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transfer coefficient during quenching

Imre Felde

Óbuda University

1034 Budapest Bécsi út 96/B,

Budapest, Hungary

Email: felde.imre@nik.uni-obuda.hu

immersion quenching processes is an essential requirement for characterisation

of the heat transfer phenomena. In this work, six numerical techniques that are

used to calculate the heat transfer coefficient (HTC), HTC(t) functions during

immersion quenching of the ISO 9950 probe are compared. The estimation of

the HTC(t) functions has been performed by seven contributors (from three

continents) using the six different numerical techniques. First, hypothetical

HTC(t) function generated and then these function applied to calculate cooling

curves by using 1D axis symmetrical heat transfer model. The contributors

performed inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP) calculations to recover the

original HTC(t) functions using the cooling curves. The accuracy and the

relevancy of the estimation approaches applied are evaluated by using error

functions. In this paper, the activities obtained at the Step 2 of the project

‘Liquid Quenchant Database’ initiated by the International Federation for Heat

Treatment and Surface Engineering are summarised.

conduction problem.

quenchant database: determination of heat transfer coefficient during

quenching’, Int. J. Microstructure and Materials Properties, Vol. 11, Nos. 3/4,

pp.277–287.

Biographical notes: Imre Felde received his PhD from Miskolc University.

He works as Vice Dean at John von Neumann Faculty of Informatics Óbuda

University. He has published and co-authored more than 100 papers on various

aspects of heat treatment, quenching, laser surface processing.

quenchant database – determination of heat transfer coefficient during

quenching’ presented at 5th International Conference on Distortion

Engineering, Bremen, Germany, 23–25 September, 2015.

1 Introduction

Originating from discussions held in Rio de Janeiro in July 2010 and in Glasgow 2011,

a proposal was made to the International Federation for Heat Treatment and Surface

Engineering (IFHTSE) that an International collaborative project should be launched with

278 I. Felde

quenchants, for use industrially, as a selection tool in relation to specific materials,

conditions and engineering requirements (Felde, 2014). The aim of Phase 1 was to

validate the quenchant evaluation method ISO 9950 for providing reliable and repeatable

results. The investigations show that the method analysed by 22 contributors, from

14 countries, provides the desired accuracy.

For practical reasons, accurate information is needed concerning the heat transfer

phenomena occurring during the entire cooling process. The heat transfer coefficient

(HTC) and/or the heat flux (HF) functions of time or surface temperature is usually

applied to characterise, quantitatively, the heat exchange between the work piece and

quenchant. Several methods are available and applied worldwide, to estimate the HTC

and HF, including inverse and semi direct procedures (Beck et al., 1985; Tikhonov and

Arsenin, 1977; Alifanov, 1994; Özisik et al., 2000). However, the performance and

precision of the numerical techniques can vary in a wide range, even if the same input

information is used for the calculations.

Comparison of different inverse heat transfer methods to predict the HTCs function

during the cooling of an ISO 9950 probe during cooling is presented in this paper.

First, the methodology of the comparison tests is described, briefly representing the

numerical techniques as applied by the authors. Then, the evaluations of the results are

detailed and the final conclusions are presented.

The aim of this investigation was to compare the effectiveness and accuracy of the

numerical approaches used by the authors, to determine a third type of thermal

conditions, during immersion quenching. The characterisation of the heat transfer

phenomena during the cooling an ISO 9950 standard probe (Figure 1) was obtained.

The ISO 9950 probe is a cylindrical rod (diameter is 12.5 mm) made from Inconel

600 alloy. The thermophysical parameters of the Inconel 600 are summarised in Table 1.

