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Abstract

ABSTRACT
The project work has been carried in “VIJI Knitting Mills”, located at Tirupur,
Tamilnadu. This project deals with finding out the factors causing “Employee
Absenteeism” in the organization.

The methodology used to collect primary data for this study is questionnaire
method, and the sample sizes of the employees are 50. Based on the analysis of the
information, interpretations were drawn.

Factors like disease, environment, salary, alcoholism, job satisfaction were found
out while studying the problem.

The data has been analyzed using tools like simple percentage and based on the
factors which were found out during the course of the study, for maintaining the
absenteeism of employees.
Chapter I

Introduction
Introduction
The textile industry occupies a unique place in our country. One of the earliest to
come into existence in India, it accounts for 14% of the total Industrial production,
contributes to nearly 30% of the total exports and is the second largest employment
generator after agriculture.

Textile Industry is providing one of the most basic needs of people and the holds
importance; maintaining sustained growth for improving quality of life. It has a
unique position as a self-reliant industry, from the production of raw materials to
the delivery of finished products, with substantial value-addition at each stage of
processing; it is a major contribution to the country's economy.

Its vast potential for creation of employment opportunities in the agricultural,


industrial, organised and decentralised sectors & rural and urban areas, particularly
for women and the disadvantaged is noteworthy.

Although the development of textile sector was earlier taking place in terms of
general policies, in recognition of the importance of this sector, for the first time a
separate Policy Statement was made in 1985 in regard to development of textile
sector. The textile policy of 2000 aims at achieving the target of textile and apparel
exports of US $ 50 billion by 2010 of which the share of garments will be US $ 25
billion. The main markets for Indian textiles and apparels are USA, UAE, UK,
Germany, France, Italy, Russia, Canada, Bangladesh and Japan.

The main objective of the textile policy 2000 is to provide cloth of acceptable
quality at reasonable prices for the vast majority of the population of the country,
to increasingly contribute to the provision of sustainable employment and the
economic growth of the nation; and to compete with confidence for an increasing
share of the global market.

As a result, the As a result, the textile industry in developed countries will face
intensified competition in both their export and domestic markets. However, the
migration of textile capacity will be influenced by objective competitive factors
and will be hampered by the presence of distorting domestic measures and weak
domestic infrastructure in several developing and least developed countries.

The elimination of quota restriction will open the way for the most competitive
developing countries to develop stronger clusters of textile expertise, enabling
them to handle all stages of the production chain from growing natural fibers to
producing finished clothing, The OECD paper says that while low wages can still
give developing countries a competitive edge in world markets, time factors now
play a far more crucial role in determining international competitiveness. Countries
that aspire to maintain an export-led strategy in textiles and clothing need to
complement their cluster of expertise in manufacturing by developing their
expertise in the higher value-added service segments of the supply chain such as
design, sourcing or retail distribution. To pursue these avenues, national suppliers
need to place greater emphasis on education and training of services-related skills
and to encourage the establishment of joint structures where domestic suppliers can
share market knowledge and offer more integrated solutions to prospective buyers.
.
The textile industry is undergoing a major reorientation towards non-clothing
applications of textiles, known as technical textiles, which are growing roughly at
twice rate of textiles for clothing applications and now account for more than half
of total textile production. The processes involved in producing technical textiles
require expensive equipments and skilled workers and are, for the moment,
concentrated in developed countries. Technical textiles have many applications
including bed sheets; filtration and abrasive materials; furniture and healthcare
upholstery; thermal protection and blood-absorbing materials; seatbelts; adhesive
tape, and multiple other specialized products and applications. India must take
adequate measures for capturing its market by promoting research and
development in this sector.

The mood in the Indian textile industry given the phase-out of the quota regime of
the multi-fibre arrangement (MFA) is upbeat with new investment flowing in and
increased orders for the industry as a result of which capacities are fully booked up
to April 2005.

As a result of various initiatives taken by the government, there has been new
investment of Rs.50,000 crore in the textile industry in the last five years. Nine
textile majors invested Rs.2,600 crore and plan to invest another Rs.6,400 crore.
Further, India's cotton production increased by 57% over the last five years; and 3
million additional spindles and 30,000 shuttle-less looms were installed.

The industry expects investment of Rs.1,40,000 crore in this sector in the post-
MFA phase. A Vision 2010 for textiles formulated by the government after
intensive interaction with the industry and Export Promotion Councils to capitalise
on the upbeat mood aims to increase India's share in world's textile trade from the
current 4% to 8% by 2010 and to achieve export value of US $ 50 billion by 2010
Vision 2010 for textiles envisages growth in Indian textile economy from the
current US $ 37 billion to $ 85 billion by 2010; creation of 12 million new jobs in
the textile sector; and modernization and consolidation for creating a globally
competitive textile industry.

There will be opportunities as well as challenges for the Indian textile industry in
the post-MFA era. But India has natural advantages which can be capitalised on
strong raw material base - cotton, man-made fibres, jute, silk; large production
capacity (spinning - 21% of world capacity and weaving - 33% of world capacity
but of low technology); industry in developed countries will face intensified
competition in both their export and domestic markets. However, the migration of
textile capacity will be influenced by objective competitive factors and will be
hampered by the presence of distorting domestic measures and weak domestic
infrastructure in several developing and least developed countries.

