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Proceedings of the ASME 2012 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition

IMECE2012
November 9-15, 2012, Houston, Texas, USA

IMECE2012-89048

DESIGN OF A LEAN METHODOLOGY FOR AN ERGONOMIC AND SUSTAINABLE


WORK ENVIRONMENT IN TEXTILE AND GARMENT INDUSTRY

Laura Costa Maia Anabela Carvalho Alves


R&D Centre for Industrial and Technology R&D Centre for Industrial and Technology
Management, Department of Production and Management, Department of Production and
Systems, School of Engineering, University of Systems,
Minho School of Engineering, University of Minho
Guimarães, Portugal Guimarães, Portugal

Celina Pinto Leão


R&D Centre Algoritmi
Department of Production and Systems,
School of Engineering, University of Minho
Guimarães, Portugal

ABSTRACT LCM Life Cycle Management


This paper presents a methodology to implement Lean LP Lean Production
Production (LP) in Portuguese Textile and Garment Industry PDCA Plan–Do–Check–Act
(TGI). Lean Production is a well-known work organizational PEST Political, Economic, Socio-Cultural and
model being, nowadays, widely implemented in all sort of Technological analysis
industries and services companies. LP responds to customers’ CIP –Continuous Improvement Process
demand for on-time delivery of high quality products at QFD Quality Function Deployment
reduced costs, through continuous waste elimination (e.g., SME Small and Medium Enterprise
overproduction, raw materials, energy and water more than SMED Single-Minute Exchange of Die
necessary, among others). In this methodology is included, SPC – Statistical Process Control
besides the Lean tools and techniques, some ergonomics tools SWOT Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats
in order to assess the ergonomic work conditions and TGI Textile and Garment Industry
techniques to evaluate the company sustainability. It is expected TPM Total Productive Maintenance
that, with the involvement of these tools, will allow the TPS Toyota Production System
implementation of a Lean Production that creates a positive UNEP United Nations of Environmental Protection
work environment for workers giving special attention to WBS Work breakdown structure
sustainable development. WCED World Commission on Environment and
Development
NOMENCLATURE WIP Work in process
3R reduce, reuse, and recycle
DFE Design for environment INTRODUCTION
DFMA design for manufacturability and assembly Lean Production (LP) [1] had its roots on Toyota
DMAIC Define-Measure-Analyze-Identify-Control Production System [2] being a well-known work organizational
EWA Ergonomic Work Analysis model that, through continuous waste, i.e., non-added value
FMEAFailure mode and effects analysis activities elimination, respond to customers demand with on-
ILO International Labor Organization time delivery of high quality products at reduced costs and
KPI Key performance indicators increased productivity. Nowadays, LP is widely implemented in
LCA Cycle Assessment all sort of industries and services companies [3-8]. This inspires
LCC Life Cycle Costing the authors of this paper to apply this model to the Portuguese

