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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH

Research means search for knowledge. It aims at discovering the truth.

According to Clifford Woody “Research comprises of defining and redefining problems, formulating
hypothesis, collecting, organizing and evaluating data ,making deductions and research conclusions
and at last carefully testing conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.

‘Re’ means again. ‘Search’ means seeking facts. So ‘Research’ means search again for
new facts. Research means searching for knowledge. It aims at discovering the truth. It is the search
for knowledge trough objective and systematic method of finding solution to problem

We use descriptive type of research to do our project.

Descriptive Research means, descriptive research is a fact finding investigation with adequate
interpretation. It enumerates data about the population being studied. It is used to be describe an
events or to provide a factual and accurate descriptions of the populations. It is simplest type of
research.

METHODOLOGY:

Methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problems by applying various


techniques along with the logic behind the problem. According to John Best, research is defined as
“systematic analysis regarding at controlled observation, that may lead to generalization and
principles of theories resulting in product, as control of many events that of consequences.”

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research methods and techniques are useful for conversion of symbolic behaviour of the individuals
into scientific data. They are helpful for classification and organization of the unorganized mass of
the data.

RESEARCH DESIGN

A research design is a plan of the proposed research work. Design means adopting that type of
technique of research which is most suited for the research and study of the problem. The best
definition of ‘Research design’ has been given by F.N Ker linger which specifies the process and
structure of research. Research design is the plan, structure, and strategy of investigation conceived
so as to obtain answers to research questions and to control variance.

DATA COLLECTION
Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information on variables of interest, in an
established systematic fashion that enables one to answer stated research questions, test
hypothesis, and evaluate out comes.

METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION:

The data is collected mainly forms two types

1. Primary data

2. Secondary data

PRIMARY DATA

Primary data are those collected by the investigator himself for the first time and thus they are
original in character. Since they are collected for the first time for the purpose of a study it is primary
in nature. These are divided into four types;

Observation Method: Observation may be defined as a systematic viewing of a specific


phenomenon in the proper setting for the specific purpose of gathering data for a particular study.

Interview Method: Interview method is a direct method of collecting data and is the most important
method of collection of data. It is based on interview.

Questionnaire Method: In this method a questionnaire is prepared and sent to respondents by post.
Questionnaire is a printed questions.

Schedule Method: A schedule is a device used in collecting field data when survey method is
applied. It is used in direct interviews.

In our research we use Direct Interview Method. It is the most effective method of
collecting original data. This method can give complete information needed in the study.

SECONDARY DATA

Secondary data are those which have been collected by some other person for his purpose and
published. Secondary data can be collected by incurring least cost. Secondary data are usually in the
shape of finished products. The sources of secondary data are published sources and unpublished
sources.

PUBLISHED SOURCES

1. Official publications of the Central, State and Local government.

2. Official publications of the foreign, government and international bodies like UNO and its
subordinate bodies.

3. Reports and publication of Trade Association, bank, cooperative societies etc…

4. Technical trade journals like the Economic, commerce.


5. Report submitted by economist, research scholars etc…

UNBUBLISHED SOURCES

The sources of unpublished data are varied. These materials are found with. Nature are
conducted by these bodies and findings are published.

PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN BEFORE USING

SECONDARY DATA

Careful scrutiny must be made before using secondary data. There for the investigator should
consider the following aspect before using the secondary data.

1. Suitability

The investigator should satisfy himself that data are available are suitable for the enquiry on
hand.

2. Adequacy

The adequacy of data should be tested by studying item covered by the original enquiry and
item to be covered by enquiry.

3. Reliability

The reliability of secondary data should be tested ascertaining.

(a) The authority collected and supplied.

(b) The purpose for which the information was originally collected.

(c) The method for used for collection.

(d) Degree achieved.

(e) Statistical unit applied.

In our project we used source of secondary data are published sources. It includes different journals
and publications and other relative research papers, articles in newspapers, magazines and internet,
study reports from internet, desk research under the guidance of our guide.

SAMPLING

Sampling may be define as the process of obtaining information about and entire population by
examining only a part of it. Sampling is a process used in statistical analysis in which a pre-
determined number of observations are taken from a larger population. The basic objective of
sampling is to draw inferences about the population.

Various methods available for selecting samples can be grouped under two major heads.
(1) Random sampling (probability sampling)

(2) Non random sampling (non-probability sampling)

PROBABILITY SAMPLING

Probability sampling design is based on probability for the selection of each item.
Probability sampling is also known as random sampling or chance sampling. In this method each
item has its on chance for beginning selected. Probability sampling may be simple random sampling
and complex random sampling. Stratified sampling, systematic sampling and cluster sampling are
known as complex random sampling designs.

NON- PROBABILITY SAMPLING

Non-probability sampling is that sampling procedure which does not afford any bases
for estimating the probability for each item to be include in the sample. Deliberate sampling,
judgment sampling etc. are non-probability sampling.

In our research we use non- probability sampling.

There are different types of non - probability sampling. They are:

(1) Systematic sampling

(2) Cluster sampling

(3) Multistage sampling

(4) Multiphase sampling

(5) Convenience sampling

(6) Quota sampling

(7) Sequential sampling

(8) Snowball sampling

In our study we use convenience sampling. Because the reason of convenience


sampling is type of non-probability sampling that involves the sample being drawn from that part of
the population that is close to the hand.

Convenience Sampling: A convenience sampling is obtained by selecting a convenient population.


Convenience sampling is a technique where subjects are selected because of their convenient
accessibility and proximity to the research.

POPULATION
In any statistical investigation we are interested in studying the various characteristics of
individual (or items) of a particular group. This group of individuals under study is known as the
population or universe.

The population of our research all Kerala mobile shops.

SAMPLE

It is a finite subset of population, selected from it with the objective of investigating its
properties is called sample of that population. A sample is a representative part of the population.

SAMPLE SIZE

The number of sampling units selected from the population is called the size of the sampling. If
the size of the sample is small it may not represent the universe.

We choose 50 respondents as our size of the sampling.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

 Time period is short and resources constraints

 The scope of the project is limited to a city, so it cannot say that the responds will exist
trough out India

 This study is based on the prevailing satisfaction of the present customers branding
preferences. But their preferences may change according to time, technology, development,
new models etc…

 Lack of experience

 Expensive

PERIOD OF THE STUDY

The study was conducted from August 2nd to November 3rd.