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Today’s smartphones are very power hungry. They use powerful hardware including
multicore CPU, many GPU cores, large screen and high-speed wireless network
interfaces, all with a high power consumption. They also run many energy-expensive
applications such as high-end games, full HD video playback, and various continuous
sensing tasks for context-awareness As a result, many users suffer from a short battery
lifetime on their smartphones and thus they often have to recharge their smartphones
every day or even multiple times per day.
The frequent smartphone recharging imposes a big burden to users. As people
increasingly depend on their smartphones for daily work and life, running out of battery
becomes a very unacceptable situation for many users. To avoid such an unpleasant
situation, users must keep a careful eye on the battery status of their smartphones and
manually connect a charger to charge their smartphones when the battery is low. Doing so
every day not only consumes a lot of user attentions but also imposes a mental burden to
Ideally, smartphones should automatically get recharged so that users do not need
to worry about recharging their smartphones. However, existing solutions cannot achieve
this desirable goal. That is, users still have to manually connect a charger to their
smartphones, resulting in the similar user burden as wired chargers. Therefore, wireless
charging pads do not improve the user experience much.
we propose a new approach, called AutoCharge, to improve the user experience in
charging smartphones. Instead of forcing a user to explicitly indicate the intention of
charging by plugging in a wired charger or contacting a small wireless charging pad, in
our AutoCharge approach, the charger itself identifies the opportunities of charging a
smartphone when a user puts the smartphone onto a desk. The charger automatically
locates the smartphone and starts to charge it if the battery is low, without requiring any
explicit effort from the user (see more details in Section 2). Consequently, the user is able
to largely get rid of the burden of the manual smartphone charging and the user
experience is significantly improved. Our AutoCharge approach takes advantage of two
kinds of key techniques to enable automatic smartphone charging. First, we leverage
mature solar charging technique but use it in indoor spaces. Solar charging is able to
remotely charge smartphones without a wire and thus is promising to improve the user
experience of smartphone charging.

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Second, we design a system of smartphone detection and tracking for automatic

smartphone charging. The charger uses a camera to keep monitoring a surface such as a
desk in office. When a smartphone is put onto the desk, the charger can quickly detect the
presence of the smartphone. If the smartphone is able to be charged by a light beam and
its battery is low, the charger starts to charge the smartphone. The charger uses a rotating
motor to adjust the direction of its light beam so that it is able to accurately project the
light beam on the smartphone. After the battery is full, the charging stops. The whole
process is completely automatic and transparent from the user. In addition, the system is
able to support multiple smartphones. If there are multiple smartphones on the same desk,
the charger can charge them one by one.

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Oracle SOA Product Suite:

Oracle offers the first service-infrastructure product family built from the ground up for
Service-Oriented Architectures, giving IT a unified set of products to successfully deploy
an SOA across their organization and achieve better business agility and IT efficiency.
For an overview of Oracle SOA Suite and its component products, see Oracle
Fusion Middleware Getting Started with Oracle SOA Suite.

Oracle Service Bus:

Oracle Service Bus is a proven market-leading Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) built from
the ground up for SOA life cycle management that provides foundation capabilities for
service discovery and intermediation, rapid service provisioning and deployment, and
This service-infrastructure software adheres to the SOA principles of building
coarse-grained, loosely coupled, and standards-based services, creating a "neutral
container" in which business functions may connect service consumers and back-end
business services, regardless of underlying infrastructure. The following figure illustrates
the role of Oracle Service Bus as a service intermediary in an enterprise IT SOA

Built to meet exacting standards for reliability, availability, scalability, and

performance, Oracle Service Bus uniquely combines the integration capabilities of an

Enterprise Service Bus with operational service management, into a single enterprise-

class software product, with a layered functional architecture.

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4.1 What is Oracle Fusion Middleware?

Oracle Fusion Middleware is a collection of standards-based software products that spans

a range of tools and services: from Java EE and developer tools, to integration services,
identity management, business intelligence, and collaboration. Oracle Fusion Middleware
offers complete support for development, deployment, and management.

