Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 17

FACULTY OF APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCE

ABPC3303

PRINCIPLES OF BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION

NAMA : NOORAINI BINTI GHAZALI

NO. MATRIKULASI : 780330035426002

NO. KAD PENGNEALAN: 780330035426

E-MEL: nooraini_g@oum.edu.my
PUSAT PEMBELAJARAN: PUSAT PEMBELAJARAN SHAH ALAM

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Human development is a lifelong process related to physical growth,

behavior, cognitive, development and emotional change. Many changes occur in

every stage of life - from infants to children, children to adolescents, and

ultimately adults. Throughout this process, everyone develops attitudes and

values that are closely related to choice, relationships and society.

At the end of adolescence or early adulthood, this is the period in which there

will be changes and explorations that cover various aspects of life such as home,

family, work and school. During this period, physical and sexual physical

changes are almost complete but it is still a period of adaptation to their new

physical.

They need to adapt to a more mature body and sexual feelings. They need to

adapt and develop a sense of sexual identity, including combining personal

feelings of manhood and femininity into their own identity.

Also, they will develop and use thinking skills. There will be a change in

their capacity to think. They are able to understand, thinking far ahead, thinking

about the possibilities and results of events. When they can consider different

views, this allows them to feel empathy and start showing concern to others.
Ten years ago, I just reached my early adulthood. I am just going through

physical and emotional changes in reaching an adult's age. At that time, I began

to develop my sense of self as an individual and widened the scope of my

association. The late rejuvenation should have a stronger identity, though I still

explored it at that time. I will begin to improve my identity around issues such as

gender, ethnicity or physical attributes.

At that time, I was able to understand the moral behavior and fundamental

principles of justice. Therefore, I have made my own stand and are somewhat less

influenced by my friends when making a decision. Peer relationships can provide

support and motivation to teens. As my network with peers grew broader, the

relationship became more profound, helping me to shape my interactions with

friends.

Then, I will gradually take on role as an adult in the community. From this

role, I learned the skills required, and at the same time, managing various claims

and meeting expectations. At this point I will make the most important decision

in determining my future journey.


2.0 SELF REPORT

2.1 Definition of Behaviour Modification

 Behavior decision as a respons (Chaplin)

 Individuals may be anything for any cause (Spiegler)

 Cause of this behavior because they make the positive assessment in such

behavior and sure that other people have a most popular articles and about

them to acting this behavior (Azjen, 1988)

Behavior is a character / individual character or human form. Behavior is

what one does and say. Behavioral characteristics:

- what people say and do (Actions)

- have one or more dimensions (Dimensions) measurable (Frequency,

duration, intensity, latency)


- Observable and Measurable

- Has an impact on the environment

- Legalized - (relationship between behavior and environmental events)

- in the form of overt or covert.

Behavior is also a response from stimuli, it stimulates both from within and

from the outside by way of feeling, thinking and need to emerge from one's

attitude.

Efforts to formulate theoretical and intact concepts in order to explain human

behavior have long been taken by people. Although the various efforts

undertaken to develop such theories and concepts have been continuously done,

however, the puzzles of human behavior have not been fully answered.

Considering the innumerable number of people on earth, the fact shows that

no one has the same characteristics, even in individuals who are born in identical

twins.

Although there are various obstacles and difficulties in understanding human

behavior, human beings never stop trying to find answers on all things related to

human behavior through various scientific studies, among others, from astrology,

theology, philosophy, anthropology, sociology, and psychology.

Efforts to understand human behavior through various areas of study have a

very important significance because of the wide-ranging dimensions of human

life such as population explosions, environmental pollution, war, global tensions,

racial prejudice, crime, hunger and poverty can be solved by one first understand

human behavior in various dimensions.


In smaller scope, especially in relation to the counseling and counseling

profession in charge of providing counseling and counseling services to

individuals who need help, understanding behavior becomes an indefinable need,

because understanding of behavior becomes the main capital in the effort of

providing assistance. Thus, an attempt to gain insight into human behavior is not

merely an attempt to wreak havoc on human curiosity, but it is even an obligation

for man to maintain his survival and improve the quality of his life in the future.

While according to Atkinson, 1998. Personality is all different forms of mind,

emotion, and behavior, and are characteristics that determine individual personal

styles and affect their interactions with the environment. Whiterington (in rumini,

1988) describes that personality as a whole of an integral person's behavior, as it

appears to others.

Personality is not merely a matter of attachment to a person, but rather a

result of an old establishment within a cultural environment. Furthermore,

Whitherington (in Rumini, 1988) distinguishes the way the use of the following

personality words:

1. Popular personality is the impression caused by one's physical attributes,

such as the way of dress, physical nature, attractiveness and so forth.

2. Psychologists are more concerned with deeper and broader meanings,

which include the distinctive, unique characteristics that are always present in the

person concerned, but are not always seen in the first glance of observation.

