands. However, they do not ex
FSd,, = A, 2
’desfsy
5
plicitly limit the posttensioning strain to a level below yield.
Also, the following nondimensional parameters must be
defined: where
A = the crosssectional area of the posttensioning
qJ3Cpies A, = the crosssectional area of the mild steel
A
IC, bh
gg
where
= compressive strength of concrete and grout pad at
the interface
fp,d, = posttensioning steel stress at design drift — C
,
3
f, = mild steel reinforcement yield stress p
(9)
2hg
— adC,
fldes
— /3Ig
h
= s,des
)
15
(i__o.sp FsO =AA,,
s sties fsy
0.5(1/3lrid)(±

= A2,,f
FsO
a =
0•85fbg
MSdes = ,ag(±des)
a
a =—
2h g
‘s’,des = ,deshlg (© — Udes)
0
a
ho =
The total moment strength Mcapbea,s is where
a
0 =the depth of the equivalent stress block at zero drift
Mcap beam =Mp,des +Ms,des ÷Msties rio =the relative position of neutral axis at zero drift
MpO =Fh(0.5—a)
pO g 0
which should be greater than or equal to the design moment
0
M,, = )
0
F,ohg(1__a
Mcap beam Mdes (11)
September—October 2006 117
MsO =FsO hg (—a
)
0 reinforcing bar 5
,,, Therefore,
s,
.
where A
M,, = moment due to posttensioning taken about the
0 L —— (15)
max
centroid of the compression force in the concrete at
zero drift where
50 = moment due to mild tension reinforcement taken
M L
5 5 = the length of mild steel reinforcement that is physi
about the centroid of the compression force in the cally debonded at each interface location
concrete at zero drift A potential failure mode of the hybrid frame involves the
50 = moment due to mild compression reinforcement
M fracturing of the mild steel reinforcing bars. Tests of hy
taken about the centroid of the compression force bridframe connections by Stone et al. indicated fracturing
in the concrete at zero drift 1 Thus, the prediction of
of some bars during cyclic loading.’
To ensure selfcentering of the frame after a seismic event, fracturing of mild steel reinforcing bars is a very important
Eq. (13) must be statisfied. concern and should be considered in design. As discussed
previously, the PRESSS procedures do not specifically ad
Mp0 MsO +M,sO (13) dress this issue.
Section 3.3.2 of ACI T1.203 recommends that ASTM
One may argue that the use of the equivalent stress block A706 reinforcing bars be used in hybrid frames and specifies
in this case would not be appropriate. However, the a 0 term a maximum design strain that is 2% less than the strain
cancels out in the derivation. Therefore, the choice and ap at the minimum elongation indicated in ASTM A706 for a
propriateness of using the equivalent stress block would not given bar size.
7 For a No. 8 (25M) bar, this limit would be
affect this provision (as given in the following). The previous 10%. This limit could be as high as 12% for other bar sizes.
requirement for selfcentering can be written in the following Such high strain limits, however, would result in a very lim
simple and nondimensional form: ited number of cycles to failure based on the published low
cycle fatigue test results.
Priestley et al. recommended that the maximum strain in
x )d,K
2 (14)
the mild steel reinforcement under cyclic loading be limit
ed to 75% of ultimate strain and 6% (absolute strain) in the
where 2 Equation (5) can be used to
absence of better information)
determine Esm based on lowcycle fatigue.
K= As interface rotation occurs in hybrid frames, the mild re
inforcing steel is subjected to axial and bending strains. The
If Eq. (14) were not satisfied, then w (in Step 4) must be bending strains can be as much as 10% of the axial strains.’
3
modified, and Steps 5 to 9 must be repeated. The PRESSS procedures can be modified to include the ef
fect of maximum bending strain Ebfl, corresponding to O.
Step 10: Calculate Steel Areas and Required Unbonded The bar’s bending strain Ebmax at 0d, can be estimated using
Length of Mild Steel Reinforcing Bar the following equation:
where
= the diameter of the bar
A=
P
5 (i
0•5hgfpj —
Ii’1a) A more detailed equation for calculating Ebm is given in
the research report for this project.’
3
and Growth in the unbonded length of the bar is expected to
occur under high cyclic strain. Raynor et al. studied the bond
A characteristics of bars grouted in lightgauge metal ducts.’
