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THE ROLE OF STAKEHOLDERS IN ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE

BOROBUDUR NATIONAL STRATEGIC AREA, PROVINCE CENTRAL JAVA

Achmad Rifqi; Azqia Tiara Puspa; Devi Andita Aprilia; Lydia Irwanti; Mochamad Elgad; Nadine Clara
Shakina; Nathasya Safira; Stenli Nopelius

Undergraduate Student Program Study of Tourism Destination


Bandung Tourism Institute 2017

ABSTRACT
The research argue that this stakeholder analysis is a vital in achieving sustainable tourism
development. The main aim of this study is to propose stakeholder theory according to Swarbrooke
(1999) on Sustainable Tourism Stakeholders. A key focus is an examination of the stakeholder’s role
and their position on the mapping stakeholders in the Borobudur National Strategic Area (KSPN
Borobudur). This study examines the role of stakeholders using the influence and the interest of
each stakeholders. Relying on in-depth interviews with key participants. The research involved
interviews with 46 local stakeholders regarding their perceptions about the role, influence, and
interest on the project. A qualitative method using stakeholder analysis matrix. The research argue
that this stakeholder analysis is a vital in achieving sustainable tourism development.

The results show that there are six stakeholder category according to Swarbrooke (1999).
Implications for stakeholder theory include the findings that State Owned Enterprises becomes part
of sustainable tourism stakeholders. PT. Taman Wisata Candi Borobudur is state owned enterprises.

Keywords: Stakeholders, Sustainable Tourism Development, the Role, the Interest and the Influence,
Borobudur National Strategic Area (KSPN Borobudur).

A. INTRODUCTION environment and the social fabric of the host


community."
Building a destination to achieve
sustainable tourism requires consideration of In short, the development of
economic, social and environmental aspects sustainable tourism is in addition to meeting
that require the role and integration of the needs of tourists, tourism industry, and local
stakeholders committed to a long-term communities but also pay attention to
perspective that does not harm current and economic, social and cultural aspects so that
future generations. the implementation process can last for a long
time or sustainable.
According to Swarbrooke (1999: 47)
sustainable tourism development as "Forms of Furthermore, The direction of national
tourism which meet the needs of tourists, the tourism development as referred to in
tourism industry, and host communities today paragraph (3) letter e includes the development
without compromising the ability of future of national tourism carried out based on the
generation to meet their own needs". principle of sustainable tourism development,
Furthermore, Swarbrooke (1999: 47) adds that with an orientation to efforts to increase
"Tourism which is economically viable but does growth, increase employment opportunities,
poverty reduction, and environmental
not destroy the resources on which the future
conservation, Both in an integrated manner
of tourism will depend, not the physical

1
across sectors, across regions, and across actors Adapted to conditions in Indonesia
and encouraging public and private sector with various indicators, between other policy
partnerships. support (tourism priority, regional openness,
price competitiveness, environment
To create good governance in an
sustainability), tourism enabler (business
integrated manner needs to contribute the role
environment, security, health and hygiene,
of the stakeholders or stakeholders. According
human resources and labor, information
to Freeman (1998: 65) Stakeholders are "A
technology readiness), infrastructure (airport
person, group, organization, member or system
infrastructure, port and land infrastructure,
who affects or can be affected by an
Infrastructure of tourism services), and natural
organization's action". And according to
& cultural resources (natural resources and
Rierbergen, Deepa and Narayan in the book
cultural resources).
Participation and Social Assessment: Tool and
Techniques (1998: 65) "Stakeholders are people, Borobudur Temple is one of the World
groups, or institutions which are likely to be Heritage Site, which was initiated in the 17th
affected by a proposed intervention (either UNESCO session in Paris, on November 16,
negatively or positively), or those which can 1972. The Indonesian government then
affect the outcome of the intervention." determine the conservation of world heritage
through Presidential Decree No.26 of 1989.
Stakeholders in the tourism industry
Borobudur Temple next listed In World
according to Swarbrooke (1999: 86). Consisting
Heritage List No. 592 Year 1991. Borobudur
of six stakeholders who work together to
Temple is the largest Buddhist temple in
achieve sustainable tourism development: The
Indonesia located in Borobudur, Magelang, and
public sector, the tourism industry, the
Central Java.
voluntary sector organization, the host
community, the media, and the tourist that can Borobudur temple is currently
be used to understand the role and common managed by 3 institutions, namely zone I
interest of each Stakeholders. managed by Borobudur Conservation Center
under the direction by the Ministry of Education
In harmony with the above-described
and Culture, zone II managed by PT Taman
theories and phenomena found, there are
Wisata Candi Borobudur, Prambanan and Ratu
several phenomena in the National Tourism
Boko under the direction by the Ministry of
Strategic Area of Borobudur and its
State Owned Enterprises. In zone II also
surroundings. Some of the phenomenon is as
available tourist facilities: car parking, ticket
reported by Liputan6.com November 2016
booths, information centers, museums, stalls,
appreciation to the tourist destination, the
and others. Zones III, IV, and V are owned by the
central government held the Anugerah
community, but their utilization is controlled by
Competitiveness Index 10 Indonesia Priority
the local government. (PT Taman Wisata Candi,
Tourism Destination.
Annual Report, 2015). In addition to the
Borobudur is set to become the territorial divisions that show authority and
destination with the highest tourism management, the complexity of Borobudur
competitiveness index in Indonesia, followed by tourism destination is also evident from the
Wakatobi, Tanjung Kelayang, and Labuan Bajo. diverse presence of the stakeholders.
The index assessment refers to the Global Travel Stakeholders in KSPN Borobudur and
and Tourism Competitive Index (TTCI) of the surrounding areas include government, SOEs,
World Economic Forum and the United Nations local communities, communities, and others
World Organization. involved in KSPN Borobudur and surrounding
areas.

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The number of domestic and foreign influence and interest so that it can be
tourists visiting KSPN Borobudur based on PT. described as a "mapping". So as to analyze
Taman Wisata Candi during the year 2014-2016 critically about the Role of Stakeholders Achieve
are as follows: Sustainable Tourism Development in KSPN
Borobudur and Surrounding, Central Java
Figure 1. Tourist Arrivals in the Borobudur
Province.
and its Surrounding areas
Research purposes

This study aims to review or mapping


the stakeholders who play a role in creating
Sustainable Tourism Development in KSPN
Borobudur and its surrounding areas.

Research question

1. How is the role of sustainable tourism


stakeholders in the KSPN Borobudur?
Source: PT. Taman Wisata Candi Borobudur,
2017 2. How are the Influence and the Interest of
sustainable tourism stakeholders in the KSPN
Based on the chart of tourist arrivals to Borobudur?
Borobudur temple from 2014 until 2016
increased. However, this has not had a 3. How is the stakeholder mapping related to
significant impact on the surrounding area, sustainable tourism in the KSPN Borobudur?
especially on the economy of the community.
B. LITERATURE REVIEW
Based on previous research, the poverty rate in
2012 in Borobudur District was recorded at Sustainable Tourism Development
61.7%, ranking 17 categories of the poor from
Swarbrooke (1999: 47) defines
22 districts in Magelang District, Central Java
sustainable tourism as a form of tourism that
(Kurniawati, 2008).
meets the needs of tourists, the tourism
From some of the above phenomena, industry, and host communities today without
the research team saw that KSPN Borobudur compromising the ability of future generation
and surrounding areas can conical to one to meet their own needs. In addition
aspect of the role of tourism stakeholders in Swarbrooke (1999: 47) also mentioned that
KSPN Borobudur and Surrounding. In order to sustainable tourism can be defined as "tourism
understand the role of tourism stakeholders in which is economically viable but does not
KSPN Borobudur and surrounding areas, further destroy the resources on which the future of
study is needed with Swarbrooke concept tourism will depend, notably the physical
analysis (1998) covering public sector, industry, environment and the social fabric of the host
voluntary sector, host community, media, and community ".
tourist.
Richards in Bramwell et al (1996) adds
And identification of stakeholder in Swarbrooke (1999: 47) "The development of
interest aspect based on the concept of tourism and the environment ... The
Rietbergen, Deepa & Narayan (1998) which development of tourism and new Investment in
includes expectation, benefit, stakeholders that the tourism sector should not detract from
can to mobilize the resources, and stakeholder tourism itself ... New tourism facilities should be
interest conflict with project goals. The parties integrated with the environment ".
proposed Swarbrooke (1998) will be seen