The elimination of quota restriction will open the way for the most competitive
developing countries to develop stronger clusters of textile expertise, enabling
them to handle all stages of the production chain from growing natural fibres to
producing finished clothing, The OECD paper says that while low wages can still
give developing countries a competitive edge in world markets, time factors now
play a far more crucial role in determining international competitiveness. Countries
that aspire to maintain an export-led strategy in textiles and clothing need to
complement their cluster of expertise in manufacturing by developing their
expertise in the higher value-added service segments of the supply chain such as
design, sourcing or retail distribution. To pursue these avenues, national suppliers
need to place greater emphasis on education and training of services-related skills
and to encourage the establishment of joint structures where domestic suppliers can
share market knowledge and offer more integrated solutions to prospective buyers.
.
Latest News In Textile Sector
1. Ministry of finance has added 165 new textile products under duty drawback
schedule. The new products included wool tops, cotton yarn, acrylic yarn,
viscose yarn, various blended yarn/fabrics, fishing nets etc. Further, the
existing entries in the drawback schedule relating to garments have been
expanded to create separate entries of garments made up of (1) cotton; (2)
manmade fibre blend and (3) MMF. Separate rates have been prescribed for
these categories of garments on the basis of composition of textiles.
2. After the phasing out of quota regime under the multi-fibre pact, India can
envisage its textile sector becoming $100b industry by 2010. This will
include exports of $50b. The proposed targets would be achieved provided
reforms are initiated in textile sector and local manufacturers adopt measures
to improve their competitiveness. A 5-pronged strategy aiming to attract FDI
by making reforms in local market, replacement of existing indirect taxes
with a single nationwide VAT, liberalization of contract norms for textile
and garments units, elimination of restrictions that cause poor operational
and organizational performance of manufacturers, was suggested.
3. The Union Minister said that the Board for Industrial and Financial
Reconstruction (BIFR) had approved rehabilitation schemes for sick NTC
mills at a cost of Rs 3,900 crore. Of the 66 mills, 65 unviable mills have
been closed after implementing voluntary retirement scheme (VRS) to all
employees. According to him, the government has already constituted assets
sale committees comprising representatives of Central and state
governments, operative agency, BIFR, NTC and the concerned NTC
subsidiary to effect sale of assets through open tender system.
4. Proposals for modernization of NTC mills have been made to the
consultative committee members, including formation of a committee of
experts to improve management of these mills. Even the present status of
jute industry was under the scanner of the consultative committee.
5. The Government had announced change from the value-based drawback rate
hitherto followed to a weight-based structure for textile exports that will
discourage raw material exports and also curtail the scope for misusing the
drawback claims by boosting invoice value of exports.
6. NCDEX launched its silk contract (raw silk and cocoon) on Thursday,
January 20,2015.. With this launch, the total number of products offered by
NCDEX goes up to 27.The launch of the silk contract will offer the entire
suite of fibres to the entire value chain ranging from farmers to textile mills.
With the objective of protecting the interests of the those affected but WTO
agreements and globalisation process, Government of India jointly with
NCDEX has adopted a policy of encouraging future contracts of silk. The
Ministry of Textiles and the Central Silk Board (CSB) had decided to
introduce futures trading in mulberry cocoons and raw silk on NCDEX. The
basic purpose is to mitigate the risk associated with the changing prices
through an efficient price discovery mechanism. Futures trading on the
NCDEX will provide an alternative trading avenue for farmers, weavers and
traders and help them make a better price discovery for their produce. It will
also help them to reduce risks associated with price volatility through
hedging CDEX. The basic purpose is to mitigate the risk associated with the
changing prices through an efficient price discovery mechanism. Futures
trading on the NCDEX will provide an alternative trading avenue for
farmers, weavers and traders and help them make a better price discovery for
their produce. It will also help them to reduce risks associated with price
volatility through hedging

Absenteeism
The state of chronic absence from work. Absenteeism is usually addressed through
progressively stricter disciplinary measures that can result in the termination of the
individual's employment.

Absenteeism in India
The rate of absenteeism in Census Sector at all India level decreased to 9.88
percent during as 2012, as compared to 9.95 percent during 2001. Out of 31
States/Union Territories, the rate of absenteeism was higher in 8 States than the
absenteeism rate at national level. The highest absenteeism rate of 13.54 percent
was reported in Himachal Pradesh followed by Goa (13.12 percent), whereas the
lowest absenteeism rate was recorded at Information regarding absenteeism
amongst workers in an industry or an industrial establishment on account of
reasons other than strikes, lockouts, lay-off, weekly rest or suspension, provide a
sound database for gauging the employee’s morale, commitment and level of job
satisfaction, which have a direct bearing on productivity.

The effects of high levels of absenteeism are wide ranging and affect everyone in
the organisation. It cannot be regarded purely as a management problem.
Employers, workers and their representatives have an interest in ensuring that a
few absent workers do not jeopardise their prosperity or job satisfaction.

Absenteeism is one of the indicators to monitor and evaluate various employees'


welfare programmes and labour policies. With this aim in view, statistics on
absenteeism amongst the directly employed regular workers are collected as a part
of the Annual Survey of Industries. Absenteeism rate amongst these workers in an
industry or a state are worked out as percentages of mandays lost on account of
absence to the mandays scheduled to work in the respective industry or state.

Statistics on number of factories reporting absenteeism, percentage of such


factories, mandays scheduled to work, mandays lost due to absence and percentage
of absenteeism by States, Industries and Sectors during the year 2002, are
presented.

