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Illyrica Antiqua

International conference on issues in Ancient Archaeology, Zagreb, November 6-8, 2003


Conférence internationale des problèmes de l’archéologie antique, Zagreb, 6-8 Novembre 2003
Internationaler Konferenz zu Fragen der antiken Archäologie, Zagreb, 6-8 November 2003
Convegno internazionale sui problemi della archeologia classica, Zagabria, 6-8 Novembre 2003
Međunarodni skup o problemima antičke arheologije, Zagreb, 6.- 8. studenoga 2003.

Department of Archaeology
Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences
University of Zagreb

Archaeological Museum in Zagreb

FF-press

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Illyrica Antiqua
International conference on issues in Ancient Archaeology, Zagreb, November 6-8, 2003
Special editions by the Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb

Publisher
Department of Archaeology,
Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences
University of Zagreb
Archaeological Museum in Zagreb
FF-Press
© 2005

For the publisher


Miljenko Jurković
Ante Rendić-Miočević

Editor-in-chief
Mirjana Sanader

Editorial Board
Marina [egvić
Ivan Mirnik

Reviewers
Igor Fisković (Zagreb)
Bruna Kuntić-Makvić (Zagreb)
Marina Milićević-Bradač (Zagreb)

Cover design
Krunoslav Vlahović

Cover
Relief of Silvanus, Solin (Salona), Archaeological Museum in Zagreb
The Psephisma of Lumbarda, Archaeological Museum in Zagreb
Photo: Filip Beusan

ISBN: 953-175-210-9

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ILLYRICA ANTIQUA
OB HONOREM DUJE RENDI]-MIO^EVI]
RADOVI S MEĐUNARODNOGA SKUPA O PROBLEMIMA ANTIČKE ARHEOLOGIJE
ZAGREB, 6.- 8. XI. 2003.

Odsjek za arheologiju
Filozofski fakultet
Sveučili{te u Zagrebu

Arheolo{ki muzej u Zagrebu

Zagreb 2005.

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Illyrica antiqua-book-nova.indb 4 7.4.2006 12:35:06
CONTENTS
SADRŽAJ

Marina Šegviæ – Ivan Mirnik


Editors' foreword / Rijeè urednika ............................................................................................................ 9

Ob honorem Duje Rendiæ-Mioèeviæ


Marin Zaninoviæ
Duje Rendiæ-Mioèeviæ and the Delmatae /
Duje Rendiæ-Mioèeviæ i Delmatae ......................................................................................................... 15
Radoslav Katièiæ
Aufzeichnungen über Rider und über seinen Erforscher /
Zabilješka o Rideru i njegovu istraživaèu ................................................................................................ 19
Ivan Mirnik
Duje Rendiæ-Mioèeviæ the numismatist /
Duje Rendiæ-Mioèeviæ kao numizmatièar ............................................................................................... 23
Marina Šegviæ
Duje Rendiæ-Mioèeviæ en tant qu’épigraphiste /
Duje Rendiæ-Mioèeviæ kao epigrafièar .................................................................................................... 31
Mirjana Matijeviæ Sokol
Duje Rendiæ-Mioèeviæ and the Middle Ages in Croatia /
Duje Rendiæ-Mioèeviæ i hrvatsko srednjovjekovlje .................................................................................. 41
Ante Škegro
Duje Rendiæ-Mioèeviæ und das Zentrum für Balkanforschungen in Sarajevo /
Duje Rendiæ-Mioèeviæ i Centar za balkanološka ispitivanja ANUBiH ....................................................... 45
Veljko Paškvalin
Academician Duje Rendiæ-Mioèeviæ’s view of the spiritual tradition and life of
the Illyrians in Roman times /
Pogled na duhovnu tradiciju i život Ilira u doba Rimljana kakav je imao
akademik D. Rendiæ-Mioèeviæ ............................................................................................................... 53
Tatijana Petriæ
Through the library of Duje Rendiæ-Mioèeviæ /
Kroz knjižnicu Duje Rendiæa-Mioèeviæa ................................................................................................. 67
Ivan Mirnik
Medals with a portrait of Duje Rendiæ-Mioèeviæ /
Medalje s portretom Duje Rendiæa-Mioèeviæa ........................................................................................ 77

