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2016 2nd IEEE International Conference on Computer and Communications

Analysis ofLTE FDD and TD-LTE Combination Network's Interference

Quqiao Wang Xiaolin Li


Application Of New Technologies of Communication Chongqing Information Technology (Group) Co., Ltd
Research Center Chongqing, China
Chongqing University of Post and Telecommunications e-mail: 490347413@qq.com
Chongqing, China
e-mail: wangquqiao@126.com

II. Foo-LTE AND TDO-LTE INTEGRATION NETWORK


Abstract-This paper focused on the analysis of LTE FDD and INTERFERENCE ANAL YSIS
TD-LTE combination network's interference. Firstly,
deterministic analysis was used to analyze the interference A. Analysis Conditions
between base stations of LTE FDD and TD-LTE, and the
Deterministic calculation is used to theoretically analyze
required additional isolation for system's coexistence is
the interference under the worst link conditions, calculate the
calculated. Then with system simulation method, the loss of
required additional isolation for systems' coexistence and
system throughput caused by the interference of TD-LTE base
compare the interference among base stations. 3GPP is
station uplink and downlink to LTE FDD base station uplink,
when shares a common base station, is drew, and the minimum
currently using this method to defme the stray radiation
filter standard desired for the normal work of two systems is indicators desired for the coexistence of base stations[2].
obtained. On this basis, the paper proposed anti-jamming The most important assessment principle of deterministic
measures under combination network, which has an important calculation is: using a certain tloornoiserising (or loss of
guiding significance for the interference problems in the sensitivity) as an evaluation criteria to determine the
construction ofLTE FDD and TD-LTE combination network. maximum allowable disturbance intensity outside the system.
Floornoiserising (or loss of sensitivity) will cause shrinkage
Keywords-LTE FDD;TD-LTE; combination network; of cell coverage, according to certain coverage scenes
interference; simulation (propagation model), the corresponding cell shrinkage of
different tloornoiserising can be calculated. Through
I. INTRODUCTION ( deterministic analysis, the correspondence between ACIR
and changes in coverage shrinkage can be obtained.
The international community has made many attempts on
General interfering system transmits at maximum power,
the integration of LTE FDD and TD-LTE. At present, the
through spatial isolation loss (MCL usually nominal) and
international integration mode can be divided into two
adjacent channel attenuation (ACIR usually nominal), the
categories: The first category is loose mode, with FDD as the
signal strength reaching interfered system receiver must meet
main body, and there is tight coupling of FDD and the
the maximum interference threshold that the interfered
existing 2G, 3G. However, TD-LTE network itself is
system receiver can withstand, see the following formula:
independent, just like a pure data network, therefore, there is
Pmax - MCL - ACIR = I
no connection among TD-LTE and 2G, 3G network, and
where Pmax is the maximum transmission power of
Sprint and KDDI are representatives of such mode; Another
interfering system transmitter, MCL denotes the minimum
is the ideal mode, FDD, TD-LTE and 2G, 3G form a good
coupling loss (including antenna gain) between interfering
interaction, and there is a good business switch between the
system transmitter and interfered system receiver. ACIR
FDD and TD, Softbank, OPTUS and others all have adopted
represents isolation degree between systems, including basic
this mode[l].
ACIR and the required additional isolation two parts, and the
Currently, many operators around the world have both
basic ACIR can be calculated through existing equipment
FDD and TDD frequency band, for example, Sprint, KDDI,
indicators. I is the maximum interference threshold that the
Softbank and other operators already have both the FDD &
interfered system receiver can withstand, and it can be
TDD frequency spectrum. No matter how operators use both
obtained through a certain sensitivity loss indicators (base
TDD and FDD frequency spectrum, they will face TDD and
stations generally use O.8dB sensitivity loss guidelines, and
FDD coexistence, shared antenna and feeder or co-antenna
the terminal generally use 3dB sensitivity loss criterion) [3].
scenario, thus inevitably have to face how to avoid
interference between the two systems, This article is to B. Analysis of Interference between Base Stations
discuss the issue.
Deterministic calculation between LTE base stations
usually use O.8dB sensitivity loss guidelines as evaluation
criteria of the coexistence of base stations, which means: the
corresponding maximum allowable interference outside the