Absenteeism in States
State-wise absenteeism rate amongst the directly employed regular workers during
the year 2002 is presented. It is observed2.34 percent in Manipur followed by
Nagaland (2.81 percent). However, it is observed that as Andaman & Nicobar
Islands, Nagaland and Manipur constitute even less than one percent of the total
mandays scheduled to work in the country, high or low absenteeism rate in these
States may not be of much relevance. The highest absenteeism rate amongst the
States/Union Territories in which the mandays scheduled to work were reported to
be more than 5 percent was reported in Maharashtra (13.07 percent). An increase
in absenteeism rate as compared to that in 2001 was recorded only in 13
States/Union Territories. In Tripura and Andaman & Nicobar Islands, there is a
sharp decrease in the absenteeism rate, whereas, in Dadar & Nagar Havali, there is
a sharp increase in the absenteeism rate.

Absenteeism in Industries
Industry-wise absenteeism rate amongst the directly employed regular workers
during 2012 is presented. It reveals that during 2012, the highest rate of
absenteeism was reported at 16.18 percent in the industry group ‘371-Recycling of
metal waste and scrap', whereas the lowest rate at 5.92 percent was reported in
industry group '14-Agricultural and animal husbandry service activities, except
veterinary activities’. Out of a total of 62 industry groups, the absenteeism rate in
26 industry groups was recorded more than 10 percent. This implies that
absenteeism is more or less a region related problem, because industry-wise rate of
absenteeism is more evenly spread over a large number of industry groups, as
compared to its state-wise spread where the state to state variation is comparatively
quite steep. Out of 62 industry groups, absenteeism rate was higher than
absenteeism rate at the national level in at least in 26 industry groups. Like wise,
out of 62 industry groups, an increase in the rate of absenteeism during 2012, was
witnessed in 29 industry groups over absenteeism rate of 2011.

Absenteeism in States By Sectors


The State-wise and Sector-wise absenteeism rates during 2012. For the purpose of
studying absenteeism by type of ownership, units have been divided into three
sectors, viz., Public, Joint and Private Sectors. Among the three sectors, the highest
rate of absenteeism at all India level was reported in Public Sector (10.87 percent),
followed by Private Sector (9.79 percent) and Joint Sector (9.37 percent).

The rate of absenteeism in Public Sector, varied between a highest rate of 16.67
percent in Manipur and lowest rate of 1.39 percent in Meghalya. In Joint Sector,
the absenteeism rate varied between a highest rate of 20.54 percent in Goa and
lowest rate of 0.99 percent in Tripura. In Private Sector, the absenteeism rate
varied between a highest rate of 13.50 percent in Himachal Pradesh and a lowest
rate of 2.34 percent in Manipur.
Absenteeism in Industries By Sectors
Industry-wise and Sector-wise absenteeism rate for the year 2012.In Public Sector,
the highest rate of absenteeism of 25.33 percent was recorded in industry group
‘359-Manufacture of transport equipment whereas the lowest rate of absenteeism
was recorded at 3.40 percent in industry group, ‘153-Manufacture of grain mill
products, starches and starch products, and prepared animal feeds’. In Joint Sector,
the highest rate of absenteeism at 27.50 percent was reported in industry group
‘251-Manufacture of rubber products’, whereas the lowest rate of 3.24 percent was
observed in the industry group ‘151-Production, processing and preservation of
meat, fish, fruit, vegetables, oils and fats’. In Private Sector, the highest rate of
absenteeism at 13.38 percent was recorded in industry group ‘251-Manufacture of
rubber products’, whereas the lowest rate of 3.08 percent was reported in industry
group ‘371-Recycling of metal waste and scrap’.

Definition - Absenteeism Policy:


The organization policy which addresses chronic absence from work. Absenteeism
policies usually contain guidelines for topics such as the following:
*Allowable absences;
* Payment for work including payment for days missed before and after a holiday;
*Types of excused and unexcused absences;
* Days/hours worked on a normal work schedule before payment of overtime
hours occurs within a pay period;
* Policy about calling in absences; and
* Supervisor management of absenteeism via paying attention to selected patterns
of absences and tardiest.
Also Known As: Often used interchangeably with attendance policy, depending on
content. My view is that an attendance policy is much more narrowly defined and
limited to attendance, as opposed to absenteeism policies which are much broader
and address absenteeism management issues and more.

Factors Motivating Absenteeism:


The following are the factors affecting absenteeism:
 Illness
 Personal work
 Poor supervision
 Salary
 Job dissatisfaction
 Less paid holidays
Chapter II

Literature Review
Literature Review

In the opinion of Dakely C.A. (1948) “Absenteeism is the ratio of the number of
production man-days or shifts lost to the total number of production scheduled to
work”.

The labour bureau (1962) defines absenteeism as the total shifts lost because of
absence as percentage of the total number of man shifts scheduled to work.

Likewise Hackett J.D (1929) defines it as “the temporary cessation of work for not
less than one whole working day initiative of the worker when his presence is
expected by the employer”. Similarly encyclopedia of social science observes
“Absenteeism as the time lost in industrial establishment by avoidable or
unavoidable absence of employees. The time lost by the strikes or by lateness
amounting to an hour or two is not usually included”.

