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Applications of

Thermo-Calc and DICTRA


Thermo-Calc Users Meeting
Aachen, 2010-09-09

Sebastian Piegert
E F PR GT EN M&T MPD3

Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.


Outline

ƒ Introduction

ƒ Siemens Gas Turbines

ƒ Applications of Thermo-Calc and DICTRA


ƒ Base Material Characterisation
ƒ Braze Alloy Development and Heat Treatment Optimisation
ƒ Heat Treatment for a Welding Process

ƒ Summary

Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.


Page 2 2010-09-09 Sebastian Piegert Siemens Energy Sector F PR GT EN M&T MPD3
Introduction
Structure of Siemens

Industry

Healthcare

Energy

Source: Siemens
Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.
Page 3 2010-09-09 Sebastian Piegert Siemens Energy Sector F PR GT EN M&T MPD3
Introduction
Structure of Siemens Energy

Products and Solutions for Energy − in 6 Divisions

Oil & Gas Fossil Power Renewable Energy Power Power


Generation Energy Service Transmission Distribution

Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.


Page 4 2010-09-09 Sebastian Piegert Siemens Energy Sector F PR GT EN M&T MPD3
Introduction
Overall Vision of Siemens Energy Sector

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Page 5 2010-09-09 Sebastian Piegert Siemens Energy Sector F PR GT EN M&T MPD3
Siemens Gas Turbines
Portfolio

SGT5-8000H 375
SGT5-4000F 292
SGT6-5000F 200
SGT6-4000F 187
SGT5-2000E 168

SGT6-2000E 113

SGT-800 47

SGT-700 30
SGT-600 25
SGT-500 17

SGT-400 13
SGT-300 8 SGT5-8000H

SGT-200 7
SGT-100 5
SGT-400

Large Gas Turbines Industrial Gas Turbines Values in MW @ ISO Conditions

Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.


Page 6 2010-09-09 Sebastian Piegert Siemens Energy Sector F PR GT EN M&T MPD3
Siemens Gas Turbines
SGT5-4000F (V94.3A) Gas Turbine

ƒ Compressor, 15 stage with CDA


airfoils in all stages and with side-wall
correction. One variable guide vane
Combustion Chamber
row. Developed with P&W.
ƒ Annular combustion chamber with 24
Compressor Turbine hybrid burners. Hot gas path with air
cooled metallic or ceramic heat shield
ƒ 4 -stage turbine
Blade 1 and 2 single crystalline and
directionally solidified
Film-cooling of blades and vanes of
stage 1 and 2
ƒ Rotor with Hirth serration and
single tie bolt. Quick thermal
response because of rotor internal
flow passages.
24 Hybrid Burners
ƒExcellent thermal balance due to:
- Quick and stiff rotor
- Conical turbine flow path
ƒ Due to thermal balance:
- Quick start up
- Hot restart capability
Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.
Page 7 2010-09-09 Sebastian Piegert Siemens Energy Sector F PR GT EN M&T MPD3
Siemens Gas Turbines
Air Cooled Turbine Blades and Vanes

γ’ precipitation hardened
Ni-based Superalloy

1500

1300 Melting Interval


e
t ur
Blade 1 of SGT5-4000F

r a
pe

Temperatur °C
e m
l etT
n T Material
1000
in eI = 85% Tm
rb
Tu

750

Co-Base Ni-Base Ni-Base - SX


Carbide Hardening γ/γ‘ γ/γ‘
500
1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
Jahr

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Page 8 2010-09-09 Sebastian Piegert Siemens Energy Sector F PR GT EN M&T MPD3
Applications of Thermo-Calc and DICTRA

Heat Treatment Estimation of


Optimisation non Conformances

Braze Alloy Base Material


Development Characterisation

Base Alloy Coating-Substrate


Thermo-Calc Version S
Development Interaction with TTNi 7 Database
DICTRA 25 with MobNi1
Database