978-1-4673-9026-2116/$31.00 ©2016 IEEE 2332


system should be 7dB lower than the background noise of
the receiver[4].
The noise floor of LTE 10MHz system is -99.5dBm = -
174 + 10 log (9MHz) + 5 (noise figure), therefore, the
Figure I. Schematic view of the frequency band 2500 - 2690MHz
maximum allowable interference level is -106.5dBm.
1) Coexistence of common station address (Co-Siting) Figure 2 illustrates antenna mounting:
When two LTE base stations coexist in co-location
Intel/erer antenna Victim antenna
scenarios, the mutual interference is most serious, 3GPP
generally assumes that the minimum coupling loss MCL is ( 0 0
J ( 0 0
J
30dB when macro base stations coexist in co-location
scenarios, then the required additional isolation for systems'
I.. d(m)
·1
Figure 2. Schematic view of antenna installation.
coexistence at this time can be drawn, as shown in Table 1.

TABLE I. DETERMINISTIC ANALYSIS RESULTS OF 10MHz LTE


SYSTEM TERMINAL INTERFERENCES lOMHz LTE BASE STATION SYSTEM
Antenna pattern selects 3GPP TR36.942, and cell base
CO-SITING ( ) station uses 65° sector directional antenna. Antenna equation
is as follows, where antenna gain is 15dBi[7].
Parameter Value
The Maximum Transmission Power of The Interfering Base 43 A(B) = -min[12(�), An,], -1800:s; B:s; 180°,
Stations (dBm) BJdB
MCL (dB) 30 BJdB = 65°,A", = 20dB
Base Station ACLR (dB) 45 With system simulation, the loss of system throughput
Interference Level of Receiver Input (dBm) -32 caused by the interference of LTE TDD system base station
downlink to LTE FDD system base station uplink, when
The Maximum Permissible Level of Interference (dBm) -106.5
sharing a common base station, is obtained. Typically
The Required Additional Isolation (dB) 74.5
assessment criteria of LTE system is that the loss of system
throughput caused by interference is no more than 5%, if so,
2) Coexistence of common coverage (Co-existing) the interference is considered tolerable.
When two LTE base stations coexist in common When realizing simulation, the interference of TDD base
coverage scenarios, 3GPP generally assumes that the station to FDD base station will be equivalent to
minimum coupling loss MCL is 67dB (distance between the floornoiserising under FDD single system.
two base stations is greater than 20 meters) when macro base Total isolation= free space isolation between antennas+
stations coexist in common coverage scenarios, then the coupling isolation between antennas+ ACIR+ solation of an
required additional isolation for systems' coexistence can be external filter. And, free space isolation between antennas=
obtained, as shown in Table 2[5]-[6]. 22+20lg(dh/,,-), coupling isolation between antennas
(GTx+GRx)-(SL(p)Tx+SL(9)Rx), ACIR = 40dB, solation of an
TABLE II. DETERMINISTIC ANALYSIS RESULTS OF 10MHz LTE external filter = Transmitter isolation + receiver isolation.
SYSTEM TERMINAL INTERFERENCES lOMHz LTE BASE STATION Where, dh[m] is the horizontal distance between transmit
(
SYSTEM CO-EXISTlNG ) antenna to and receive antenna, ,,-[m] is radio wavelengths
Parameter Value within the receiving range of the band. GTx is the gain of
transmitting antenna in the interfering frequencies, GRx is
The Maximum Transmission Power of The Interfering Base
43 the gain of receiving antenna in the interfering frequencies,
Stations (dBm)
SL(p )Tx is the side lobe level of the transmitting antenna in
MCL! flow lossing (dB) 67
the angular direction of the line connecting the centers of the
Base Station ACLR (dB) 45 two antennas, and SL(9)Rx is the side lobe level of the
Interference Level of Receiver Input (dBm) -69 receiving antenna in the angular direction of the line
connecting the centers of the two antennas[8-9].
The Maximum Permissible Level of Interference (dBm) -106.5
System simulation parameters are shown in Table 4:
The Required Additional Isolation (dB) 37.5
TABLE Ill. SYSTEM SIMULATION PARAMETERS