Articles
Ivo Babiæ
Le influenze egiziane nel Palazzo di Diocleziano /
Egipatski utjecaji u Dioklecijanovoj palaèi .............................................................................................. 83

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Vera Bitrakova Grozdanova
Contribution à l’étude des bijoux antiques de Macédoine /
Prilog prouèavanju antièkog nakita Makedonije ...................................................................................... 99
Ana Bobovec
Roman complex Ciglenice in Osekovo /
Rimski kompleks Ciglenice u Osekovu ................................................................................................. 111
Kujtime Boshtrakaj
Einige vorslawische Kirchen im gegenwärtigen Gebiet von Kosova /
Nekoliko predslavenskih crkava na teritoriju današnjeg Kosova ............................................................ 119
Marija Buzov
The romanization and urbanization of the Roman province of Pannonia in light
of the autochtonous and immigrant populations /
Romanizacija i urbanizacija rimske provincije Panonije u svjetlu autohtonog
i doseljenog stanovništva ..................................................................................................................... 125
Pierre Cabanes
La réalisation de l’unité de l’Épire, à travers les documents épigraphiques, au IVe si�cle avant J.-C. /
Ostvarenje jedinstva Epira, na temelju epigrafskih spomenika, tijekom 4. stoljeæa prije Krista .................145
Nenad Cambi
Greek amphora in Kaštel Suæurac /
Grèka amfora u Kaštel Suæurcu ............................................................................................................ 155
Slobodan Èaèe – Lucijana Šešelj
Finds from the Diomedes’ sanctuary on the Cape Ploèa: new contributions
to the discussion about the Hellenistic period on the east Adriatic /
Nalazi iz Diomedova svetišta na Rtu Ploèa: novi prilozi raspravi o helenistièkom
razdoblju na istoènom Jadranu ............................................................................................................ 163
Željko Demo
Another tremissis from the Salonitan mint of Iulius Nepos /
Još jedna tremisa iz salonitanske kovnice Julija Nepota ........................................................................ 187
Bojan Djuriæ
Frammento di un coperchio di sarcofago con maschera – AMZ 481 /
Dio poklopca sarkofaga s maskom – AMZ 481 .................................................................................... 195
Exlale Dobruna-Salihu
Newly discovered funerary monument in Kosova presenting the funeral ritual
among the Dardanians in the Roman period /
Novi nalaz nadgrobnog spomenika s Kosova s prikazom rimskodobnoga pogrebnog rituala
kod Dardanaca ................................................................................................................................... 199
Radoslav Dodig
The Seventh Legion’s monuments in the area of Ljubuški /
Spomenici VII. legije na podruèju Ljubuškoga ...................................................................................... 209
Alka Domiæ Kuniæ
The Danube region in legend – prehistorical trade across Pannonia /
Podunavlje u legendama – prapovijesna trgovina diljem Panonije ......................................................... 219