Figure 1 The geometry of the ISO 9950 probe and the position the thermo couple

Step 1

Hypothetical HTCs vs. time [HTC01(t), HTC02(t), HTC03(t)] have been generated

(Figure 2). These functions were applied to calculate the cooling curves [CC01(t), CC02(t),

CC03(t)] obtained in the centreline of an ISO 9950 probe (Figure 3). Due to the geometry

of the probe, as well as, the location of the thermocouple only radial heat conduction has

been assumed (ISO 9950, 1995). The cooling curves were predicted by using 1D axis-

Liquid quenchant database: determination of heat transfer coefficient 279

mathematical formulation of the transient heat transfer for cylindrical work piece is

defined as follows:

∂ ∂T k ∂T ∂T

⋅ k⋅ + ⋅ + Q = ρ ⋅ Cp ⋅ , (1)

∂ r ∂ r r ∂ r ∂t

where r is the local coordinate, t is the time, k is the thermal conductivity, T is the

temperature, Cp is the specific heat, ρ is the density and Q is the latent heat. The initial

condition is

T ( r, t = 0 ) = T0 , (2)

where T0 is the initial temperature of the probe. The boundary condition is expressed by

∂T

−k = HTC(t ) (T ( r , t ) − Tq ) , (3)

∂r

where HTC(t) is the HTC as a function of time and Tq is the temperature of the

quenchant. The parameters of calculations are summarised in Table 2, the thermal

properties (Clark and Tye, 2003–2004) of the probe (Inconel 600 alloy) are detailed in

Table 1.

3

T (C) k (W/mK) Cp (kJ/kgK) ρ(kg/m ) Q (W/m3)

27 14.8 0.444 8420 0

95.45 15.8374 0.4801 8420 0

195.95 17.3606 0.5038 8420 0

205.15 17.5 0.5038 8420 0

346.75 19.7721 0.5041 8420 0

554.15 23.1 0.5453 8420 0

596.15 23.8 0.5536 8420 0

662.15 24.9 0.5958 8420 0

796.45 27.1383 0.6817 8420 0

Source: Clark and Tye (2003–2004)

Table 2 The parameters applied to generate the cooling curves [CC01(t), CC02(t), CC03(t)]

for the investigations

Probe diameter, mm 12.5 12.5 12.5

Probe’s material Inconel 600 Inconel 600 Inconel 600

Location of the thermocouple Centreline Centreline Centreline

Starting temperature, T0, C 850 850 860

Temperature of the quenchant, Tq, C 40 40 0

280 I. Felde

Figure 2 The hypothetical HTC(t) functions at the location on the surface of 30 mm from the

bottom of the probe used for the modelling investigations (a 12.5 mm diameter

cylindrical probe made from Inconel 600 alloy is assumed) (see online version

for colours)

Figure 3 The cooling curves generated by using the hypothetical HTC(t) functions (Figure 1)

at the location on the surface of 30 mm from the bottom of the 12.5 mm diameter

cylindrical probe (assumed to be made from Inconel 600 alloy) (see online version

for colours)

Step 2

The cooling curves and the process parameters have been sent to the contributors.

The contributors performed the inverse calculations were:

• Swerea IVF institute, Göteborg, Sweden.

• QRC University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.

• Miskolc University, Miskolc, Hungary.

Liquid quenchant database: determination of heat transfer coefficient 281

• Faureica Ltd, Caligny, France.

• University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

• National Institute of Technology, Karnataka, India.

The partners chose the six different approaches to reconstruct the HTC functions.

The methods applied were:

Method (1) Inverse heat transfer methodology based on linear programming (Felde

and Reti, 2010).

Method (2) The well-known method developed by James Vere Beck (Prabhu and

Ashish, 2002).

Method (3) Solution of optimisation problem: Inverse heat transfer by conjugate

gradients procedure (Alifanov, 1994).

Method (4) Regression analysis of cooling curves obtained by ISO 9950 probe

(Landek et al., 2014).

Method (5) Manual, ‘Try end error’ sequential approach where the HTC(t) function is

modified manually after each approximation step.