III. INTERFERENCE SIMULATION ANALYSIS OF FDD-LTE


Parameter Uplink 1 Downlink

AND TD-LTE Macrocell structure, three-sector antennas,


Cell structure
spacing of base stations is 500 m

A. Simulation Scheme Carrier bandwidth 10MHz

Considering the TD-LTE system and LTE FDD system Using ratio of bandwidth 90%

co-site in the frequency band 2500 � 2690MHz, and use the RB Size 180kHz
guard bandwidth of the 5 MHZ, as shown in figure 1.
Number of users per 5 users per 1 Depending on the number of

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Parameter Uplink Downlink of LTE TDD uplink to LTE FDD uplink, and interference of
sector sector available RB, each user LTE TDD downlink to LTE FDD uplink. The horizontal axis
occupies one RB shows the ratio of antenna distance d and wavelength, and
Uniformly distribute at random according to the vertical axis shows the throughput loss of LTE FDD
User distribution
the area uplink.

Base station antenna type 65°directional two-dimensional antenna 1) Externalfilter 40dB


Antenna height 30m 1.5m Figure 3 shows the throughput loss curve of LTE FDD
Gain of receiving antenna due to LTE TDD, when an external filter is a 40dB.
15dBi OdBi Figure 3 indicates that, in this case, no matter what
(including losses)
antenna spacing it is, the two systems can not coexist.
gain of transmitting
OdBi 15dBi Figure 4 shows the performance loss of LTE FDD uplink
antenna (including losses)
caused by LTE TDD uplink frame when the systems are co­
Lognormal shadow fading located.
IOdB
standard deviation

Smart antenna Off Off

The maximum total


Base station transmitting
transmitting power: 46dBm
power
(lOMHz, 20MHz)

The maximum
transmitting
Terminal transmitting power:24dBm
power The minimum
transmitting
power:-30dBm

Thermal noise density -174dBmlHz -174dBmlHz


Noise figure 5dB 9dB

Figure 4. Performance loss of LTE FDD uplink caused by LTE TDD


uplink frame.

Figure 3. The system average throughput loss when ex-filter is 40dB.

Figure 5. Performance loss of LTE FDD uplink caused by LTE TDD


B. Simulation Scheme
downlink slot.
Through simulation, we can get the loss of system
throughput caused by the interference of TD-LTE system
Figure 4 indicates that, in this case, whatever the antenna
base station uplink and downlink to LTE FDD system base
spacing is, LTE TDD uplink frame almost has no
station uplink, when sharing a common base station.
interference to LTE FDD uplink.
Typically assessment criteria of LTE system is that the loss
Figure 5 shows the performance loss of LTE FDD uplink
of system throughput caused by interference is no more than
caused by LTE TDD downlink slot when co-siting.
5% ' if so the interference is considered tolerable[lO].
The figure denotes that, in this case, only when d/A.>80,
The �imulation result curve shows the throughput loss
the perfonnance loss of FDD uplink caused by TDD
curve of LTE FDD uplink in three cases, namely:
downlink is less than 5%, and FDD uplink can work properly.
interference of LTE TDD to LTE FDD uplink, interference

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Based on the above, when there is not any external filters IV. NTI-INTERFERENCE MEASURES OF COMBINATION
with the antenna or external filters is less than 40dB, the two NETWORK
systems will not work.
Anti-interference measures generally includes filter
2) externalfilter 60dB isolation, frequency isolation and spatial isolation. The basic
Figure 6 shows the throughput loss curve of LTE FDD
features are as follows:
caused by LTE TDD, when an external filter is a 60dB.
Filter isolation: when there is no improvement room for
spatial isolation, filter isolation is the main measure against
interference. However, the filter isolation will increase costs,
and within certain guard band, the higher the filter isolation,
the greater the damage it brings to the wireless performance.
Frequency isolation: at the proximal end of transmitters,
isolation generated by frequency isolation is very small.
Thus, frequency isolation is generally used in conjunction
with and filter isolation.
Spatial isolation: it is an ideal way of isolation, but due to
the limitation of installation conditions, it can not increase
without limit.
From the above simulation case, if we do not consider
spatial isolation, the desired filter isolation for the co-siting
of LTE FDD and LTE TDD should be more than 60dB. For
SMHz guard band, the current level of filter design is
difficult to meet the requirement. If we can only offer filter
Figure 6. The system average throughput loss when ex-filter is 60dB.
isolation of 40dB on SMHz guard band, the needed distance
for co-siting is 80A (need to isolate about 60dB).
The figure and data indicates that, in this case, only For 4S0MHz, 80A means the distance between antennas
when dip 11, the performance loss of FDD uplink caused requires to be more than SO meters, and for 700MHz, above
SO meters, for 2600MHz, only about 9meters. Therefore, if
by TDD is less than S%, and FDD uplink will be able to
the installation conditions permits, we can consider using
work properly.
spatial isolation in conjunction with filter isolation to achieve
Figure 7 shows the performance loss of LTE FDD
co-located coexistence of LTE base stations. In the co­
uplink caused by LTE TDD downlink timeslot under this
location scenario of LTE FDD and LTE TDD, when there is
scenano.
SM guard bandwidth, the corresponding relationship
between filters and mounting distance is shown in Table S.