Specifically, middleware is the software that connects software components or

enterprise applications. Middleware is the software layer that lies between the operating
system and the applications on each side of a distributed computer network as shown
in Figure 4-1. Typically, middleware supports complex, distributed business software

Middleware is also the Infrastructure which facilitates creation of business

applications, and provides core services like concurrency, transactions, threading,
messaging, and the SCA framework for service-oriented architecture (SOA) applications.
It also provides security and enables high availability functionality to your enterprise.

Middleware includes Web servers, application servers, content management

systems, and similar tools that support application development and delivery. It is
especially integral to information technology based on Extensible Markup Language
(XML), Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), Web services, SOA, Unicode, Web 2.0
infrastructure, and Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). Textual data
is represented in the Unicode character set to support data exchange in any language.
UTF-8 is used as the standard encoding for transporting data for optimal compatibility
and efficiency, while traditional non-Unicode encodings can also be used where

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Figure 4-1 Oracle Fusion Middleware Architecture

Due to continued growth and use of network-based applications by businesses,

middleware technologies are increasingly important. Companies and organizations are
now building enterprisewide information systems by integrating previously independent
applications with new software developments. The integration process may involve
legacy applications which may be used only with, or through a nonmodifiable interface.
In some cases, rewriting the code for a legacy application may be cost-prohibitive.

Increasingly, information systems are composed of a collection of various

specialized hardware devices interconnected by a network. Each device performs a

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function that involves receipt of real time data and remote interaction with other devices
of the system. Some examples include computer networks, telecommunication systems,
uninterrupted power supply units, and decentralized manufacturing units.

Interaction with the information system may span a wide range of performance.
You can interact with Internet applications through a variety of devices, whose
characteristics and performance figures span an increasingly wide range. Between a high
performance personal computer, a smart telephone, and a personal digital assistant, the
variations in bandwidth, local processing power, screen capacity, and the ability to
display color pictures, are extremely large.

4.2 Understanding Middleware Architecture Design

The function of middleware is to mediate interaction between the parts of an application,

or between applications. Therefore, considerations for architectural structure play a
central role in middleware design. The architectural design encompasses the organization,
overall structure , and communication patterns, both for applications and for the
middleware itself.

Figure 4-2 provides an overview of the Oracle Fusion Middleware architecture with a
common Oracle SOA installation.

Besides architectural aspects, the main problems of middleware design pertain to various
aspects of distributed systems. Any middleware system relies on a communication
layer that allows its different pieces to interoperate. In addition, communication is a
function provided by middleware itself to applications, in which the communicating
entities may take on different roles such as client server or peer-to- peer. Middleware
allows different interaction modes (synchronous invocations, asynchronous message
passing, coordination through shared objects) embodied in different patterns.

Therefore, middleware system design faces several challenges:

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 Middleware systems rely on interception and indirection mechanisms, which

induce performance penalties. Adaptable middleware introduces additional
indirections, which make the situation even worse.
 As applications become more and more interconnected and interdependent, the
number of objects, users, and devices tends to increase. This poses the problem of
the scalability of the communication and object management algorithms, and
increases the complexity of administration. The availability, reliability,
concurrency, security, and performance of applications may also be an issue.
 Widespread computing is a vision of the near future, in which an
increasing number of devices embedded in various physical objects participate in
a global information network. Mobility and dynamic reconfiguration will be
dominant features, requiring permanent adaptation of the applications.

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Figure 4-2 Oracle Fusion Middleware Architecture Overview

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Specifically, Oracle Fusion Middleware offers the following solutions through its
middleware design:

 Development Tools: A unified SOA development tool and framework. An

integrated, but modular, set of development tools to build complete applications,
rather than using lots of specialized tools. The design tool includes a single design
environment for user interface, business logic, service composition, business
process or workflow, business rules, and business intelligence. The design tool
enables simplified design and debugging, and to improve productivity. Includes
Oracle Developer, Oracle TopLink , Oracle Application Development
Framework, and Oracle Eclipse.
 User Interaction: A single, end-user environment that enable access to enterprise
applications, business processes, business intelligence and to share information
with each other. This end user environment is multi-channel allowing it to be
accessed from a variety of different clients (mobile clients, desktop clients, Voice-
over IP (VOIP) clients) with Oracle WebCenter Portal.
 Business Intelligence: A suite of business intelligence tools from extract,
transform, and load to integrate data into warehouses; query, analysis, and
reporting tools for decision support; scorecards to compare how the business is
doing against key performance indicators; and alerting to drive notifications to
users about problems in the business software.
 Content Management: A repository within which to manage documents, digital
assets, scanned images and other forms of content; to integrate this content with a
company's enterprise applications, Web sites, and business processes.
 SOA: A means of using existing investments in applications and systems most
efficiently to be able to focus more resources and budget on innovation and on
delivering new business services.
 Application Server: A standards-based Java EE application server to run the
enterprise applications and provide the Web services infrastructure for
 Integration and Business Process Management (BPM): A standards-based
service bus to connect applications with each other and with legacy systems using
messaging; a BPM or workflow engine to connect the application into a business

