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Non-Dimensional Design

Procedures for Precast,


Prestressed Concrete
Hybrid Frames
Rami Hawlleh, Ph.D. The precast, prestressed concrete hybrid frame
Researcher system offers an important feature that allows the
Department of Civil Engineering and
Mechanics elimination of residual drift after an earthquake. The
University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee existing design process for hybrid frames includes
College of Engineering and Applied an iterative, step-by-step procedure. The objective
Science
Milwaukee, Wis.
of this research is to develop a non-iterative, simpli
fied design procedure for precast concrete hybrid
frames. A set of new non-dimensional parameters
and procedures for the design of precast concrete
hybrid frames has been developed. A fracture cri
Habib Tabatabai, Ph.D., S.E. terion for the mild steel reinforcing bars that con
Associate Professor siders low-cycle fatigue under combined axial and
Department of Civil Engineering and
Mechanics bending strains is proposed. Parametric studies
University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee were performed using the developed non-dimen
College of Engineering and Applied sional procedure. These optimization studies aimed
Science
Milwaukee, Wis
to achieve zero residual drift while the moment
capacity of the section is equal to the applied design
Adeeb Rahman, Ph.D.
moment. The results of these studies were used to
Associate Professor generate non-dimensional design charts and equa
Department of Civil Engineering and tions. An example using the new procedures is pre
Mechanics sented in detail in Appendix B. The results using
University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee
College of Engineering and Applied conventional procedures and the proposed design
Science charts and design equations are compared.
Milwaukee, Wis.

he Precast Seismic Structural Systems (PRESSS)

T research proposed a total of five different seis


mic structural systems comprising precast concrete
2 These systems were used in various parts of

1
elements.
the structural framing in the PRESSS Phase III experimen
Akef Amro, M.S.
Structural Engineer tal building that was tested at the University of California at
ATKINS Highways & Transportation San Diego.
Bristol, U.K. The system identified as the unbonded post-tensioned con-
110 PCI JOURNAL
Crete frame with damping (also Called the hybrid frame) per A parametric optimization study using non-dimensional
formed very well according to the PRESSS evaluation. The parameters was conducted and is discussed in this paper.
hybrid frame system offers an important feature: It allows the
elimination of the residual drift of a structure after an earth
quake. The PRESSS report outlined an iterative, step-by-step
design procedure for hybrid frames.
Drift
Celik and Sritharan proposed a number of modifications to
the original PRESSS procedures.
3 In this paper, other modi
fications are also proposed. In some instances, the modifica
tions proposed by Celik and Sritharan and those offered in
this paper address the same issues related to the PRESSS pro Peak drift I
I Residual
cedures, even though the approach is somewhat different.

HYBRID FRAME CONCEPT DESCRIPTION


Meaps /
Hybrid frames contain precast concrete elements (beams total beam moment strength at the interface (M+M
)
55
and columns) that are connected by unbonded post-tension = moment strength due to the post-tensioning force

= moment strength due to mild steel reinforcement


ing steel and partially debonded mild steel reinforcing bars,
where both types of steel contribute to the overall moment
resistance of the connection (Fig. 1). An important feature of
this type of connection is the combination of mild steel and Fig. 2. Drift versus relative strength of resisting elements.’
post-tensioning steel. In this “hybrid” connection the mild
steel reinforcement dissipates energy (by yielding in ten
sion and compression) and the post-tensioning steel clamps OBJECTIVES
the beam against the column. The post-tensioning force acts
as a restoring force to bring the frame back to its original Following are the objectives of this research:
configuration after an earthquake and also provides for shear • Develop a set of non-dimensional parameters and
resistance through friction developed at the beam-column procedures to replace current dimensional parameters
interface. in the calculations to design a hybrid frame.
This combination of reinforcement is intended to create a • Perform parametric studies based on these new non-
ductile connection and ensure that failure occurs within the dimensional procedures developed from the PRESSS
design procedures. These optimization studies were
designed to achieve zero residual drift while ensur
ing that the moment capacity of the section was equal
to the applied design moment and that other relevant
Mild reinforcing
- Reinforcing bar debonded constraints were satisfied simultaneously.
locally
bar (A706) • Develop and verify design charts and equations for the
(grouted in duct) -

design of hybrid frames. These charts and equations


would allow engineers to design hybrid frames with
fewer steps while providing insight into how chang
ing one or more design parameters would affect the
overall design of the frame.
Post-tensioning Fiber-reinforced • Develop design criterion for the fracture of mild
tendon (unbonded) grout
reinforcing steel based on low-cycle fatigue under
combined axial and bending strains.

Fig. 1. Hybrid frame. HYBRID FRAME:


PRESSS DESIGN PROCEDURES
connection. For a given total moment strength, a higher pro The design equations proposed in the PRESSS report are
portion of mild steel reinforcement would result in more ap based on the following assumptions:’
parent damping, lower peak drift, and higher residual drift. • The design moments Macs and drifts are known. The
The general design philosophy of the hybrid frame, as pre interface rotation at the design limit state 0
des is related
sented by Stanton and Nakaki, is to minimize peak drift, main to the drift ratio based on system geometry and is known.
tain zero residual drift, and maximize the moment strength • The overall dimensions of the frame members are known.
provided by the mild steel reinforcement to achieve a ductile • At each interface, the centroid of the post-tensioning
connection.’ Figure 2 shows the relationship between drift tendon is located at the mid-depth of the beam section,
and the relative moment strengths of the resisting elements. and the beam cross section is constant.
September—October 2006 111
Dimensions and displacements Forces
Fig. 3. Deformations and forces at design drift.
1

• The post-tensioning tendon is at incipient yield at the total strain amplitude ç to fatigue life for mild steel reinforc
design drift. ing bars is given by Mander et al.:
• The post-tensioning tendon is non-varying and Un-
bonded over the entire length of the frame. LIE
ç = = 8
0.0795(2Nf)° (1)
• Equal amounts of mild steel reinforcement are used in —-

the top and bottom of the beam.


• Properties of the materials are known. where the total strain amplitude ç is also equal to
The PRESSS design equations use deformation-compat
ibility and force-equilibrium relationships to calculate the = E mat —C.
mm
forces and the resulting moment capacity at the interface be 2
tween a precast concrete beam and column. Figure 3 shows where
the deformations and forces acting on a joint between a pre ç= the maximum total strain in a cycle
cast concrete beam and column in a hybrid-frame connection Em. = the minimum total strain in a cycle
subjected to a design interface rotation of 0
d
N = the number of cycles to failure
According to the PRESSS procedures, a total of 17 steps Using Eq. (1), the number of cycles to failure N can be
are required to design the post-tensioning tendon and the calculated:
mild steel reinforcement at the interface. The PRESSS design
procedure is iterative and utilizes a number of dimensional 0.0018
N
design parameters. A detailed explanation of the PRESSS — (s )2.23
design procedure can be found in the PRESSS report
No. 3—09) The hysteretic behavior of bars subjected to cyclic defor
mations can be considered when determining the stress level
in the bar at maximum design strain. The maximum tensile
FRACTURE CRITERIA FOR MILD STEEL stress fm coffesponding to La can be calculated using the
REINFORCING BARS following equation proposed by Mander et al.:

The following discussion on cyclic behavior and low- 541 (ksi)


7.48(2A)° (MPa)]
541
[51.57(Nf)°
aa, TEO
m
f =
cycle fatigue of mild reinforcing steel is not presented in the
PRESSS report but is proposed here as an important consid
Substituting for Nf from Eq. (1) yields
eration in the design of hybrid frames.
Mander et al. experimentally evaluated the low-cycle fa
tigue behavior of ASTM A6 15, Grade 40 (280 MPa) de Lax. T = 157(Ea)O2 (ksi) [1082(Ea)° (MPa)}
2
formed reinforcing steel bars subjected to cyclic axial strain
amplitudes ranging from yield to 6%. The relationship of The over-strength factor in tension tsdtt can be calculated
112 PCI JOURNAL
. ..‘

N Step 1
Establish material properties (see Table I) Step 11 E +i- with k,,
,
1 = 1.0 (PRESSS)
for and use Eq. (2), PRESSS, or r,, , ‘

ACT T1.2-03 recommendations


,:‘
For c,,,,., use Eq. (5) or other criteria
r .: Step 10
c;:
Step 2
Determine Mje, and B,k, using DBD or FBD
0. 5Ii/,,,,,, (i — I3 ‘L...)
A
Step 3 1: A =—--
x
L,,,/Ii,
:
1
I::-
[]
=
,,:
‘ = 2.4e,,,,,,
‘.
.. 1..

:
6,,, = 6,,,,,,, — 6,,,,,,.
Step 4
M,. L>(l—?7,,,., —)e,,,.,
Assume a value for Q) = ]4 Jig — 6,.,,
Mth,
(Initial estimate 0.5) = 0.81 (i,, -

L’
1 ‘‘-,,‘•“
(1,
. ..,
,,.,
t
\. ç.,l)
L,,, (Required) L,, 2L,,
‘I, Step 5
0.11
= —

Assume a value for ii,,,,, =

Step 6

= E,, + LIE,, (XE,,,. , = E,,c,,

j: .tp,d,.x

Step 7
Assume value for r(o.2%-o.25%)

Q = -L, check r 0.45Q

A.?,, (i — — o• 5P ILk.,)
0.5(1_f I11,kJ[’J

= •
1
p [
+
( . —

.,, .

;, ,,.
.1 , , , ,,,--.

r. .

Fig. 4. Flowchart for non-dimensional design of hybrid frames.

September—October 2006 113


Assuming ç,,, = 0, then
A —

(2) 5
7°’
45
0.048nv° (5)
c =
Jv

Therefore, using Eq. (2), the value for c = 0.04 The mild steel reinforcement in the hybrid frame is sub
— s,,, = 0.08) andf, = 60 ksi (414 MPa) would be 1.37, which
,
1 jected to strains ranging from approximately zero (sn,,,, = 0) to
is close to the 1.35 values suggested by Stanton and Nakaki. a maximum design tension strain (e,,,,., = 2ev). Equation (5)
Similarly, the value for ç = 0.02 (that is, e,,,,,., s,,,,, = —
can be used to estimate the maximum design strain in the bar
0.04) andf, = 60 ksi (414 MPa) would be 1.2. for a given period of the structure. This suggested procedure
Celik and Sritharan also propose that over-strength factors is based on Mander and Panthaki’s work on ASTM A 615
3 However, they use a
be a function of the interface rotation. 4 It should be noted, however, that Mander et al. suggest
bars.
non-cyclic stress-strain behavior for the mild steel reinforce that Eq. (1) can be used for all types of steel if the superscript
ment to arrive at their over-strength factors. Here, we propose on the (Nf) factor is changed from -0.448 to -0.5.
2
a cyclic approach utilizing the strain amplitude e as an im Tests on ASTM A 706 and ASTM A 615 bars are being
portant parameter. conducted at the University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee to ver
According to Chang and Mander,5 the equivalent num ify the validity of Mander and Panthaki’ s equation for bars
ber of equi-amplitude cycles of building motion in a design other than ASTM A 615 and to develop a modified equation
earthquake N,. can be conservatively estimated using the fol for low-cycle fatigue if needed. A new equation based on re
lowing equation: sults of testing the ASTM A 706 and ASTM A 6t5 bars will
be proposed. In the meantime, the previously proposed equa
(3) tions can be used. Alternatively, the designer can select s
N,. =7T
3
based on any other rational criterion.
where
T = the fundamental period of the structure in seconds
The designer should consider Eq. (3) when choosing the NON-DIMENSIONAL FORMULATION
number of design cycles ND, which can be assumed equal to
be a multiplier m times N,., as in Eq. (4): The availability of simpler procedures to design hybrid
frames would help this new technology gain more wide-
ND = fiN,. (4) spread acceptance. One method would be to develop dimen
sionless parameters and equations applicable to most cases.
The step-by-step PRESSS procedures can be restated in a
Considering that the return period for the design earthquake non-dimensional form as described in the following steps.
is significantly larger than the design life of the structure, one Figure 4 summarizes the resulting non-dimensional proce
may argue that the multiplier fli should be equal to 1.0. How dure in a flowchart.
ever, one of the stated advantages of the hybrid frame is that
the structure re-centers itself after an earthquake. Therefore, if Step 1: Determine the Material Properties and Relevant
in were set to 1.0, the structure would theoretically be re-cen Parameters
tered after the design earthquake occurs, but all of its low-cycle
fatigue capacity would be depleted. Therefore, the designer Table 1 identifies some of the design parameters for the
should consider these factors when selecting the value of m. hybrid frame components. The yield strength of the rein
Dutta et al. implicitly suggest that a structure should be capable forcement is multiplied by the material over-strength factors
of sustaining a foreshock, a main shock, and an aftershock.
6 for tension and compression, respectively) to
(‘‘.,d and
Substituting ND from Eq. (4) for Nf in Eq. (1) yields calculate the stress in the reinforcement at a certain design
strain specified by the engineer.
= 5
7°’
45
0.024m° Table 2 lists the mean over-strength factors and their cor
responding bar strains as proposed in the PRESSS report.’