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control may come from a stakeholder status or
power, or from informal connections with
The Role of Tourism Stakeholders
leaders ". While the interest according to
According to Swarbrooke (1999: 15) Reitbergen (1998: 90) is "the priority concerns
stakeholders are one of the main aspects of of the stakeholders group (or what is" at stake
sustainable tourism, which is divided into six "for them)".
categories: the public sector, industry, voluntary
Mendelow Matrix Analysis Referring to
sectors, host communities, the media and
Chinyio and Olomolaiye (2010) explanation,
tourists. Like the stakeholder concept we use in
Mendelow Matrix Analysis is also known as
this study on an attempt by Swarbrooke (1999:
Stakeholder Analysis. Stakeholders are
86), there are six major stakeholders in tourism,
individuals / groups that have an interest in a
the following are stakeholders and their role in
company, which can have a positive or negative
sustainable tourism.
impact on the company itself.
C. RESEARCH METHODS
Figure 2. Stakeholder Analysis Matrix
The research method used is qualitative
descriptive method. Data collection techniques
undertaken: a) Observation b) In-Depth
Interview c) Documentation Study. Data
gathering tools used: a) interview guides; B)
check the document. By using data analysis that
is: data collection, data reduction, and data
presentation. The informants in this qualitative
research are 12 stakeholders representing the
public sector, 12 stakeholders representing the
tourism industry, 10 stakeholders representing
voluntary sectors, 5 community leaders, 5
Source: Chinyio (2010)
stakeholders representing media, 12 foreign
tourists and domestic tourists and 1 BUMN Technique examination of data validity
(SOE) ie PT. Taman Wisata Candi (PT TWC) that we use, that is; a) Triangulation b)
Borobudur. Interviews Through Discussion c) Referential
Sufficiency d) Member Check and Auditing.
The data analysis technique used in
analyzing influence and interest is Stakeholder D. RESULTS
Analysis Matrix. Stakeholder Analysis Matrix
Here are the results of analysis from
used is The Mendelow Matrix, the matrix used
stakeholders that we have identified through
to determine the potential influence of
the first, second, and third).
stakeholder groups.
1. High Interest and Low Influence
This can be seen in two dimensions, ie
(Category 1).
influence or power is "the degree to which the
stakeholder group has power and control over Stakeholder category 1 is a stakeholder
the project and can thus facilitate or hinder its who has high interest but with little influence.
implementation (Reitbergen, 1998). Examples would include resource-dependent
Reitbergen- (1998) adds "influence refers to the communities and more. As these groups will
power that stakeholders have over a project. It become project targets, they need special
can be excercise by controlling the decision- efforts to ensure that their needs are met and
making process of directily and by facilitating or
hindering the projects implementation. This

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their participation is meaningful. They will interest and low influence because they play an
match the type of "partner" involvement. objective role in providing information about
the actual conditions in the field to stakeholders
In research, influential stakeholder in
(news covers the general and wide, not just in
KSPN Borobudur which included in category 1
tourism), therefore, Harian Wawasan requires
(High Interest, Low Influence) are: ASSPI
cooperation with other stakeholders, so that the
Yogyakarta with score (3,3), Bapeda Kab.
delivery of news objective and targeted.
Magelang with score (3,3), Candirejo Village
Chief with score (5,3), PHRI Magelang with Harian Wawasan has no authority in
score (3,2), Hotel Saraswati with score (4,3), making policies and only intermediary
Nirwana Restaurant with score (4,3) , TOM Desa information between stakeholders with one
Candirejo with score (3,3), TOM Desa Tuksongo another so as to increase public awareness of
with score (3,3). the problems that exist in Magelang, especially
in KSPN Borobudur.
TOM KSPN Borobudur with score (3,3),
Suara Merdeka with score (4,3), Harian For Borobudur District (4.3) is rated as
Wawasan Suara Merdeka Group with score (4.2) the lowest rank in category 1 because
Pesona Magelang (Culinary & Homestay Borobudur Borneo has an influence in the
Division) with score (3,4), Info Borobudur with development of KSPN Borobudur and has
score (3.3) Komunitas Dokar with score (3.2), authority in making decisions in Borobudur
Komunitas Gerabah with score (3.2), Borobudur covering the authority of Social, Economic,
Folk Art Association (Asosiasi Kesenian Rakyat Politics regulated in Perda. And has programs
Borobudur/ASKRAB) with score (4.2), KSBI with implemented to enhance the development of
score (3.2), Foreign Tourist with score (4.3) and KSPN Borobudur.
Local Tourist with score (4.3).
Bappeda Kab. Magelang (3.3) entered
In this category, the rank of the highest as a low rank in category 1 because BAPPEDA
category 1 is the Borobudur Folk Art had an influence in policy making through
Association (ASKRB) and the HArian Wawasan studies conducted by BAPPEDA for planning
Suara Merdeka gorup, while the lowest rank of purposes in Kab. Magelang including KSPN
category 1 is Bapeda Kab. Magelang, and TOM Borobudur. BAPPEDA's contribution in the form
KSPN Borobudur. of role support through spatial planning and
study.
Borobudur People's Art Association
(ASKRAB) (4.2) we placed in the highest TOM Desa Majaksingi (3.3) and TOM
category 1 rank, which has high interest and low KSPN Borobudur (3.3) are listed as low ratings
influence because ASKRAB is very enthusiastic because the Majaksingi Society and KSPN
in the development of Borobudur because it Borobudur have control over the prevailing
has a role in the introduction of art and culture policies related to tourism and also have a veto
by having hope for regular coaching by the on the policy by conducting deliberation and
government and Want to create a cultural park giving opinion about the policies held by the
for the art of Borobudur increasingly raised and government.
Borobudur growing.
The community is involved in the
ASKRAB has a low influence because supervision, especially the many youths
ASKRAB has no authority in making decisions involved. As well as contributions from the
and only as an advocate and is very open to community of Majaksingi and KSPN Borobudur
cooperate with other stakeholders, especially in the form of support for tourism and the role
the government. Harian Wawasan Suara in carrying out the tourism. The authority of the
Merdeka Group (4.2) is considered to have high community in the implementation of

5
management is to give opinions and take an Borobudur Conservation Business
active role to be part of the tourism actors. Administration.

