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·0 What do you mean by LDA?

Laser Doppler velocimetry, or LDV, system uses a laser that sits outside
the tunnel. Optics are used to split a laser beam into two parallel beams that are
sent into the tunnel and focused on a small test volume near the model. Because
of wave interference, a fringe pattern is generated in the test volume. Seed
particles are introduced upstream in the flow and as the seeds pass through the
fringes they are illuminated.
·1 What are the two methods to detect seed particles/?
The forward scatter technique and the backward scatter technique. In the
forward scatter mode, the detector is placed on opposite side of the tunnel from
the laser source. In the backward scatter mode, the detector and laser are mounted
on the same side of the tunnel.
·2 What are the advantages and disadvantages of Scatter techniques?
There are advantages and disadvantages to both modes. The forward
scatter can use a lower powered laser, but requires optically flat clean windows on
both sides of the tunnel test section. The backward scatter requires a higher
powered laser, but only one window. The forward scatter can encounter problems
from the model blocking the transmitted beam, the blockage does not occur in the
backward scatter mode.
·3 What is the purpose of a five- holeprobe?
Five hole probe. is used for diagnostic wind tunnel testing and in flight
testing to determine the flow direction or angularity. At the upper left of the
figure, we show a picture of the probe itself. The probe is a bundle of five tubes; a
center tube surrounded by four tubes in the shape of a cross. The leading edge of
the four outside tubes are cut at a 45 degree angle to the center tube.
·4 What do you mean by 40 probe rake?
The rake consists of 40 pitot tubes arranged as five rings with eight probes
spaced 45 degrees apart on each ring. As with diagnostic probes, the tubes of the
40 probe rake are connected to pressure transducers to measure the value of the
total pressure relative to some reference value.
·5 Briefly explain PIV/
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is an optical method of fluid
visualization used in education[1] and research[2][3][4]. It is used to obtain
instantaneous velocity measurements and related properties in fluids. The fluid is
seeded with tracer particles which, for the purposes of PIV, are generally assumed
to faithfully follow the flowdynamics. It is the motion of these seeding particles
that is used to calculate velocity information of the flow being studied.

·6 Explain LIF?
Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) is a spectroscopic method used for
studying structure of molecules, detection of selective species and flow
visualization and measurements. The species to be examined is excited with a
laser. The wavelength is often selected to be the one at which the species has its
largest cross section. The excited species will after some time, usually in the order
of few nanoseconds to microseconds, de-excite and emit light at a wavelength
larger than the excitation wavelength. This light, fluorescence, is measured.
·7 What are the two kinds of spectra?
Disperse spectra and excitation spectra. The disperse spectra are performed
with a fixed lasing wavelength, as above and the fluorescence spectrum is
analyzed. Excitation scans on the other hand collect fluorescent light at a fixed
emission wavelength or range of wavelengths. Instead the lasing wavelength is

·8 Explain in detail Laser Doppler anemometer/?

·9 Write about Particle image velocimetry?

·10 Explain about Laser induced fluorescence?