4
5
A = —s A nonuniform strain distribution occurs at each end of the
unbonded region of the bar that penetrates into the grouted
According to the PRESSS design procedures, the elonga (bonded) region of the bar. According to Raynor et al., the
tion of the mild tension reinforcement A
5 at 0
des can be cal elongation due to strain penetration is equivalent to the peak
culated as strain acting uniformly over an equivalent additional unbond
ed length on each end. The additional equivalent debonded
A = Odashg(171ds) length L10 can be calculated using the following equation:
The strain in the mild steel deformed bar should be equal 0.8l(J
j)
to or less than the maximum design strain in the mild steel db
(f;d)’
1
L = L + 2L
PARAMETRIC STUDIES
CL)
= 0
To ensure satisfactory performance, the calculated axial Microsoft® Excel’s “solver” feature was used to find the
strain in the bar at O,,, must be less than e,,,. Because the total optimum solution by changing ijde,’ cv, and T subjected to the
unbonded length is L,,, (not L,,), Eq. (15) can be rearranged:
13 following constraints:
• To achieve zero residual drift: x 22 d,SK
5
A • To ensure that the posttensioning steel would not
L —‘ yield: e,,
sh
6
• To meet ACI 3 1802 Section 18.4.2 requirements: T
0.45Q
The a parameter was assumed to be equal to 1.0 following
the PRESSS procedures. However, a lesser value for a may
hg esb
be warranted pending further studies. Table 3 lists the range
of parameter values used in the parametric studies.
L (Required) = L, — 2Lua
0(%) 0.5 4
.
8s,mas (%) 1 8
I
c
u
1
J
. . ,. 0.5 0.65
f.,ksi 4 8
Although AC! allows a ratio of 0.70, a lower value is used here to ensure that the tendon stress would not yield at the design limit state.
5
Note: 1 ksi = 6.895 MPa.
M p,des 0.037
= 0.89w 0,04 cmiii (16)
= O9)27+003)
9O04
= (—6.70 des +
Ahf
p g p,des
Mdes
= 125004es,,(ii0037 (17)
Ahf
g g p,des
Mdes —
A hf
s s.des g p,des
7)(3.5Os+0.02)
Mdes (22.230des + 1
0.034
=0.882a7 0.04 £s,rnax (18)
A .Zs,des hg fp,des
where
°des =interface rotation at design limit state expressed in
A radians
F= = v (in percent)
1
y,v (19)
bh
gg L
2. For 0 = —> 8
h g
0.11
fldesp
=
Mp.des
004
co = (3.790 des + Od
9
’
0
)
7
o4
where Mdes
= the ratio of posttensioning moment to total moment
strength corresponding to = 4°7
CD SI
3.
Mdes / Ai,hCfpdes
M /A s,des hg f
0000 000
P DCC
01 r\) . C) 01 CD F\) .
0)
) 1 . CD
) 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 Mp,pes / MdS
0
0) 00 pp pp op CD
. . P 01 01 01 CY1 01
CD 01 01 CD 01  1’3 C.) 4 01
CM
0
CM
CD
01
01
0)
0 0
01
C))
01
I\)
0 Cs)
0 0
I’.) Cs)
01 C)) I)
C))
E )(
01 01 C))
f 01
C.) C.) Is) Cs)
f 
F)
4 hg fp,des VS
Mdes /
[Ode, = 2%] values of
Es,nas(°7O)
0.96
0.94  1.5
0.92 —A— 2
—‘— 2.5
c4 0.9
0.88
*
4
 0.86
0.84 —6
0.82
0.8
0 5 10 15 20 25
= L, I h
5
Fig. 8. [MdIAP hCfPd,S] versus for °smax = 2%.
CO
= ‘p,des “des”
b
[Odes = 2%]
0.57 values of
,max
0.55 —
 1.5
0.53 —— 2
0.51 3
0.49
5
6
0.47 
0.45
0 5 10 15 20 25
= L/h
5
[Mdes /(A
5 hg 1
s,des.fsy
2
vs
values of
2.05 s s,,flax (%)
—. 2.00
1.95 —s 1.5
—k— 2
1.90 x 2.5
1.85 —— 3
. 3.5
1.80
1.75 5
— 6
1.70 —.— 7
1.65 8
0 5 10 15 20 25
= L/h
o
C) F
CD
°1
CD pp p p p p pp
CD C,, I’J r.3 N) N) N) N)
Co
C  N) C) . 01
C,, Ct
F 0
ppp °1
ppp
 M () C) 
01 C 01 C 01 0
Co
CD
CD
cM
01 p CD
Co
cM CD
0
9
CD C’
cM
II
01
(J
“.3
0
“3 N)
0 
01
II II II II N)
00) C’LM 01
CM CO Co CO
 N)
t .C
p
01 CY1
N)
C,)
’ides VSj3
1 1
0.18
0,17
0.16
0.15
0.14
0.13
0.12
0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9
J3
.t,’o,desUjy vs
[f = 0.65 f] Od(%)
1.00 —.e—0.5
0.95 — 1
—A— 1.5
0.90
0.85
V.0k)
0.75
4
0.70
0 5 10 15 20 25
= L / hg
fp,desU,,y VS
= 2%]
1.00
0.95
0.90
0.80 O.55
0.75
—A—
4’= O.6f
,
1
= O.654
0.70
0.65
0.60
0 5 20 25
10
1
9 5
=LIh
Fig. 16. versus for = 2%.