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Textile and Garment industry (TGI). This industry sector manufacturing industry and 1.4% of companies operating in
suffers from low productivity and countless wastes. Portugal.
Traditionally, the Portuguese TGI is predominantly Small Besides these numbers and industry importance, the
and Medium Enterprises (SME) based industry, with a strong authors experience showed that this industry is also an industry
family-oriented structure. Normally these companies are much where many wastes and disorder can be found due to
disorganized and have a lot of wastes namely high rate of disorganization, to high waiting times and setup times and to
defects, too many waiting times, high machines failures, high the difficulty of understanding the importance of organization.
absenteeism, among others. It has many monotonous activities Figure 1 illustrated some wastes that can easily be found in a
where employees remain seated, sometimes for long periods of clothing company: inventory piled waiting to enter on the
time. This can cause occupational diseases and accidents. In production sewing line or accessories waiting to be picked up
general, the workers are not involved in the companies’ haphazardly.
projects, discouraging their participation on the company
decisions, making them unsatisfied with their work.
The TGI uses natural resources (natural fibers, dyes, water,
energy and others) and it is traditionally very dependent on
these resources. The decrease of these natural resources will
represent a difficulty in the textile industry, especially in dyeing
and finishing processes, where the consumption of water and
energy is high. So, to reduce the consumption of these
resources should be a concern for the companies and
individuals in order to achieve a sustainable development [9]. Figure 1. Inventory piled waiting to e ter on the production
This industry sector is also strongly influenced by the sewing line or accessories waiting to be picked up
seasons, trends and fashion and climate changes, adding some
new challenges: customers demand changes significantly and in In most Portuguese TGI companies, due to the influence of
short time. These conditions could be an appealing to leanness mass production paradigms could be found a work environment
and agility companies. suffering from an authority, autocratic and command-and-
A draft of a methodology to implement Lean Production in control hierarchic chain management, where the “boss”
TGI will be presented in this paper, addressing some Lean tools controls everything and everybody. It is common in Portuguese
as well as some important tools to assess ergonomic work TGI to find companies where collaborators are so much
conditions and environmental wastes concerns. In order to accommodated to a stressful and disagreeable work
design such methodology, some methodologies were studied. environment that the only thing they want, in a normal day of
work, is to reach to the end of the day, anxious for the buzzer
CONTEXT STUDY AND MOTIVATION announcing it. In crises times, like the ones we lived now, the
The Portuguese Textile and Garment Industry (TGI) have authors were compelled to help these companies to be
an important role in national economy, taking a considerable organized, to reduce their wastes and to help collaborators to
weight on socio-economic structures of Portugal. It is one of find some comfort and enthusiasm on their work.
the few industries which contribute positively to the Portuguese This was a motivation to endorse a PhD. project, in order
trade balance and it is one of the most exposed to competition, to develop a methodology that helps TGI companies to
with significant impact on the volume of employment and implement Lean Production. The first step of this project was to
reduction of sales margins. It represents 10% of national design a survey in order to understand if companies know the
exports (in 90s, this value was 30%), 22% of employment, 8% LP concept, if they implement and how they implement Lean
of turnover and 10.7% of Gross Value Added of manufacturing [11]. Based on a 13.3% of responses, the survey revealed that
industry [10]. few companies of the Portuguese Textile and Garment Industry
From the territorial point of view, this industry is spread all consider that they had implemented Lean Production. These
over the national territory, although there are two main regions companies do not know any of the Lean methodologies and two
that are, the North of Portugal, where are located the cotton of them answered that had resorted to a consulting company
companies and, Beira Interior, where the wool companies are (Kaizen Institute) to implement LP. They also stated encounter
located, representing 85% of the companies. This industry some difficulties during Lean implementation process, namely,
comprises two large sectors: (1) the textile sector - which difficulty in understanding Lean tools, difficulty in quantifying
includes fiber production, spinning, weaving, knitting and the benefits, missing knowledge of Lean principles and
finishing (dyeing, printing and finishing) and (2) the garment resistance attitude from the collaborators. However, the most
sector - which includes manufacture of clothing and important issue was that the majority of the TGI companies
accessories. The industry includes, approximately, 4000 textile state never heard or do not have knowledge of the Lean
companies and around 11000 garment companies, which Production model. On the other hand, they know some
together represent around 19% of all production units of the important concepts such as quality at the source, wastes, value
stream, value among others and tools associated with Lean like