2.2 Description of Behaviour Modification


Behavioral modification is a paradigm that people will change according to

what they learn from their family, friends, friends or learn from themselves, this

self-learning process that will eventually form a person, while the formation is

highly adapted to the conditions and needs of the person either in the everyday or

in certain circumstances.

Forms of behavioral modification are categorized into three groups as

follows:

a. Natural change: change of behavior due to natural change (environment)

naturally.

b. Planned change: behavior change because it is planned by the concerned.

c. Readiness to change: behavior change due to the occurrence of internal

processes (readiness) in the person concerned, where this internal process differs

in each individual.

Behavior change occurs with various strategies and ways. The strategy in

behavior modification is as follows:

a. Enforcement

 Behavioral changes are made by force, and or use rules or regulations.

 Generate rapid behavior changes, but temporarily (non-permanent).

b. Education

 Behavioral change is done through the learning process, from information

delivery or counseling.
 Generate lasting change of behavior, but takes a long time

3.0 RELATION WITH THE THEORY

3.1 Personality Theory

According to Hall and Lindzey (1993) a personality theory is expected to

provide answers to questions about what, how, and why about human behavior.
For that according to Pervin (in Hall and Lindzey) a complete personality theory

usually has the following dimensions:

1. The discussion of the structure, ie the aspects of personality that are relatively

stable and settled, and constitutes the elements of the personality figure.

2. Discussion on the process, ie the concepts of motivation to explain the

dynamics of behavior or personality.

3. Discussion on growth and development, ie changes in structure from infancy to

maturity, accompanying changes, and various factors that determine it.

4. Discussion on psychopathology, the essence of personality disorder and

behavior with its origin and development.

5. Discussion on behavior change, ie the conception of how behavior can be

modified or modified.

Koswara, 1991. Explains that a theory of personality has the same function.

Viewed from its function a personality theory should have a function:

a. Descriptive function. This descriptive function creates a personality theory that

can organize and describe behaviors or events experienced by individuals

systematically and consistently.

b. Function Forecasting (predictive). Thus a theory of personality should be able

to explain the behavior or events and consequences that have not yet appeared on the

individual. It is shown that theoretical concepts can be empirically tested with

probable acceptance or rejection.

Judging from its criteria, according to Korwara (1991) a complete personality

theory is expected to have six criteria, namely;


1. Veriability. This criterion emphasizes that personality theory should focus on

clear concepts, expeditiously defined, and have the logical connection of each other so

that this personality theory can be diferivised or examined by other researchers.

2. Heuristic value. This criterion evaluates to what extent a theory of personality

can directly invite research. a good personality theory should be able to invite

research to rely on the theory of personality. This is done by defining operational

concepts.

3. Internal consistency. This criterion emphasizes that personality theory should

not invite conflicts that can further lead to doubt or distrust.

4. Frugality. This criterion suggests that personality theory should be constructed

based on the least concise concept. so, if a personality theory is constructed based on

a number of different concepts, which to illustrate each behavior requires a concept,

then this personality theory can not be said to meet the prudential criteria.

5. Comprehensiveness. This criterion refers to the diversity and diversity of

phenomena that can be attributed to a personality theory. The more extensive a

personality theory is, the more the phenomenon or the basics of behavior it can reveal.

6. Signification Function. This criterion suggests that a strong personality theory

should really be useful in understanding everyday human behavior through the

explanations given.
3.2 Behaviour Theory

According to Abraham Maslow in 1958 that behavioristic psychology was

the first force. This stream was pioneered by John Broadus Watson (1878-1958).

This behavior comes from the term "Behavior" which means behavior. So in this

flow, behaviorism psychology learns that the behavior is real, open and

objectively measurable by us. This behavioral flow appeared in the United States

in 1913.

According to Abraham Maslow in 1958 that behavioristic psychology is the

first force. This stream was pioneered by John Broadus Watson (1878-1958).

This behavior comes from the term "Behavior" which means behavior. So in this

flow, behaviorism psychology learns that the behavior is real, open and

objectively measurable by us.

This behavioral flow appeared in the United States in 1913. This trend

assumes that human psychology is based on our behavior not from our

consciousness. Behaviorists explain that learning as a process of behavioral

change where reinforcement and punishment become stimulus to stimulate the

educators in behaving. Although the appearance of Behaviorism at a glance

seemed radical and changed dramatically the psychological understanding,

Brennan (1991) views the emergence of Behaviorism more as evolutionary

change than revolutionary.

The basics of Behaviorism thought have been found centuries before.

Behaviorism is essentially a combination of empiricism, utilitarianism, and

hedonism. The flow of behaviorism in response to instrospectionism is one that

analyzes human psyche based on subjective reports. Behaviorism only analyzes


seemingly measurable behavior drawn and predicted. The theory of this flow is

known by the theory of learning, because according to them all human behavior

is the result of learning. This trend also questioned how human behavior is

controlled by environmental factors, leading to a stimulus-response Physiology

branch (S-R Psychology) that studies the relevant stimuli in the environment, the

responses raised by the stimuli and there are gifts or penalties that occurred after

the response.