Table 1. Material Properties and Relevant Parameters for Hybrid Frame Components

Material Property Symbol

Concrete and interface grout compressive strengths


Post-tensioning tendon initial strain minus losses, initial stress minus losses,
. . . . c,f.,E,f,ands,.
p p P3
modulus of elasticity, yield stress, and yield strain ‘

Mild steel reinforcement yield stress, modulus of elasticity, minimum tensile


. . . . f,E,f,ande.
‘y .u
S
strength, and maximum design axial strain

Mild steel reinforcement over-strength factors (tension and compression) d,.S


5
A and 2,’,,,.,

114 PCI JOURNAL


Table 2. Over-Strength Factors Corresponding to Different Strains for ASTM A 7061

System State Strain 2, (Tension) ,i’ (Compression)

First yield 0.002 1.0 1.0

Design 0.04 1.35 1.0

Maximum credible 0.08 1.5 1.0

The design over-strength factors for tension and compres Step 5: Estimate Neutral Axis Parameter at Design
sion, as suggested by the PRESSS report, are 1.35 and
= Drift
= 1.0, respectively.
Section 3.3.3 of ACE Tl.2-03, Special Hybrid Moment Assume an initial value for i (relative position of neutral
Frames Composed of Discretely Jointed Precast and Post- axis from the compression face at the design drift). The fol
Tensioned Concrete Members, specifies that, in the absence lowing was suggested in the PRESSS report:’
of test data on stress-strain properties of the mild steel rein
7 the tensile strength of the reinforcement should
forcement, 0.1
be taken as the specified minimum tensile strength f and =
the reinforcement’s compressive strength must be taken as
1.25ff. However, a more rational procedure based on inelas
tic cyclic behavior of reinforcing steel bars (as shown previ =
ously) is desirable when calculating the reinforcing steel’s An approximate value of may be used in lieu
over-strength factors in tension and compression as well as
the maximum permissible steel strain. of the PRESSS suggestion as discussed in a following section
in this paper. The initial estimate of the neutral axis loca
tion will be adjusted, as necessary, during the iterative design
Step 2: Obtain Mde. and °de.
procedure.
Design loads can be obtained using either force-based
Step 6: Calculate Strain in the Prestressing Tendon at dey
0
design (FBD) or the preferred displacement-based design
(DBD) methods.
8 Interface rotations °drs can be calculated
The following proposed procedure is slightly different
from the drift ratio using the geometry of the system.
from the PRESSS procedure in that the strain (and not the
stress) in the post-tensioning tendon is checked to ensure that
Step 3: Determine the Non-Dimensional Parameter
the tendon does not yield. From Fig. 3, the axial deformation
Related to Beam Geometry
of the post-tensioning steel 4 is

L
= _in L1 = 0deyhg(057lde)
Jig

where
where hg the height of the beam and the grout pad
=

= Y2 L for spans of equal length along the entire The corresponding change in post-tensioning strain z1E is
length of frame
= (mge ospas)
for spans of unequal length A 0
= span length (center-to-center of columns) Ae =—e-=—-(0.5— de ) (6)

Step 4: Determine Proportion of Moment Capacity The post-tensioning steel should not yield and, therefore,
Contributed by Post-Tensioning and Deformed its strain s should be kept at or below yield:
Reinforcement
8
p
=E.+L1E
p p
ae py (7)
Assume a value for w for the ratio of post-tensioning mo
ment to design moment:
where
= the effective post-tensioning strain after losses
Mp,des
a = a factor introduced to afford the designer the flex
Mde., ibility to control and limit strain in the post-tension
ing tendon to any desired level below yield
A good initial assumption is w = 0.5. = post-tensioning tendon yield strain
September—October 2006 115
The a parameter proposed here was not included in the orig where
inal PRESSS procedures. The ability to maintain the strain in 9
b = the width of the grout pad (same as width of beam)

the post-tensioning tendon below yield (a 1) is crucial for Fed,, = compressive force in concrete corresponding
the stability of the entire frame. Therefore, further research on to de,
the choice of an appropriate value of a is warranted.
The post-tensioning steel stress fp(Ies can then be obtained Fcaes = Fpdes ÷ F,dC, — F,’des
from the stress-strain relationship for Grade 270 (1860 MPa)
prestressing strands as follows:
9
where Fp,aes, Fsde,, and F,d, refer to tension force in the
post-tensioning steel, tension force in the mild steel rein
For e, e= 0.0086
forcement, and compression force in the mild steel reinforce
ment, respectively (Fig. 3).

f,, Ee = (8) Fp,aes = APfPd,,

where
E = the modulus of elasticity of post-tensioning steel Fsdes = A, .as,desf,y
Celik and Sritharan also propose that the calculation often-
don stress be based on a calculation of tendon strain, 3 using
a stress-strain equation for strands. However, they do not ex
FSd,, = A, 2
’desfsy
5
plicitly limit the post-tensioning strain to a level below yield.
Also, the following non-dimensional parameters must be
defined: where
A = the cross-sectional area of the post-tensioning
qJ3Cpies A, = the cross-sectional area of the mild steel

reinforcement (same in top and bottom)


I: Define the following non-dimensional parameters:

A
IC, bh
gg

where
= compressive strength of concrete and grout pad at
the interface
fp,d, = post-tensioning steel stress at design drift — C

,
3
f, = mild steel reinforcement yield stress p

Step 7: Calculate Relative Locations of Compression


Force and Neutral Axis where
f = post-tensioning tendon effective stress
The depth of the equivalent stress block ades, the relative According to Section 18.4.2 of ACT 3 18-02, Building Code
Requirementfor Structural Concrete,’°
position of the compressive force as a fraction of overall
height ad,, and the relative position of neutral axis as a frac
can be calculated as follows: T 0.45Q
tion of overall height

= Substituting for FCdC, (from the previous equations) into


a des Eq. (9) yields:
0•85.4bg

üdes = [+(ASdCS_ Ad)]


a des
a des —

(9)
2hg
— adC,
fldes
— /3Ig
h

116 PCI JOURNAL


Therefore, Therefore, the following non-dimensional relationship can
be written

rides [+(des_ sdes)] (10)


0.5(1 5
ri
1
,
-
(1_ _ 0.5111dCV) ÷ (12)
In Eq. (10), the first term in the bracket, P, is a much larger
number than the second term. Therefore, the following ap 0.5(1
proximation (within 5%) can be written (0.5ri)] _)
‘,des

l.07P1’ If Eq. (12) is not satisfied, then the value of F in Step


des
= 0.85fl 7 must be modified and the steps must be repeated until
Eq. (12) is satisfied.
To solve for rides using Eq. (10), an initial estimate for F
must be made. Values of [‘range from approximately 0.0020 Step 9: Evaluate Restoring Properties of Beam
to 0.0025. An equation for calculating x is derived below
using the following non-dimensional design relationships: After reaching the design drift corresponding to 9 des and
then returning to zero drift, the restoring moment provided by
= 0.5(1—/317) the post-tensioning tendon should be greater than the corre
Ahf 0) sponding moment due to the mild steel reinforcement. This is
p g p,des
to ensure that the frame re-centers after an earthquake. Both
sets of mild steel reinforcement (top and bottom) would be in
Md = (l——0.5/
1
3 u7d) compression at that stage. Thus, the forces, depth of equivalent
Ahaf 1—CO stress block, location of compression force and neutral axis,
g S 5,
and the moments at zero drift can be calculated as follows:

= s,des
)
15
(i__o.sp FsO =AA,,
s sties fsy

0.5(1/3lrid)(±
-
= A2,,f

In this process, x is first calculated using the previous equa


tion and the rides assumed in Step 5. Then, a new value for ri Fp
0 =Af.
pp’
is calculated using Eq. (10). The newly calculated value of
is then compared with the previous value in Step 5, and
Steps 6 and 7 are repeated until the Tides values converge. FcO =FpO -FsO -F,sO