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cellular manufacturing, 5S, Kanban system and admit to have a improvement/ Kaizen; Pull system; continuous flow; Single
production model similar to JIT production or stockless minute exchange of Dies (SMED); Plan-Do-Check-Act
production. (PDCA) cycle; Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control
Almost 50% consider that Lean Production could be a (DMAIC) technique; Value Stream Mapping (VSM), Total
model to implement. This is an important topic because, and Productive Maintenance (TPM); one page report (A3) and
based on the companies respondents, the measure that they are Policy Development/deployment. Others also imply strategic
accustomed to adopt to face competition are the products tools and problem solving tools in the methodologies. For
quality improvement, practice of efficient management and instance, Hoshin-Kanri methodology [25, 26] as a methodology
eliminate wastes. The LP implementation could help on these more strategic employing tools such as Strengths-Weaknesses-
measures improvement, avoiding a capital investment or a Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) analysis or Porter analysis to
financial effort like in the Portuguese examples described in link the strategic management to the operational manufacturing.
Alves and co-authors work [12]. Others are more practical and more orientated to problem-
solving tools such as Pareto Chart or fishbone diagram, for
METHODOLOGIES TO IMPLEMENT LEAN example, the methodology A3 PDCA [27].
A methodology studies the best way to approach problems, From the methodologies presented above, it is important to
indicating paths to reach solutions [13]. According to this refer the Lean implementation model for textile industry [28]. It
author, a methodology orients and supports in the research is a methodology oriented for the textile industry similar to the
process and in the data/information collecting to take the best one that will be proposed in this paper. Additionally, Feld [29]
decisions in a time and in a specific moment. A methodology and Wilson [20] presented a road map to implement Lean or a
must indicate and facilitate, in each project phase, data and “how to” perspective of their Lean implementations
methods or tools that allows to the designer to reach to good experiences.
project solutions, in an efficiently and effectiveness way. Additionally it is important to refer the application of TRIZ
Attending to this methodology definition, it is possible to methodology [30] and Axiomatic Design methodology [31],
find out some methodologies to implement Lean, more or less, that have been applied for understanding Lean Production and
formalized in the literature reviewed by [14] that found out, at could help in Lean production principles implementation [32-
least, thirteen different methodologies, to know: 34].
1. TPS methodology
2. Lean thinking LEAN PRODUCTION METHODOLOGY IN TEXTILE
3. Toyota way AND GARMENT INDUSTRY
4. Lean automotive vision model It is frequent to hear of unsuccessful stories of Lean
5. Lean Six Sigma Production implementation. This failure is, in most cases,
6. Kaizen methodology assigned to the fact that Lean do not addresses correctly to the
7. SECORA Lean Implementation methodology (SLIM) workplace ergonomics and human factors [35]. Unfortunately,
8. Brief methodology some of these narratives are true and could result from several
9. Lean Alliance methodology reasons: 1) a poor work environment before Lean Production
10. Strategic Lean Implementation methodology (SLIM) implementation; 2) an unprepared environment; 3) Lean
11. Hoshin-Kanri implementation is only a partial implementation, i.e., some
12. Methodology A3 PDCA tools were implemented as an testing, so, it is not a really Lean
13. Lean implementation model for textile implementation; 4) it is a enforced process of management, not
Some of these are well-known such as Toyota Production involving all people. Additionally, other reasons are point out
System (TPS) methodology [2, 15], Lean Thinking [16] or by other authors [20, 29]. It is also common to see in literature
Toyota Way [17] and some not so, as described elsewhere [18]. that Lean is a philosophy, a culture [36], more than a set of
Others are more oriented and focused in a specific area of tools and techniques. Toyota senior executives said that
work, like Lean Six Sigma [19] or Kaizen methodology [20] management tools can be copied, but the mindset not [37].
that are focused on the quality area. Some are specific of each Thus, Lean implementation is not an easy process because
consulting company like SECORA Lean Implementation mindset has to do with people. People are vital to feel the needs
methodology (SLIM) [21], Brief methodology [22] or Lean behind each improvement that start from these needs and not
Alliance methodology [23] or of an academic sector like from burdens. This is the fundamental mindset and
Strategic Lean implementation methodology (SLIM) from the organizational learning behind LP continuous improvement as
Warwick Business School [24]. These methodologies define discussed by Yamamoto and Bellgran [38] and Flinchbaugh
and select tools to apply in an integrated sequence or model to [40]. Lean Production promote thinkers [40] but before this
implement Lean. happen, people must be involved and compromised as the “pig
Most of these methodologies are focused on the Lean is compromised in the English breakfast”. Wilson [20] points
operational and technical tools like JIT production; Jidoka or out three fundamental issues to a cultural change: the
Autonomation; 5S; Heijunka or production smoothing; leadership, the motivation and the problem solvers assessment,
Standardized work; Visual management; continuous as the first step before the Lean project implementation.

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Attending to this need to involve people as collaborators, to diagnosis the company strategic status and to build their
but also as thinkers and responsible for their own work and future vision of the future are SWOT analysis, SWOT Analysis,
assure that they are working in healthy and pleased conditions, Porter analysis and matrix, PEST Analysis, matrix
the methodology proposed in this work, starts with the product/market, matrix market/technology, diagnosis of the
preparation of the company for the introduction of Lean. president, among others. A project like Lean project
The Figure 2 shows a three-phase framework of the implementation must start with support of top management,
proposed methodology to implement Lean Production in TGI. otherwise the success probability is minor.
All people must be aware of the project that it will just start
in the company. So, a communication plan will be of great
importance to start with, involving people. It could not be
Implementing
expected that a company culture suddenly change but, starting
• Strategic tools methodology with the promotion of an open communication, will captivate
• WBS and Gantt chart • Follow‐up measures people attention. Exposing the project plan with the project
• Teams preparation • Sustainable tools
• Ideas generation tools
• Problem solving tools
• Ergonomic tools
activities in a work breakdown structure (WBS) and represent
• Operational Lean tools
(brainstorming,...) • Measure KPI and KEPI these in a Gantt chart showing the timeline and milestones will
• Skills matrix • Standard work • Scoreboards

• Ergonomic tools (EWA,...)