2. High Influence & High Interest Followed by Regent / District Secretary.


(Category 2). Magelang as the local government with the
value of interest and influence (5.4). The local
Stakeholders in category 2 have high
government has policies and regulations
interest values and high influence. The result of
governing sustainable tourism in Borobudur
the analysis stated that stakeholders are Bupati
which refers to Perpres no. 58 but for zone 3 is
/ Sekda Kab. Magelang (5,4), Borobudur
directly regulated by the local government of
Conservation Hall (5,4), Borobudur Cluster (5,4),
KSPN. Then the contribution of Regent / District
PT. Taman Wisata Borobudur Temple (4,4), Villa
Secretary. Magelang is a provider of facilities,
Borobudur Hotel (4,4), Plataran Resort and Spa
socialization, financial support and role in policy
(4,4). Within this category, the rank of category
making.
2 (High Interest, High Influence) highest is
Borobudur Conservation Hall with score (5.4). Next PT Taman Wisata Candi
Borobudur with score (4.4) & Prambanan
Borobudur Conservation Center is a
(Persero) is given full authority to manage the
technical implementation unit (UPT) center that
park tour. Activities undertaken by the state-
feels in the area, the Borobudur Conservation
owned companies are managing the
Area is under the Directorate General of Culture,
environment of Borobudur Temple, Prambanan
the Ministry of education and culture.
Temple, and Kraton Ratu Boko, as well as other
Technically Borobudur Conservation Center is in
cultural heritage, as a tourist park, including
the guidance of the Directorate of Preservation
technical activities, maintenance and
of Heritage and Museum.
environmental monitoring in accordance with
Borobudur Conservation Center has applicable legislation.
the first function of conservation studies on civil
Furthermore stakeholder whose value
engineering, architecture, geology, biology,
is high influence and its interest is Hotel Villa
chemistry, and archeology aspects of
Borobudur with score (4,4), influence (influence)
Borobudur Temple and other cultural heritage.
villa hotel of Borobudur in making policy of
Secondly the implementation of security,
management, implementation to development
maintenance and restoration of Borobudur
and responsibility in management and
Temple, Mendut Temple, Pawon Temple and
development at KSPN Borobudur only have
the area Borobudur cultural heritage.
authority in Provide input and advice to the
The third is as the implementation of authorities. The contribution of the hotel in
the development and utilization of Borobudur KSPN Borobudur is in the form of material
Temple, Mendut Temple, Pawon Temple, and support, provision of facilities, and the role
Borobudur cultural preserve, the fourth through the event held.
Implementation of documentation and
The interest (interest) of the hotel can
publication of Borobudur Temple, Mendut
be seen from the expectations of its
Temple, Pawon Temple, and Borobudur cultural
participation in the management and
conservation area, the fifth conservation
development of tourism in KSPN Borobudur is
implementation in conservation and
the benefit of a better known image and
conservation Borobudur Temple, Mendut
increase the number of visits, the hope of
Temple, Pawon Temple, and Borobudur cultural
providing facilities, especially in terms of
preserve area, the sixth implementation of
infrastructure, and hope in the form of
cultural heritage conservation method and
involvement in terms of policy control so that
techniques, the seventh implementation of
can be followed up by the government

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seriously. The positive impact or profit earned 3 because Restaurant Melati always always
by the Hotel in KSPN Borobudur in the form of recruits employees from indigenous people,
profit and image for the Hotel. and they also apply aspects of sustainable
tourism system by taking into account social
and natural conditions Around Melati
3. High Influence & Low Interest Restaurant (2.2), they also do not forget to
(Category 3). contribute to society especially for orphans.

Stakeholders in category 3 are 4. Low Influence & Low Interest


stakeholders with low interest and high (Category IV).
influence. In an influential study of stakeholders
Stakeholders in Category 4 are
in KSPN Borobudur included in category 3 are:
stakeholders with low interest and low influence
Head of Majaksingi Village (1,3), Tuksongo
as well. These stakeholders are considered
Village Head (1.3), Mendut Village Head (1,3)
unlikely to be involved in a plan / project and
with information (Little / No Importance,
still require specific participation strategies. In
Moderante Influence), Village Head of
this study, influential stakeholders in KSPN
Wanurejo (1,3), Head of Borobudur Village (1.3),
Borobudur are included in category 4 namely:
Yogyakarta Tourism Agency (1,3), Homestay
PHRI Yogyakarta (1.0).
Community (1,3), Ontel Community (2,3), Melati
Restaurant (2,2) and Community Leader KSPN Magelang Tourism Office (1.1), Pesona
Wanurejo 2.3). Indo Tour and Travel (1.1), Java Lestari Tour and
Travel (1,1), Hotel Pondok Tingal (2,1),
In this category, the rank of the highest
Borobudur District (2.1), TOM Desa Majaksingi
category 3 is TOM (Community Leader) KSPN
(2,1), Craft Community (2.1) and Relief
Wanurejo (2.3) and Ontel Community (2.3) d,
Magazine (Travel Media) (2,1).
while the lowest rank of category 3 is Melati
Restaurant (2.2). Stakeholder with the highest rank in
category 4 is, Hotel Pondok Tingal (2,1),
TOM (Community Leader) KSPN
Borobudur District (2,1), TOM (Community
Wanurejo (2.3) we put in the highest category 3
Leader) Majaksingi Village (2,1), Craft
rank, which has low interest and high influence
Community (2,1) and Magazine Relief (Travel
as judged from the local community, especially
Media) (2,1). Meanwhile, stakeholders with the
in Wanurejo region has a big role, such as being
lowest rank included in category 4 is PHRI
responsible for managing and developing
Yogyakarta (1.0).
tourism Borobudur, a group of folk arts are also
performances in the village which is now an Hotel Pondok Tingal (2.1) is ranked
annual event, and also provide ideas and highest in category 4 which is considered to
suggestions to the government. have low interest and low influence also
because according to the information can be
The Ontel community (2.3) is
based on interview with Pondok Tingal that
considered to have low interest and high
there is still no authority given by government
influence because the program they offer is
to industry Tourism in the making and even
empowering the community (planting trees
management of existing policies in KSPN
also attract tourists in handicrafts), and the
Borobudur, especially hotels.
programs and activities they have always strived
to give tourists insight and knowledge Culture The contribution of the hotel is limited
of Borobudur. only as a facility provider to material support
and Pondok Tingal (2.1) does not participate in
And the last one is Rumah Makan
the PHRI nor does it work with any party. In
Melati (2.2) rated as the lowest rank in category
addition, the government is also considered not

7
yet firm and even still not pay attention to the also wants if the development in the area of
existing policies. Borobudur not to displace the community.

After that for the highest ranking in Furthermore, the highest ranking in
category 4 there is Borobudur District (2.1), category 4 also includes Relief Magazine (Travel
because KSPN Borobudur only limited to Media) (2,1), due to the lack of authority and
coordinate and supervise only KSPN policy in even responsibility given by the government in
Borobudur but represented all aspects. His the manufacture and Management of existing
authority was only limited to duty as a policies in KSPN Borobudur.
subdistrict. But the District Borobudur (2.1)
But the Relief Magazine (Travel Media)
already has a vision of the development of
(2.1) has the scope of the Magelang District
Borobudur area to become an International
level. The form of contribution is given in the
Tourism Area. It's just still constrained in human
form of participation in promoting tourism
resource issues.
information in the area of Borobudur. However,
Another stakeholder who occupied the other tourism actors are still less concerned
next category is TOM (Community Leader) about Relief Magazine (Travel Media) (2,1) as
Majaksingi Village (2,1) with a description the Window of the World of Borobudur, such as
(Some Importance, Little / No Importance). the lack of contributions from tourism
TOM (Community Leaders) Majaksingi Village stakeholders in making Relief Magazine (Travel
(2.1) is limited to giving advice and opinions Media) (2,1).
only authority within
For PHRI Yogyakarta (1.0) is at the
Policy making in KSPN Borobudur. But lowest level in category 4 because PHRI
the community itself has the authority in the Yogyakarta (1.0) does not have authority in
management of tourism in Borobudur Area by making and management of policy in KSPN
directly engaging in existing activities as Borobudur because it has authority from PHRI
tourism actors. Contributions provided in the Central Java and PHRI Magelang . PHRI
form of supervision, support, and role. Yogyakarta (1.0) also does not contribute and
does not have any scope in KSPN Borobudur.
However, the TOM (Community
Leaders) Majaksingi Village (2.1) has hope in the However, PHRI Yogyakarta (1.0) wanted
form of socialization about tourism and after the construction of the airport and also a
economic improvement of tourism activities. copy road, can facilitate the many tourists who
But still found some obstacles, namely in the are eased to reach Yogyakarta from Borobudur.
form of socialization of tourism and economic And also expected Borobudur can become an
improvement of tourism activities and the icon of Yogyakarta tourist destination so that
government is still not responding to the more tourists come to visit Borobudur and also
proposals in the village of Majaksingi provide so Yogyakarta, so that the target of 10 million
that sometimes less involving the community foreign tourists can be realized.
professionally.
E. CONCLUSION
In addition, for the highest ranking in
Research Question 1: 1. How is the
category 4 there is also art association (2,1), it is
role of sustainable tourism stakeholders in
because only in the supervision of the
the KSPN Borobudur?
supervision of tourism development in
Borobudur area is still done by individuals, For The purpose of the first question is to
one craft association has not existed because know the main tasks and functions of tourism
one and the other have not been able to work stakeholders in KSPN Borobudur and
together well. The handicraft association (2.1) surrounding areas in achieving sustainable

