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MK Lingkungan dan Kesehatan Global - 2018

Topik diskusi: Biodiversitas dan Kerusakan Lingkungan

Tujuan:
Understanding how ecological sciences, environmental sciences, medical sciences, and social
sciences may contribute to improve human health through conserving biodiversity and the
services it provides to societies.

Uraian Masalah:
Environmental degradation has multiple and complex impacts on the global environment
through a range of direct and indirect processes affecting a wide array of ecosystemfunctions
and services. Impacts also occur on global development issues, especially food security and
human health.
Environmental degradation interrupts the regulating and provisioning services of ecosystems,
in particular nutrient cycling, the global carbon cycle and the hydrological cycle. For
example, carbon pools in soil and above-ground vegetation, particularly forests, are very
large but easilydisturbed. They are affected by unsustainable land management practices and
by the type of land degradation that is prevalent (e.g. water erosion; deforestation; soil
compaction). Estimates of historical contributions of agriculture to atmospheric CO2,the
amounts and rates of carbon lost as a consequence of deforestation and conversion of land to
agriculture and othersoil-vegetation-atmosphere carbon fluxes, all suggest that land
degradationhas had a very significant impact, through raising atmospheric CO2
concentrations, on climate. Future impacts are certain.
With regard tobiodiversity, ecosystems provide the habitats for all living organisms.
Disruption to ecosystemfunctions inevitably diminishes the diversity of above- and below-
ground biodiversity, as well as affecting aquatic life. The potential impact of deforestation on
above-ground biodiversity is especially large and well documented. Impacts of other forms of
land degradation on biodiversity are less clear with effects onbelow-ground biodiversity
likely to be the mostsevere. There are significant gapsinour knowledge here, not onlyin how
land degradation affects vegetation productivity but also how a change in productivity has
knock-on effects on biodiversity. Anecdotal evidence is common, butthe science is sparse.
Variability in the sensitivity of different ecosystems to land degradation and the
biodiversitythey contain mean that many focussed studies are required to assemble an
aggregate estimate ofthe global impact.
Pertanyaan yang harus dibahas:
1. Jelaskan apa yang dimaksud dengan biodiversitas. Kaitkan biodiversitas dengan
keseimbangan ekosistem.

2. Jelaskan bagaimana kerusakan lingkungan dapat mempengaruhi biodiversitas,


bagaimana kecenderungannya pada saat ini, adakah contoh kasusnya

3. Jelaskan bagaimana kerusakan lingkungan dan biodiversitas tersebut dapat


mempengaruhi kesehatan masyarakat, dengan merujuk pada bahan bacaan yang
disediakan. Masalah yang perlu didiskusikan adalah sebagai berikut:
 Biodiversity is meaningful for health
 Biodiversity as a source of infectious diseases
 Loss of biodiversity and emerging infectious diseases
 Loss of biodiversity and non-infectious and chronic diseases
 Biodiversity in biomedical discovery, pharmaceutical and traditional medicine
 Biodiversity support in nutrition and food security

4. Jelaskan pendapat anda, apakah masalah biodiversitas dan kerusakan lingkungan


tersebut merupakan issue global dalam bidang kesehatan masyarakat/kesehatan
lingkungan? Mengapa?

5. Apakah terdapat upaya untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut, baik pada tingkat global,
regional, maupun lokal? Uraikan.