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Page 9 2010-09-09 Sebastian Piegert Siemens Energy Sector F PR GT EN M&T MPD3
Base Material Characterisation – IN 738 LC

Tsol Tbraze
Fraction of phases vs T

1: γ
2: MC
Possible Calculations:
3: γ’
ƒ solvus temperatures
4: M23C6
ƒ amount of phases with respect to
5: M3B2
6: L
temperature
ƒ phase compositions
ƒ prediction of occurrence of
detrimental phases such as s, h etc.
Literature vs. Calculated Tsolv

1400
Applications:
1300
ƒ estimation of “allowed” service
1200
temperatures
T / °C

1100
ƒ definition of heat treatments
1000
ƒ influence of material non-
900 min conformances in regard to
800 max
TCC composition can be evaluated
700
M23C6

M3B2
Liq
Sol
γ‘

σ
MC

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.


Page 10 2010-09-09 Sebastian Piegert Siemens Energy Sector F PR GT EN M&T MPD3
Development of a Boron Free Braze

Scope:
ƒ Develop a boron free braze alloy to
avoid formation of brittle phases.
Binary Ni-Ge Phase Diagram

Tbraze
Approach:
ƒ use Ge as MPD
ƒ high solubility in Ni
ƒ forms a to γ’ isomorphous phase
(β-Ni3Ge)

Problem:
ƒ limited availability of phase diagrams
ƒ Ge not in database (TTNi7)

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Page 11 2010-09-09 Sebastian Piegert Siemens Energy Sector F PR GT EN M&T MPD3
Development of a Boron Free Braze
Braze Alloy Development
René 80 + XY wt.-% Ge(Si)

Issue:
1: γ ƒ Ge braze BfBX-5 with X wt.-% MPD
2: Laves ƒ low melting eutectics, condensed γ’
3: L and TCP phases remain in joint
4: γ’ ƒ poor mechanical properties at 850 °C
5: NiAl Action:
ƒ new alloy based on René 80
ƒ Y wt.-% Ge are adequate for a
↓Al - →Ti - ↓↓Mo - ↓W
liquidus lower than 1200 °C
ƒ detrimental blocky phases and
Modified Braze Alloy

condensed γ’ were found within joint


1: γ
2: Laves
ƒ refinement by means of TCC
3: L Conclusion and Result:
4: γ’ ƒ reduction of refractory metals Mo/W
5: NiAl ƒ reduction of γ’ formers
ƒ microstructure is now homogeneous
Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.
Page 12 2010-09-09 Sebastian Piegert Siemens Energy Sector F PR GT EN M&T MPD3
Development of a Boron Free Braze
Heat Treatment Development

Issue:
Two Cell Model

ƒ appropriate braze cycle not available


Model:
ƒ problem with moving interface
ƒ start of calculation with L (braze) and
γ (René 80)
ƒ expected phases attached to lower
Required Time for Solidification

René 80/BfBX-5 – 40/60 interface, i.e. joint centre, as inactive


René 80 + Y Ge
ƒ w0 = 200 µm
Result:
1204 °C/24 h ƒ isothermal single phase solidification
1204 °C/30 min + of old braze (BfBX-5) within 22 h
1140 °C/24 h
7h
ƒ significant reduction of tiso with René
80 based braze
Formation ƒ formation of Laves if Thold is
of Laves
significantly lowered
15 h
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Page 13 2010-09-09 Sebastian Piegert Siemens Energy Sector F PR GT EN M&T MPD3
Weldability of Superalloys

ƒ high temperature strength – γ’


Mole Fraction of γ‘ in typical Superalloys

Ni3(Al,Ti)
ƒ corrosion and oxidation resistant
BUT very prone to cracking
ƒ in HAZ during welding (hot cracking)
ƒ solidification cracking
ƒ cracking due to remelting
ƒ hot cracking due to loss in
ductility
readly ƒ strain age cracking
weldable
Generally:
ƒ high γ’-content = higly prone to
cracking
ƒ 3 Gew.-% ≤ cAl + ½ cTi
ƒ Ta, Nb, Hf form also γ’
Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.
Page 14 2010-09-09 Sebastian Piegert Siemens Energy Sector F PR GT EN M&T MPD3
Increase of Weldability