8
tourism. Being key to the finding of the data 2. Category 2 (High Influence and High
that stakeholders become an important part in Interest).
the development of sustainable tourism in
Within this category, the rank of
KSPN Borobudur. Analysis of data of findings of
category II (High Interest, High Influence)
interviews about stakeholder responses about
highest is Borobudur Conservation Center.
their role in contributing to the construction of
KSPN Borobudur. 3. Category 3 (High Influence and Low
Interest).
Based on the concept of Swarbrooke
(1999: 15) stakeholders is one of the main In the influential stakeholder research
aspects of sustainable tourism which is divided in KSPN Borobudur included in category 3 are:
into six categories: the public sector, the Head of Majaksingi Village, Tuksongo Village
industry, the voluntary sector, the host Head, Mendut Village Head, and Village Head
community, the media, and the tourist. of Wanurejo
However, from the research that has been done,
researchers found other stakeholders in the 4. Category 4 (Low Influence and Low
National Tourism Strategic Area of Borobudur Interest).
that is not mentioned in the concept of In this study, influential stakeholders in
Swarbrooke (1999) is State-Owned Enterprises KSPN Borobudur are included in category 4
in this case is PT. Taman Wisata Candi. But not namely PHRI Yogyakarta
all indicators in each stakeholder role have been
implemented properly and effectively. Research Question 3: How is the stakeholder
mapping related to sustainable tourism in
Research Question 2: How are the Influence the KSPN Borobudur?
and the Interest of sustainable tourism
stakeholders in the KSPN Borobudur? The purpose of the third question is to
describe the mapping of stakeholders that
The main objective of the second support sustainable tourism in KSPN Borobudur
research question is to identify the role of and its surroundings.
stakeholders in KSPN Borobudur by looking at
the influence (influence) and interest (interests) Step 4, Stakeholder Analysis:
of each stakeholders in KSPN Borobudur and Formulation of Stakeholder Participation
surrounding areas. By doing SAM analysis Strategy. In Step 4 it can provide direction of
technique can be seen how much influence and development strategy that must be done after
interest owned by stakeholders in KSPN determining the stakeholder position on the
Borobudur, where the results of SAM analysis mapping. Development strategies include:
techniques are divided into several categories 1. Stakeholders with high influence and
in accordance with the influence and interest of high interest must be involved carefully to
stakeholders are: ensure their support for the KSPN Borobudur
1. Category 1 (Low Influence and High development project and surrounding areas.
Interest).
2. Stakeholders with high influence and
In this category, the rank of the highest low interest are not project targets but may
category 1 is the Borobudur Folk Art oppose such interventions; Therefore, they will
Association and the Suara Merdeka gorup Daily require, if necessary, be given their recognized
Voice, while the lowest rank of category 1 is information and views to avoid any disruption
Bapeda Kab. Magelang, and Community or conflict;
Leaders KSPN Borobudur. 3. Stakeholders with low influence and
high interest require special efforts to ensure

9
that their needs are met and their participation project and does not require a 'special
is meaningful; and participation' strategy (other than information
sharing strategies aimed at "the general public).
4. Stakeholders who have low influence
and low interest cannot be involved closely. This

Figure 3. Stakeholder Analysis Grid

(Note that the lines of the grid are not hard and fast boundaries – they are for guidance only)

10
SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DESTINATION PRODUCT IN NATIONAL TOURISM STRATEGIC
AREA OF BOROBUDUR AND SURROUNDINGS

Alifka Gaung Ryanda; Anasthasya Ayu Imelda Maramis; Elda Nurmalinda;


Inasa Ori Sativa; Nurul Fajri Amalia; Prisma Nova; Vaiz Lazuardian;

Undergraduate Student Program Study of Tourism Destination


Bandung Tourism Institute 2017

Abstract: This study attempts to proposing additional to the theory of tourism products core resources and attractors
( CRA ) and on supporting factors and resources ( SFR ) in KSPN Borobudur consisting of 6 villages named Borobudur
village, Candirejo village, Wanurejo village, Majaksingi village, Tuksongo village, and Mendut village. Research
Metodology used is verification research and development with qualitative approach. From the data findings got that
CRA from Borobudur Village is Borobudur temple, CRA from Candirejo Village is Watu Kendil, CRA from Wanurejo
Village is Pawon temple, CRA from Majaksingi Village is Camera House, CRA from Mendut Village is Mendut temple,
and CRA fromTuksongo Village is Topeng Ireng dance. From the 6 villages, the implication theory stating that 2
villages which are Wanurejo and Mendut villages showed support the theory that researchers used while the other
villages states that they are modify the grand theory that researchers used which are Candirejo Village (Soft
Ecotourism), Borobudur Village (Culinary), Majaksingi Village (Agrotourism), and Tuksongo Village (Sustainable
Cultural Tour).

Key Words: Tourism Product, KSPN Borobudur, Sustainable Sourism, Tourist Village, Cultural Tour.

A. BACKGROUND and sustainability more focused in the destination


Destination Competitiveness And product. The research team choose this theory as
Sustainability models that can be used to the mainstream theory as of theories has used in
understand factors affecting competitiveness previous studies as grand theory. In addition this
tourism and that they also might see model can also be used to analyze a destination
management and development of a destination from with tourism continuity and also
continuously. Components in the model is competitiveness a destination.
qualifying and amplifying determinants, According to government regulation PP No.
destination policy, planning and development, 50 Tahun 2011 in Indonesia there are areas that
destination management, core resources and have major function of tourism or potential for
attractors, and supporting factors and resources. development national tourism is an important
Destination competitiveness and sustainability influence in one or more, aspects such as the
models is also once used in some research as economy growth, social and cultural,
grand theory. Which is “A Models of Destination empowerment natural resources, capacity,
Competitiveness and Sustainability: Brazilian environment and defense and security called with
Perspective, 2010” to discuss understanding Kawasan Strategis Pariwisata Nasional (KSPN). In
writer about a tourist destination that obtained accordance with RIPPARNAS 2011, vision of the
from discussions with industry leaders of the development of tourism in Indonesia that the
nature competitiveness in a tourist destinations. development tourism in Indonesia are carried out
The above shows that, the research team sustainably and are able to encourage regional
integrated research ( IR ) using the theory core development and citizens welfare. Indonesia has
resources and attractors and supporting factors 88 KSPN one of which is KSPN Borobudur and
and resources of the destination competitiveness the surrounding areas.

