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A MODERN COURSE IN ENGLISH SYNTAX HERMAN WEKKER AND LIANE HAEGEMAN Eperinot First published in 1985, bby Croom Hel Ltd Reprinted in 1989, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996 by Routledge 2 11 New Fetter Lane, London ECAP 4EE 29 West 35th Stree, New York, NY 10001 Routledge is an International Thomson Publishing company © 1985 Merman WekKer and Liliane Hacgeman Printed and bound in Great Britain by ‘Buddles Lid, Guildford and King’s Lynn All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in aay information storage or retrieval system, ‘without Permission in writing from the publishers British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Wekker, Herman AA modern course in English syntax 4 §- Enelish language—Syntax i Tide “iL. Haegeman, Liliane 425° PEI361 4 Library of Congtess Cataloguing in Pblicaton Dia ‘Wes, Herman, MA er cou in Engh syntax 1 English anguage— lia Mae PELSGLWST "1965" 4282 &8-13994 ISBN 0-415-03684-4 1. Haegeman, CONTENTS Preface I: Aims and Methods Li Whats Syatax? 12 Representing Sentence 121 Bracketing 122 Labelled Bracketing (33 Tree Diagrams and Phrase Strociute ales 124 Sentence and Discourse 125 Exereses 13° Consitueney Tests 134 Variations on Basi Sentence Pattern 32 Clefing 23 Peeudoclfting 13a Passisation 135 Pronominalsation 135 Frontng (37 Bkercses 2: Constituents Iniroduction Exerc Word Order Constents Senenees Simple Declarative ané Irverogative Sentences ‘Compound and Complex Sentences Exercise Causes Exereses Phenses Introduction Noun Phrases Elements before the Head Pronouns (Oneswoed Phrases a 15 15 6 6 is is is 19 19 2424 Ekmensstertbe Head — 41 3433 StommcupmenP 41 aps Execs 2 33° VebPies 2 3231 lame 2 3132 YooComenens 8 3133 emecuetre te Head 16 3438 Then Aur in ive “ 2435 SummmeipibevP 30 313% Esene iu Z11° Pepotonal Penes 241 SommingopibePP 32 3h) Eee 3 BUS) Abewterhases 3 3431 Limoropine sae HiS2 bret s Tis? vr Pats 3 3481 Muneupine Ane 56 3482 Exe & 33? Wore % 234 Inosucon % SEL Wont Gases the Disntuion Srvoe 7 252, Noms s 33 Vow » 232 Miers 2 333 Aden ® 353% frepoton * B53 Cogenctns a 333 Sheena @ 3: Functions 31 lato me Verband 1a Complenens 32. Gamat incions 8 3b. eine & 35° Ginna Fanccons = ins 68 331 Ses e 332 Price % 333 Sentence Adjunets 34° Grammatical Functions inve 34.1 Predicative Complements 3411 Exercise 342° Direct Object 3421 Exerese 343° Indirect Object 3431 Exercises 348° Adverbil Complements ‘with Inwansiive Verbs 3441 Exercise 345° Adverbial Complements ‘with Transitive Verbs 345.1 Exercise 346° Predieative Complement + Adverbial Complement «4 Complex Function 346.1 Bxercee B47 Verb Paterns and Functions: @ Summary 3424 Exercise B45 Adjunets and Complements 348.1 Exercise 349° Sentence Adjunets and Ve-Agjuncts 349.1 Exercise 3610 Predictive Adjunets 3410.1 Exercise S411 Functions of Clauses S41L1 Finite Clauses 34.112 Noosfinte and Verbless Clauses 34.113 Empey Subjects in Nonefinite and Verbless Clauses 35 Grammatical Functions in Phrases: a Brie Survey 351 Bsereaes 4: Processes 41 Introduction 42° Leftward Movement: Wiemovement and Related ‘Transformations 42.1 Questions: Different Types 422 Subject Auulary inveion $23 Dovinertion 231 Exerese 425 Wirmovement 424.1 Subeategorsation Frames land Wiemovement 4242 Exercise 41243 Prepostonal Phrases in n n 2 2 3B B 4 u 7 n 18 8 %0 so a 3 3 8 86 ra or 3 os 96 98 0 01 103 103, 103 os 106 107 tos Mm Whequestons mm Wh-movement of Subjects 112 Whemovemeat and S112 Exercas 113 Inizest Questions 13 Indiect YesNo Questions 113 Inditest Wequestions [1a Long Whemovement 113, Relative Causes 116 Eerste 9 ‘The Meaning of Relative Causes 9 Deletion in Relative Causer 20 Thatin Relaive Clases 121 Adverbial Relative and Free Relative Clases 2 Non-restrictive Relative Clauses 123 Exereses 13 Appostve Clauses 124 Exercises 126 Reduced Relative Chuses 126 Exeriee 1 Fronting 130 Exercee Bo Passivisation 13 The Procese 131 The By-phrse 13 Exercise be Movement 0 Focus Postion 133 rexteaposition be rextraposiion in Pasive Sentones Iss Iextrapesiion in Active Sentences aT rextrapeiion with Nonstnte Causes, Ibs. Exercise 19 fiextraposiion in Verbess Clauses 120 Iivextraposiion with Object Chawses 1 Subject-Veeb Inversion 183 There insertion 15 Extraposiion from NP 47 Heavy Object sift 138 Summing Up 9 Cleting and Psevdo- cleting 150 Cleting 150 Pseadercletting 151 Substitution by Provorms 152 Ellipsis 13s Saljeet Deteton 138 ‘Vero Gapping and Backward Gapping 135 Other Examples 155 5: Non-finite Clauses and Control 1 tetrodueton 2 Fite and Now-rite Clauses 21 Intodustion 22 Finite Subordinate Causes 23 Non-nte Subordinate (Clauses with Lexical Subjects S24 Non-fnite Clauses without LLeical Subjete 525 For Fiher 53 Raking 3.1 Raising with Pasive Verts 32 Raising with Intransive Verbs and with Adjectives 3 Summing Up 3S Exereser Control SS.1 Nonedeal Subjects 5.2 Controls Resin 54.3 Subject and Object Control S44 Indefinte Control S45 Contol Adjectives 586 Exercises 6: Reanalysis: a Problem of Bracketing 61 Intreduetion 62 Prepositions and Parcles 17 usr 157 re 160 162 182 163 13 165 187 168 16s, 168 169 m 2 13 13 15 75 621 63 at 6a Index. Exercises Prepostionsl Verbs Exerave Phrasal-prepostionsl Verbs and Prepostona Idioms Exercise Levels of Structure Inwrodtetion Noun Phesss| Flt Structures and Layered Strstures Onesubsivetion Layering Onesword Phrases Verb Phrases Lering in VPs Formal Evidence Prepositonal Phrases ‘Adjective Phrases Complements of Ads Discontnanus Strings ‘Aver Phrases Summing Ups Layered Structure Exercise 181 ie iss 186 187 188 189 180 ity ion i93 194 joa os 195 18s 195, 196 197 7 1s 199