Beam welding (Laser, EB)


Low heat input
Micro-Plasma-Powder-Welding
Optimisation of welding parameters

Pre-heat treatment (solutioning,


overageing)
Heat treatment
Subsequent heat treatment
Hotbox-Welding

Ductile weld-fillers
Weld-fillers
(IN 625, IN 617, Hastelloy X)

Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.


Page 15 2010-09-09 Sebastian Piegert Siemens Energy Sector F PR GT EN M&T MPD3
DICTRA
Heat Treatment for Micro Cladding

moving Fact: γ‘ precipitation causes shrinkage


Model Geometry

γ interface
and hence induces tensile stresses
γ’ which can lead to cracking of weld
rγ’(T,t)
deposition.
Question: What heating rate is
641 nm favourable to avoid strain age
cracking?
3E-22
20 K/min Solution: &
min V
Precipitation Rate vs. T

2.5E-22 10 K/min K K
5 ≤T& ≤ 20
5 K/min min min
2E-22 Result:
V / m3/s

1.5E-22 ƒ low heating rate shall be applied


. 1E-22 ƒ high heating rates led to a shift of
5E-23 precipitation to higher temperatures
0
resulting in altered growth rate
ƒ total volume fraction precipitated
-5E-23
700 800 900 1000 deviates by only 10 %
T / °C Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.
Page 16 2010-09-09 Sebastian Piegert Siemens Energy Sector F PR GT EN M&T MPD3
Summary

Major Advantages: Disadvantages:


ƒ speed up of investigations and ƒ non-validated material systems might
decrease time to market give inappropriate results
ƒ reduction of experimental testing ƒ some knowledge about the systems
ƒ “long term trials” within hours/days is required
ƒ definition of process windows even of ƒ mechanical properties cannot be
unknown systems possible predicted
ƒ calculation of stable and metastable
„real“ systems
ƒ versatile: any type of calculation
which is related to thermodynamics
and/or kinetics can be thought of
ƒ influence of distinct parameters on
the system can be studied separately
Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.
Page 17 2010-09-09 Sebastian Piegert Siemens Energy Sector F PR GT EN M&T MPD3
Disclaimer

This document contains forward-looking statements and information – that is, statements related to future, not past, events.
These statements may be identified either orally or in writing by words as “expects”, “anticipates”, “intends”, “plans”,
“believes”, “seeks”, “estimates”, “will” or words of similar meaning. Such statements are based on our current expectations
and certain assumptions, and are, therefore, subject to certain risks and uncertainties. A variety of factors, many of which
are beyond Siemens’ control, affect its operations, performance, business strategy and results and could cause the actual
results, performance or achievements of Siemens worldwide to be materially different from any future results, performance
or achievements that may be expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. For us, particular uncertainties
arise, among others, from changes in general economic and business conditions, changes in currency exchange rates and
interest rates, introduction of competing products or technologies by other companies, lack of acceptance of new products
or services by customers targeted by Siemens worldwide, changes in business strategy and various other factors. More
detailed information about certain of these factors is contained in Siemens’ filings with the SEC, which are available on the
Siemens website, www.siemens.com and on the SEC’s website, www.sec.gov. Should one or more of these risks or
uncertainties materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those
described in the relevant forward-looking statement as anticipated, believed, estimated, expected, intended, planned or
projected. Siemens does not intend or assume any obligation to update or revise these forward-looking statements in light of
developments which differ from those anticipated.

Trademarks mentioned in this document are the property of Siemens AG, it's affiliates or their respective owners.

Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.


Page 18 2010-09-09 Sebastian Piegert Siemens Energy Sector F PR GT EN M&T MPD3