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Kristina Džin
Results of the most recent research on the forum in Nesactium /
Rezultati novijih istraživanja na forumu u Nezakciju ............................................................................. 229
Aleksandra Faber
La cité antique de Buthua et les recherches de la nécropole hellénistique et romaine /
Antièka Buthua i istraživanja helenistièko-rimske nekropole .................................................................. 237
Naser Ferri
Two votive altars dedicated to Egyptian divinities discovered in Zllakuqani close to Peja in Kosova /
Dvije votivne are posveæene egipatskim božanstvima iz Zlakuæana pokraj Peæi na Kosovu .................... 263
Thomas Ganschow
Die Münzprägung des Quintillus und die Chronologie der Ereignisse der Jahre 269/270 n. Chr.
im Spiegel der Münzstätte Siscia /
Kovanje Kvintilovog novca i kronologija dogaðaja godina 269./270. po Kr. s odrazom
u kovnici Siscia ................................................................................................................................... 269
Vesna Girardi Jurkiæ
Autochthonous and syncretized deities in Roman Istria /
Autohtona i sinkretizirana božanstva antièke Istre ................................................................................ 275
Dunja Glogoviæ
Several prehistoric finds from Split and the surrounding area /
Nekoliko pretpovijesnih nalaza iz Splita i okolice ................................................................................. 283
Hrvoje Graèanin
Illyricum of the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD in the works of Latin and Greek historians /
Ilirik u drugom i treæem stoljeæu po Kr. u djelima latinskih i grèkih povjesnika ...................................... 287
Ante Gulin
Depictions of the two Salonitan martyrs, St. Domnius and St. Anastasius /
Prikazi dvojice salonitanskih muèenika, svetog Dujma i svetog Anastazija ............................................. 299
Mirja Jarak
Questions concerning Christianisation of the autochthonous romanized population of Dalmatia /
Pitanja kristijanizacije autohtonog romaniziranog stanovništva Dalmacije.............................................. 305
Jasna Jelièiæ-Radoniæ
The foundation of the Greek city of Pharos on the island of Hvar /
Pharos – osnivanje grèkoga grada na otoku Hvaru ............................................................................... 315
Bruna Kuntiæ-Makviæ
Borvo et Damona – Vidasus et Thana: les possibilités de l’analyse comparative /
Borvon i Damona – Vidas i Tana: moguænosti usporedne analize ......................................................... 329
Mario Lombardo
The psephisma of Lumbarda: a new fragment /
Lumbardska psefizma: novi ulomak .................................................................................................... 353
Tomislav Marasoviæ
Prediocletianic architecture within the Split Palace /
O preddioklecijanovskoj arhitekturi na prostoru splitske palaèe............................................................ 361

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Branka Migotti
The ash-chest of Marcus Aurelius Glabrio from Siscia reconsidered /
Ponovno razmatranje grobne škrinje za pepeo Marka Aurelija Glabriona iz Siscije ................................ 367
Jesenka Miškiv
The name of the centurion Liccaius on the Roman military diploma from Slavonski Brod /
Ime centuriona Likaja na rimskoj vojnièkoj diplomi iz Slavonskog Broda ............................................... 385
Boris Olujiæ
Metoũlon kephalé to–n Iapódo–n (App. Illyr.19) ...................................................................................... 393
Ljudmila Plesnièar-Gec
Emona in late Antiquity based on new discoveries /
Kasnoantièka Emona u svjetlu novih otkriæa ......................................................................................... 401
Irena Radiæ Rossi
Hidroarheologija ili podvodna arheologija: O nekim problemima arheološke terminologije /
Hydroarchaeology or underwater archaeology: discussing several issues of archaeological terminology ..... 411

Ante Rendiæ-Mioèeviæ – Ivan Pedišiæ


Nouveaux témoignages épigraphiques du culte de Sylvain à Rider /
Nove epigrafièke potvrde Silvanova kulta u Rideru ............................................................................... 415

Petar Selem
Quelques indices sur les relations entre les divinités autochtones et orientales en Dalmatie romaine /
Naznake o odnosima epihorskih i istoènih božanstava u rimskoj Dalmaciji ............................................... 425
Marjeta Šašel Kos
The Pannonians in Appian’s Illyrike /
Panonci u Apijanovoj “Illyrike” ............................................................................................................ 433
Mladen Tomorad
Egyptian cults in major Roman fleets /
Egipatski kultovi u rimskoj floti Mizena i Ravene .................................................................................. 441
Paolo Visonà
The Škudljivac Hoard Reconsidered /
Ponovno o ostavi iz Škudljivca ............................................................................................................. 451
Ivica Žile
The Dubrovnik heritage from Antiquity /
Antièka baština grada Dubrovnika ....................................................................................................... 455
List of abbreviations / Popis kratica ...................................................................................................... 469

