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TITLE: Spanish Colonization

● Analyze the causes of European expansion in the New

World and the factors that made expansion possible.
● Evaluate the extent to which the Columbian Exchange
marked a turning point in both European and Native
● How can we best describe the relationship between
Europeans & Native Americans
● MON: Spanish colonization
● TUES: Jamestown
● WED: Tobacco & Labor
● FRI: NE Colonization
○ Short Answer
Spanish Colonial Class System
While the Spanish Peninsulares
intermarried with
Native people, unlike(Natives of Spain) (Criollos)
the British Colonies,
(Spanish BUT born in
what problems are

Mestizos Mulattos
(Spanish man & (Spanish man &
Indian Woman) African Woman)

Native Indians Black Slaves

Spain colonized the
Americas from 1492… and
for the next 350 years

● How does Zinn describe

the treatment of the
Indian Population?
● growth of racially mixed
society eventually
caused rifts to develop
between Spain and
colonies -WHY?
● by 1824, all of Spain's
New World colonies
except Cuba and Puerto
Rico had fought for and
won their independence.
Spain’s Tribute Colonies
● Understand the foundation for support of
Spain’s colonial expansion.
● Analyze the writings of Las Casas to
understand the impact of the encomiendas.
● Examine how the Columbian Exchange
impacted both the New and Old World.
○ Assimilation to Spanish ways
○ Convert Indians to christianity
○ Vehicle to organize colonization


○ Ensure subordination

○ Exploit labor

○ Reward Spanish subjects

○ Mistreatment

○ Symbol of exploitation &

Slave Trade Begins

● Solution to the controversy of

enslaving Indians...Africans

● “The labor of one...[African]...[is]

more valuable than that of four
Indians; every effort should be
made to bring many …[Africans]
from Guinea.”
- Bartolome de Las Casas
“Black Legend” - Does the label fit?
● Characteristic of

● 1580, William I, Prince of Orange

declared Spain "committed such
horrible excesses that all the
barbarities, cruelties and tyrannies
ever perpetrated before are only
games in comparison to what
happened to the poor Indians." ● depicting a Spaniard feeding
children to his dog
tsunami of biological exchange - unintended consequences!
Columbian Exchange - Globalization
● fueled a surge in world population
● increased nutritional value of diets by
global exchange

● Gold and other riches - Spain

● By 1600s - most powerful in Europe.
Short Answer:
Using your knowledge of U.S. History answer parts a, b and c.
a. Briefly explain which ONE of the following factors contributed
most significantly to Spanish dominance in the New World
between 1491 and 1607.
● Native Diversity
● Religion
● Technology
b. Provide at least ONE piece of evidence from the period to
support your explanation.
c. Briefly explain why ONE of the other options is not as
significant as the one you chose.
Plantation Colonies

● Compare & contrast Jamestown to Spanish
● Analyze the key events & people, which enabled
Jamestown to eventually succeed.
● Understand to what degree did the new
immigrants fight for survival through primary
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Setting the Stage for English
●1558 - Queen Elizabeth- Protestantism
dominant..rivalry with Spain!
●English “sea dogs” (Francis Drake)
● Seize Spanish treasure
● 1588 defeat of Spanish Armada

● Social & Economic change

● Population growth
● Lack of land / unemployment
● Laws of Primogeniture
English Colonization
Charter of the
Virginia Company:
■established legal
rights to form a colony
■ Guaranteed
colonists same rights
as Englishmen
■Joint Stock Co.
Chesapeake Bay

Arrived April 1607

■ Susan Constant
■ Godspeed
■ Discovery
BY 1608: 38 / 120 are still alive!
Powhatan Confederacy

■Powhatan possibly saw

the English as allies - Pocahontas assisted
1607:Jamestown Fort & Settlement Map

George Percy reported that “the fifteenth of June, we had

built and finished our Fort, which was triangle wise: having
three Bulwarkes at every corner, like a halfe Moone, and four
or five pieces of Artillerie mounted in them.”
...times when trade with Powhatan revived
colony with food in exchange for glass
beads, copper, and iron tools. Captain John
Smith was particularly good at this trade.
After arguing that Jamestown's settlers had been promised
food by Powhatan, Smith claimed that the swords and guns
the Indians wanted in exchange for food could not be spared.
Smith ended his speech with a quiet threat, "The weapons I
have can keep me from want: yet steal, or wrong you, I will
not, nor dissolve that friendship we have mutually promised,
unless you force me."
Powhatan's reply, as recorded by Smith, showed his subtle
understanding of English intentions: "Yet, Captain Smith,
some doubt I have of your coming hither, that makes me not
so kindly seek to relieve you as I would: for many do inform
me, your coming is not for trade, but to invade my people and
possess my country. My people dare not come to bring you
corn, seeing you are thus armed with your men. To clear us of
this fear, leave your weapons at home; for here they are
useless, we being all friends."
High Mortality Rate
The “Starving Time” 1609 - 1610:
In the Journals of the House of Burgesses of Virginia is a document
of 1619 which tells of the first twelve years of the Jamestown colony.
The first settlement had a hundred persons, who had one small ladle of
barley per meal. When more people arrived, there was even less food.
Many of the people lived in cavelike holes dug into the ground, and in
the winter of 1609-1610, they were

