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Prisoner of Azkaban was, at the time of publication, the series' longest
book. The increasing plot complexity necessitated a looser adaptation of
the book's finer plot lines and back-story. The film opens with Harry
using magic to light his wand in short bursts, whereas in the same scene
in the book, he uses a torch/flashlight, as performing magic outside the
wizard world is illegal for wizards under the age of seventeen.

The connection between Harry's parents and the Marauder's Map is only
briefly mentioned,[33] as is Remus Lupin's association to both the map
and James Potter.[34] Additionally, it was never mentioned who the
Marauders were or who the nicknames Moony, Wormtail, Padfoot, and
Prongs referred to. Some exposition was removed for dramatic effect:
both the Shrieking Shack and Scabbers the rat are mentioned only very
briefly in the film, while they receive a more thorough coverage in the
novel.

Most of Sirius Black's back story is also cut, with no mention of the
manner of his escape from Azkaban.[34] Only the first Quidditch game
was kept in the film, due to its importance to the storyline; the second
(Gryffindor/Ravenclaw) and third (Gryffindor/Slytherin) were cut. Thus,
Harry receives the Firebolt at the film's end, while in the book he
receives it anonymously at Christmas and it is confiscated for a few
weeks to be checked for possible jinxes by Professor Flitwick and
Madam Hooch.

On account of pace and time considerations, the film glosses over


detailed descriptions of magical education. Only one Hippogriff,
Buckbeak, is seen, and only Malfoy and Harry are seen interacting with
the Hippogriff during Care of Magical Creatures lessons, and most other
lessons, including all of Snape's potions classes, were cut from the film.

The Fidelius Charm's complicated description is removed entirely from


the film, with no explanation given of exactly how Black "betrayed" the
Potters to Lord Voldemort. Many of this scene's lines are redistributed
amongst Cornelius Fudge and Minerva McGonagall; in compensation,
McGonagall's exposition of the Animagus transformation is instead
given by Snape.[33]

In the film, where Harry and Hermione have travelled back in time and
are hiding outside of Hagrid's hut, it is heavily implied that Dumbledore
somehow knows that they are there, as he distracts the other characters
at key moments or slows down the proceedings (such as by suggesting
that he sign Buckbeak's execution order as well, then after Fudge agrees
he says it will take some time as he has an extremely long name), which
allows Harry and Hermione time to free Buckbeak unseen.
In the book, Dumbledore merely comments that the executioner must
sign the order, right before he is about to leave the cabin to execute
Buckbeak.

The embryonic romantic connection between Ron and Hermione is more


prominent in the film than the book; in response to criticism of the first
two films for sacrificing character development for mystery and
adventure, the emotional development of all three lead characters is
given more attention in the third film.

That said, any mention of the beginnings of Harry's crush on Cho


Chang is removed. Chang herself is not even seen until the next film.
Harry's darker side is first glimpsed in this film, when Harry proclaims,
"I hope he [Black] finds me. Cause when he does, I'm going to be ready.
When he does, I'm going to kill him!"

He has been spending another dissatisfying summer with . When


Harry's insults his parents, he loses his temper and silently wills her to
bloat up and float away. Fed up, Harry then flees the Dursleys with his
luggage.

The Knight Bus delivers Harry to the Leaky Cauldron, where he is


pardoned by Minister of Magic Cornelius Fudge for using magic outside
of Hogwarts. After reuniting with his best friends Ron
Weasley and Hermione Granger, Harry learns that Sirius Black, a
convicted supporter of the dark wizard Lord Voldemort, has
escaped Azkaban prison and intends to kill Harry.
The trio return to Hogwarts for the school year on the only
for dementors to suddenly board the train, searching for Sirius. One
enters the trio's compartment, causing Harry to pass out, but
new Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher Professor Lupin repels the
dementor with a Patronus Charm.