• Heijunka • Suggestions systems give to all the feeling of the seriousness of the project and
• SMED • ....


Sustainable tools
Diagnostic tools • Cellular production compromise to assume. Additionally, roles and responsibilities
• Collect KPI and KEPI • Heijunka
Evaluating,
(clarified with a skills matrix help) must be defined and
• Visual management
Preparing work • ... standardizing assigned to the collaborators. This is also the moment to
environment and and sustaining organize collaborators in teams and launching some challenges
people to promote the ideas generation and the ground to the culture
change for a continuous improvement. The TPS methodology,
presented the Quality Control Circles as small groups of
Figure 2. Framework of the methodology to implement Lean collaborators looking for improvements and this way promotes
Production in TGI their involvement [2].
Some tools to promote the ideas generation are the well-
This methodology intends to approach different known: brainstorming, 6M1E (Man, Machine, Methods,
dimensions: the ergonomic dimension, the sustainability Material, Measurement, Management information and
dimension, the operational dimension and the human capital Environment) checklist, the asking “Why” five times (5Whys)
dimension. Studying the methodologies referred above, the technique, the 5W2H (What, Why, Where, When, Who, How,
authors conclude that no companies consider all these How much/many) checklist and Osborne´s checklist (use it
dimensions. In order to consider these dimensions, some another way; borrow an idea from something similar; change or
ergonomic and sustainable tools were studied to consider their replace it; expand it; reduce it; use alternatives; replace it;
inclusion in this methodology in each phase. The tools will reverse it; and combine it). These tools help to raise the right
permit the diagnosis and assessment of the physical current questions [41].
state looking to the work conditions ergonomic evaluation, In this initial phase it is also necessary to collect some key
environmental conditions evaluation and human capital performance indicators (KPI) like products produced,
knowledge. productivity, lead-time, defects rate, economic, ergonomic and
sustainability indicators. As Lord Kelvin, two hundred years
Preparing work environment and people ago, said:“When you can measure what you´re speaking about,
In the proje tcbeginning (first phase) it is necessary to and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but
prepare the environment and the people for the change. when you ca notn measure it, when you cannot express it in
Preparing environment means to evaluate the physical work numbers, your knowledge is of a meager and unsatisfactory
conditions and understand if the collaborators are satisfy with kind”. So, before any effort in the path of a Lean
these or feel uncomfortable. Some signals of this uncomfortable implementation project, indicators will reveal the system
are he absenteeism records, mainly, due to diseases. Besides measurement to better understand this functioning and present
this, work observation, well prepared interviews or state but more important to compare with the final indicators at
questionnaires to collaborators, checklists will give the data the end of the project. A performance measure matrix like the
needed to evaluate and study it. Some of these techniques and one in Table 1, adapted from [43], could help addressing the
others are used in some ergonomic tools described in the next performance indicators relevant.
section. Another important data is the operation times. It is Some diagnostic tools could be used on this phase like
common to find out companies without knowing their operation Value Stream Mapping (VSM), eight wastes tool, root cause
times or with obsolete (not updated) times, so, a time study is analysis and spaghetti diagram. Non-value activities such as
crucial on this phase. WIP time and movement time, amon others g are identified
The need for a Lean project implementation must be felt by using these techniques. Implement a suggestions program and
the top management and some strategic tools that could be used diary meetings (10 minutes maximum) with team leaders.