11
Figure 1. 1 with UNWTO will manage three cities in
KSPN Borobudur and The Surroundings Map Indonesia one of which is Yogyakarta. It is aimed
the development tourism in Indonesia not only
focused on Bali and Jakarta. Although
geographically, Yogyakarta not included in KSPN
Borobudur and surrounding, but the Borobudur
temple which is close to Yogyakarta will also be
developed sustainably.
Borobudur temple is attraction on KSPN
Borobudur and surrounding can be showed by
the inclusion of Borobudur temple in 7 ( seven )
miracle the world and has been expressed by
UNESCO in 1997 as world heritage site and being
Source : Pembak Magelang, 2017
one of 10 destination priority in Indonesia that
Seen from KSPN map above, there are several set by the ministry tourism 2015. While seen from
tourism who are in it that is a Borobudur temple the perspective of perspective economic tourism,
a Pawon temple, a Mendut temple, Majaksing Borobudur is an asset that benefits economically.
village, Tuksongo village and Candirejo village. In Seen from characteristics, Borobudur is one of a
Andreea Zamfir dan Razvan (2015) journal titled relic antiquities authority at in the past, that
“Towards Sustainable Tourism Development in included in territorial tourism to a kind of culture
Urban Areas: Case Study on Bucharest as Tourist ( cultural tourism ). Besides the Borobudur
Destination” said that sustainable tourism is a temple, there is also another tourist attraction
theory that complex due having the nature of around it is a top 10 things to do in borobudur
deep, relatively, and multi dimensional.The nature according to the tourists outlined in
of multi-dimensional of sustainable tourism is lonelyplanet.com website ( 2015 ), the tenth
based on three dimensions sustainability attraction was a Borobudur temple, Mendut
different, namely, environment social, and the temple, Pawon temple, Patio, Saung Makan Bu
sustainability of economic or called equally " Empat, Waisak, Ship Museum Samurraska, and
people, planets and prosperity ". performance art Sendratari Ramayana in
According to the theory expressed, there are Borobudur. Festival of several phenomenon that
several the phenomenon in KSPN Borobudur and already mentioned then the researcher see that
surrounding about products tourism. Some this the matter at KSPN Borobudur and surrounding
event is as released in CNN Indonesia ( 2014 ) reduce to one aspects product tourist
found that tourism minister the country together destinations in KSPN Borobudur and surrounding.

B. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
This study attempts to assess the implications of the theory core resources and attractors and on
supporting factors resources products and tourism sustained in and around KSPN Borobudur.

C. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. How core resources and attractors of those tourism destinations KSPN Borobudur and surrounding?
2. How supporting factors and resources of destination in KSPN Borobudur and surrounding?

12
Destination Policy, Planning and Development
(Kebijakan Destinasi, Perencanaan dan Pengembangan)

System Competitive/Collabo- Monitoring


Philosophy/ Positioning/ Audit
(Persaingan Lingkungan Mikro)

C. LITERATURE
Definition
Values REVIEW
Vision
Branding fifth pillars rative
Development areAnalysis
qualifyingand Evaluation
and amplifying
(Pemeriksaan
(Definisi (Visi) (Pengembangan) (Kompetitif/Analisis (Pemantauan dan
Sistem)
(Filosofi/Nilai) (Penempatan/Merk)
determinant; Kolaboratif)
destination policy, planning Keuangan)
Evaluasi) and

Lingkungan Makro
According to Ritchie ( 2003 ), destination
development; destination management, core
competitiveness and sustainability
modelDestination
is
resources and attractors, and supporting factor
Management
collection of the concepts of which establishes(Manajemen Destinasi)
and resources.
and petrified clarify our
Qualityunderstanding
of to the
Finance &
Information/ Human Resource Visitor Resource Crisis
factors Marketing
Organization
that affects
Service/
competitiveness
Research
( Development
In this research,
venture researchers
Management
limit Stewardship
use only twoManagement
Experience
capital
competitiveness and sustainability
(Organisasi) (Pemasaran) (Kualitas ( sustainable )
(Informasi/ pillars the
(Pengembangan core&resources and attractors, daya
(Finansial
(Manajemen (Sumber and on(Manajemen
Pelayanan/ Penelitian) SDM) Pengunjung) Jasa) Krisis)
of a tourism. From collecting
Pengalaman) these concepts it supporting factor
Perusahaan) and resources. Following
formed five pillars some factors influence it. The derived from the second pillar:

Core Resources and Attractors


(Sumber Daya Inti dan Daya Tarik)

Physiography & Mix Activities Market Ties


Culture & History Special Events Entertainment Superstructures
Climate (Aktifitas (Hubungan
(Budaya & Sejarah) (Acara Khusus) (Hiburan) (Suprastruktur)
(Fisiografi & Iklim) Campuran) Pasar)

Supporting Factors and Resources

Political Will
Infrastructure Accessibility Facilitating Resources Hospitality Enterprise
(Infrasturktur) (Aksesibilitas) (Penyediaan Sumber Daya) (Ramah Tamah) (Perusahaan) (Keinginan
Politik)

1. Core Resources and Attractors (CRA): Is the basic reason why candidates visitors choose one of the
objectives of than other. The following components of CRA: Physiography and Climate, Culture and
History, Market Ties, Mix of Activities, Special Events, Entertainment, and Tourism Superstructure.
2. Supporting Factors and Resources (SFR): Is a success it foundation where tourism industry could
be set up. A tourist with abundance of core resources and attractors but with scarcity on supporting
factors and resources may be hard to develop tourism industries, at least in the short term, until
some lack of parental. Following components of SFR: Infrastructure, Accessibilities, Facilitating,
Enterprise, Hospitality, and Political Will.
3. Sustainable Tourism (ST): Product development it can be said sustainable tourism whenever a
tourism having the consistency of to nature, social and value customary provide the opportunity to
guest and host to enjoy the positive impact of interaction and share experience together (Eadington
and Smith, 1992).

D. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This research in a verification research and product or producing certain products.


development with a qualitative approach. Verification research and development that is to
Verification research namely research was done test effectiveness of a product or producing
with populations or a given sample with a view to certain products. Based on the above so it can be
test hypotheses was set. While research concluded that verification research purposes is
development which is to test effectiveness of a conducting a theory or against the previous

13
studies, so the results felled or strengthen theory surrounding the Borobudur temple, Mendut
and the research previously been conducted. temple, Pawon temple, Majaksing village,
While development research purposes is to Tuksongo village, and Candirejo village. In this
develop, digging and extending deeper about a study, researchers used non-probability sampling
subject or theory scholarship to become deeper as techniques to technique accidental sampling and
a suggestion in solving various problems. purposive sampling. Sampling used the foreign
In this research approach executed is a tourists and tourists, stakeholders, and village
qualitative approach. The qualitative study is a apparatus Candirejo village, Wanurejo village,
process on understanding of inquiry based on Tuksongo village, Majaksingi village, Borobudur
traditions to separate, methodology examination village, and Mendut village. Data collection
of an social problems or human, researchers build techniques used the observation, interview, and
a complex, a holistic views, words analysis of the study documentation while the data collection
reports which is detailed view of informants and used a checklist, interview guidelines, and the
carry out at an object natural. The destination documentation. Data analysis techniques used in
products sustained in and around KSPN research is point rating. Point scale ratings scale
Borobudur. used in observation to explain, classify, judge
The population of the research is a tourist individuals or situation.
destination that is in KSPN Borobudur and

E. THE FINDINGS OF THE STUDY

Researchers conducted analysis there are While on supporting factors of the 6


components core resources attractors and villages which is a Borobudur village is
supporting factors used a analysis point rating infrastructure and accessibility, Candirejo village
scale to do weighting to population that is in is facilities was provided, Wanurejo village is
KSPN Borobudur and the surrounding areas. Data amenities are complete with stores like rik-rok
from the point rating scale is used for measuring souvenir shop, Majaksingi village is the political
6th century villages that are of the population in will or visi-misi, Mendut village accessibility
KSPN Borobudur and the surrounding areas. The performed better, and Tuksongo village is the
village is Candirejo village, Borobudur village, infrastructure and facilities good enough. The
Mendut village, Majaksingi village, Tuksongo products in each of these villages become the
village, and Wanurejo village. Based on the data main attraction because the tourism products
the findings from the field found that core have unique in the village. With the tourist
resources attractors in the Borobudur village that attraction the level of visits also increased so that
is a Borobudur temple, Wanurejo village that is a the economic growth local community has
Pawon temple, Majaksingi village namely the increased significantly. From the data findings
Camera House, Candirejo village namely Watu then the researcher implies the data into
Kendil, Tuksongo village namely Topeng Ireng implication theory point ratings scale that can be
dance, and Mendut village that is a Mendut seen shows below :
temple.