At Hogwarts, headmaster Albus Dumbledore announces that dementors


will be guarding the school while Sirius is at large. Hogwarts
groundskeeper Rubeus Hagrid is announced as the new Care of Magical
Creatures teacher; his first class goes awry when Draco
Malfoy deliberately provokes the hippogriff Buckbeak, who attacks him.
Draco exaggerates his injury, and his father Lucius Malfoy later has
Buckbeak sentenced to death.

The Fat Lady's portrait, which guards the Gryffindor quarters, is found
ruined and empty. Terrified and hiding in another painting, she tells
Dumbledore that Sirius has entered the castle. During a
stormy Quidditch match against Hufflepuff, dementors attack Harry,
causing him to fall off his broomstick.
At Hogsmeade, Harry is shocked to learn that not only had Sirius been
his father's best friend and apparently betrayed them to Voldemort, but is
also Harry's godfather. Lupin privately teaches Harry to defend himself
against dementors, using the Patronus Charm.

After Harry, Ron, and Hermione witness Buckbeak's execution, Ron's


pet rat Scabbers bites him and escapes. When Ron gives chase, a large
dog appears and drags both Ron and Scabbers into a hole at
the Whomping Willow's base. This leads the trio to an underground
passage of the , where they discover that the dog is actually Sirius, who
is an Animagus. Lupin arrives and embraces Sirius as an old friend.

He admits to being a werewolf, and explains that Sirius is innocent.


Sirius was falsely accused of betraying the Potters to Voldemort, as well
as murdering twelve Muggles and their mutual friend, Peter Pettigrew. It
is revealed that Scabbers is actually Pettigrew, an Animagus who
betrayed the Potters and committed the murders. After forcing him back
into human form, Lupin and Sirius prepare to kill him, but Harry
convinces them to turn Pettigrew over to the dementors.
As the group departs, the full moon rises and Lupin transforms into
a werewolf. Sirius transforms into his dog form to fight him off.

In the midst of the chaos, Pettigrew transforms back into a rat and
escapes. Harry and Sirius are attacked by dementors, and Harry sees a
figure in the distance save them by casting a powerful Patronus spell. He
believes the mysterious figure is his deceased father before passing out.
He awakens to discover that Sirius has been captured and sentenced to
the Dementor's Kiss.

Acting on Dumbledore's advice, Harry and Hermione travel back in time


with Hermione's Time Turner, and watch themselves and Ron repeat the
night's events. They save Buckbeak from execution and witness the
Dementors overpower Harry and Sirius. The present Harry realises that
it was actually him who conjured the Patronus, and does so again.

Harry and Hermione rescue Sirius, who escapes with Buckbeak.


Exposed as a werewolf, Lupin resigns from teaching to prevent an
uproar from parents. Sirius sends Harry a Firebolt broom, who happily
takes it for a ride.
Upon release, the film broke the record for biggest single day in the
United Kingdom's box office history making £5.3 million on a
Monday.[42] It went on to break records both with and without previews,
making £23.9 million including previews[43] and £9.3 million excluding
them.[44] Prisoner of Azkaban had the highest-opening weekend at the
UK's box office, until Spectre beat the record in 2015. It went on to
make a total of £45.6 million in the UK.

The film made $93.7 million during its opening weekend in the United
States and Canada at 3,855 theatres, achieving, at the time, the third
biggest-opening weekend of all time.[46] This opening also broke Hulk's
record ($62.1 million) for the highest-opening weekend for a film
released in June.[46] Prisoner of Azkaban held this record for five years
until Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen topped it in 2009 with $108.9
million.[47] The film was also No. 1 at the North American box office for
two consecutive weekends.[48]

Prisoner of Azkaban made a total of $796.7 million worldwide,[4] which


made it 2004's second-highest-grossing film worldwide behind Shrek
2.[49] In the U.S. and Canada, it was only the year's sixth-highest-
grossing film, making $249.5 million.[50] Everywhere else in the world,
however, it was the year's number one film, making $547 million
compared to Shrek 2's $478.6 million.[51] Despite its successful box
office run, Azkaban is the lowest-grossing Harry Potter film (all the
others have grossed more than $800 million worldwide) and the lowest-
grossing film of J.K. Rowling's Wizarding World Series.