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process or workflow; and business activity monitoring and optimize business

processes in real time.
 Security and Identity Management: Security administration across multiple
applications and systems in an enterprise, by centralizing how users are created
and provisioned, their identities, and roles and by enabling them to have single
sign-on access. Includes Oracle Internet Directory, Oracle Virtual Directory,
Oracle Directory Integration Platform, Oracle Identity Federation.
 Enterprise Management: Operations and administration by running on a grid
architecture with grouping, backup, and other high availability technologies, and
integrating with Oracle Enterprise Manager for systems management. Includes
Fusion Middleware Control, Oracle WebLogic Server Administration Console,
Oracle WebLogic Scripting Tool, Oracle Process Manager and Notification

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4.3.1 Getting Started with Processes

Business processes are the core components of process-based business applications

created with the Oracle BPM Suite. Although projects are higher level wrappers that
contain all the resources of a business application, the processes within the project
determine how the application works. Introduction to Business Processes

A business process can be generally defined as a sequence of tasks that after it performed
result in a well-defined outcome.

Business processes are generally created by process analysts who determine the
business requirements that must be addressed and define the corresponding process flow.

This flow is defined by various BPMN flow objects. How to Create a New Business Process

Business processes are created within an Oracle BPM project. You can add one or
more processes to your project.

To create a new business process:

1. Open your project.
2. Expand the node for your project in the BPM Project Navigator.
3. Right-click Processes, then select New then Process.
4. Select the type of process you want to create, then click Next.
5. Enter a name and optional description.
6. Click OK.

The new process is opened in the process editor.

New business processes are created with a start and end event connected by a default
sequence flow. The type of start and end events depend on the type of process you

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After opening an Oracle BPM project, you can open any of the processes it contains.
Processes are opened in the process editor window.

To open a business process:

1. Open your project.
2. Expand the project node in the BPM Project Navigator.
3. Expand Processes.
4. Double-click the process you want to open. How to Delete a Business Process

You can delete processes from your project. However, you should ensure that there are no

remaining references to the deleted process elsewhere in your project.

To delete a business process from a project:

1. Open your project.
2. Expand Processes in the BPM Project Navigator.
3. Right-click the process you want to delete, then select Delete What You Need to Know About Deleting a Business Process

When you delete a business process from a project, you must ensure that you remove any
references to it from other parts of your process.

For example, if the deleted process was invoked from another process through a message
throw event, you must ensure that you have reconfigured the invoking process so it is no
longer referring to the deleted process. How to Edit Process Preferences

You can use the Properties dialog to edit the preferences for each process within a project.

To edit process preferences:

1. Open your project in the BPM Project Navigator.
2. Expand Processes.

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3. Right-click the process whose properties you want to edit, then select Properties.
4. Edit the properties as necessary, then click OK

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When creating a SOA composite application, you have a choice of approaches for
building it:

 Top-Down: You analyze your business processes and identify activities in support
of your process. When creating a composite, you define all the SOA components
through the SOA Composite Editor. You create all the services first, and then
build the BPEL process, referencing the created services.
 Bottom-Up: You analyze existing applications and assets to identify those that can
be used as services. As you create a BPEL process, you build the services on an
as-needed basis. This approach works well when IT must react to a change.