Step 8: Assess Moment Strength of Section at des


0 where
=
F force in the mild tension reinforcement at zero drift
Calculating the moments of the post-tensioning force and
the deformed mild steel reinforcement forces about the cen
F,, =
0 force in the mild compression reinforcement at zero
drift
troid of the concrete compression force yields =
F force in the post-tensioning tendon at zero drift

M p,des =Fp,des h(0.5—cz


=
F force in the concrete at zero drift
g des )

FsO
a =
0•85fbg
MSdes = ,ag(±des)
a
a =—--

2h g
‘s’,des = ,deshlg (© — Udes)
0
a
ho =
The total moment strength Mcapbea,s is where
a
0 =the depth of the equivalent stress block at zero drift
Mcap beam =Mp,des +Ms,des ÷Msties rio =the relative position of neutral axis at zero drift

MpO =Fh(0.5—a)
pO g 0
which should be greater than or equal to the design moment
0
M,, = )
0
F,ohg(1__a
Mcap beam Mdes (11)
September—October 2006 117
MsO =FsO hg (—a
)
0 reinforcing bar 5
,,, Therefore,
s,
.

where A
M,, = moment due to post-tensioning taken about the
0 L —— (15)
max
centroid of the compression force in the concrete at
zero drift where
50 = moment due to mild tension reinforcement taken
M L
5 5 = the length of mild steel reinforcement that is physi
about the centroid of the compression force in the cally debonded at each interface location
concrete at zero drift A potential failure mode of the hybrid frame involves the
50 = moment due to mild compression reinforcement
M fracturing of the mild steel reinforcing bars. Tests of hy
taken about the centroid of the compression force brid-frame connections by Stone et al. indicated fracturing
in the concrete at zero drift 1 Thus, the prediction of
of some bars during cyclic loading.’
To ensure self-centering of the frame after a seismic event, fracturing of mild steel reinforcing bars is a very important
Eq. (13) must be statisfied. concern and should be considered in design. As discussed
previously, the PRESSS procedures do not specifically ad-
Mp0 MsO +M,sO (13) dress this issue.
Section 3.3.2 of ACI T1.2-03 recommends that ASTM
One may argue that the use of the equivalent stress block A706 reinforcing bars be used in hybrid frames and specifies
in this case would not be appropriate. However, the a 0 term a maximum design strain that is 2% less than the strain
cancels out in the derivation. Therefore, the choice and ap at the minimum elongation indicated in ASTM A706 for a
propriateness of using the equivalent stress block would not given bar size.
7 For a No. 8 (25M) bar, this limit would be
affect this provision (as given in the following). The previous 10%. This limit could be as high as 12% for other bar sizes.
requirement for self-centering can be written in the following Such high strain limits, however, would result in a very lim
simple and non-dimensional form: ited number of cycles to failure based on the published low-
cycle fatigue test results.
Priestley et al. recommended that the maximum strain in
x )d,K
2 (14)
the mild steel reinforcement under cyclic loading be limit
ed to 75% of ultimate strain and 6% (absolute strain) in the
where 2 Equation (5) can be used to
absence of better information)
determine Esm based on low-cycle fatigue.
K= As interface rotation occurs in hybrid frames, the mild re
inforcing steel is subjected to axial and bending strains. The
If Eq. (14) were not satisfied, then w (in Step 4) must be bending strains can be as much as 10% of the axial strains.’
3
modified, and Steps 5 to 9 must be repeated. The PRESSS procedures can be modified to include the ef
fect of maximum bending strain Ebfl, corresponding to O.
Step 10: Calculate Steel Areas and Required Unbonded The bar’s bending strain Ebmax at 0d, can be estimated using
Length of Mild Steel Reinforcing Bar the following equation:

The areas of mild steel reinforcement and post-tensioning 0


(d
tendons can be calculated using the equations shown in Step g
b,max
=2.4r smax I—I
hgjI
7. Thus, \

where
= the diameter of the bar
A=
P
5 (i
0•5hgfpj —
Ii’1a) A more detailed equation for calculating Ebm is given in
the research report for this project.’
3
and Growth in the unbonded length of the bar is expected to
occur under high cyclic strain. Raynor et al. studied the bond
A characteristics of bars grouted in light-gauge metal ducts.’
4
5
A = —s A non-uniform strain distribution occurs at each end of the
unbonded region of the bar that penetrates into the grouted
According to the PRESSS design procedures, the elonga (bonded) region of the bar. According to Raynor et al., the
tion of the mild tension reinforcement A
5 at 0
des can be cal elongation due to strain penetration is equivalent to the peak
culated as strain acting uniformly over an equivalent additional unbond
ed length on each end. The additional equivalent debonded
A = Odashg(171ds) length L10 can be calculated using the following equation:

The strain in the mild steel deformed bar should be equal 0.8l(J
-j)
to or less than the maximum design strain in the mild steel db
(f;d)’

118 PCI JOURNAL


where The compression region should be confined if the calcu
= the maximum tensile strength of the steel reinforcing lated concrete strain is greater than the concrete’s strain ca
bar pacity ( 0.003).
New research may provide more accurate estimates for L,,.
Thus, the total unbonded bar length L, is

1
L = L + 2L
PARAMETRIC STUDIES

The above dimensionless parameters were varied in an


where extensive parametric study (approximately 1200 trials) in
L, = the unbonded length of the mild steel reinforcement volving an optimization process. The objective of the opti
at each interface mization program was to ensure that the moment capacity
The maximum total strain that the bar is subjected to is the of the section is greater than MdCS and to satisfy additional
sum of axial and bending strains. A conservative approach constraints discussed in the following paragraphs.
here is proposed to ensure that the total strain is less than Based on Eq. (12), the objective function is
Es.rnax, which is the maximum design strain that the bar can be
subjected to based on low-cycle fatigue tests.
The apparent maximum axial design strain 8 b is then cal
0.5 (i - + [s,e.s (1_ - 0.5fl,nd,,) +
culated.
0.5(l_ ‘

6 sb =6 gnus, —6 brnax &,des ( — fl,Jde


.
0
5 )] — 1 des)

CL)
= 0

To ensure satisfactory performance, the calculated axial Microsoft® Excel’s “solver” feature was used to find the
strain in the bar at O,,, must be less than e,,,. Because the total optimum solution by changing ijde,’ cv, and T subjected to the
unbonded length is L,,, (not L,,), Eq. (15) can be rearranged:
13 following constraints:
• To achieve zero residual drift: x 22 d,SK
5
A • To ensure that the post-tensioning steel would not
L —‘ yield: e,,
sh
6
• To meet ACI 3 18-02 Section 18.4.2 requirements: T
0.45Q
The a parameter was assumed to be equal to 1.0 following
the PRESSS procedures. However, a lesser value for a may
hg esb
be warranted pending further studies. Table 3 lists the range
of parameter values used in the parametric studies.
L (Required) = L, — 2Lua