Knowles (1979) opined that although absence from work may be due to any of a
large number of factors, empirical evidence supporting the view that causal factors
can be organizational in nature is scant. Absence may be regarded as one facet of a
wider behavioral problem pervading entire organizational sub-units. The author
suggests that absence could be used along with other variables as a valuable
personnel statistic indicating areas of organizational dysfunction. This means that
if levels of absenteeism in such cases as these were to be improved the solution
should be looked for at the organizational level rather than at the individual or job
level.
Gibert. Et.al. (1992) Studied if continuous exposure to air- conditioning during
working hours has an observable effect on health. Absenteeism from ill health
recorded by company doctors was compared in two groups of employees of the
French National Electric and Gas Company in western France, working in similar
jobs and spending most of their time in either air-conditioned offices or a natural
atmosphere. No difference between the two groups was observed during thetwo
years studied with respect to the incidence, duration or frequency of medically-
related absences. A similar investigation of absences due only to respiratory
diseases resulted in the same conclusion. This study showed that air-conditioning
has no major effects on health.

Chevalier.et.al., (1993) Studied the health status of electricity workers exposed to


electromagnetic fields during their job. Two groups of exposed workers were
studied from 1978 to 1993: the live line workers (n = 121) and the substation
workers (n = 232.7) of the French Electricity Company (EDF). A control group
was randomly selected from all the company non-management male employees;
one control for each exposed subject was matched for the first year of employment.
Absenteeism indices and mortality rates were computed and compared in the
exposed and control groups. The absence rates were 1 .98% in the substation
workers and 2.5% in the control group (p<0.001) and 2.7% in the live-line workers
and 2.8% in the control group (NS). No effect of the length of exposure was found.
However the medical causes of sickness absence were different: exposed
employees had less psychiatric and respiratory diseases but more accidents at work
than their control group. Relative risks of accidents at work were 1.2 [95%
confidence interval (Cl) = 1.08–1.33] for substation workers and 3.22 (Cl )= 1.78–
5.88) for live line workers. EDF electromagnetic field exposed workers seemed not
to be affected by any specific health problems except for an excess of accidents at
work.

Morrow. Et.al. (1999) in their study established a positive relationship between


absenteeism and voluntary turnover and a negative relationship between
performance and turnover. An examination of the turnover literature, however,
reveals virtually no consideration of a possible interaction between these two
predictors of turnover. In order to test for such an interaction, company record data
were collected from a sample of nonexempt classification employees within a large
regional life insurance company. Records revealed that 113 of the company’s 816
employees had voluntarily left the firm over a 2-year period. Company data on
these “leavers” were compared with data on a random sample of 113 employees
who stayed. Logistic regression, as opposed to ordinary least-squares regression,
was used to determine the effects of prior absenteeism and performance ratings on
voluntary turnover, over and above the effects of demographic factors. Results
supported known relationships between absenteeism (as measured by sick leave
usage), performance ratings, and voluntary turnover, but did not reveal a
significant interaction effect, even over multiple time frames. Results are discussed
in terms of the potential uses of company record data for early detection of
voluntary turnover.

Hoeven and de Jong (2007) reported that absenteeism figures are increasingly
applied as an integrated measure of health in the working population. However, a
comprehensive overview of employee well-being (compromising the relative
impact of physical, psychological, and organizational components) and how this
relates to reported absence frequency and duration is still lacking. The present
study investigates these relationships. The study has been conducted in a Dutch
subsidiary of an international financial consultancy firm. Three types of data
collection were used: a web-based survey among the firm’s employees, a physical
health check, and the employees’ absence rates reported to the company. Together
the questionnaire and the health check included the following clusters of
independent variables: (a) personal characteristics, (b) job characteristics, (c)
physical health, (d) self-reported well-being, and (e) perceptions of organization
and communication. Of the 5 clusters of variables, the perceptions of organization
and communication variables appeared to be the strongest predictors of absence
frequency. This study did not find the assumed relationship between physical
related well- being and individual absence duration. Indian industries experience
absenteeism as a major personal problem measurement of absenteeism. The
measurement of absenteeism can be expressed as the ratio of the total amount of
time lost through non-attendance to the planned working time. A calculation of
absenteeism rate can be made in terms of Mondays lost.

Ernest B. Akyeampong (2009) has written a research paper Trends and seasonality
in Absenteeism. In this paper the author focus on that at which time period the
employees are more absent. In this paper he said that illness-related absences are
highly seasonal, reaching a peak during the winter months (December to February)
and a trough during the summer (June to August). The high incidence in winter is
likely related to the prevalence of communicable diseases at that time, especially
colds and influenza. The low incidence during the summer may be partly because
many employees take their vacation during these months. Because of survey
design, those who fall ill during vacation will likely report „vacation‟ rather than
„sickness or disability ‟as the main reason for being away from work. Compared
with the annual average, part-week absences are roughly 30% more prevalent in
the winter months and almost 20% less so during the summer months. Seasonality
is much less evident in full-week absences.

Mariajosé Romero and Young-Sun Lee (2012) have written a research paper A
National Portrait of Chronic Absenteeism in the Early Grades. In this paper he
focused on the following points:
(i) How widespread is the Problem of Early Absenteeism?
(ii) Does Family Incomes Impact Early Absenteeism?
(iii) What is the Impact of Early Absenteeism on Academic Achievement?

Morten Nordberg and Knut Røed (2013) have written a research paper
Absenteeism, Health Insurance, and Business Cycles. In this he wants to evaluate
how the economic environment affects worker absenteeism and he also isolate the
causal effects of business cycle developments on work-resumption prospects for
ongoing absence spells, by conditioning on the state of the business cycle at the
moment of entry into sickness absence.
Chapter III

Company Profile
Company Profile
About Viji Knitting Mills
The Origin 1989 saw the Inception of a Small Business which began with Job
Works for Knitting Mills in Tirupur. The Year since have been a time of
consolidation branching out and astounding growth. The company has since mode
on to Become diversified and highly global-get always the quality conscious
enterprise today Viji Knitting Mills is positioned among the foremost
manufacturers of Yarns.