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of the improvements that can be achieved, at low cost. Other
Table 1. Performance measure matrix example is the Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA) that is a tool
Resources Input Transformation Output to define and evaluate the work conditions in the work space
(productive and (incoming (material, (products)
consumable) materials) internal focus) [47].
Quality and productivity Work Scrap rate Defects parts Complaints from The synergy between Lean Production and Ergonomics
How well and how hours/available provoked by clients
productive? hours the process exists, as showed in the literature review developed by
Flow and inventory Equipment Received WIP level Expedited units/ Bittencourt et al. [48], so it is unavoidable to promote this in a
How much and what utilization rate units/week Throughput week
rate? Time it takes to be Raw material time Lean implementation project. Reducing wastes (or muda) of
processed inventory movement, handling and transports are directly related with
Timeliness Scheduled On time Order Orders
How timely? maintenance supplies completion completed on
reducing collaborator effort. Reducing overproduction and
completed on status time inventory are reducing the effort (producing the production
time
Workplace environment Number of
excess) but also reducing the risk of accidents by having less
How safe and satisfying? accidents material spread by all space. The overburden (or muri) is
Financial aspects Suppliers cost Cost of Wastes costs Total cost by
another non-valued activity and this is also associated to the
How much (in monetary material lost to unit overburden of people. For example, Figure 3 shows that
terms)? obsolescence
collaborator D is overburden. This collaborator will be in stress
and this situation not balanced will delay the lead time of the
Ergonomic tools product.
Ergonomics ideally meets the needs of better productivity
and worker health and safety all at once [43]. So, and due to
some misinterpretation, it is necessary to state that ergonomics
is not a safety issue but is allied with this. Ergonomic tools are
important to diagnose and evaluate the current work conditions
giving important indications about where the ergonomic
problems are and how to improve them. This will promote, at
least, healthy environments that contribute positively for the
productivity increase and create an environment propitious to
implement LP. By the contrary, having an unhealthy
environment where people suffer doing their tasks, beyond the
people, LP implementation could even worsen this situation.
The methodology framework presented in Figure 2 shows
that ergonomic tools are used to analyze the situation and Figure 3. Operations balancing graph showing an example of
prepare the environment for the LP implementation. This must the an overburden collaborator (D)
be doing with company people help, involving and sensitizing
them to the change. Measuring the effort demanded before and after the Lean
In work environment various factors must be evaluated like implementation will permit distinguish the situation presented
posture (sitting, standing, change of posture, hand and arm in Figure 3 and assure that this will not happen for collaborator
postures) and movement (lifting, carrying, pulling and sake and company benefits on lead-time reduction.
pushing), information and operation (visual information,
hearing, other senses, controls for operation, dialogues, website
Sustainable tools
design, mobile interaction, virtual reality), environment factors
Traditionally, the Textile and Garment Industry had always
(noise, vibration, illumination, climate and chemical been to a great extent dependent on natural resources: natural
substances) and work organization jobs and tasks [44]. These
fibers, dyes, water, energy and others and a great consumer of
factors also influence the health, safety and comfort and worker water and energy, especially in dyeing and finishing processes.
efficiency.
These processes have a problem concerning the water and soil
To improve the workplace and to reduce the human effort pollution. In this manner reducing the consumption of these
can be used some tools, reviewed in Maia et al. [45], that must resources and reducing the pollutants should be a concern for
be selected according the factor assessed. Of course, there are companies and individuals, to achieve a sustainable
some tools that could assess various factors and in a general development. As appointed by the Millennium Project [49], the
evaluation they could be used. Example of these are a manual sustainable development and climate change are the first of the
from the International Labor Organization (ILO), named 15 Global Challenges facing humanity and its accomplishment
Ergonomics checkpoints [46], that presents various checklists will improve enormously the life for all in the planet.
for assessing the materials storage and handling, hand tools, According to a Brundtland report called “Our Common
machine safety, workstation design, lighting, premises, Future”, sustainable development is: “Development that meets
hazardous substances and agents, welfare facilities and work the needs of the present without compromising the ability of
organization. This manual also illustrates some useful examples future generations to meet their own needs”. Sustainable