RESUIJS FROM PARAMETRIC STUDIES


Step 11: Confine Compression Region
Based on the results of the parametric studies,
13 a set of
The common design assumption that plane sections re charts with non-dimensional parameters was generated
main plane would not be valid at the end region of the beam. (Fig. 5—10) and corresponding design equations were recom
1
Therefore, the concrete strains cannot be calculated from the mended. One can calculate the required areas of post-tension
curvature within the plastic hinge length. ing tendon A and mild steel reinforcement A, by utilizing
Stanton and Nakaki recommended a plastic hinge length l Fig. 5,7, 8, and 10.
taken as a function of the compression zone depth such that’ It can be observed from Fig. 5 that the required area of
post-tensioning tendon A increases as ede, increases for a
given q, Mde,, and e,,s,,. On the other hand, A decreases as
ph
1 = kpi;T1 des hg
Es,,ax increases for a given , M,, and °de, (Fig. 8). The re
5
verse is true for the area of the mild steel reinforcement A,.
where The stress in the post-tensioning tendon fpd. at a specified
kPh = 1 (without experimental validation) design drift 0 de, increases as increases. It also increases
The concrete compression strain at the compression face of when the stress in the post-tensioning tendon f , increases as
1
the beam e can then be calculated shown in Fig. 16.
The designer can also calculate the optimum ratio of the
(l7deghlg) post-tensioning moment to the total moment strength cv
des
0 = from Fig. 6 and 9. The relative area of the post-tensioning
ph ph tendon to the beam’s cross section F can be calculated from
Fig. 13—15. The relative location of the neutral axis ‘ldes can
September—October 2006 119
Table 3. Material Properties and Relevant Parameters for Hybrid Frame Components
Parameter Minimum Maximum

0(%) 0.5 4
.

8s,mas (%) 1 8

I
c
u
1
J
. . ,. 0.5 0.65

f.,ksi 4 8
Although AC! allows a ratio of 0.70, a lower value is used here to ensure that the tendon stress would not yield at the design limit state.
5
Note: 1 ksi = 6.895 MPa.

be calculated from Fig. 14. Figure 14 shows that 7 Jde. asso-


Md
ciated with an optimum design increases as the compres- O.O4
atEsines 4%
= AP hg ipiles
sive strength of the concrete f increases (or j3 decreases).
It should be emphasized that Fig. 14 reflects a condition in
which all parameters of design have been modified to arrive
M des
at an optimum solution. Thus, for the different points shown ate =4%
04
in Fig. 14, the various design parameters (such as T) are not = A .
hg fpiles
held constant. For example, Fig. 13 indicates that F increases
as f’, increases.
Because the curves in the figures show smooth variations, L
1.For 0 8
approximate design equations that are functions of 0, , 55
5
r 0
, and can be derived from the design charts using curve
fitting. These equations can be used in lieu of the charts. The
M p,des
proposed non-iterative design equations are as follows: cv0.04 =
(5.160 des +
des

M p,des -0.037
= 0.89w 0,04 cmiii (16)
= O9)27+003)
9O04
= (—6.70 des +
Ahf
p g p,des

Mdes
= 125004es,,(ii0037 (17)
Ahf
g g p,des
Mdes —

A hf
s s.des g p,des
7)(3.5Os+0.02)
Mdes (22.230des + 1
-0.034
=0.882a7 0.04 £s,rnax (18)
A .Zs,des hg fp,des
where
°des =interface rotation at design limit state expressed in

A radians
F= = v (in percent)
1
y,v (19)
bh
gg L
2. For 0 = —-> 8
h g

0.11
fldesp

=
Mp.des
004
co = (3.790 des + Od
9

0
)
7
o4
where Mdes
= the ratio of post-tensioning moment to total moment
strength corresponding to = 4°7

120 PCI JOURNAL


(l) n ?•1

CD SI
3.

Mdes / Ai,hCfpdes
M /A s,des hg f
0000 000
P DCC
01 r\) . C) 01 CD F\) .
0)
) -1 -. CD
) 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 Mp,pes / MdS
0
0) 00 pp pp op CD
. . P 01 01 01 CY1 01
CD 01 01 CD 01 - 1’3 C.) 4 01
CM
0
CM

CD
01
01

0)

0 0

01
C))
01

I\)
0 Cs)
0 0

I’.) Cs)
01 C)) I)
C))

E )(

01 01 C))
f 01
C.) C.) Is) Cs)
f -

L 01 C)) C)) 01 .I .) (C) Cs) Cs) - - 0


01 01 bi

F)
4 hg fp,des VS
Mdes /
[Ode, = 2%] values of
Es,nas(°7O)
0.96
0.94 --- 1.5
0.92 -—-A--— 2
—‘— 2.5
c4 0.9
0.88
--*--
4
- 0.86
0.84 —6

0.82
0.8
0 5 10 15 20 25
= L, I h
5
Fig. 8. [MdIAP hCfPd,S] versus for °smax = 2%.

CO
= ‘p,des “des”
b
[Odes = 2%]
0.57 values of
,max
0.55 -—

- 1.5
0.53 -—— 2

0.51 --3

0.49
5
6
0.47 ------

0.45
0 5 10 15 20 25
= L/h
5

Fig. 9. [MP,dJMd] versus q for 6d = 2%.

[Mdes /(A
5 hg 1
s,des.fsy
2
vs
values of
2.05 s s,,flax (%)
—. 2.00
1.95 —s----- 1.5
—k--— 2
1.90 ----x---- 2.5

1.85 -—--—- 3
-.- 3.5
1.80
1.75 5
— 6
1.70 —.-—-- 7
1.65 -------8

0 5 10 15 20 25
= L/h

Fig. 10. [MdjA2a hgfy] versus for O = 2%.

122 PCI JOURNAL


-I.’ ?1
i
0
CD

o
C) F
CD
°1
CD pp p p p p pp
CD C,, I’J r.3 N) N) N) N)
Co
C - N) C) . 01
C,, Ct

F 0

ppp °1
ppp
- M () C) -

01 C 01 C 01 0

Co
CD
CD

cM

01 p CD
Co
cM CD

0
9
CD C’
cM

II

01
(J

“.3
0

“3 N)
0 -

01

II II II II N)
00-) C’LM 01

CM CO Co CO

- N)
t .C
p
01 CY1

N)
C,)
’ides VSj3
1 1
0.18
0,17

0.16
0.15
0.14
0.13
0.12
0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9

J3

Fig. 14. ‘i versus J


.
1
9

.t,’o,desUjy vs
[f = 0.65 f] Od(%)

1.00 —.e—0.5
0.95 ---— 1
—A— 1.5
0.90

0.85

V.0k)

0.75
4
0.70
0 5 10 15 20 25
= L / hg

Fig. 15.fPdJfP versus 1


forf,, = O.65f

fp,desU,,y VS

= 2%]
1.00

0.95

0.90

0.85 —.---f. = O.5f

0.80 O.55

0.75
—A—
4’= O.6f
,
1
= O.654
0.70

0.65

0.60
0 5 20 25
10
1
9 5
=LIh
Fig. 16. versus for = 2%.

