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Introduction to the course of

Rock Physics and


AVO Analysis
QBB 4013

AVO PART

May 2018
Course Lecturer:

Dr. Maman Hermana


H/P:0166409972
UTP:ext~7386
CSI,16-02-06
Email:
maman.hermana@utp.edu.my
Personal Background

Education Background:
1. PhD. (Geosceinces) Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (2015)
2. MSc. (Applied Geophysics) Institute Teknologi Bandung (2002)
3. BS (Geophysics) Universitas Indonesia (1998)

Working Experience:
1. Senior Lecturer, UTP (1 Year)
2. Postdoctoral Researcher, UTP (1.5 Years)
3. Lecturer, State University of Jakarta (10 years)

Projects :
1. Hydrocarbon Prediction and Lithology Discrimination
2. AVO Analysis and EEI
3. Seismic Inversion(Post, Pre-stack)
4. Seismic Attributes & Spectral Decomposition analysis
5. Well log analysis
6. Quantitative Interpretation

Registered Patent:
PREDICTION OF PETROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES FOR
RESERVOIR MODELING

Software skill:
1) HRS 2) Jason Inversion software 3) Rockdok 4) OpenDtect 5) Tseral 5)
Matlab 6) Seismic Unix etc…
Course Learning Outcomes (CLO)
On the completion of this course, the students should achieve the following
learning outcomes:

CLO1 Relate rock physics with wave propagation


CLO2 Perform fluid substitution
CLO3 Recognized 4 major classes of AVO

And map to the following Program Outcomes (PO):

PO2 Apply the fundamentals of geosciences to solve


geosciences related problem
PO3 Analyse and synthesize in industry using problem solving
skills
PO5 Demonstrate skills in specialization area.
GENERAL LECTURES CONTENT

No. Lectures Sequence


1. Seismic Amplitude Interpretation

2. Amplitude Variation with Offset (AVO)

3. Seismic Inversion
Breakdown
Course Work Quizzes 5%
Tests 20 %

Assignments 10%
Lab Reports 15%

Final Exam 50%


Total 100%
1. Ghosh, D. P. et.al (2007).Interpretation of Amplitudes: Pitfalls
& Lessons Learnt.
2. Avseth, P., Mukerji, T. and Mavko, G. (2005). Quantitative
Seismic Interpretation: Applying Rock Physics Tools to
Reduce Interpretation Risk. CambridgeUniversity Press
3. Mavko, G., Mukerji, T., Dvorkin, J., (2009), Rock physics
handbook., Cambridge University Press, Second edition.
4. Hilterman F. J. (2001). Seismic Amplitude Interpretation:
Distinguished Instructor Series, No 4. Geophysical
Development Corporation
5. SEG, EAGE and AAPG papers related on Rock Physics, AVO
and Seismic Inversion
Overview
ECG Recording

ECG Recording illustration


Case 1
Patient A

Patient B

Patient C
Case 2
Patient B

Patient C
Patient A
SEISMIC METHOD

Travel time(T) & Reflection Coefficient (Amplitude)

Travel time : Structure


Amplitude : Lithology & Pore
Fluid

 The most challenging task is to how


discriminate the pore fill from
lithology effect from seismic
INOIL AND GAS INDUSTRY, SEISMIC METHOD IS AN IMPORTANT
METHOD TO UNDERSTAND THE SUBSURFACE CHARACTERISTIC.

Z-X Model Seismic Reponse


+
-x x

Depth Travel Time


Seismic Record (where is
hydrocarbon ?)

B E
C
D
SEISMIC RECORD (WHERE IS HYDROCARBON ?)
Seismic wave

Frequency content?

SEISMIC WAVE
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SEISMIC VARIABLES & ITS ATTRIBUTES

AMPLITUDE  Sand quality


 Porosity
 Fluid & Lithology
 Bed Thickness

 Resolution PHASE
 Thin beds/Tuning
 Channel  Seismic well match
detection  Discontinuity faults
FREQUENCY  Unconformity

All seismic attributes are linear combination of these three basic variable. While
interpreting seismic data use has to be made of all information derived from these attributes
PHYSICAL FACTORS
AFFECTING SEISMIC