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THE SEVENTH LEGION’S
MONUMENTS IN THE AREA OF LJUBU[KI
UDC 726:393"01"(497.6) Radoslav Dodig
Original Scientific Paper Gimnazija Metkovi}
Received: 08. 09. 2004. HR-20350 Metkovi}, Kralja Zvonimira 12
radoslav.dodigºht.ba

The following work deals with Roman tombstones of the seventh legion. There are eleven of them which record the
graves of eleven veterans and one soldier. Almost all of them originate from Asia Minor: Milyas (3), Pessinus (2), Iconium
(1), Sinope (1), Sebastopolis (1) and Conana (1), one tombstone is of unknown origin, one other one comes from Alorum
in Macedonia. The majority were forund in Hardomilje (5), Hra{ljani (3), Humac (2) and Vitina (1). Binomial pattern
with filiation is dominant in their names – praenomen together with nomen gentile (7), three names have a trinomial
pattern while one name remains indefinite. Typologically, monumental military stelae dating from the first half of the
first century prevail. The seventh legion probably came to Dalmatia between the years 6 - 9 AD. They left for Moesia
sometime in 56 – 57 AD.

The seventh Roman legion played an important role in the history of Dalmatia. Thus it does not suprise us that the
legion and monuments have remained a lasting topic of interest. There are three main reasons for his. Firstly, Duje
Rendi}-Mio~evi} published a considerable number of epigraphic works
concerning them; secondly, even though they have been studied for almost
two centuries there are still unresolved points, and finally, a significant
number of monuments were found on the relatively small territory of
Ljubu{ki. The fact that two monuments have been discovered in the past
three years is an additional encitement. We give here a summary of the basic
data concerning these tombstones in the Ljubu{ki area:

1
Tombstone 124 x 68 cm, quite damaged, engraved on a sheer rock, locality
Be{irica (the wider area of Filova~a), on the property of Iko Lon~ar, east of
Ljubu{ki. Datation: before 42 AD.
L(ucius) Domitius L(uci) f(ilius) A¢nie£n(si)/ Aquila vet(eranus)
leg(ionis) VII/ domo Myliada/ stip(endiorum) XXXIII vi(vus) fe¢c(it)£
sib(i) 5/ et C(aio) Domitio ¢L(uci) f(ilio)£ A¢ni(ensi)£ ¢A£qui¢l£ino
mil(iti) ¢le£g(ionis) V¢II£/ ¢s£tip(endiorum) XX h(onesta) m(issione)
¢m(isso)---£/¢---£/ /¢---£/ /¢---£/ 10/¢---£/.
Bibliography: CIL 3. 8487; HOERNES 1880, 38; BULI] 1885, 43;
Fig. 1 Inscription of L. Domitius Aquila and PATSCH 1908, 111 (=PATSCH 1997, 41); BETZ 1938, 66, br. 52-53;
C. Domitius Aquilinus CHRISTOL – DREW-BEAR 1998, 311.

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210 Illyrica antiqua

2
Rectangular tombstone inscription 51 x 44 cm, engraved on a sheer rock,
locality Glavica, Ljubu{ki. Now in the National Museum in Sarajevo.
Datation: before 42 AD
L(ucius) Herenni/us L(uci) f(ilius) Pap(iria)/ Muliade/ vet(eranus)
leg(ionis) VII 5/ an(norum) LX sti(pendiorum)/ XXX h(ic) s(itus) e(st).
Bibliography: CIL 3. 8488; ALA^EVI] 1883, 82, br. 31; PATSCH 1908,
111; (=PATSCH 1997, 41); PATSCH 1914, 167, sl. 33; BETZ 1938, 66,
Fig. 2 Inscription of L. Herennius br. 56; PA[KVALIN 1983, 44.

3
Inscription 48 x 27 cm found at Gra~ine (Humac). Now in the National
Museum in Sarajevo. Datation: 1st c. AD
M(arcus) Sosius M(arci) f(ilius)/ Fab(ia) Sebasto¢poli£/
¢vet(eranus) leg(ionis)£ VII ¢---£.
Bibliography: CIL 3. 8493; HOERNES 1880, 40; PATSCH 1908, 111
Fig. 3 Inscription of M. Sosius (=PATSCH 1997, 41); BETZ 1938, 67, br. 75.