124 PCI JOURNAL


=
M des 0.11
+ 0.94)19) 4. Calculate ”des
1 =
= (
des
8 10
Ahf
p g p,des

5. Calculate Ae,, using Eq. (6).


6. Check whether E ae using Eq. (7).
M des 7. Calculate fpd. using Eq. (8).

+ l.65)200
004 = (
A hf d,,,
1 3650
8. Calculate A, using Eq. (17).
1
s ,.des g p,de
9. Calculate A, using Eq. (18).
10. Optional step: Calculate Tusing Eq. (19).
A 11. Calculate L,, using the procedures discussed in Step 10.

for [‘=5 ksi (34.5 MPa) andf =0.65fpu
‘1,,
gg

CONCLUSIONS
Ycef = (
+ 0.21 5)q(
3 80+0 02) (in percent)
des
2 0
The following conclusions are made:
• The PRESSS procedures to design hybrid frames
where
can be modified into a non-dimensional form. The
= factor that accounts for different values of
f non-dimensional procedure, though iterative, can be
solved with optimization routines for a wide range of
= 0.208f 0.0355
parameters.

if

• The solution of the non-dimensional formulation can


be summarized into non-dimensional charts and equa
where tions. A set of such design charts and equations was
= factor that accounts for different values off/f
developed and is presented in this paper. These tools
are designed to enable engineers to perform the design
v =—l.82---+2.l8 of hybrid frames in fewer numbers of steps while pro
I viding insight into the effects of various parameters on
ipu
the design.
• The limit state of bar fracture resulting from low-cycle
fatigue should be considered in design. The maximum
design strain in the mild steel reinforcement should be
DESIGN PROCEDURES
limited based on a low-cycle fatigue criterion. Sug
gested design equations are provided in this paper.
In addition to the iterative steps shown in Fig. 4, the fol
• The stress in the post-tensioning tendon should be
lowing steps can also be followed when using the proposed
calculated based on tendon strains. In all cases, the post-
new design charts or equations.
tensioning strains should be less than the yield strain.
Although the PRESSS procedures assume stresses to be
Procedures When Using Design Charts at incipient yield, it is recommended that the strain in the
tendon be limited to as, where a is a value less than 1.
1. Obtain the applied moment Mdes and design drift 0 des
2. From the estimated fundamental period of the structure
T, calculate N using Eq. (3) and E,,m, using Eq. (5). ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
L
3. Specify This research work was supported by the PCI Daniel P.
Jenny Research Fellowship for 2003—2004. The support
4. Calculatef, by using Fig. 15 and 16. of PCI is greatly appreciated. The research team thanks In
5. Calculate A by using Fig. 5 and 8. dustry Advisory Panel members S. K. Ghosh, Ned Cle
6. Calculate A, using Fig. 7 and 10. land, Roger Becker, Fattah Shaikh, and Sri Sritharan. The
7. Optional step: Calculate Tusing Fig. 11 to 13. authors are grateful to John B. Mander for his valuable ad
8. Calculate L,, using the procedures discussed in Step 10. vice and input. The authors also express their gratitude to the
PCI Journal reviewers and editor for their valuable suggestions.
Procedures When Using Design Equations

1. Obtain the applied moment Md,, and design drift °des


2. From the estimated fundamental period of the structure REFERENCES
T, calculate N, using Eq. (3) and e,,,,, using Eq. (5).
L 1. Stanton, J. F., and S. D. Nakaki. 2002. Design Guidelines for
3. Specify Precast Concrete Seismic Structural Systems. PRESSS Report
No. 0 1/03-09, PCI, Chicago, IL, and University of Washington

September—October 2006 125


Report No. SM 02-02, Seattle, WA (February). f,,=.r = maximum tensile stress at maximum tensile strain
2. Priestley, M. J., S. Sritharan, J. R. Conley, and S. Pampanin. f,,.d = post-tensioning steel stress at design drift
1999. Preliminary Results and Conclusions from the PRESSS fp, post-tensioning tendon effective stress
Five-Story Precast Concrete Test Building. PCI Journal, V. 44, fpy = post-tensioning tendon yield stress

No. 6 (November—December): pp. 42—67. = mild steel reinforcement yield stress

3. Celik, 0., and S. Sritharan. 2004. An Evaluation of Seismic De .1,,” = mild steel reinforcement ultimate stress

sign Guidelines Proposed for Precast Concrete Hybrid Frame F,,d,,, = concrete compressive force at beam-column interface

Systems. ISU-ERI-Ames Report ERI-04425. Iowa State Uni = post-tensioning force in post-tensioning tendon at design

versity, Ames, IA (January). drift


4. Mander, J. B., F. D. Panthaki. 1994. Low-Cycle Fatigue Behav = force in tension mild steel reinforcement at design drift

ior of Reinforcing Steel. Journal ofMaterials in Civil Engineer = force in compression mild steel reinforcement at the design

ing, V. 6, No. 4: pp. 453—468. drift


5. Chang, G. A., and J. B. Mander. 1994. Seismic Energy Based 0
F,, = post-tensioning force in post-tensioning tendon at zero
Fatigue Damage Analysis of Bridge Columns: Part II— drift
Evaluation of Seismic Demand. Technical Report NCEER-94- F,,, = force in tension mild steel reinforcement at zero drift
0013, Buffalo, NY. F,, = force in compression mild steel reinforcement at zero
6. Dutta, A., J. B. Mander, and T. Kokorina. 1999. Retrofit for drift
Control and Repairability of Damage. Earthquake Spectra, V. = height of girder (equal to height of grout pad) at beam-
15, No. 4 (November): pp. 657—679. column interface
7. ACT Innovation Task Group 1 and Collaborators and ACI Com h, = overall height of the building in feet
mittee 374. 2003. Special Hybrid Moment Frames Composed kr,, = plastic hinge length factor
of Discretely Jointed Precast and Post-Tensioned Concrete Iph = plastic hinge length
Members and Commentary. TI .2-03 and Ti .2R-03. Farmington
Hills, MI: ACT. = V2 L for spans of equal length along the entire frame
8. Priestley, M. J. 2002. Direct Displacement-Based Design of = (average length of spans)/2 for spans of unequal length
Precast/Prestressed Concrete Buildings. PCI Journal, V. 47, L = span length (center-to-center of columns)
No. 6 (November—December): pp. 66—79.
= unbonded length of mild steel reinforcement at each
9. PCI Industry Handbook Committee. 2004. PCI Design Hand
interface
book: Precast and Prestressed Concrete. Sixth Ed. MNL 120-
= additional unbonded length at each end of the initial
04. Chicago, IL: PCI.
unbonded length of the mild steel reinforcing bar due to
10. ACT Committee 318. 2002. Building Code Requirements for
high cyclic strain
Structural Concrete (ACI 318—02) and Commentary (ACI
L, total unbonded length of mild steel reinforcing bar
318R—02). Farmington Hills, MI: ACT.
including the effect of L
11. Stone, W. C., G. S. Cheok, and J. F. Stanton. 1995. Performance
M,.,, = total moment strength (A4,
,, + A4j
0
of Hybrid Moment-Resisting Precast Beam-Column Concrete
= moment strength due to post-tensioning force
Connections. ACI Journal, V. 92, No. 2 (March—April): pp.
M,.,,,,, = moment strength due to mild steel reinforcement
229—249.
equivalent number of equ i-amplitude cycles of building
12. Priestley, M. J., F. Seible, and G. M. Calvi. 1996. Seismic De
motion in a design earthquake
sign and Retrofit of Bridges. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons
ND = number of design cycles
Inc.
Nf = number of cycles to failure
13. Rahman, A., H. Tabatabai, and R. Hawileh. 2004. Simpli
fied Design Procedures for Precast Hybrid Frame Buildings. Q 01
=ratioofftof
T fundamental period of the structure in seconds
Daniel P. Jen.j flcsearch Fellowship report, PCI, Chicago, IL
ad = distance from center of equivalent compression block to
(September).
14. beam compression face divided by beam height
Raynor, D. J., D. E. Lehman, and J. F. Stanton. 2002. Bond-Slip
Response of Reinforcing Bars Grouted in Ducts. ACI Structural = O.5f3,i
Journal, V. 99, No. 5 (November—December): pp. 568—577. i3 = factor defined in ACT 318—02 (Section 102.7.3)10
15. Collins, J. A. 1993. Failure of Materials in Mechanical Design: x = ratio of A 0 to A
Second Edition. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University. 4 axial deformation of post-tensioning steel
= tensile axial deformation of mild steel reinforcement