AMPLITUDE PHASE FREQUENCY

• Wavefield Divergence • Source & Recording Source Band Width


• Absorption- Dispersion Filters Ghosting
• Angle Dependent • Ghosting Deployment Depth
Reflection/ Transmission • Absorption Absorption
• Pegleg Multiples • De-Signature Acquisition Filters
• Thinbed Tunning • Processing Artefects
WAVE DECOMPOSITION

SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES

TIME/PHASE AMPLITUDE FREQUENCY VELOCITY ABSORPTION

Arrival Time RMS Band Width RMS Q


Isochron Reflection Wave Shape Interval Qp/Qs
Illumination Strength Loop area Lithology HC Saturation
Instantaneous Impedance Instantaneous Vp/Vs
Phase Semblance frequency
Dip/Azimuth
Sweetness
Coherence
Source and receiver configuration
Vp1, Vs1, Rho1 𝑍2 − 𝑍1
𝑅𝑐 =
Vp2, Vs2, Rho2 𝑍2 + 𝑍1

Vp1, Vs1, Rho1


Vp1, Vs1, Rho1 𝑅𝑐 = ? ?
𝑅𝑐 = ? ?
Vp2, Vs2, Rho2
Vp2, Vs2, Rho2

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Amplitude Versus Offset (AVO)
Vp1, Vs1, Rho1
Rc (𝜃) = A + B sin2𝜃 Vp2, Vs2, Rho2
Brine
A= intercept, f(Vp,Vs,)
B= Gradient, f(Vp,Vs,)
Vp1, Vs1, Rho1

Vp2, Vs2, Rho2


Oil

Vp1, Vs1, Rho1

Vp2, Vs2, Rho2


Gas

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AVO Crossplot

S
h
a
l
e
T
re
n
d

Gradient
OIL
K
-s
a nd
Fluid
Factor
Intercept

 Smith and Gidlow et al (1987) : Fuid


factor hydrocarbon detection
Where is Rock physics ?

Bulk Properties Modeling Elastic Modeling


& Conditions Properties Seismic Data
(Por, clay, Sw…) (Vp, Vs, Rho)

Vp1, Vs1, Rho1


Inversion Inversion
Vp2, Vs2, Rho2

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Elastic Properties - Rock Physics:

Environment : Temperature;Pressure
Matrix properties : Minerals;Minerals
distribution; Porosity;pore
structure
Pore Fluids : Fluidtype;saturation;Fluid
distribution
Wave frequency : Dispersion
Bulk density :

Velocity (Wyllie time-average formula):


Useful Empirical Relationships
Among the parameters

Relationship Between P-wave Velocity and Density

Relationships Between P and S Velocities

Vp=1.16 Vs + 1.36

• Vp and Vs in km/s
• Assume 100% water
Gassmann Fluid Substitution
and AVO modeling
Brine

Vp, Vs,
Oil Rho

Gas

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Different fluid different AVO response

Different gradient
Stochastic AVO Modeling

Simple
SimpleInterface Model––75%
InterfaceModel 75%Sand
SandFraction
FractionCase
Case Simple
SimpleInterface Model––30%
InterfaceModel 30%Sand
SandFraction
FractionCase
Case
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Significance of Seismic Bunga Zetung 1


Amplitude:
 Quality of sand: Net-to-
Gross.
 Porosity.
 Pore fill: gas, oil or brine.
 Thickness of bed.
 etc.
Bunga Zetung 1

For Data From 20 to 30 Hz

Poor ……SAND QUALITY… .’’ Good

(Deva P.
Ghosh,2009)
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GR Vp/V
s Hard shale Hard shale
on soft shale on oil sand

• Vp/Vs gives similar response with • Amplitude give similar


Gamma ray response for different
lithology but not in AVO

(Deva P. Ghosh, 2010)


Elastic Parameters

 The ratio of P-wave velocity with shear-wave velocity can provide information about
the type of lithology.
 Poisson’s ratio (σ) characterizes the relationship between Vp and Vs of material,
which can affect the P-wave reflection coefficients (brine-saturated sand has higher
Poisson’s ratio compared to gas-saturated sand).
 Lambda-Rho and Mu-Rho are combined to distinguish the fluid and lithology
(hydrocarbon anomalies are associated with high values of Mu-Rho and low values
of Lambda-Rho).
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Post stack Data

P-Impedance

Pre stack Data


P-Impedance

Others
S-Impedance Elastic
Properties
Density
Full Stack Inversion Workflow
Elastic Impedance Workflow
Simultaneous Inversion Workflow