4
Stele 90 x 40 x 18 cm, partly damaged. Excavated at Humac near Ljubu{ki.
Now in archaeological collection of the Franciscan Monastery at Humac.
P¢--- Valeri?£a/ ¢ann(orum)---?£/ at¢rociter?£ fa/to rapta h(ic) s(ita)
e(st)5/ C(aius) Valerius C(ai) f(ilius) Den/to veter(anus) leg(ionis) VII
lib(ertae) / suae posuit.*
Bibliography: ILIug II, 670; BETZ 1938, 66, br. 66; ZELENIKA 1960-
61, 323-324, sl. 1; ATANACKOVI]-SAL^I] 1981, 265-266, sl. 5;
PA[KVALIN 1983, 106; PA[KVALIN 1985, 121-122, sl. 2; [KEGRO
1997, 86, br. 2; HD 034084.

* 1 Pr¢---£: ATANACKOVI]-SAL^I] 1981; P¢ubliae£ R...: PA[KVALIN


Fig. 4 Inscription of C. Valerius Dento 1985; 1-2 P(ubliae) R¢---£a Ar¢---£a: [KEGRO 1997.

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Radoslav Dodig 211

5
Tombstone inscription 81 x 62 x 28 cm, damaged, excavated at the locality
Vuna, Hardomilje. Now in archeological collection of the Franciscan
Monasterey at Humac. Datation: first half of 1st c. AD
¢L(ucius)£ Oppius L(uci) ¢f(ilius)£/ Ser(gia) Signinus do/mo Conana
vet(eranus)/ leg(ionis) VII ann(orum) L st(ipendiorum) XXVII 5/ h(ic)
s(itus) e(st).*
Bibliography: ILIug III, 1916; BETZ 1938, 66, br. 63; ALFÖLDY 1969,
292; ATANACKOVI]-SAL^I] 1981, 265, sl. 4; [KEGRO 1997, 86, br.
4; HD 034234.

Fig. 5 Inscription of L. Oppius Signinus * 2 Segninus: BETZ 1938; BOJANOVSKI 1988; ILIug 1986.

6
Stela 222 x 61 x 22,5 cm. Excavated in 1908. at the locality Smokovice,
Hardomilje. Now in the National Museum in Sarajevo. Datation: before
42 AD
M(arcus) Livius M(arci)/ f(ilius) Pal(atina) dom(o)/ Aloro
ve/teranus 5/leg(ionis) VII an(norum)/ L stip(endiorum) XXVI/
h(ic) s(itus) e(st) t(estamento) f(ieri) i(ussit).
Bibliography: ILIug III, 1920; PATSCH 1910, 177-178, sl. 1; (=PATSCH
Fig. 6 Inscription of 1912, 132, sl. 60); PATSCH, 1914, 167, sl. 35; BETZ 1938, 66, br. 59;
M. Livius PA[KVALIN 1983, 102-103; HD 034239.

7
Stela 141 x 74,5 x 25 cm. Excavated in 1908. at the locality Smokovice,
Hardomilje. Now in the National Museum in Sarajevo. Datation: before
42 AD
T(itus) Varius T(iti) f(ilius)/ Vel(ina) domo / Pessinunte/
vet(eranus) leg(ionis) VII 5/ an(norum) L sti(pendiorum) XXIX/
h(ic) s(itus) e(st) her(es) pos(uit).
Bibliography: ILIug III, 1921; PATSCH 1908, 110-111, sl. 30; (=PATSCH
1997, 40, sl. 30); PATSCH 1914, 167, sl. 34; BETZ 1938, 66, br. 68;
Fig. 7 Inscription of T. Varius PA[KVALIN 1983, 103-104; HD 034241.