Prisoner of Azkaban is often regarded by critics and fans as one of the


best films in the franchise. On the review aggregator Rotten
Tomatoes the film has an approval rating of 91% based on 250 reviews,
with an average rating of 7.9/10. The site's critical consensus reads,
"Under the assured direction of Alfonso Cuarón, Harry Potter and the
Prisoner of Azkaban triumphantly strikes a delicate balance between
technical wizardry and complex storytelling."[52] On Metacritic the film
has a score of 82 out of 100, based on 40 critics, indicating "universal
acclaim". On CinemaScore, audiences gave the film an average grade of
"A" on an A+ to F scale.[54]

Mick LaSalle of the San Francisco Chronicle lauded the film's more
mature tone and said it was "darker, more complex, rooted in
character." The Hollywood Reporter called the film "a deeper, darker,
visually arresting and more emotionally satisfying adaptation of the J.K.
Rowling literary phenomenon," especially compared to the first two
installments.

Peter Travers of Rolling Stone gave the film three-and-a-half out of four
stars: "Not only is this dazzler by far the best and most thrilling of the
three Harry Potter movies to date, it's a film that can stand on its own
even if you never heard of author J.K. Rowling and her young wizard
hero." Stephanie Zacharek of Salon.com asserts it to be "one of the
greatest fantasy films of all time.

"Nicole Arthur of The Washington Post praised the film as "complex,


frightening, [and] nuanced." Roger Ebert gave the film three-and-a-half
out of four stars, saying that the film was not quite as good as the first
two, but still called it "delightful, amusing and sophisticated"Claudia
Puig from USA Today found the film to be "a visual delight," and added
that "Cuarón is not afraid to make a darker film and tackle painful
emotions." while Richard Roeper called the film "a creative
triumph." Sean Smith from Newsweek said: "The Prisoner of
Azkaban boasts a brand-new director and a bold new vision," he also
called the film "moving," praising the performances by the three main
leads,[63] while Entertainment Weekly praised the film for being more
mature than its predecessors.[64]

Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban was nominated for Best
Original Music Score (John Williams) and Best Visual Effects at
the 77th Academy Awards held in 2005.[65] This was the second film in
the series to be nominated for an Oscar.
The film also ranks at No. 471 in Empire magazine's 2008 list of the 500
greatest movies of all time. designated Prisoner of Azkaban as the fifth
best fantasy film.[67] Additionally, Moviefone designated the film as the
tenth best of the decade. In 2011, the film was voted Film of the Decade
at the First Light Awards by children aged 5–15.

With Prisoner of Azkaban, production of the Harry Potter films switched


to an eighteen-month cycle, which producer David Heyman explained
was "to give each [film] the time it required."[14] Chris Columbus, the
director of the previous two films, decided not to return to helm the third
instalment as he "hadn't seen [his] own kids for supper in the week for
about two and a half years."[24] Even so, he remained on as a producer
alongside Heyman.
Guillermo del Toro was approached to direct but considered the film
"so bright and happy and full of light, that [he] wasn't
interested."[26] Marc Forster turned down the film because he had
made Finding Neverland and did not want to direct child actors
again. M. Night Shyamalan was considered to direct but turned it down
because he was working on his own film, The Village. Warner Bros.
then composed a three-name short list for Columbus's replacement,
which comprised Callie Khouri, Kenneth Branagh (who played Gilderoy
Lockhart in Chamber of Secrets) and eventual selection .