+ l.65)200
004 = (
A hf d,,,
1 3650
8. Calculate A, using Eq. (17).
1
s ,.des g p,de
9. Calculate A, using Eq. (18).
10. Optional step: Calculate Tusing Eq. (19).
A 11. Calculate L,, using the procedures discussed in Step 10.
“
for [‘=5 ksi (34.5 MPa) andf =0.65fpu
‘1,,
gg
CONCLUSIONS
Ycef = (
+ 0.21 5)q(
3 80+0 02) (in percent)
des
2 0
The following conclusions are made:
• The PRESSS procedures to design hybrid frames
where
can be modified into a nondimensional form. The
= factor that accounts for different values of
f nondimensional procedure, though iterative, can be
solved with optimization routines for a wide range of
= 0.208f 0.0355
parameters.
—
if
3. Celik, 0., and S. Sritharan. 2004. An Evaluation of Seismic De .1,,” = mild steel reinforcement ultimate stress
sign Guidelines Proposed for Precast Concrete Hybrid Frame F,,d,,, = concrete compressive force at beamcolumn interface
Systems. ISUERIAmes Report ERI04425. Iowa State Uni = posttensioning force in posttensioning tendon at design
ior of Reinforcing Steel. Journal ofMaterials in Civil Engineer = force in compression mild steel reinforcement at the design
e, 0.00207 fIE,
s 0.00616 f,/E,,
PRESSS procedures 1.96 2.31 14.5 Bending strain and grout effects are not included
Nondimensional procedures 1.98 2.30 12.5 Bending strain and grout effects are included
Charts 1.9 2.30 12.5 Bending strain and grout effects are included
Design equations 1.9 2.38 12.5 Bending strain and grout effects are included
Note: PRESSS = Precast Seismic Structural Systems; I in. = 25.4 mm; I in.
2 = 0.000645 m
.
2
results from the design procedures. Jde.s = sdesfsy = 1.25 (60 ksi) = 75 ksi (517 MPa)
414
,J,,207 .0 K==——=0.342
j s.o 175.5
x
=
A2s,des (1— — O.SPlnd ) —
maximum design tensile strain must first be determined based
on lowcycle fatigue considerations.
o.s(i
_/31des)[_ 1 —
0.046
des
17
= 0.85/3
0.0021
[ + (ses
12.0
— s,des)] =
= 2.4 x 0.046(1= 0.00263
42
4i.4+ (1.4_1.25)]=o.134
0.85x0.8[ 0.859
t
s b = sniax —
b,,,ax
8
?des
7 = 0.134 0.1375 OK—No need to iterate.
= 0.046—0.00263 = 0.043
0.5(1 — 1317des)
=
(%)15
dh
— 15
(fd) Leta= I
0.81(1.4x60—60)
=
(5.5)1.5
=1.51 =‘0.0073<0.0085 OK
4. Ca1culatef,
For h
5 = 42 in. (1067 mm)
L,, 42 x 0.369 = 15.5 in. (394 mm) Ip,des = E p r p = 207 ksi (1430 MPa)
,,
5
L = L,,, — = 15.5 —2 x 1.51 = 12.5 in. (318 mm)
L
5.For =—‘8
Step 11: Confine Compression Region hg
=0.87j;,ies=0.87x243 = 1235x12
=A = 19 in2(l230mm2)
0.897x42x 207
=211.4lksi (1458 MPa)
L
2. Go to Fig. 5 and determine: 6. For = 8
h
A’! des Md
= 0.885 0.882&J 004 ssums
Ahf A.? h
s s,des gip,des
p g p,dus
1235x12 = 1.9in.2(1230mm2)
=A = .7)Ø_(35002)
0.885 X 42 x 211.41 0.04 = (22.230d + I
Ah f Mdes
= [0.882 x 0.046_0034 ]x 1.8 = 1.76
AA
S s,des hgfpdes
1235x12
A = =2.35 jfl.21 (1520mm
)
2
1.79x42x 1.4x60 1235x12
A = = 2.38 (1535 mm
)
2
1.76x42x1.4x60
SOLUTION USING DESIGN EQUATIONS
Table B2 compares the results of the various methods.
1. Calculate 2
ldes
0.11
fldus =
= 0.14
Use thirteen 1 in.diameter (13 mm) post
2
2. Calculate i e = 1.9 in.
tensioning strands (Ap,p,oyj
4 2 [1230 mm]),
2
4 = 2.4 in.
along with three No. 8 (25M) bars (Au,prove 2
A [1550 mm
]).
2
As = —fl = 0.001
Pu
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