14
Table. 4.1
Point Rating Scale Desa in KPSN Borobudur and The Surroundings.
Destination The Needs on Data Score Conclusion
Borobudur Village  Core Resources Data from the findings are concluded that CRA in
and Attractors the Borobudur village is the Borobudur temple
 Supporting whish was sponsored by PT. Taman Wisata Candi
Factors Borobudur, Pramanbanan, and Ratu Boko. While SF
 Sustainable in the village Borobudur the infrastructure and
Tourism accessibility of adequate so many foreign and
domestic tourist he who visited the temple
59
Borobudur because the temple Borobudur in set by
KEMENPAR as top 10 destinations in Indonesia.
Besides priority, Borobudur village have the
economic hall as a miniature from the Borobudur
village and ease accessibility of to the village
Borobudur is one of the reasons why many tourists
who pay a visit to the Borobudur temple.
Candirejo Village  Core Resources From the data findings it can be concluded that CRA
and Attractors in the Candirejo village namely Watu Kendil while SF
 Supporting from the Candirejo village that we and equipment
Factors good enough compared with other village tourist is
 Sustainable in Magelang. Facilities include the cooperative hall
Tourism tourist village, economic hall tourist Candirejo
55 village, home industry making Selondok, and there
are tour guide local to assist the tourists for conduct
a visit to the village, and Candirejo village have
done cooperation with various tour & travel
contained in the Magelang city and surrounding
areas to allow tourists to serve tour package to visit
Candirejo village.
Desa Wanurejo  Core Resources From the findings data, it can be concluded that
and Attractors CRA from Wanurejo Village is Pawon Temple
 Supporting managed by BKB (Borobudur Conservation Hall)
Factors while SF from Wanurejo village is a good enough
 Sustainable amenities such as Rik - Rok souvenir shop which sell
Tourism 53 various handicrafts and the presence of Dewi Wanu
Batik which is managed by the local community of
Wanurejo village. This causes the number of tourists
who visit the village to shop so it can be said that
Wanurejo Village directs its tourism potential to
creative tourism.

15
Majaksingi Village  Core Resources From the data findings it can be concluded that CRA
and Attractors from the Majaksingi village namely the camera
 Supporting house because we of the camera house in the
Factors village and the visits also has increased because of
 Sustainable the cameras is the only one tourist attraction
Tourism 47 artificial quite impressive on Magelang. While SF
contained in the Majaksingi village that all tourism
activities enter visi-misi. But, level of public
awareness localized in moving tourism is very weak
it before the tourists who visited to the Majaksingi
village in addition to the camera house.
Mendut Village  Core Resources From the data findings it can be concluded that CRA
and Attractors from the Mendut village performed the Mendut
 Supporting temple managed by Balai Konservasi Borobudur.
Factors While SF from the Mendut village performed the
 Sustainable accessibility of good because the temple mendut
43
Tourism performed very strategic. The event tourism in the
Mendut village performed is pretty good with local
level of public awareness in running tourism
activities by selling souvenir around the Mendut
temple performed.
Tuksongo Villag  Core Resources From the data findings it can be concluded that CRA
and Attractors from the Tuksongo village the topeng ireng dance
 Supporting which is typical dance that is the Magelang. The
Factors pioneer of toprng ireng dance first in Magelang
 Sustainable which is a Tuksongo village. In this Tuksongo village
Tourism established appearance for the great Magelang or
35
inter province competition. While SF contained in
the Tuksongo village good infrastructure and
facilities are sufficient. But, the level of
consciousness locals in running tourism activities in
the village is very weak so that the rate tourist visits
to the Tuksongo relatively low.
Source : Processed researchers data, 2017

16
THE RELATION OF BOROBUDUR DESTINATION IMAGE AND TOURIST BEHAVIOUR TO TOURIST
TRAVEL PATTERN IN NATIONAL TOURISM STRATEGIC AREA OF BOROBUDUR

Anissa Novriyanti; Dandy Anugerah P.A; Grace San White; Ira Vitriany; Lauditta Nabila Q.; Jihan F.A.A:
Riama Gupfietta S.; Sintia Ratna K.; Syeikhfti Syah F.

Undergraduate Student Program Study of Tourism Destination

Bandung Tourism Institute 2017

Borobudur temple is a world heritage that attracts many tourists interest to visit. This temple is
located in Magelang regency in an area called the National Tourism Strategic Area of Borobudur set
by the Ministry of Tourism since 2014. Strategic Area Tourism Borobudur Temple also has other
supporting attractions that are in the vicinity of the temple is located. With a good image of
borobudur, the tourist should reach the other attraction in Strategic Area Tourism Borobudur
Temple but this doesnt happen and tourists spend more time in other destinations, such as
Yogyakarta, thus making a long stay in the Borobudur Region low. This is related to the image of
Borobudur itself known in the province of Yogyakarta, thus making travel patterns and tourist
behavior more focused to Yogyakarta. Therefore the purpose of the research is to prove the
correlation destination image and tourist behaviour concept to the travel pattern concept in
National Tourism Strategis Area in Borobudur. This research is explanatory research with
quantitative approach, by using descriptive statistic data analysis, partial correlation analysis, and
factor analysis. The result that the destination image and Tourist Behaviour has Correlation to Travel
Pattern in National Tourism Strategic Area of Borobudur as defined by Prayag (2010) and Gita
(2014). Also found each of the two factors that compose destination image of Borobudur, tourist
behavior, and travel patterns in the area of Borobudur temple that the concept based upon Yk-su
Lee (2013) for Destination Image, Tourist Behaviour factor by Kotler and Keller (2008) and Travel
Pattern assumed by last research of lew and Mckercher (2006). The findings raised a number of
issues that can be explored in future research related Travel Pattern that focused on Destination
Characteristic that didnt explain in this research: This research has focused on Tourist Characteristic
from travel Pattern and similar Research can be conducted on multiple comparable case studies to
apply the findings other on other cases.

Keyword : destination image, Tourist behaviour, Travel pattern, Correlation, Factor, Borobudur.

Introduction

Borobudur Tourism Park is one of the UNESCO world heritage and one of the 10 destination
priority accroding to Ministry of Tourism of Indonesia policy. This are strategy of Ministry of Tourism
of Indonesia to achieve tourism visitor target in 2019, the strategy is prioritize marketing development
in several leading destination in Indonesia. Segmenting target market is one of the marketing concept.
This concept can see through the tourist behaviour and travel pattern, also destination image is
include at marketing concept.