Cuarón was initially nervous about accepting, as he had not read any of
the books or seen the films. After reading the series, he changed his
mind and signed on to direct,[28] as he had immediately connected to the
story.[25] Cuarón's appointment pleased J. K. Rowling who loved his
film and was impressed with his adaptation of Heyman found that
"tonally and stylistically, [Cuarón] was the perfect fit."[14] As his first
exercise with the actors who portray the central trio, Cuarón assigned
Radcliffe, Grint and Watson to write an autobiographical essay about
their character, written in the first person, spanning birth to the discovery
of the magical world, and including the character's emotional
experience. Of Rupert Grint's essay, Cuarón recalls, "Rupert didn't
deliver the essay. When I questioned why he didn't do it, he said, 'I'm
Ron; Ron wouldn't do it.' So I said, 'Okay, you do understand your
character.' That was the most important piece of acting work that we did
on Prisoner of Azkaban, because it was very clear that everything they
put in those essays was going to be the pillars they were going to hold on
to for the rest of the process.
Following the 2012–13 winter break, Ronaldo captained Real Madrid
for the first time in an official match, scoring a brace to lift 10-man
Madrid to a 4–3 victory over Real Sociedad on 6 January.[149] He
subsequently became the first non-Spanish player in 60 years to captain
Madrid in El Clásico on 30 January, a match which also marked his
500th club appearance.[150] Three days prior, he had scored his 300th
club goal as part of a perfect hat-trick against Getafe.

Following hat-tricks against Celta Vigo and Sevilla,[152][153] he scored


his 200th goal for Real Madrid on 8 May in a 6–2 win against Málaga,
reaching the landmark in 197 games.[154]He helped Madrid reach
the Copa del Rey final by scoring a brace in El Clásico, which marked
the sixth successive match at Camp Nou in which he had scored,[155] a
Real Madrid record.[144] In the final, he headed the opening goal of an
eventual 2–1 defeat to Atlético Madrid,[156] but was shown a straight red
card in the 114th minute for violent conduct.[157] Real Madrid also failed
to defend their La Liga title, finishing runners up to Barcelona.

In the first knockout round of the Champions League, Ronaldo faced his
former club Manchester United for the first time. After scoring the
equaliser in a 1–1 draw at the Santiago Bernabéu,[158] he scored the
match-winning goal in a 2–1 victory at Old Trafford, his first return to
his former home ground.[159] He did not celebrate scoring against his
former club as a mark of respect.[160] Ronaldo scored three goals in
Madrid's 5–3 aggregate victory over Galatasaray to see them advance to
the semi-finals,[161][162] He scored Madrid's only goal in the 4–1 away
defeat to Borussia Dortmund,[163] but failed to increase his side's 2–0
victory in the second leg, as they were eliminated at the semi-final stage
for the third consecutive year.[164] Ronaldo had scored 12 goals, finishing
as the Champions League top goalscorer for a second time in his career.
Accounting for all competitions, he ended the season with a total of 55
goals.

Ronaldo scored a record 17 Champions League goals during the


campaign.

Real Madrid's failure to win major silverware and reports of division


among the players prompted speculation regarding Ronaldo's future at
the club.[165][166] At the start of the 2013–14 season, however, he signed a
new contract that extended his stay by three years to 2018, with a salary
of €17 million net, making him briefly the highest-paid player in
football.[167] He was joined at the club by winger Gareth Bale, whose
world record transfer fee of €100 million surpassed the fee Madrid had
paid for Ronaldo four years prior.

Together with striker Karim Benzema, they formed an attacking trio


popularly dubbed "BBC", an acronym of Bale, Benzema, and Cristiano,
and a play off the name of the public service broadcaster.[169] After
enjoying a strong goalscoring run during the first half of the campaign,
Ronaldo suggested that he was in the best form of his career. By late
November, he had scored 32 goals from 22 matches played for both club
and country, including hat-tricks against Galatasaray, Sevilla, Real
Sociedad, Northern Ireland, and Sweden. He ended 2013 with a total of
69 goals in 59 appearances, his highest year-end goal tally.[176] His
efforts earned him the FIFA Ballon d'Or, an amalgamation of the Ballon
d'Or and the FIFA World Player of the Year award, for the first time in
his career.[177]
Concurrently with his individual achievements, Ronaldo enjoyed his
greatest team success in Spain to date, as he helped Real Madrid win La
Décima, their tenth European Cup. In the knockout phase of the
competition, he scored a brace in each leg of a 9–2 aggregate win
against Schalke 04,[178] helping Madrid advance to the quarter-finals. His
goal in a 3–0 home win over Borussia Dortmund—his 100th Champions
League match—took his total for the season to 14 goals, equalling the
record Messi had set two years before. After hitting a brace in a 4–0
defeat of Bayern Munich at the Allianz Arena, he scored from the
penalty spot in the 120th minute of the 4–1 final victory over Atlético
Madrid, becoming the first player to score in two European Cup finals
for two different winning teams.