Our product meet all the quality standards. Staying ahead at Viji Knitting Mills
R&D has always been of Paramount Importance to this affect we have
aggressively upgraded creating manufacturing facilities that are state of art varied
and expansive. Our product line extensive besides being a leader in the domestic
market and supplier to prestigious companies yet we firmly believed we have a
long way to go.

Our Culture
We want to create a sustainable and renewable ecosystem. As the quality yarns
manufacturer, we strive to get our culture more focused on building best yarns
from nature. Equality among workers and reliability for the customers forms our
core of company’s culture.

Our Strategy
Grow with Nature is our business strategy. To become one of the best-recycled
yarn manufacturers in the industry is what we focus on our growth cycle. Our team
is united to achieve the goal year after year with enthusiasm and determination.
Quality Policy
We follow very open, at the same time, a strict quality policy in our materials. We
use high-level raw materials from recycled wastes. We have a no-compromise
policy when comes to quality. All our products are of high quality due to our
selection of materials and Quality in the manufacturing process.

Products
 Knitting Yarn

Knitting yarns are of best quality and available in 40 shades of colors. From
the material perspective, the yarns are available in coarse and fine counts
and in single and double ply options.

Composition
Viji Yarns are available in a different composition of blends, including
Cotton, Cotton and Polyester, Cotton and Viscose, Cotton, Polyester, and
Viscose, Cotton, Polyester, and Wool Blend.

Garment Usage
Our knitting yarns are suitable for running in circular knitting machines for
making a single jersey, fleece, french terry, pique knit, and rib; interlock
knitting machines as well as flat knitting machines. These yarns are ideal for
the production of hosieries or garments items such as tees, hoodies, lowers,
and sweatshirts, terry towels, thermal wear, sweaters, and socks.

 Weaving Yarn
Viji Knitting Mills recycles weaving yarns are eco-friendly, made from
recycled fibers. Yarns are available in 40 shades of colors, as well as in both
coarse and fine counts. They are available as single ply and double ply
varieties.

Composition
Recycled weaving yarns are available in a different composition of blends
including Cotton, Cotton and Polyester, Cotton and Viscose, Cotton,
Polyester, and Viscose, Cotton, Polyester, and Wool Blend.

Usage
Our weaving yarns are suitable for running on traditional and modern
weaving machines such as Sulzer, Air Jet, Rapier, and Shuttle Loom.These
yarns are ideal for the production of bed sheets, blankets, denim, shirts,
suiting, and other uses

 Specialty Yarn
Viji Knitting Mills speciality yarns are eco-friendly, made from first class
fibers. Yarns are available in 40 shades of colors, as well as in both coarse
and fine counts. They are available as single ply and double ply varieties.

Raw Materials
The basic raw material required is cotton fiber. Cotton is a natural fiber which can
be processed to produce a wide variety of end products. The staple length,
fineness, cleanliness and strength determine method of processing of cotton fiber
for various end products. The staple length, fineness, and strength drive the yarn
count for which a particular variety of cotton is appropriate. The cleanliness of
cotton is another parameter that affects the quality of the product and has an impact
on the process irrespective of the count of yarn for which the fiber may be
appropriate.

Estimating the cotton crop, fluctuations in its price and the final ability to stock
cotton are key factors in the success of textile companies in India. Thus
manufacturer have to physically buy and store cotton for future requirements with
no hedge against price fluctuations. This is especially true of the yarn sector where
the cost of cotton in the final yarn price is 55-60%. The yarn industry operates at a
profit before tax level of about 9% while cotton prices fluctuate by 30% to 50% in
a year. Thus the entire profit can be wiped out by wrong judgments related to
cotton purchase. Seasons like 1993-94 when cotton prices doubled with in a period
of 4-5 months spells high risk for spinners and can result in disastrous
consequences for the entire yarn industry.

It is pertinent to mention that once the company drives the strength of purchasing
raw materials on cash payments at discount, the benefit accruing on account of
such purchases would add up to the efficiencies.

Power & Fuel


The availability of power is stable for all the units. Power & fuel is one of the
major components of cost constituting 10-13% of the realizations. The actual
consumption of power is based on the capacity utilized and the product mix, which
is dependent upon the marked requirement.
Direct Labor
The availability of skilled/semi-skilled/unskilled labor is abundant. The company
had already 300 permanent employees on roll.

Finished Goods
Cotton yarn is classified on the basis of counts. Typically the higher count is of
superior quality. Coarse yarn (less that 17s) is used for low cost fabric, industrial
garments etc. Medium quality yarn (20-40s) is used for shirting, knitting and other
textiles. Super fine yarn (above 40s) is used for premium shirting and other
sophisticated fabrics.

Critical Factors
Mainly four factors appear to have contributed to the success in this industry,
which have helped the Company to survive despite the recession in the industry.

Location: The right location for well-developed infrastructure especially power,


and access to raw material and labor.

Appropriate plant selection: Import liberalization has enabled machinery import


from all over the world including second-hand machinery imports and their
delivery periods are extremely long. Indian machines are less expensive in many
cases such as spinning, our projects have all local machines.

The work culture: Traditionally considered an intangible indulgence, inculcating


the right work ethos to provide the cutting edge in terms of quality and
productivity is now coming into its own in the managerial mind-set. New units
have the advantage of being able to promote a suitable work ethic from the very
beginning. Older plants are handicapped in this regard with the legacy of an
obstructive industrial relations climate.