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212 Illyrica antiqua

8
Stela 2,15 x 61 x 24 cm, discovered at the locality Smokovice, Hardo-
milje. Now at the National Museum in Sarajevo. Datation: before 42.
AD
C(aius) Licinius C(ai) f(ilius)/ Fab(ia) dom(o) Sinope/ vet(eranus)
leg(ionis) VII an(norum) L/ stip(endiorum) XXVII h(ic) s(itus)
e(st) 5/ heredes p(osuerunt).
Bibliography: BETZ 1938, 66, br. 58; ATANACKOVI]-SAL^I]
Fig. 8 Inscription of 1981, 263-264, sl. 2; PA[KVALIN 1983, 98; PA[KVALIN 1985, 120-
C. Licinius 121, br. 1; [KEGRO 1997, 86, br. 3; MARIN et al. 2000, 510.

9
Rather damaged stela 91 x 47 x 17 cm, discovered at the locality
Grebine, Vitaljina. Now in archaeological collection of the Franciscan
monastery at Humac. Datation: 1st c. AD
¢---Ca?£elius Ma¢---£/ ¢---£ domo R¢---£/ ¢--- ve£t(eranus)
leg(ionis) VII/¢---st£ip(endiorum) XXVIII¢?£ 5/ ¢an£n(orum) LXII fi¢---£/
¢---£ patrono v(otum)/ ¢---£.
Bibliography: ATANACKOVI]-SAL^I] 1981, 273, sl. 14;
BOJANOVSKI 1988, 386; [KEGRO 1997, 86, br. 1; MARIN et al.
2000, 511.

* 2 ¢---£p: ATANACKOVI]-SAL^I] 1981; [KEGRO 1997; 6-7 ATA-


Fig. 9 Inscription of NACKOVI]-SAL^I] 1981: eius et patrono v./posuit. matri; 6-7 ¢---£t
(Ca)elius Ma... patrono, v(otum)/ ¢p£osuit ¢et£ matri: [KEGRO 1997.

10
Stela 175 x 55 x 18 cm, very damaged and engraved inscription, embedded
as a lintel of a chapel at the locality of Mlade in Veljaci, where it can be
found today. Datation: 1st c. AD
L(ucius) Marcilius/ C¢(ai) f(ilius) do£mo Pe/¢---V£II/ ¢---£ 5/ ¢---£/
¢---£/ C(aius) M¢arcilius – - – - – -?£/ ¢---£.
Bibliography: BOJANOVSKI 1985, 72-76, sl. 4; DODIG 1997, 18, sl.
Fig. 10 Inscription of L. Marcilius 1, DODIG 2003a, 235-237, T. III, sl. 1-2.

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Radoslav Dodig 213

11
Stele 185 x 63 x 23 cm, discovered in 2001. at the locality called
Vuna, Hardomilje. Now in archeological collection of the Franciscan
Monastery at Humac. Datation: before 42. AD
Q(uintus) Valerius/ Q(uinti) f(ilius) Qui(rina) dom(o)/ Icon(io)
vet(eranus) / leg(ionis) / VII an(norum) LV stip(endiorum) 5/
XXVIII h(ic) s(itus) e(st) / Q(uintus) Portorius et Q(uintus) Va/
lerius Anteros posuer(unt).
Fig: 11 Inscription of Q. Valerius Bibliography: DODIG 2003b, 363-372, sl. 1-2.