TABLE IV. THE CORRESPONDlNG RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FILTERS


AND MOUNTING DISTANCE IN CO-LOCATION SCENARIO OF LTE FDD AND
LTE TDD WITH SM GUARD BANDWIDTH (2.6GHZ)

Spatial Isolation Band Isolation


The
require
Spatial Required
d total Alltelllla Alltelllla Isolatio
isolatio isolatio balldwidth
horizollta vertical 11
n 11
I spacillg spacillg (Theoretic
(MeL) (filter)
ally)
104.SdB 70dB 27 meters 1.23meters 34.. SdB SM

104.SdB 67dB 20 meters I. I meters 37.SdB SM

104.SdB 60dB 8.8 0.7 meters 44.SdB SM


meters
Figure 7. Performance loss of LTE FDD caused by LTE TOO 104.SdB 52dB 3.S 0.4 meters 54.5dB 6M
downlink timeslot meters

104.SdB 43dB 1.2 0.25meters 64.5dB 7M


It can be seen from the figure and data that, in this case,
meters
only when dip 18, the performance loss of FDD uplink
104.SdB <30dB Unlimite Unlimited 74.5dB 8M
caused by TDD downlink is less than S%, and FDD uplink
d
can work properly.
Based on the above, when the ex-filter 60dB, only
V. CONCLUSIONS
=

the dip max {II, 18} = 18, the two systems can work
In this paper, simulation results of interference between
properly.
base stations of TD-LTE and LTE FDD systems show that
without considering the spatial isolation, the desired filter

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isolation for the co-location of LTE FDD and TD-LTE [3] M. Porjazoski and B. Popovski, "Contribution to analysis of Intercell
interference coordination in LTE: A fractional frequency reuse case,"
should be over 60dB. For 5MHz guard band, the current
Mobile Congress (GMC), 2010 Global, Shanghai, 2010, pp. 1-4.
level of filter design is difficult to meet this requirement.
[4] ZHEN C J, HE J, YANG Z. The TD- LTE network planning
Therefore, this paper proposes to use spatial isolation in
principles and applications [M]. Beijing: Posts and Telecom Press,
conjunction with filter isolation to achieve co-located 2013:1-15.
coexistence of LTE base stations, and presents the [5] T. Cai and J. Deng, "Coexistence Study and Interference Analysis in
correspondence table of filters and mounting distance. Thesis LTE Networks," Control Engineering and Communication
results can directly guide the implementation of LTE FDD Technology (ICCECT), 2012 International Conference on, Liaoning,
2012, pp. 751-754.
and TD-LTE integration network engineering, and is of great
significance to the construction of LTE FDD and TD-LTE [6] Y. Kolyadenko and A. Alali, "Intersystem interference on LTE
network bandwith influence analysis," Problems of
combination network.
Infocommunications Science and Technology, 2014 First
International Scientific-Practical Conference, Kharkov, 2014, pp.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
125-126.
This work was supported by the Natural Science [7] 3GPP TS 36. 942 v8.2.0: E-UTRA Radio Frequency (RF) system
Foundation of Chongqing under Grant No. scenarios (Release 8). 2009.

cstc2012jjA40054 and Graduate Research and Innovation [8] W. Li, 1. Chen, H. Long and B. Wu, "Performance and Analysis on
LTE System under Adjacent Channel Interference of Broadcasting
Project of Chongqing under Grant No. CYS15166.
System," Computer and Information Technology (CIT), 2012 IEEE
12th International Conference on, Chengdu, 2012, pp. 290-294
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