Commercial skill: Given the high content of raw material (which is agro-based) in
the overall product cost, the commercial judgment in timing and selection of raw
materials is crucial. In fact, this factor very often constitutes the essential
difference in end year performance between mills.

Cotton prices fluctuate in commodity pattern depending on local crop, global


prices (which in turn depend on crop in major growing countries), government
policy, carry over stocks, speculative pressures etc. Raw material (cotton) accounts
for 60-70% of total cost of production of yarn.

The Company has all the above factors in its favor and would need, need based
Working Capital facilities to achieve greater operating efficiencies.

Textile Manufacturing Process


Spinning
Blow Room
Cotton bales are opened and fed into it. It opens lumps of cotton, removes dirt and
foreign matter. Rolls cotton fiber mass into sheets for feeding into cards (In
advanced machines such fibers are fed into cards directly through chutes).

Cards
Further opens fiber lumps, removes dirt and very short fibers, separates fibers and
orients them in a vertical direction. Fibers are then converted into a silver to be fed
into draw frame.
Draw Frame
Several carded slivers are combined and drawn to produce another sliver. It
achieves parallelization, orientation and uniformity in the sliver.

Combing
This process is optionally used. It is used in case of superior yarns, which require
high degree of uniformity and orientation. It separates each fiber, removes short
fibers and again orients all fibers in the vertical direction.

Speed Frame
Carded or combed sliver of fiber is drawn and twisted into roving. Roving hasless
mass per length compared to sliver. It has just enough twist to hold the fiber
together and is very weak.

Ring Frame
Roving is fed, desisted, drawn and twisted again to form yarn. Twist inserted
through a revolving spindle around a ring into a strand of fiber delivered from a
pair of rollers. Twist inserted much higher than at the roving stage and it imparts
strength to the resultant yarn. Lower or higher twist reduces the strength. Lower
twist makes the yarn soft, higher twist makes it more lively, crisp and curly.
Optimum twist also depends on the cotton used. For the same count of yarn, if
superior longer staple cotton is used desirable yarn strength is achieved with less
twist. Also for certain uses like hosiery and knit goods as the process does not put
too much tension on yarn like weaving, weaker yarns are acceptable. As a result,
hosiery or knitted yarns are produced with lower twists than weaving yarns.
Winding
Essentially this converts the package of the yarn. In ring spinning yarn is wound on
the bobbin. A bobbin normally holds about 1,000 to 3,000 m of yarn weighing
about 60 to 80g. This is too small to handle. Besides ring yarn would have some
faults which can either create problems in weaving or in the appearance of the
fabric. A winding machine unwinds the yarn from bobbins and winds them on a
much bigger package called cones. A cone normally contains about 1 to 1.25kg of
yarn, in other words, about 15 to 20 bobbins are converted into one cone. It also
clears the yarn to remove faults.

Modem automatic machines clear the yarn electronically to remove faults such as
thin and thick places and neps (small lumps or fibers). It also delivers the yarn in
exact metered length. At breaks it produces a knot free yarn by splicing the broken
ends together. The nature of this package also, makes it transportable over long
distances.

Thus spinning mills end product is in this package and this becomes the terminal
manufacturing process. Yarn is sold hicone forms and to ensure good weaving it is
specified as “Ante coned, electronically cleared and spliced”.

(Note: In case of dyed yarns for pattern weaving cones are dyed before the next
process of warping).

Warping
Cones of yarn are creeled on to a machine and winding about 500 to 700 threads
together produces a sheet of yarn on beam. Its length is precise and preset to avoid
wastage at subsequent stage.
Chapter IV

Industry Profile
Industry Profile
Modernization is a continuous process and there should be concerted efforts to
modernize both machinery and manufacturing processes regularly. It is general
experience that units which maintained the process of modernization
systematically could manage to sustain their growth in the long run.

Modernization in fact is needed to increase production, reduce the cost of


production, rationalize labour, reduce maintenance and power cost per unit of
production etc. Due to a number of factors, the vast majority of the textile units in
India never tried to regularly modernize their units. As a result the indian textile
industry had been suffering from technological obsolescence since the beginning
of the 20th century.

Textile industry is one of the leading textile industries in the world. Though was
predominantly unorganized industry even a few years back, but the scenario started
changing after the economic liberalization of indian economy in 1991. The
opening up of economy gave much needed thrust to textile industry, which has
now successfully become one of the largest in the world.

Indian textile industry largely depends upon the textile manufacturing and export.
Its play a major role in the economy of the country. Indian textile industry is also
the largest in the country in terms of employment generation.

Indian textile industry can be divided into several segments, some of which can be
listed as below:-
 Cotton textile
 Silk textile
 Woolen textile
 Readymade textile
 Hand-crafted textile
 Jute and coir

Type of production system


In the production system there are following types of production system can be
used for the conversion of raw material into the finished goods.
There is the different type of techniques used in the production process.
 Project
 Job shop
 Batch production ( disconnected line)
 Assembly line
 Continuous flow
 Cell manufacturing (group technology)

The textile industry using the job-shop or batch production techniques for the
production. The weaving process is characterized by long planning horizons and
relatively slow speed of machines, very long setup times, very large production
batches, and mixed order and stock-based production. On the contrary, the warp
making process is characterized by short planning horizons and high speed of
machines, short setup times, small production batches and only orders-based
production. The above phases pose the most complex production scheduling
problems.
Job-shop techniques:-
In the job shop machinery used mostly general purpose to produce the goods.
Highly skilled labor is needed for this type of production system to handle and
operate the Machinery.