The overall characteristics of these seventh legion monuments from Ljubu{ki show us that six monuments are military
stele with the motif of naiskos (aedicule),1 two monuments bear a portrait in an aedicule, four of them with the door-
motif. The door motif, traditionally known as porta inferi, has often been a topic of academic research. Early scholars:
H. Hofmann (1905, 54-57), R. Altmann (1905, 13-21) and A. Schober (1923, 216-220) thought that the door-motif
derives from Asia Minor. Later, the theory was accepted and expanded by V. Pa{kvalin (1983, 102-103), J. Medini (1984,
113-119), I. Bojanovski (1985, 71-77), D. Rendi}-Mio~evi} (1989, 578-579). Comprehensive works, especially those by
M. Waelkens (1986, 18SS), N. Cambi,2 proved that the middle and northern Italy is the origin of the door-motif.3
In most cases, the onomastic pattern is binomial: praenomen and nomen gentile (L. Herennius L. f.; M. Sosius M. f.; M.
Livius M. f.; T. Varius T. f.; C. Licinius C. f.; L. Marcilius C. f.; Q. Valerius Q. f.) is found with seven dedicants, trinomial
pattern with filiation (L. Domitius L. f. Aquila; C. Domitius L. f. Aquilinus; C. Valerius C. f. Dento, L. Oppius L. f.
Signinus) is with four dedicants, while one monument has an unknown nominal pattern. Tombstones of the seventh
legion from the territory of Tilurium have similar patterns (FADI] 1997, 97).
Eight persons from Ljubu{ki’s tombstones are proven to be from provinces in Asia Minor: Milyas, between Pisidia
and Lycia (two veterans and a soldier), Pessinus, Phrygia (two veterans), Conana (Pisidia – one veteran), Sebastopolis
(Pontus – one veteran) and Iconium (Lycaonia – one veteran). The origin of three persons is still unknown. Most of
veterans and soldiers have tribuses, which means that they have Roman civil right: Aniensis (2), Fabia (2), Sergia (1),
Velina (1), Quirina (1), Papiria (1) and Palatina (1). No tribuses are known for the three of them. The veterans’ service
was not of short duration: one has 33 years of service, one 30, one 29, two of them 28 , two 27 and one 26. Once again,
the situation is similar with the monuments from Tilurium (FADI] 1997, 98). Therefore, it is legitimate to suspect
that workshops from Tilurium manufactured tombstones for Ljubu{ki veterans. Domestic workshops influenced by

1 This type of monuments was mentioned by: SENA CHIESA 1960, 5; MANSUELLI 1967, 115-125; PA[KVALIN 1983, 12;
SUSINI 1985, 80-88; PA[KVALIN 1985, 121-122; RENDI]-MIO^EVI] 1989, 576-578; SUSINI 1997, 303-317; CAMBI
2002, 150.
2 CAMBI 1991, 64-68; Idem 1993, 31-34; Idem 2001, 93-97, Idem 2002, 150.
3 For the door-motif in the Ljubu{ki area cf. DODIG 2003a, 235-237; Idem 2003b, 366-367.

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214 Illyrica antiqua

Salona and Narona could be taken into consideration in a later phase. The monuments from Ljubu{ki generally date
back between 14 AD, when Tiberius gave land to veterans in Pagus Scunasticus, and the year 42 AD because all legible
inscriptions do not have the pattern C(laudia) p(ia) f(idelis). In my opinion, the oldest inscription is of Lucius and
Gaius Domitius from Milyas. For example, L. Herennius L. f. (No. 2.) could have been recruited around 11 BC when
he was 20 years old, he served 30 years, and died when he was 60, which should be around 30 AD. It is probable that
there were two periods of recruitment in Asia Minor, one between 13-11 BC (rebellion in Thrace and Chersonese) and
the other between 6-9 AD (Bellum Batonianum).3
The Seventh legion’s arrival in Dalmatia has been the subject of varied even contrary opinions. O. Cuntz (1929, 75)
is a supporter of the earliest legion’s arrival – 15 BC while K. Strobel (2002, 52) claims that they came much later, as
late as 14 AD Other researchers give dates in between the two: 6 AD could be the time of their arrival according to
E. Ritterling (1925, 1614ss) and J. Wilkes (1968, 94; 2000, 102), around 8 AD according to M. Zaninovi} (1984, 68-
69) while the majority of experts believes that the arrival took place around 9 AD – S. Mitchell (1976, 304-306; 2001,
138), J. C. Mann (1983, 114-115), N. Cambi (1991, 66), L. Keppie (1998. 208), Laporte (2000, 560) and J. B. Campbell
(1999, 17).
The exact date of the legion’s departure from their camp in Tilurium, Dalmatia is no less controversial and subjected
to different opinions. The earliest possible date, 45 AD, is mentioned by H. Nesselhauf (1941, 42), also supported by
G. Alföldy (1987, 325). Some others claim that the deparure was later, such as M. Mirkovi} – between 63 and 67 AD
(Mirkovi} 1986, 36) , and other authors say it took place sometime between these poles: M. Zaninovi} (1996, 287)
45-61 AD, J. Wilkes (1968, 94) 56-57 AD, J. Mann (1983, 173) around 56 AD, B. Filow (1906, 21) and E. Ritterling
(1925, 1619) 56-57 AD, J. P. Laporte (2000, 561) around 58-59 AD, A. Betz (1938, 37) around 60 AD, S. Mitchell
(2001, 138) claims it took place during the time of Nero, and finally N. Cambi (1991, 66) places it around the middle
of the 1st century.
My opinion is that the most probable time of the legion’s arrival in Dalmatia dates back to 6-9 AD, whereas they left
to Moesia between 56-57 AD.