For example, when a mother wants to teach how to teach counting, she will

first observe how her child's physical condition and basic abilities are. mother

will think it as a subject and her child as an object. neutral facts must be owned

by the mother in dealing with her child. A clean thought of its subjective elements.

At this stage calculating learning materials will be provided as a stimulus form of

the mother to her child. The mother will explain and exemplify how the causal

sequence in teaching will be obtained as a result. The cause chain (stimulus grant)

- this effect will result in a response from the child whose response will form a

behavioral change as a result of learning. These theories will be practiced and

instrumental in the next classes.

The short case above is an example of a home-based learning with the

application of behaviorism theory. Mother taught a stimulus in the form of

teaching materials and hoped she would have a response in the form of behavior

change from her children. Behavioral changes in the form of ignorance and

inability to practice the given lessons turn out to be able to practice them. mother

does not see how the child's learning process, mom only looks at how the final

result is obtained. The positive or negative reinsurance will be dependent on how

the behavioral change changes. This behavior is more analyzing a behavioral


change that is considered as a result of experience. This flow also analyzes the

behavior that is apparent because this flow is more emphasizing on human

behavior. This behavior of course can be measured, described and predicted.

Behavior theory is a theory triggered by Gage and Berliner about changing

behavior as a result of experience. Then this theory develops into a learning

psychology stream that affects the development of education and learning theory

known as the behavioristic flow. This flow emphasizes on the emergence of

behaviors that seem to be the result of learning.

Behavior theory with its stimulus-response model, sees people studying as

passive individuals. Certain responses or behaviors by using training or habitual

methods only. The emergence of behavior will be stronger when given

reinforcement and will disappear when subjected to punishment.

Behaviorism does not want to question whether human beings are good or

bad, rational or emotional, behaviorism only wants to know how their behavior is

controlled by environmental factors. In the sense of learning theory more

emphasis on human behavior. Look at individuals as reactive creatures that

respond to the environment.

Experience and maintenance will shape their behavior. From this point on,

the concept of "machine man" (Homo Mechanicus) The feature of this theory is

to prioritize elements and small parts, be mechanistic, emphasize the role of the

environment, emphasizing the formation of responses or responses, emphasizing

the importance of exercise, emphasizing the learning outcome mechanism,

emphasizing the role of ability and learning outcome gained is the emergence of

the desired behavior.


The concept of "Human Machine" (Homo Mechanicus) The environment is

an important factor in the formation of human behavior. With the environment

then people will experience the various experiences experienced in their lives

through the environment. Experience will never be avoided and avoided by every

human being as humans will always live in an environment and will find new

things that will add to the human experience. But the behavior is only visible,

measured and predictable behavior. The feature of this theory is to prioritize

elements and small parts, be mechanistic, emphasize the role of the environment,

emphasizing the formation of responses or responses, emphasizing the

importance of exercise, emphasizing the learning outcome mechanism,

emphasizing the role of ability and learning outcome gained is the emergence of

the desired behavior.

Now we live in an age where the current globalization struck us. The

influence here certainly can not be separated from human life. With all the ease

we make it easy to be affected both inside and out. We can buy something

because of the influence of such a powerful advertising effect so that we are

easily affected to consume the product. This habitual view is that this psychology

is a truly objective and experimental part of nature's knowledge. That's why we

can know that this flow of behaviorism is human behavior and not about the

consciousness we experience.
4.0 CONCLUSION

In this life behavior or behaviorism are things that are done in everyday life.

Starting from children, teenagers, to adults has different behaviors. It is therefore

important for us to study and discuss behavior or behaviorism more deeply, because

behaviorism can explain all human behavior equally and provide an effective

educational program.

From Thorndike and Watson behaviourism behaviors, human are born without

social or psychological traits, behavior is the result of experience and behavior

motivated or motivated by the need to multiply pleasure and reduce suffering.

Elementary behavioral behaviors look at humans as passive human, dominated by

stimuli in the environment.


REFERENCES

Atkinson, D. R., Morten, G., & Sue, D. W. (1998). Counseling American minorities.

A cross-cultural perspective. Dubuque, IA: Brown.

Gage,N.& Berliner, D (1992). Educational psychology Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Piaget, J. (1972). The psychology of intelligence. Totowa, NJ: Little field Adams.

Skinner, E.A and Belmont, M.J. (1993). Motivation in the classroom: Reciprocal

effects of teacher Behaviour and student engagement across the school year. Journal

of Educational psychology 85(4). 571-581.

Thorndike, E. L. (1913b). The psychology of learning. New York, NY: Teachers

College, Columbia Univ.


Watson, J. B. (1914). Behavior: An introduction to comparative psychology. New

York: Henry Holt and Company.

Watson, J. B. (1919). Psychology from the standpoint of a behaviorist. Philadelphia: J.

B. Lippincott Company.

Watson, J. B. (1928). The ways of behaviorism. New York; London: Harper & Bros.

Watson, J. B. (1930). Behaviorism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.