Production is characterized by processing of small batches of a large number of


different products most of which require a different set or sequence of processing
steps.
In the job shop technique i.e., print shop textile production systems may be treated
as a succession of local problems, one per each production phase. The coherence of
these local problems should be taken into account by “material requirements
planning” or “just-in-time” approaches.

Introduction:-
Products are the goods and services produced and processes are the facilities,
skills, and Technologies used to produce them. Production function or operation
function is the primary function of an industrial enterprise. It is also known as
conversion process or transformation process which transforms some of the inputs
(raw material and components) into outputs which are useful for the consumers.
Fiber preparation:-
Raw cotton contains cotton fiber along with small plant parts and field trash that
are not removed by the ginning process. At this stage, the cotton fiber has a coating
of oils and waxes that make it hydrophobic. Raw fiber is suitable for making
nonwovens to be used in industrial products in which absorbency and aesthetics
are not important. In some cases, nonwoven fabrics made with raw fiber can be
wet processed in the same manner as woven and knitted fabrics
Spinning:-
Most spinning is done using break or open-end spinning, this is a technique where
the staples are blown by air into a rotating drum, where they attach themselves to
the tail of formed yarn that is continually being drawn out of the chamber. Other
methods of break spinning use needles and electrostatic forces.

This method has replaced the older methods of ring and mule spinning. It is also
easily adapted for artificial fibers. The spinning machine takes the roving, thins it
and twists it, creating yarn. In mule spinning the roving is pulled off a bobbin and
fed through rollers, which are feeding at several different speeds. This thins the
roving at a consistent rate. If the roving was not a consistent size, then this step
could cause a break in the yarn, or could jam the machine. The yarn is twisted
through the spinning of the bobbin as the carriage moves out, and is rolled onto a
cop as the carriage returns. Mule spinning produces a finer thread than the less
skilled ring spinning.

Weaving:-
Weaving is a method of fabric production in which two distinct sets of yarns or
threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. The other methods
are knitting, lace making, felting, and braiding or plaiting. The longitudinal threads
are called the warp and the lateral threads are the weft or filling. (weft or woof is
an old english word meaning "that which is woven".) The method in which these
threads are inter woven affects the characteristics of the cloth.

Cloth is usually woven on a loom, a device that holds the warp threads in place
while filling threads are woven through them. A fabric band which meets this
definition of cloth (warp threads with a weft thread winding between) can also be
made using other methods, including tablet weaving, back-strap, or other
techniques without looms.

Dyeing:-
The most commonly used processes for imparting color to cotton are piece dyeing
and yarn dyeing. In piece dyeing, which is used primarily for fabrics that are to be
a solid color, a continuous length of dry cloth is passed full-width through a trough
of hot dye solution. The cloth then goes between padded rollers that squeeze in the
color evenly and removes the excess liquid. In one variation of this basic method,
the fabric, in a rope-like coil, is processed on a reel that passes in and out of a dye
beck or vat. Yarn dyeing, which occurs before the cloth is woven or knitted, is
used to produce gingham checks, plaids, woven stripes and other special effects.
Blue dyed warp yarns, for example, are combined with white filling yarns in denim
construction.

Printing:-
Colored designs on cotton cloth is similar to printing on paper. Long runs of the
same fabric design are produced on a roller print machine operating at speeds
between 50 to 100 yards a minute. As many as of 10 different colors can be printed
in one continuous operation.

A typical printing machine has a large padded drum or cylinder, which is


surrounded by a series of copper rollers, each with its own dye trough and doctor
blade that scrapes away excess dye. The number of rollers varies according to the
fabric design, since each color in the design is etched on a separate roller. As the
cloth moves between the rotating drum and rollers under great pressure, it picks up
color from the engraved area of each roller in sequence. The printed cloth is dried
immediately and conveyed to an oven that sets the dye.

Automatic screen-printing is another principal method for imparting colored


designs to cotton fabrics. Although slower than roller printing, it has the advantage
of producing much larger and more intricate designs, elaborate shadings and
various handcrafted effects.

Finishing:-
Finishing, as the term implies, is the final step in fabric production. Hundreds of
finishes can be applied to textiles, and the methods of application are as varied as
the finishes. Cotton fabrics are probably finished in more different ways than any
other type of fabrics. Some finishes change the look and feel of the cotton fabric,
while others add special characteristics such as durable press, water repellency,
flame resistance, shrinkage control and others. Several different finishes may be
applied to a single fabric.

Cutting:-
The fabric is then cut with the help of cloth cutting machines suitable for the type
of the cloth. These can be band cutters having similar work method like that of
band saws; cutters having rotary blades; machines having reciprocal blades which
saw up and down; die clickers similar to die or punch press; or computerized
machines that use either blades or laser beams to cut the fabric in desired shapes.

Sewing:-
It is the most important department/ section of a garment manufacturing industry.
Sewing machines of different types are arranged as a vertical line to assemble the
garments. Sequence of types of sewing machine arrangement depends on sequence
of assembling operations. Number of sewing machine per line varies from 20 no.s
to 60 no.s depending on the style of the ga4rmnet to be produce. Production pr line
pr hour also varies from 100 to 150 pieces depending on specific circumstances.
Number of sewing machine arrangement per line may be up to 60 depending on
design and output quantity of garment.