Prayag (2010) in tourism analysis explained that travel pattern is affected by destination
image, because the destination image will influenced tourist with they choice of destination during
their trip. Thus destination image also give influence to trip-decision making and behaviour during
trip, also satisfactiion level and mind of experience. According to statement by Prayag (2010), the
image be perceived as basic of evaluation process, and selection, and the conclusion is that

17
destination image have a relation between motivation and destination choice (O’Leary and Deegan,
2003).

Gita Oktavia in Domestic Tourism Travel to see the relation of socio – demografi with
motivation and travel pattern, found that there is a correlation between socio – demografi
charateristic with tourism travel behaviour.

Majority of tourist that visit Borobudur Park Temple is used travel beareau and using
Yogyakarta as a gate to come to Borobudur, because of that tourist well known Borobudur as a part of
Yogyakarta. The occurence of tourist distribution that come to Borobudur through Yogyakarta does
not reach other attractions in Borobudur Temple Park. There is small number of travel bereau that
include others attraction in Borobudur Temple Park except Borobudur in their package, because of
that chance for tourist to explore all area in Borobudur Temple Park is getting small. From interview
with 5 travel bereau in Magelang, the available package is still depent on what tourist want and the
average package is 1 day trip to 2 village, which is Candirejo and Wanurejo.

With a good value at destination image, the visitor will increase. But the other attraction
around Borobudur Temple Region does not have big impact from this effect. According to that
phenomena, it is required that a research about Relation of Destination Image and Tourist Behaviour
to Travel Pattern

The purpose of the research is to prove the correlation destination image and tourist
behaviour concept to the travel pattern concept in National Tourism Strategis Area in Borobudur. In
order to achieve the purpose of this study, concrete research problems were set up as follows:

1. How is the relation between Borobudur Destination Image and travel pattern that controlled
by tourist behaviour according to domestic tourist from online and onsite questionnaire and
International tourist from online and onsite questionnaire ?
2. How is the relation between tourist behaviour and travel pattern that controlled by Borobudur
Destination image according to domestic tourist from online and onsite questionnaire and
International tourist from online and onsite questionnaire ?

3. How is the factors that compose Borobudur destination image according to to domestic
tourist from online and onsite questionnaire and International tourist from online and onsite
questionnaire ?
4. How is the factors that compose tourist behaviour while visiting Borobudur Strategic National
Tourism Region according to to domestic tourist from online and onsite questionnaire and
International tourist from online and onsite questionnaire ?
5. How is the factors that compose tourist travel pattern while visiting Borobudur Strategic
National Tourism Region according to to domestic tourist from online and onsite
questionnaire and International tourist from online and onsite questionnaire ?

Literature Review
1. Destination Image
Image of tourist destination is classified into cognitive and emotional image. As for the cognitive
image, attribute of functional factor such as landscape held by tourist destination, climate, of facilities
are evaluated and understood. contray to this the emotional image is pepresenting individuals
thinking and feeling to the tourist destination by tourist. as for search made by coban the quantity of
factors composing cognitive image are; Touristy attractions, Basic facilities, Cultural attractions,
Touristy substructures and Access possibilities, Natural environment, Variety and economical factors.
We measured the emotional component of destination image using the four-item scale initially
developed by Russell (1980), and subsequently used by other tourism scholars (e.g., Baloglu and
Brinberg, 1997; Walmsley and Young, 1998). The four bipolar affective items were distressing/relaxing,
gloomy/exciting, sleepy/arousing, and unpleasant/pleasant.

18
2. Tourist Behaviour
Tourist behaviour in this literatur using the concept from Kotler and Keller (2008) “study of how
individuals, groups, and organizations select, buy, use, and dispose of goods, services, ideas, or
experiences to satisfy their needs and wants”.this consept classifyied tourist behaviour into 4
dimension ; Cultural factor, Sosial factor, Personal factor, Psychological factor. Cultural factor to know
the background of the tourist and culture which influence the tourist in destination. Social factor In
addition to cultural factors, social factors such as reference groups, family, and social roles and
statuses affect our buying behavior. Personal factor these include the buyer's age and stage in the life
cycle; occupation and economic circumstances; personality and self-concept; and lifestyle and values
and last Psycological factor Four key psychological processes-motivation, perception, learning, and
memory-fundamentally influence consumer responses, For psycological factor the measure is to know
the motive before the tourist come to Borobudur temple, their perceiption about Borobudur temple
before and after. and their experience such sense, feel, think, act and relate (e.g schmitt, 1999).
3. Travel Pattern
Travel pattern is how tourists move through time and space, and the factors that influence
their movements, has important implications for infrastructure and transport development, product
development, destination planning, and the planning of new attractions, as well as management of
the social, environmental, and cultural impacts of tourism(Lew & McKercher, 2006) Lew & McKercher
divided 2 variable that affected to travel pattern, which is destination characteristic that consist of Trip
origins/ Accomodation locations, Trip destination/Attraction location, Transportation accesbility. and
tourist characteristic that consist of 3 dimenssion such as Personality, time budget and Place
Knowledge.

Research Method

In this research we used explanatory research methods with quantitative approach. Population
of this research consist of domestic tourist, and international tourist that visit Borobudur Strategic
National Tourism Region. The data used in this study were derived from a survey conducted in online
using www.typeform.com and onsite in Taman Wisata Candi Borobudur. With number of sample is
464 tourist from 93 domestic tourist onsite, 258 domestic tourist online, and 100 foreign tourist
onsite, 13 foreign tourist online by accidental sampling technique. As for analysis technique we used
statistic descriptive, partial correlation and factor analysis.

Respondent Profil
Respondent consist of 464 tourist from 113 international tourist and 251 domestic tourist.
the majority tourist consist more female (52,6%) than male (47,4 %). The majority are between the
ages of 19-24, accounting for 60,34% of the total respondents. Most of them are student (67,24%). A
dominating percentage of international respondents are from Europe (52,2%). and for domestic
tourist from java (82,59%). about (42,67%) of the respondents are first-timers, and most of them prefer
to stay in Yogjakarta (83,40%) than stay in magelang (12,2%). most of the tourist coming with friend
(42,02%), family (37,06%) and parther (11,63%).
About 85,12% tourist visit other destination during the travel in indonesia, before visitng
borobudur (61,20%) tourist visiting other destination in D.I Yogyakarta and only 4,31% visiting
destination in Magelang. similar to the after visiting borobudur the tourist prefer to visit destination in
D.I Yogyakarta (50,6%) than Magelang (3,44%).
About (54,31%) tourist said that borobudur in Yogjakarta and (26,5 %) in Magelang. and the
image of borobudur by (35,5%) said Temple and (30,38 %) borobudur is magnificence and (34,05%)
other (Art, Budha, Heritage,World Wonder, mistical and peacefull). about (95,6%) tourist said that the
image meets the expectation.

Findings
1. the relation between destination image and travel pattern controlled by tourist behaviour

19
Domestic International
Tourist
Onsite Online Onsite Online
With
Tourist 0,425 0,4 0,516 0,784
Behaviour
Without
Tourist 0,142 0,276 0,157 0,058
Behaviour

The table above shows the value of the correlation coefficient between destination image
and travel patterns of tourists. If tourist behaviors are included, the correlation coefficient of onsite
and online domestic tourists are 0.425 and 0.400, and for onsite and online international tourists are
0.516 and 0.784, which means tourist behavior and travel patterns have enough correlation for onsite
and online domestic tourist and a strong correlation for onsite and online International tourists. If
tourist behavior is not included the value of the correlation coefficient between destination image and
travel pattern is decreasing, which means the correlation of destination image and travel pattern has a
weak correlation if there is no contribution of tourist behavior. From the analysis results above can be
concluded that the tourist behavior plays an important role in the relationship between the
destination image and travel patterns.