...driven through insufferable hunger to eat those things which

nature most abhorred, the flesh and excrements of man as well of
our own nation as of an Indian, digged by some out of his grave
after he had laid buried there days and wholly devoured him;
others, envying the better state of body of any whom hunger has
not yet so much wasted as their own, lay wait and threatened to
kill and eat them; one among them slew his wife as he slept next to
him, cut her in pieces, salted her and fed upon her till he had clean
devoured all parts saving her head...
Starving Time
In 1625, George Percy, who had been president of Jamestown
during the Starving Time, wrote a letter describing the colonists’
diet during that terrible winter.
Haveinge fedd upon our horses and other beastes as longe

as they Lasted, we weare gladd to make shifte with vermin

as doggs Catts, Ratts and myce…as to eate Bootes shoes or
any other leather,” he wrote. “And now famin beginneinge to
Looke gastely and pale in every face, thatt notheinge was
Spared to mainteyne Lyfe and to doe those things which
seame incredible, as to digge upp deade corpes outt of
graves and to eate them. And some have Licked upp the
Bloode which hathe fallen from their weake fellowes.”
Maintaining Order...
Sir Thomas Dale. Deputy governor in 1611, Dale showed no patience with those "idell"
colonists who preferred sloth or desertion to hard work. That impatience was apparent
when he set out upriver to found a settlement...Deep in Powhatan territory, Dale took a
tough line with recaptured deserters. Percy records the consequences:

Some he apointed to be hanged some burned some to be

broken upon wheles others to be Staked and some to be
shott to deathe, all theis extreme and crewell tortures he
used and inflicted upon them To terrefy the reste for
attempteinge the Lyke. And some which Robbed the store
he cawsed them to be bownd faste unto Trees and so
sterved them to deathe.
In 1587, Englishman John White led more than 100 men, women and
children in the first attempt to found a permanent English colony in the
New World at Roanoke.

Village of
by John
The manner of making their boates
Engraving by De Bry (printed 1590)
Tobacco Plant

Virginia’s gold and silver.

-- John Rolfe, 1612
Tobacco = Currency

mercantile system
(Economic philosophy in 17th & 18th centuries.)

● British colonies were money makers for England.

● British restricted colonies:
○ limited what colonies could produce, whose ships they
could use, and with whom they could trade.
● EXPORT more than IMPORT

Promoted a Tobacco Economy: social & complimentary

Tobacco Overview:
➔ Politics and Power
◆ Navigation Acts passed by
Parliament in 1660s restricted
American tobacco exports.
◆ Virginians were growing more, but
forced to sell less.
◆ Tobacco prices drop
➔ Environment & Geography
◆ Exhausted soil
➔ Work, Exchange, and Technology
➔ Peopling
◆ Indentured Servitude
◆ Slavery
Richard Frethorne’s
1623 Letter
● Describe the life of the indentured servant.
● What are some problems he and the other
servants experienced?
● What are their biggest fears?
● Did Frethorne think he had made the right
decision in coming to Virginia?
● How might this letter influence attitudes about the
nature of indentured servitude?
Indentured Servitude
Headright System:
■Each Virginian got 50 acres for
each person whose passage they paid.

Indenture Contract:
■5-7 years.
■“freedom dues”
■Forbidden to marry.
■1610-1614: only 1 in 10 outlived
their indentured contracts!
The indenture contracts
formed a partnership
between the traveller and
the "master" to exchange
years of service for a
promise of future
compensation like acres
of land, livestock, clothing,
and room and board
during the time of service.
Ref: contract between
servant Patrick Larkin and
master Thomas Blood.
Is this a fair contract?
1619 was a pivotal year for the
Chesapeake settlement:

Page 23
1619: shipload of
“ninety maidens”
arrived as wives to
Price: 120lbs tobacco
1619: Virginia
House of Burgesses
General Assembly met in
response to orders from
the Virginia Company
“to establish one equal
and uniform
government over all
Virginia” and provide
“just laws for the happy
guiding and governing
of the people there
Powhatan Uprising
of 1622 - a response to the threat
of cultural deconstruction
-expansion onto Indian land
thrreatened their way of life
Virginia Becomes a Royal Colony

●James I reacts:
■Hated tobacco.
■House of Burgesses
■Powhatan uprising
●1624 → revoked charter
■Royal Colony
Create a Venn Diagram showing
differences & similarities between
Spanish encounters of colonization &
English in the Chesapeake
Indentured servants
Enslave Native People Virginia
power Company
King & Queen of Spain

Requiremento profit Create alliances with

Encomiendas African Slaves

conquistadors Starve Gentlemen

Colonizing Carolinas 1670
- South Carolina -
● economic relationship with West
Caribbean Colonization
colonies also encompassed British islands
of the West Indies.