Primary activities
 Raw product storage
 Waste bailing
 Opening
 Carding
 Spinning
 Warping
 Slashing
 Weaving
 Inspection
 Packaging
 Warehousing
 Shipping

Secondary activities
 Unloading
 Fork lifting
 Unwrapping
 Cutting ties
 Waste bailing
 Feeding
 Removing lint
 Movement of card cans
 Movement of drawing cans
 Spinning yarn
 Warp filling
 Winding yarn onto beam
 Supplying beams
 Preparing loom beams
 Storing loom beams
 Hoisting
 Producing fabric rolls
 Inspecting fabric
 Cutting fabric
 Wrapping
 Loading

Support activities
 Eating
 Relaxing
 Storage
 Personal hygiene
 Supervision
 Maintenance
 Air washing/conditioning
 Lint removal
 Quality control
 Testing
 Training
 Monitoring
Chapter V

Research Methodology
Research Methodology
Introduction
Research can be defined as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent
information on a specific topic “It is a systemized effort to gain new knowledge”.

Research Design
A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of
data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with
economy in procedure. In this study descriptive type of research design has been
used.

Descriptive Research Design


Descriptive research studies are those studies which are concerned with describing
the character of a group.

Data Collection
The purpose of the investigation has been clearly defined the problem of collecting
the data arises.

There are two types of data, there are


a) Primary Data
b) Secondary Data

Primary Data
The data has been collected from the employees through questionnaire and
interview method.
Secondary Data
The secondary data are those which have been collected by some one else and
which have already been passed through the statistical analysis.
Example: Records, Magazines, Internet etc…,

Sample Size
The size of the sample taken from the study was 50 respondents out of 300
Employees.

Types of Questionnaire Used


Questionnaire consists of
 Closed ended questions
 Multiple-choice questions
 Ranking scale questions

Sampling Technique
In this study convenience sampling technique has been used. The sample was
selected based on the convenience of both the researcher and the respondent.

Tools Analysis
Simple Percentage Method
This method is used to simplify the members through the use of percentage. The
data are reduced in a standard from which base equal to 100 which facilities
relative comparison.
Pie Diagram
A pie diagram is pictorial representation of a statistical data with several
subdivisions in a circular form.

Chi Square Test


Chi-square test is used to compare the relationship between the two (2) variables.
Objectives:
1. To recognize situations requiring the comparison of more than two means or
proportions.
2. To use Chi-square distribution to see whether two classifications of the source
data are independent of each other.
3. To use Chi-square distribution for confidence intervals and testing hypothesis
about a single population variance.
4. To use Chi-square test to check whether a particular collection of data is well
described by a specified distribution.

Chi-square test allows us to do a lot more than just test for the quality of several
proportions. If we classify a population into several categories with respect to two
(2) attributes, we can than use a chi-square to determine whether the two (2)
attributes are independent of each other.
Objectives of the Study
Primary Objective:
To find the factors which causes the employee absenteeism in “Viji Knitting Mills”

Secondary Objective:
 To find the negative factors which motivate the employee absenteeism
 To find the job satisfaction level of the employees
 To increase the level of employee satisfaction
 To find the inconvenience faced by the employees in the organization
 To find the factor which make the employee to continue in the organization

Scope of the Study


The primary objective of the study is to design the questionnaire and to find the
reason for employee absenteeism.
The researcher has designed the questionnaire to find the reason for employee
absenteeism. The questionnaire was given to 50 respondents and data was
collected from the employees and valuable suggestions were given to reduce the
employee absenteeism and to increase the job satisfaction in the concern.

In this research the researcher has found the reason for employee absenteeism.
Based on these suggestions and conclusion are given.

This study can be used for future reference and can be considered as a secondary
data for further development. To extend this research will help the concern for
reducing its employee absenteeism rate.
Limitations of the Study
 Due to personal inconvenience the researcher could not meet the employees
who had night shift.
 Lack of time is the major limitations.
 It is only based on the Viji Knitting Mills employees only.
Chapter VI

Conclusion and Suggestion


Conclusion
The management must first have a positive attitude towards absenteeism. Even
though it possible to eliminate absenteeism completely. The provision of various
facilities to reduce absenteeism bound to involve substantial financial commitment
for the management. The major causes for absenteeism in the organization are the
activities and policies of the organization. So absenteeism invisible but proves fatal
for the industry. So reduction in absenteeism will helpful in improving the
productivity.

Suggestion
 In order to minimize the rate of absenteeism the company could take care of
employee’s health especially in production unit.
 Introducing attendance management program
 I suggest that by taking disciplinary action which will minimize
absenteeism.
 Introducing medical facilities for employees and employee’s family
member.
 Providing transport facilities for all employees.
 Motivating the employee by monetary and non-monetary awards for those
who are completed 100% attendance.
 To improve safety awareness among employee by educating them on health
aspects conducting safety work shop and to reduce noise pollution in few
department.
Appendix
Bibliography
Books:
 Kothari C.R. Research Methodology-Methods and Techniques, New age
International (P) Ltd., Publishers, New Delhi ,Second Edition ,2004
 Guptha, S.P. Statistical Methods, Sultan Chand & Sons Publishers, New
Delhi Fourth Editions, 2005.
 Prasanth L.M. Human Resource Management, Sultan Chand & Sons
Publishers, New Delhi, Thirty Fourth Editions, 2005.
 Reddy & Rao- Absenteeism in India, Deep, Publication, New Delhi.
 Aswathappa.k, Human Resource and Personnel Management, Tata Mc Graw
Hill, New Delhi, 1999.