2. the relation between tourist behaviour and travel pattern controlled by destination image

Domestic International
Tourist
Onsite Online Onsite Online
With
Tourist 0,589 0,321 0,603 0,926
Behaviour
Without
Tourist 0,467 0,085 0,393 0,795
Behaviour

The table above describe the value of the correlation coefficient between tourist behavior
and travel patterns. If destination image are included, the correlation coefficient of onsite and online
domestic tourists are 0.425 and 0.400, and for onsite and online international tourists are 0.516 and
0.784, which means tourist behavior and travel patterns have enough correlation for onsite and online
domestic tourist and a strong correlation for onsite and online International tourists.

If destination image is not included the value of the correlation coefficient between the
destination image and the travel pattern is decreasing, which means the correlation of tourist behavior
and travel pattern has a weak correlation if there is no contribution of destination image. according to
the analysis results above can be concluded that the destination image plays an important role in the
relationship between the destination image and travel patterns.

20
3. The Factors which compose the Destination Image

Factor which compose Destination image


Domestic International
Domestic Onsite
Online Onsite
FACTOR Dimentions
Component Component Component Component
1 4 1 1
Touristy V105 (0,594) V105 (0.511)
Attractions VI06 (0,651) VI06 (0,567)
VI07 (0.654) VI07 (0.533)

Basic VI08 (0,776) VI08 (0,659)


Facilities VI09 (0,690) VI09 (0,594)
Cognitive
VI10 (0,569) VI10 (0,578)
Variety and VI16 (0,680) VI17 (0,589)
Economical
VI18 (0,572)
Factors
Cultural VI11 (0,666) VI11 (0,834)
Atraction VI12 (0,668) VI12 (0,751)
VI01 (0,595) VI02 (0,515)
Emotional Bipolar Adj
VI04 (0,622)
Explained variance by factor
37,217 6,001 35,214 30,272
(%)
Component transformation
0,618 0,586 0,707 0,537
matrix

There are two factors in the formation of the destination image by onsite domestic tourist,
Cognitive and emotional factor consisting of Touristy Attractions, Basic Facilities, Variety and Economical
Factors and Bipolar adjective. according to the online domestic tourist, the biggest factor in the
destination image formation is cognitive factors consists of Touristy Attractions, Basic Facilities, Variety
and Economical Factors. According to foreign tourist the biggest factor in the destination image
formation are the cognitive and emotional factors consisting of Cultural Attractions, Variety and
Economical Factors and Bipolar Adkective
Therefore, there are two biggest factors in the formation destination image, such as cognitive
and emotional factors consisting of Touristy Attractions, Basic Facilities, Cultural Attractions, Variety and
Economical Factors and Bipolar adjective.

4. The Factors which compose Tourist Behaviour

Factor which compose Tourist Behaviour


International
Domestic Onsite Domestic Online
FACTOR Dimentions Onsite
Component Component Component Component Component Component

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1 2 3 1 2 1
Personality
and Self
concept VTB 01 VTB01
Self Factor
Personality (0,591) (0.604)
and Self
concept
VTB 10 VTB10
(0,767) (0,649)
VTB12 VTB 11 VTB12
Motivation VTB 13 VTB11
(0,529) (0,574) (0,561)
(0,637) (0,675)
VI13 (0,689)
VTB02 VTB02
(0.831) (0,808)
VTB03 VTB03
(0,848) (0,791)
Perception VTB05 (0.635)
VTB04 VTB04
Psycological
(0,796) (0,836)
Factor
VTB05 VTB05
(0,761) (0,657)
VTB 06 VTB06
VTB06 (0,837)
(0,706) (0,688)
VTB 07 VTB07
VTB07 (0,746)
(0,775) (0.809)
Learning
VTB 08 VTB08
VTB09 (0,782)
(0,794) (0,597)
VTB 09 VTB09
(0,775) (0,767)
Explained variance by
45,478 10,925 8.327 40,986 15,136 37,301
factor (%)
Component
0,700 0,721 0,967 0,782 0,782 0,681
transformation matrix

From the results of factor analysis can be seen the biggest factors in the formation of tourist
behavior. According to the onsite and online domestic tourist the biggest factor in the formation of
tourist behavior is psychological and personal factors consisting of Personality and Self Concept,
Motivation, Perception, and Learning, whereas according to foreign tourists most factor in the formation
of tourists behavior is only psychological factors Which consists of Learning and Perception. Therefore,
there are two factors in the formation of tourist behavior that psychological and personal factors
consisting of personality and self-concept, motivation, perception and learning.

5. The Factors which compose Travel Pattern

Factor which compose


Factor Dimention Domestic Tourist Onsite Domestic Tourist Online International Tourist

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Onsite
Component Component Component Component Component Component
1 2 1 2 1 2
Place VTP01 VTP06 VTP01 VTP06 VTP01 VTP06
Knowledge (0.857) (0,875) (0.775) (0,881) (0,657) (0,857)
Tourist VTP03 VTP03 VTP03
Personality
Characteristic (0,662) (0,717) (0,620)
VTP05 VTP05 VTP05
Time Budget
(0,760) (0,694) (0,598)
VTP 02 VTP02
Destination (0,781) (0,825) VTP02 VTP04
Akomodation
Characteristic VTP04 VTP04 (0,783) (0,660)
(0,751) (0,829)
Explained variance by factor
48.775 18.252 48.756 17.572 37,427 18,364
(%)
Component transformation
0,753 0,753 0,899 0,899 0,888 0,888
matrix

According to the result of factor analysis, the factor that compose travel pattern are Tourist Characteristics
and Destination Characteristics, which consists of Place Knowledge, Personality, Time Budget, and
Accommodation.

Conclusions
From the results of the analysis described above, the image of Borobudur has correlation with
travel patterns and so as the tourist behavior and travel pat terns also have correlation. tourist behaviour
has contribution to the correlation between destination image and travel pattern. and destination image
also give contribution to the correlation between tourist behaviour to travel pattern. as a concept by
prayag (2010) and Gita (2014) that The destination image affects the motivation and tourist decision
making that will affect the travel patterns of tourists. The better destination image the higher level of visits
in the destination, which also means the higher the motivation and decision to visit the better image of
the destination in the tourists mind who can increase the level of a destination visit.

Based on the review of literature, input from academicians and professionals, test, a preliminary
scale was developed based on attitudinal theory of cognition and emotional, which contained six factors
(Touristy attractions, basic facilities, cultural attractions, touristy substructures and access possibilities,
natural environment, variety and economical factors) (Suzan Coban, 2010). following the concept of the
six-factor by suzan coban (2010), in this research the factor was reduced and respecified based on
research findings, which led to a four-factor (Touristy Attractions, Basic Facilities.Variety and Economical
Factors and Bipolar adjactive).

According to the result of Factor Analysis the factor that compose tourist behaviour are The
Psycological factor Such as Motivation, Perception, Learning and The Personal Factor consist of
Personality. Owing to the Concept by Kotler and Keller (2008) which consist of 4 factor.

Travel Pattern component ware set as 2 factor such as Tourist Characteristic and Destination
Characteristic and the dimension was fixed Place Knowledge, Personality, Time Budget, and accomodation
location compose travel pattern. compared to the simillar research by lew and Mckercher (2006) 2 factor

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(Destination Characteristic and Tourist Characteristic) with 6 dimenssion (fixed Place Knowledge,
Personality, Time Budget, accomodation location, Trip destinations, Transportation accessibility).
Implication

The findings raised a number of issues that can be explored in future research related Travel
Pattern that focused on Destination Characteristic that didnt expain in this research: This research has
focused on Tourist Characteristic from travel Pattern and similar Research can be conducted on multiple
comparable case studies to apply the findings other on other cases.

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