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development is based on three pillars: economic; environmental Also, at this stage, it is intended to seek and explore some
and social responsibility. According to Holliday et al. [50] “The key environmental performance indicators (KEPI) and
prices of goods must reflect all the costs – financial, sustainability indexes. Search will also indicate how to obtain
environmental and social – involved in making them, using certifications to companies and eco-labels for their products
them, disposing of them or recycling them.”. and processes.
One more time, the symbiosis between Lean production
and sustainable development is unmistakable, starting with Implementing Lean methodology
their key ideas of “doing more with less” and “creating more This phase concern the heart of this methodology and
with less”, respectively. Moreira and co-authors [51] reviewed before starting implementing the Lean operational tools it is
this relationship published since 1993 and showed the evidence necessary for the formed teams discover problems. There some
between the seven wastes and the impact (effect) on the simple problem solving tools that easily could be taught to the
environmental performance. teams like the ones presented by Suzaki [41]:
Fortunately, some initiatives are taking place by the entire Histogram Affinity diagram
world and Portuguese companies are not exception, Cause-effect diagram Tree diagram
accompanying this trend and promoting initiatives as presented (fishbone or Ishikawa
in [52]. Some of these initiatives are somehow forced by diagrams)
European Union legislation like the use of eco-labels and others Check sheet Matrix diagram
are research projects developed by companies in partnership Pareto diagram Arrow diagram
with universities that study alternative materials like biological Graph Gantt chart
cotton or use of more friendly fibers such as polyester or hemp Control chart Radar chart
to use in fabric production or enzymes to optimize the dying Scatter diagram Process analysis sheet
Pie chart Cycle time analysis sheet
process (less time, less energy and less water).
Display chart (pictograph) Work combination chart
Tools for Life Cycle Management (LCM), including Life Relations diagram Process flow diagram
Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC), Man-machine chart
AUDIO (Aspects-Upstream-Downstream-Issues-Opportunities)
analysis [53] and tools to calculate the ecological footprint, are Additionally, Pareto analysis is helpful in identifying the
tools to consider for evaluating the company sustainability. The product or the products family to analyze in first place, 8D
implementation of environmental management systems such as method problem solving could be a useful worksheet for
ISO 14000 or others like ISO 26000 continuously implemented helping the teamwork. DMAIC tool is a quality tool that
through PDCA cycles could ensure continuous improvement in assisted to an evolution for six steps including the standardize
environmental performance. Some guides to sustainability step – Six Sigma (Figure 4).
launched by UNEP [54-57] could also be used in this phase.
For this implementation will be used adapting them to the
Portuguese reality and promoting a “life cycle thinking” in all
functions of company, from development of the product to
sales, in all phases of the product lifecycle, from creation to
disposal (the perspective of “cradle to grave”) and across the
value chain, suppliers and consumers.
Additionally, it will be provided techniques to 3R (Reduce,
Reuse, Recycle) and techniques to develop more eco-efficient
products as Design For Environment (DFE), Design For
Manufacturability and Assembly (DFMA) or
disassembly/recycle. This also involves a number of other
concepts and tools like: (eco)-design methods, green
procurement, eco- and energy labeling, environmental product
declarations, ecological and carbon footprint analyses,
environmental performance indicators, and social sustainability
assessments and approaches. Others tools involve the GHG
protocol, corporate ecosystem services review, global water Figure 4.Steps of DMAIC tool
tool, measuring impact framework, and the sustainable These problem-solving tools articulate the problem and
procurement of wood and paper-based products guide. potential causes and could be used on the PDCA phases of an
Employing these tools and concepts, TGI are also being A3 report (53). A3 report is a visual tool that could be exposed
prepared to face disappearance of well-defined seasons, having in boards to encourage everyone inspired and motivated to
an even more strongly seasonal due to global warming as a propose solutions [59]. In this one-page report, the problem is
result of climates changes. clearly defined, the root cause analysis is used to reach to
proposals, and an implementation plan is followed. Other visual