Method (6) Direct method to estimate the HTC (4) function at each time step by

solving the equation:

m ⋅V ⋅ C p

HTC(t ) = , (4)

F ⋅ (Tp − Т s )

where m is the mass [kg] (d = 12.5 mm, L = 60 mm, density of probe material

8420 kg/m3), V is the cooling rate [°С/s] at every time instance, Cp = 490 J/(kg⋅K) is the

mean heat-capacity of probe body material, F is the surface area of probe’s body m2, Tp is

the temperature on surface of probe, °С (it is assumed that Tp equal of thermocouple

temperature); Тs is the surrounding temperature of quenchant oil.

3 Evaluation

The estimated HTC(t) functions performed by the contributors have been analysed and

evaluated. First of all, the reconstructed HTC functions have been compared with the

original ones, HTC01(t), HTC02(t), HTC03(t)], respectively (Figures 4–6). In order to

evaluate the effect of the thermal boundary conditions to the temperature history of the

work piece the cooling curves (Figures 7–9) were calculated by using the HTC(t)

function given by the partners. The cooling curves at the centreline have been calculated

by the 1D axis-symmetrical heat transfer model detailed above. All the partners estimated

the HTCs for the cooling curves CC01(t) and CC02(t), in addition to one of the contributor

performed calculations with two different techniques. Therefore, eight reconstructed

curves represent the results obtained on Figures 4, 5, 7 and 8. The inverse calculations

282 I. Felde

focusing on the cooling curve CC03(t) have been performed by only six partners (still one

of them used two different approaches). Seven estimated HTC03(t) and CC03(t) are shown

the output of the inverse calculations on Figures 6 and 9 show 8.

Figure 4 The original [HTC01(t)] and the estimated heat transfer coefficient functions as a

function time at the location on the surface of 30 mm from the bottom of the 12.5 mm

diameter cylindrical probe (assumed to be made from Inconel 600 alloy) (see online

version for colours)

Figure 5 The original [HTC02(t)] and the estimated heat transfer coefficient functions as a

function time at the location on the surface of 30 mm from the bottom of the 12.5 mm

diameter cylindrical probe (assumed to be made from Inconel 600 alloy) (see online

version for colours)

approaches during this investigation; therefore, we are referring only the methods applied

instead of the contributors in the followings.

Liquid quenchant database: determination of heat transfer coefficient 283

Figure 6 The original [HTC03(t)] and the estimated heat transfer coefficient functions as a

function time at the location on the surface of 30 mm from the bottom of the 12.5 mm

diameter cylindrical probe (assumed to be made from Inconel 600 alloy) (see online

version for colours)

Figure 7 The original (CC01) and the estimated cooling curves at the location on the surface of

30 mm from the bottom of the 12.5 mm diameter cylindrical probe (assumed to be

made from Inconel 600 alloy) (see online version for colours)

quantities: the total average deviation and the total relative deviation have been defined

denoted by EFa and EFr were calculated as

t = 60

∑ [T (t ) − T (t ) ]

2

EFa = c m (5)

t =0

and

284 I. Felde

2

Tc (t ) − Tm (t )

t = 60

EFr = ∑

t =0 Tm (t )

, (6)

respectively, where Tc(t) represents the cooling curve obtained by calculations using the

HTC(t) functions provided by each contributors. The cooling curves generated by the

original HTC functions noted by Tm(t). Quantities EFa and EFr are designated to measure

the deviation between the original and the reconstructed functions. Total average

deviation and the total relative deviations calculated by equations (5) and (6) are given

in Table 3.

Figure 8 The original (CC02) and the estimated cooling curves at the location on the surface of

30 mm from the bottom of the 12.5 mm diameter cylindrical probe (assumed to be

made from Inconel 600 alloy) (see online version for colours)

Figure 9 The original (CC03) and the estimated cooling curves at the location on the surface of

30 mm from the bottom of the 12.5 mm diameter cylindrical probe (assumed to be

made from Inconel 600 alloy) (see online version for colours)

Liquid quenchant database: determination of heat transfer coefficient 285

Table 3 Calculated total average deviation and the total relative deviations

sample method EFa EFr sample method EFa EFr

HTC01(t) CC01(t)