4.5.1 Introduction to Service-Oriented Architecture

Changing markets, increasing competitive pressures, and evolving customer needs are
placing greater pressure on IT to deliver greater flexibility and speed. Today, every
organization is faced with predicting change in a global business environment, to rapidly
respond to competitors, and to best exploit organizational assets for growth . In response
to these challenges, leading companies are adopting service-oriented architecture (SOA)
to deliver on these requirements by overcoming the complexity of their application and IT

SOA provides an enterprise architecture that supports building connected enterprise

applications to provide solutions to business problems. SOA facilitates the development
of enterprise applications as modular business web services that can be easily integrated
and reused, creating a truly flexible, adaptable IT infrastructure.

4.5.2 Introduction to Services

SOA separates business functions into distinct units, or services. A SOA application
reuses services to automate a business process.

A standard interface and message structure define services. The most widely used
mechanism are web services standards. These standards include the Web Service
Description Language (WSDL) file for service interface definition and XML

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Schema Documents (XSD) for message structure definition. These XML standards are
easily exchanged using standard protocols. Because standards for web services use a
standard document structure, they enable existing systems to interoperate regardless of
the choice of operating system and computer language used for service implementation.

When designing a SOA approach, you create a service portfolio plan to identify common
functionality to use as a service within the business process. By creating and maintaining
a plan, you ensure that existing services and applications are reused or repurposed
whenever possible. This plan also reduces the time spent in creating needed functionality
for the application.

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While our evaluation results are encouraging, the AutoCharge approach also has some

 If a smart phone is under another object like a book, we cannot charge it.
Furthermore, if one does not take out a smartphone from his/her pocket or bag,
 When people travel to different places, it is unlikely they can find a light charger
of Auto Charge in every room.
 We focus on exploring new ways for smartphone charging and study the
feasibility of automatic smartphone charging. We do not intend to completely
replace the existing smartphone chargers using AutoChargeTo workaround this
 It requires that smartphone must integrate a PV panel to work with a light charger.
 The smartphone must be within the boundary of the system

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In this paper we proposed and designed AutoCharge, a new approach that enables
automatic smartphone charging. The key idea of the AutoCharge approach is identifying
the opportunities of smartphone charging from a user’s existing action of putting a
smartphone on a desk and automatically charging the smartphone without requiring
explicit effort from the user. To achieve it, we first leverage mature solar charging
technique but use it in indoor spaces. We design a dedicated light charger to generate a
light beam to charge a smartphone without a wire and address the practical issues of
indoor light charging. Then, we employ a camera-basedsystem to automatically detect
and track smartphones on a desk. We develop a fast image processing algorithm which
identifies smartphones from pictures. Once a smartphone is detected, we further use a
rotator to track the smartphone and project a light beam onto it to charge it. The whole
process is totally automatic and transparent from the user. As a result, our AutoCharge
approach significantly reduces users’ burden in smartphone charging and improves the
user experience. The camera system can also decide the battery status of the smartphone
for on demand charging and detect obstacles for safe charging. We have implemented a
prototype system of AutoCharge. Experimental results show that our prototype
implementation is able to quickly detect a smartphone on a desk in various settings and
charge it as fast as existing wired chargers. Despite that our prototype implementation is
still far away from a real product and may be further improved in many aspects, we have
demonstrated the feasibility and made a significant step towards automatic smartphone
(and other mobile devices) charging.

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Our design and implementation of AutoCharge can be further improved. For example, our
algorithm on smartphone detection may be improved in following aspects.
 First, besides the basic feature of rectangle shape, one may use more features
such as buttons at certain positions to reduce false positive.
 Second, once a detected rectangle is confirmed as a smartphone, the algorithm
may remember the shape of the smartphone and use it for detecting the same
smartphone in the next time.
 Third, one may consider supporting smartphones which are not in a rectangle
shape. Furthermore, it is also possible not using any predefined shape at all.
Instead, the algorithm automatically learns the shapes of smartphones using
various machine learning techniques.
 We plan to work on these optimizations. As the main goal of this paper is to
demonstrate the feasibility of automatic smartphone detection, our prototype
implementation is far away from a commercial product.
 To become a real product for users to use in practical settings, our prototype must
be improved in many aspects. For example, we must use a specially designed
light to replace the T6 LED Flashlight; we must replace the Kinect sensor using a
dedicated camera; we must not depend on a separate PC to run the software; and
we must tightly integrate all the components together. We leave these
improvements as future work.

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