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tools already referred are the VSM, spaghetti diagram and persistence, hard work and some tools like 5S audits,
many tools presented above as problem-solving tools because scoreboards continuously updated, continue with diary
they have an enormous visual potential and could appear in the meetings and encourage the suggestions program. This program
A3 report or be used in each 8D method. Axiomatic Design and must be taken very seriously, promoting some kind of reward
TRIZ tools are also important tools to design and innovative for the best suggestions and discuss with the collaborators the
products (goods, services, systems, and others) in a way to suggestions not implemented. Otherwise the consequences will
pursuit customer specifications and desires. be disastrous, ruining the opportunity of workers collaboration.
Implementing Lean will demand the application of a set of Of course to obtain good prepared suggestions it will be
Lean operational tools that are used to improve the system, necessary to train the collaborators in problem-solving tools
from the 5S program to the Leveling (Heijunka) tool, like the like the ones already presented in previous section. Alves and
ones following: co-authors [40] presented some testimony of companies that
1. Jidoka 2. Kaizen implemented suggestions programs. The benefits obtained from
3. SMED 4. Standard work a suggestions program could be remarkable for the company
5. Poka-Yoke 6. Heijunka and the collaborators will feel more motivated and ownership
7. JITproduction/pull 8. Mixproduction of the company, incorporating a team spirit, not presented in the
9. Kanban 10. Visual management Portuguese TGI work environment. This will be difficult to
11. 5S 12. TPM achieve in work environments like Portuguese TGI but
13. Six-Sigma 14. QFD appealing to the entrepreneurship spirit that some
15. Point CIP 16. FMEA administrators assume, it is not an impossible mission. They,
17. SPC 18. Supplierspartnership more than others, are aware of the country difficulties mainly
19. One-pieceflow 20. … when they have to fire someone due to costs reduction.
Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) programs must be
These tools implementation have a proper precedence and also assured through standard procedures plans. Machine
implementing, for example, Heijunka before set-up reduction it failures will ruin all the implementation effort. Maintain and
will not result. Monden [2] presented the TPS methodology and improve strong and close partnerships built on the trust and
advised start with improvements by small groups (QCC) and confidence with customers and suppliers will guarantee by one
introduction of 5S (Seiri – arrangement; Seiton-tidiness; Seiso side, a certain demand, and the by other side, the right quantity
– cleaning; Seiketsu – cleanliness and Shitsuke – training). and quality and timely all the components, supplies, materials
Implementation of 5S and production technologies will or parts to produce the company product.
promote cleaner production processes that it will reduce
resource use, emissions and waste and contribute to savings in CONCLUDING REMARKS
companies. Set-up reduction, standard operations, workers The identification of the difficulties of Portuguese Textile
preparation and layout reconfiguration are parallel activities and Garment Industry and the need for new production models
that are next. Without a proper production system or layout is not new, but very few were and being done. The internal
reconfiguration it is difficult to put in action a success Lean difficulties of organizations, in general, and in the Textile and
implementation because many tools depend on this system to Garment Industry in particular, prove that this type of industry
function well. The basic problem areas: quality, cost, delivery, must adopt the Lean Production principles and tools to face the
safety and morale (QCDSM) only can be achieved with a competition, to satisfy and to deliver value to costumer
proper production system favoring an integrated and holistic (internal and external).
Lean implementation. When the companies finally accept that something is
wrong and they have to change their strategy and implement
Evaluating, standardizing and sustaining LP, there still a lot of work to carried on. To facilitate and to
In the last phase of this methodology, Lean implementation organize the LP implementation, a methodology will help to
is assessed. It is necessary to understand if the tools applied and define the road, and will allow reducing the implementation
the changes occurred, created added value to the company. In time. With this concern this paper presented a described a draft
order to do this, it is necessary to reevaluate the system with the of a methodology to implement LP in order to eliminate waste,
same tools and collect the new results of the KPI and KEPI increase the productivity of the companies and improve the
considered in the first phase. Comparing the results, it will be processes. Additionally, this methodology considers ergonomic
possible to know if the desired targets were achieved. and sustainability tools to evaluate the work conditions and
If the first phase was succeeded and the collaborators were sustainable environment. Reviewing some methodologies to
involved, this is almost a guarantee that the changes will implement LP the authors recognized that no methodology
remain. This involvement will assure this, because it will start a presented includes ergonomics and sustainability tools.
company culture of continuous improvement that before was Ergonomics allows the assessment to improve the environment
not possible to find. But, if implementing could be a difficult and the work conditions, and the sustainability development
process more difficult it will be to keep the procedures and allows the company to achieve its objectives and goals without
make them a routine. This must be done with a lot of

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destroying the planet. These reasons led the authors to include Congress Portuguese-Mozambican of Engineering
them on the methodology developed. (CLME2011), 29 August-2 of September, Maputo,
The framework of methodology presented is, yet, in an Mozambique.
initial phase of development and the authors are presenting the [13] Simcsik, T. (1993). O.M.I.S. – Organização e Métodos.
draft in this paper to obtain feedback that will be important for Makron Books, McGraw-Hill (in Portuguese).
continuing the development. [14] Maia, L.C., Alves, A.C. and Leão, C.P. (2011).
Metodologias para implementar Lean Production: uma
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS revisão crítica de literatura. (Methodologies to implement
The authors are grateful to Portuguese Foundation for Lean production: a critical review of literature). Proceedings
Science and Technology, under Strategic Projects PEst- of 6º Congresso Luso-Moçambicano de Engenharia
OE/EME/UI0252/2011 and PEst-C/EEI/UI0319/2011, for (CLME2011), 29 Agosto-2 de Setembro, Maputo,
financial support. Moçambique (in Portuguese).
[15] Ohno, T. (1988). The Toyota Production System: beyond
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