1 1 489.7 6.72 1 1 9442.0 18.69

2 3 503.3 7.09 2 3 9755.3 20.14

3 1 528.2 8.02 3 1 9409.2 18.52

4 4 921.2 8.42 4 4 12,887.3 26.92

5 6 1205.2 9.57 5 6 14,620.7 28.15

6 5 782.3 8.13 6 5 9680.3 19.81

7 1 512.5 7.44 7 1 10,008.1 21.14

8 2 481.0 6.05 8 2 9212.1 17.45

HTC02(t) CC02(t)

1 1 886.4 8.82 1 1 9152.8 17.11

2 3 856.4 8.76 2 3 8599.6 13.25

3 1 840.0 8.72 3 1 8071.6 8.167

4 4 968.3 9.00 4 4 11,955.0 25.80

5 6 883.0 8.82 5 6 8607.2 13.31

6 5 1087.4 9.21 6 5 12,828.9 26.87

7 1 995.9 9.05 7 1 10,659.9 23.21

8 2 871.4 8.79 8 2 8465.8 12.11

HTC03(t) CC03(t)

1 1 604.8 8.02 1 1 9391.7 18.43

2 3 865.2 8.78 2 3 9502.5 18.99

3 1 822.1 8.67 3 1 10,993.2 24.03

4 4 1240.3 9.44 4 4 17,052.2 28.92

5 6 955.9 8.97 5 6 16,869.2 28.88

6 5 1488.1 9.70 6 5 16,404.1 28.78

7 1 652.8 8.18 7 1 9744.6 20.09

The original HTC01(t) and the predicted HTC functions are shown in Figure 4. The

HTC(t) functions generated by applying Method 1, 2 and 3 show satisfactory agreement

with the original HTC01(t) curve. The same trend can be seen in Figure 7, highlighting the

cooling curves calculated using the reconstructed HTC(t) functions. It is notable that even

the maximum of the HTC(t) function estimated by Method 5 is significantly higher than

the original function, the difference between the related cooling curves are relatively

small. The Method 4 and 6 provide poor estimation of the boundary condition’s function.

The smallest values of the calculated total average and the total relative deviation were

given for Method 2 and 1. It might be noted that the ‘manual’ approach (Method 5) also

provides satisfactory results.

The HTC(t) signals approximated based on the CC02(t) cooling curve show a strong

deviation from the HTC02(t) function (Figure 5). The reason of this inaccuracy could be

derived to the sharp slopes of the rectangle shape (original) function. The estimated

cooling curves show similar trends (Figure 8). However, it should be noted that Method

286 I. Felde

1, 2, 3 and 5 gave a relatively good fit of the original and generated curves. The poorest

results are given by the Method 4 and 6. The lowest value of EFa and EFr belonged to

Method 1 and 3, while the largest quantities were assigned to Method 4 and 6.

The function HTC03(t) is representing the heat transfer regime could occur during

interrupted immersion cooling (Figure 6). The heat has been absorbed intensively by the

quenchant during the first part of the process (0–5 s) and the limited heat transfer has

been obtained during the interruption (between 5 s and 8 s). The second intensive period

lasts between 8 s and 14 s followed by the decreasing section. The trend of the HTC03(t)

curve can be retraced with the Method 1 and 3 while the other manners did not give

acceptable results as it can be seen in Figure 8. The estimated cooling curves estimated

by using Method 1 and 3 show only satisfactory agreement with original [CC03(t)]

temperature signal (Figure 9). This observation might be confirmed by the values of total

and average deviation quantities, the lowest numbers were given to Method 1 and 3.

It should be noted that calculation techniques investigated in this paper could not

supply the unique solution of the inverse heat conduction problem. The HTCs predicted

by using them is representing one of the possible solution (Tikhonov and Arsenin, 1977;

Özisik and Orlande, 2000). The accuracy and relevancy of the estimated results are

strongly influenced by the parameters (i.e., the time instances) applied for the calculation

process. The partners used Method 1 could attain the HTC(t) function with acceptable,

but different level of accuracy. The reason of the scatter of the functions EFa and EFr is

that the partners used different time instances to determine the HTC(t) functions. If the

contributors using Method 1 would be told to use a given temporal grid for the estimation

than probably no significant deviation could be given between the HTC(t) functions.