= compressive axial deformation of mild steel reinforcement

= concrete compression strain at the compression face of


APPENDIX A: NOTATION the beam
= maximum total strain in a cycle
0
a = depth of compression stress block in grout at zero drift c,,,,, = minimum total strain in a cycle
A
0 = area of post-tensioning steel = post-tensioning tendon effective strain
A = area of mild steel reinforcement in each face of the beam = post-tensioning tendon yield strain
5
b = width of girder (same as width of grout pad) at the a.,,, = apparent maximum axial design strain in the mild steel
beam-column interface reinforcing bar
db = diameter of mild steel reinforcing bar 8,,,,,,, = maximum design strain in the mild steel reinforcing bar
0
E = modulus of elasticity of post-tensioning steel = ratio of L ,, to h,,
0
E = modulus of elasticity of mild steel reinforcement = ratio off, to f’
f compressive strength of concrete and grout pad at the = Md,,,, divided by (A,, h,,f,,d,,,) when e,,,,,,,,,, is equal to 4%
interface = Twhen f’,, is equal to 5 ksi (35 MPa) andf,,, is equal to

f = compressive strength of grout inside duct 0.65.1,,,,


T = ratio of A,, to cross-sectional area of beam

126 PCI JOURNAL


distance from neutral axis to beam compression face APPENDIX B: NUMERICAL DESIGN EXAMPLE
divided by beam height
K = ratio off, tof,
In order to validate, verify, and illustrate the effectiveness
= mild steel reinforcement tension over-strength factor
of the developed design charts and simplified equations, five
= mild steel reinforcement compression over-strength factor

= factor that accounts for different values of f/f, when


design examples were presented in the research report for this
determining T 3 In this paper, only one example is shown. This ex
study.’
v = factor that accounts for different values of
f’ when ample includes four separate design procedures: the original
determining F PRESSS procedures, the modified non-dimensional proce
= interface rotation at design limit state dures, the developed non-dimensional charts, and proposed
= value of cv when is equal to 4% equations.
= Md divided by (A2 5 d
f PI) h when is equal to 4% For the sake of brevity, the calculations based on the origi
ratio offpdS., to f nal PRESSS procedures are not shown. A comparison and
= distance from center of the mild steel reinforcing bar to
discussion of various solutions is given. It should be noted
nearest face divided by height of the beam
that the values of 1. and )L’sde, recommended in ACT Ti .2-
03 are used in this example.
The design parameters in this example are identical to those
contained in the PRESSS design example presented by S. K.
Ghosh at the March 2002 PCI Seismic Seminar in Chicago,

Table Bi. Material Properties and Design Information

Parameter Value Comments

f., ksi 5 Compressive strength of grout pad and concrete

J,’ ksi 5.5 Compressive strength of grout inside duct

ksi 243 Yield strength of Gr. 270 strand (= 0.9,f,)

L’ ksi 270 Minimum strength of Gr. 270 strand

f,,,, ksi 175.5 Initial stress in strand

E, ksi 29,000 Modulus of elasticity of mild steel reinforcement

/., ksi 60 Yield strength of Gr. 60 steel bars

0.055 Cover factor (Fig. 3)

L, ft 45 Tendon length center-to-center of columns (all spans are of equal length)

L,,,,, ft 22.5 L12

E,,, ksi 28,500 Modulus of elasticity of Gr. 270 strand

/3 0.8 /3 0.85 — 0.05 f— 4)


0.046 Maximum design strain in the mild reinforcing steel

) 1.4 Tension over-strength factor


7

) 1.25 Compression over-strength factor


7

e, 0.00207 fIE,

C,,. 0.0085 JE,,


7
f

s 0.00616 f,/E,,

1v1,,,,, ft-k 1235 Obtained using displacement-based design

6,,., % 1.96 Interface rotation


Note: I ksi = 6.895 MPa; 1 ft = 0.3048 m; 1 kip = 4.45 kN.

September—October 2006 127


Table 82. Results Compared Using the Four Methods

Method A, in? , in.


5
A 2 , in.
5
L Remarks

PRESSS procedures 1.96 2.31 14.5 Bending strain and grout effects are not included

Non-dimensional procedures 1.98 2.30 12.5 Bending strain and grout effects are included

Charts 1.9 2.30 12.5 Bending strain and grout effects are included

Design equations 1.9 2.38 12.5 Bending strain and grout effects are included

Note: PRESSS = Precast Seismic Structural Systems; I in. = 25.4 mm; I in.
2 = 0.000645 m
.
2

Ill. However, the calculation steps are somewhat revised to


S 448
=0.0795(2Nf)° = 0.023
achieve an optimized solution.
Seismic data:
• Location: Charleston, S.C. where
• Site class: D
=2 a 0.046
• Building type: five-story office .s,max

• Three equal bays; span length = 45 ft (13.7 m)


• hg = 42 in. (1070 mm), bg = 22.5 in. (570 mm) It should be emphasized that this procedure for estimating
• Moment-resisting system: hybrid frame e
,
5 , is a recommendation, and the designer can use other ap
Table Ri shows the material properties and other informa propriate means of selecting
tion used in the design procedures. Table B2 compares the f.des = = 1.4 (60 ksi) = 84 ksi (580 MPa)

results from the design procedures. Jde.s = sdesfsy = 1.25 (60 ksi) = 75 ksi (517 MPa)

Step 2: Obtain Mdes and de.