SPOMENICI VII. LEGIJE NA PODRU^JU LJUBU[KOGA


SA@ETAK

Podru~je Ljubu{koga, gdje se u anti~ko doba spominju mansio Bigeste i pagus Scunasticus, prote`e se u zale|u neko}
cvatu}e rimske kolonije Narone, u sklopu Naronskoga konventa. Kraj je bio privla~an za naseljavanje rimskih veterana,
posebice pripadnika VII. legije. Prona|eno je 11 nadgrobnih spomenika VII. legije, na kojima se spominje 11 islu`enih
vojnika (veterana) i jedan aktivan vojnik.
Iz navedena popisa vidljivo je da su gotovo svi podrijetlom iz Male Azije: Milijade (3), Pesinunta (2), Ikonija (1),
Sinope (1), Sebastopola (1) i Konane (1). Jedan je iz Alora u Makedoniji i jedan je nepoznata podrijetla. Najvi{e
ih je prona|eno u Hardomilju (5), Hra{ljanima (3), na Humcu (2) i u Vitini (1). Od cjelovitih spomenika {est su
monumentalne vojni~ke stele s prikazom naiska (edikule), ~etiri su spomenika s prikazom vrata, kakve susre}emo u
Tiluriju, Saloni i Aseriji, a dva imaju portrete u edikuli. Od imena prete`ita je dvo~lana formula – praenomen i nomen
gentile s filijacijom (M. Livius M. f., T. Varius T. f., L. Herennius L. f., M. Sosius M. f., L. Oppius L. f., C. Domitius L.
f., Q. Valerius Q. f.). Ve}ina veterana i jedan vojnik imaju tribuse, ali vrlo razli~ite: Aniensis, Papiria, Fabia, Sergia,
Velina, Quirina i Palatina. Datiraju se u prvu polovicu 1. stolje}a, najranije od 14. do najkasnije 42. godine. Najranije
spomenike pravile su radionice u Tiluriju, a kasnije doma}e, te mo`da u susjednoj Naroni.
O vremenu dolaska VII. legije u Dalmaciju pisalo je dosta autora (Ritterling, Cuntz, Betz, Seeck, Wilkes, Mitchell,
Mann, Strobel, Laporte, Zaninovi}, Mirkovi}, Cambi i dr.). Najraniji dolazak stavlja se u 15. godinu pr. Kr. (Cuntz), a
najkasniji u 14. po. Kr. (Strobel). Isto tako odlazak VII. legije iz Dalmacije razli~ito se interpretira, od najranijega 45.
godine (Nesselhauf) do najkasnijega 63–67. godine (Mirkovi}). Najopravdanijim mi se ~ini dolazak VII. legije datirati
u 6–9. godine (Bellum Batonianum), a odlazak 56–57. u doba Nerona (premje{tanje legija).

4 For recruitments in Asia Minor, see MITCHELL 1976, 304-306. and Idem 1979, 420-421.

Illyrica antiqua-book-nova.indb 6 7.4.2006 12:39:59


Radoslav Dodig 215

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