Considering the results of the comparative study, it can be concluded that Method 1

and 3 (from the set of approached tested) could provide the most accurate estimation of

the HTC obtained during the immersion quenching of ISO 9950 probe.

4 Conclusions

Comparison report on the effectiveness and accuracy of the numerical approaches used to

estimate the HTC functions, during immersion quenching of the ISO 9950 probe,

has been outlined. The report has been performed on the predicted HTCs given by seven

contributors (from three continents) using six different numerical techniques. The authors

have reconstructed the thermal boundary conditions [HTC(t) functions] on the basis three

cooling curves, which has been generated formerly, by using hypothetical HTC(t)

functions. Quantitative criteria (total average deviation and the total relative deviation)

have been applied to evaluate the performance of the methods used by the contributors.

The investigation has shown that some of the techniques (Method 1 and 3) analysed

could be applied reliably to predict the thermal boundary conditions. Some other methods

(Method 2 and 5) have identified that acceptable prediction could be provided if there are

no dramatic changes in the heat transfer that occurs during the quenching process. The

poorest estimation for all experiments were from the original HTC(t) functions as carried

out by using Methods 4 and 6.

The final conclusion of this paper is that the quality of the calculation of HTC

functions strongly depends on the computational approach that is applied. The selection

of the proper function is essential to achieve the desired accuracy of the predictive

process.

Liquid quenchant database: determination of heat transfer coefficient 287

Acknowledgements

The initiation of the Liquid Quenchant Database project under the leadership the IFHTSE

is acknowledged to Professor Bozidar Liscic. The contributors would like to thank the

support to Timo Wolfrath in Fuchs Schmierstoffe Gmbh and to Thorsten Beitz in Petrofer

Chemie H.R. Fischer GmbH + Co. KG. The author would like to thank the contribution

and enthusiastic support of the project by performing testing and computation to Magnus

Lövgren, Professor Narayan Prabhu, David Even, Professor Lauralice Canale, Gábor

Kerekes, Professor Mária Baán Kocsiné, Professor Thomas Filetin, Professor Darko

Landek, Scott McKenzie, Kim IS and Paul Kozlov.

References

Alifanov, O.M. (1994) Inverse Heat Transfer Problems, Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg.

Beck, J.V., Blackwell, B. and St Clair Jr., C.R. (1985) Inverse Heat Conduction, Wiley, New York.

Clark, J. and Tye, R. (2003–2004) ‘Thermophysical properties reference data for some key

engineering alloys’, High Temperatures – High Pressures, Vols. 35–36, pp.1–14.

Felde, I. (2014) ‘Report on IFHTSE liquid quenchant database project’, International Heat

Treatment and Surface Engineering, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp.2–7.

Felde, I. and Reti, T. (2010) ‘Evaluation of hardening performance of cooling media by using

inverse heat conduction methods and property prediction’, STROJ VESTN-J MECH E,

Vol. 56, No. 2, pp.77–83.

ISO 9950 (1995) ISO 9950: Industrial Quenching Oils – Determination of Cooling Characteristics

Nickel-Alloy Probe TestMethod, 1995(E), ISO, Switzerland.

Landek, D., Župan, J. and Filetin, T. (2014) ‘A prediction of quenching parameters using inverse

analysis’, Materials Performance and Characterization, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp.229–241.

Özisik, M.N. and Orlande, H.R.B. (200) Inverse Heat Transfer: Fundamentals and Applications,

Taylor & Francis, New York.

Prabhu, K.N. and Ashish, A.A. (2002) ‘Inverse modeling of heat transfer with application to

solidification and quenching’, Materials and Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 17, No. 4,

pp.469–481.

Tikhonov, A.N. and Arsenin, V.Y. (1977) Solution of Ill-Posed Problems, Winston, Washington

DC.

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