0
SOLUTION USING MODIFIED
NON-DIMENSIONAL DESIGN PROCEDURES See Table B].
BASED ON PRESSS
Step 3: Determine Non-Dimensional Parameter Related
to Beam Geometry
Step 1: Determine Material Properties and Relevant
Parameters 22.5xl2
=643
hg 42
See Table B 1 for a list of information used in this example.
Please note that the calculations for e
,,,.. utilize the proposed
5
Step 4: Determine Proportion of Moment Capacity
low-cycle fatigue criterion for the mild reinforcing steel and
Contributed by Post-tensioning and Deformed
are not included in the original PRESSS procedures.
Reinforcement
Calculate the estimated fundamental period of the structure
Assume w = 0.5 18
In this case, the assumption is based on an optimum solu
4 =0.03(65.5)
T=0.03(h) = 0.691 sec.
tion calculated using the Excel solver feature. If an optimum
solution is not available, an iterative approach must be used.
where
= the overall height of the building in feet
Step 5: Estimate Neutral Axis Parameter dm
1
s
T at Design
The number of equi-amplitude cycles associated with one Drift
earthquake can be calculated:
Assume
N = 7T = 7(0.69l) = 7.92 cycles 0.11 0.11
17 des =—=--———=0.138
/3 0.80
The number of cycles to failure should ideally be higher Step 6: Calculate Strain in Prestressing Tendon at 0
des
than the number of cycles associated with a single earth
quake. The choice of the number of cycles is up to the de This step is a modified form of the PRESS S procedure to en
signer. Here, based on similar assumptions made by others, sure that the post-tensioning steel wifi not deform beyond yield.
we assume that ND = mN with m = 1.0. Further research on
the proper value of m is needed.
Enter the value of ND for Nf in the following equation: &p =-(o.s_i des ) 0.0196(050138)00011
6.43
128 PCI JOURNAL
e,,
=
1 0.0616 0.29
+ 0.0073 = 0.5(1 —0.8x 0.134)+ [1.4(1 —0.055--0.5x 0.8 x 0.134)
=
0.859
Check whether e,, ae
,,
1
Let a = +1.25(0.055 —0.5 x 0.8 x 0.134)1= 0.869
0.0073 <0.0085 OK
= = 207.0 ksi (1427 MPa)
0.5(1 —0.8x0.134)
=0.862 OK
Let 0.518
60
=0.29
207.0 Step 9: Evaluate the Restoring Properties of the Beam

414
,J,,207 .0 K=--=—-—=0.342
j s.o 175.5

x = 0.859 = 2x 1.25x0.342 = 0.855 OK


= — —
= 12.0

Step 10: Calculate Steel Areas and Required Unbonded


Length of Mild Steel Reinforcing Bar
Step 7: Calculate Relative Locations of Compression
Force and Neutral Axis
wM
A =

10.0021 0.5hg fPdS(l Ide)


In this case, the assumption is based on an optimum solu
tion calculated using the Excel solver feature. If an optimum
solution is not available, an iterative approach must be used. = 0.518x 1235x 12
A = 2 (1276 mm
l.98in. )
2
I’ 0.5(l—0.8x0.134)x42x207
= = ——
= 0.0285
f. 175.5
A 1.98
A=—-=—————=230 in.
2 (1486mm
)
2
Check whether x 0.859
1=0.0021 0.45 Q 0.45 x 0.0285 0.0128
= = OK
To calculate the unbonded length of reinforcing steel, the

x
=
A2s,des (1— — O.SPlnd ) —
maximum design tensile strain must first be determined based
on low-cycle fatigue considerations.
o.s(i
_/31des)[_ 1 —
0.046

0.29 xl .4(1 0.055 — — 0.5x 0.8 x 0.1375)


= 0.859 =2.
37
o.s
_
o
8
_
1
s)L_i
o.
.i
( 8
b ,rnx bJnaxl

hgj J
0.518
db = 1 in. (No. 8 [25M1 ASTM A706 bars)

des
17
= 0.85/3
0.0021
[ + (ses

12.0
— s,des)] =
= 2.4 x 0.046(1= 0.00263
42
4i.4+ (1.4_1.25)]=o.134
0.85x0.8[ 0.859
t
s b = sniax —
b,,,ax
8

?des
7 = 0.134 0.1375 OK—No need to iterate.
= 0.046—0.00263 = 0.043

Step 8: Assess the Moment Strength of the Section at °des


L (1—d —)od = (1—0.134—0.055)0.0196
=0.369
A hg 0.043
0.5(1 —
)
Pfld + [.dns. (i —
— 0.5/3117d)
and
sb

0.5(1 — 1317des)

September—October 2006 129


3. Check whether e a
L 0.8 i(f
I su — fsj’) 0.81 l f
s,des sy —

=
(%)15
dh
— 15
(fd) Leta= I
0.81(1.4x60—60)
=
(5.5)1.5
=1.51 =‘0.0073<0.0085 OK

4. Ca1culatef,
For h
5 = 42 in. (1067 mm)
L,, 42 x 0.369 = 15.5 in. (394 mm) Ip,des = E p r p = 207 ksi (1430 MPa)
,,
5
L = L,,, — = 15.5 —2 x 1.51 = 12.5 in. (318 mm)

L
5.For =—‘-8
Step 11: Confine Compression Region hg

= 1.0 (based on PRESSS) M des 0.037



2
‘ 5
0.04s,,nax
Ahf
p g
— O. — 0.0 196
=0.0196
k ph 1.0 + 0.9)p
3
’,°°
276
04 = des
679
(

e> 0.003 (The solution provides proper confinement to


prevent spalling.) = (—6.7 x 0.0196 + 0.9) x 6.43(27500l9003) = 0.897

SOLUTION USING PROPOSED DESIGN CHARTS


Md =11.1 25x0.04600371]xO.897=0.897
1. Go to Fig. 15 and determine: A hg p,des L

=0.87j;,ies=0.87x243 = 1235x12
=A = 19 in2(l230mm2)
0.897x42x 207
=211.4lksi (1458 MPa)
L
2. Go to Fig. 5 and determine: 6. For = 8
h
A’! des Md
= 0.885 0.882&J 004 ssums
Ahf A.? h
s s,des gip,des
p g p,dus

1235x12 = 1.9in.2(1230mm2)
=A = .7)Ø_(35002)
0.885 X 42 x 211.41 0.04 = (22.230d + I

3. Go to Fig. 7 and determine: = (22.23 x 0.0196+1.7) x 6.43_(35x00196+002)


—1.8
= 1.79 —

Ah f Mdes
= [0.882 x 0.046_0034 ]x 1.8 = 1.76
AA
S s,des hgfpdes

1235x12
A = =2.35 jfl.21 (1520mm
)
2
1.79x42x 1.4x60 1235x12
A = = 2.38 (1535 mm
)
2
1.76x42x1.4x60
SOLUTION USING DESIGN EQUATIONS
Table B2 compares the results of the various methods.
1. Calculate 2
ldes

0.11
fldus =
= 0.14
Use thirteen 1 -in.-diameter (13 mm) post-
2
2. Calculate i e = 1.9 in.
tensioning strands (Ap,p,oyj
4 2 [1230 mm]),
2
4 = 2.4 in.
along with three No. 8 (25M) bars (Au,prove 2
A [1550 mm
]).
2
As = —fl- = 0.001
Pu

130 PCI JOURNAL