His overall performance in the final was subdued as a result of patellar


tendinitis and related hamstring problems, which had plagued him in the
last months of the campaign. Ronaldo played the final against medical
advice, later commenting: "In your life you do not win without sacrifices
and you must take risks." As the Champions League top goalscorer for
the third time, with a record 17 goals, he was named the UEFA Best
Player in Europe.

In the Copa del Rey, Ronaldo helped Madrid reach the final by scoring a
brace of penalties against Atlético Madrid at the Vicente Calderón, the
first of which meant he had now scored in every single minute of a 90-
minute football match.[187] His continued issues with his knee and thigh
caused him to miss the final, where Real Madrid defeated Barcelona 2–1
to claim the trophy.
While Madrid were less successful in La Liga, finishing third, Ronaldo
was unmatched as a goalscorer. He scored 31 goals in 30 league games,
which earned him the Pichichi and the European Golden Shoe, receiving
the latter award jointly with Liverpool striker Luis Suárez. Among his
haul was his 400th career goal, in 653 appearances for club and country,
which came with a brace against Celta Vigo on 6 January; he dedicated
his goals to compatriot Eusébio, who had died two days before.[191] A
last-minute, backheeled volley scored against Valencia on 4 May—his
50th goal in all competitions—was recognised as the best goal of the
season by the Liga de Fútbol Profesional, which additionally named
Ronaldo the Best Player in La Liga.[193]

During the next campaign, the 2014–15 season, Ronaldo set a new
personal best of 61 goals in all competitions, starting with both goals in
Real Madrid's 2–0 victory over Sevilla in the UEFA Super
Cup.[194][195] He subsequently achieved his best-ever goalscoring start to
a league campaign, with a record 15 goals in the first eight rounds of La
Liga, including a four-goal haul against Elche and hat-tricks against
Deportivo La Coruña and Athletic Bilbao. His record 23rd hat-trick in
La Liga, scored against Celta Vigo on 6 December, made him the fastest
player to reach 200 goals in the Spanish league, as he reached the
milestone in only his 178th game.[199][200] After lifting the FIFA Club
World Cup with Madrid in Morocco,[201] again winning the Silver
Ball,[202][203] Ronaldo received a second successive FIFA Ballon
d'Or,[204] joining Johan Cruyff, Michel Platini, and Marco van Basten as
a three-time Ballon d'Or winner.

Ma applied for 30 different jobs and got rejected by all. "I went for a job
with the police; they said, 'you're no good'", Ma told interviewer Charlie
Rose. "I even went to KFCwhen it came to my city. Twenty-four people
went for the job. Twenty-three were accepted. I was the only guy
...".[19] In addition to this, he applied ten times to Harvard Business
School (HBS) and got rejected.[20]
In 1994, Ma heard about the Internet. In early 1995, he went to the US
with his friends, who helped introduce him to the Internet. Although he
found information related to beer from many countries, he was surprised
to find none from China. He also tried to search for general information
about China and again was surprised to find none. So he and his friend
created an "ugly" website related to China.[21] He launched the website at
9:40 AM, and by 12:30 PM he had received emails from some Chinese
investors wishing to know about him. This was when Ma realized that
the Internet had something great to offer. In April 1995, Ma, his wife
Cathy and a friend raised US$20,000 and started their first company.
Their company was dedicated to creating websites for companies and he
named it "China Pages".[22] Within three years, the company had made
5,000,000 Chinese Yuan which at the time was equivalent to
US$800,000.

Ma began building websites for Chinese companies with the help of


friends in the US. He said that "The day we got connected to the Web, I
invited friends and TV people over to my house", and on a very slow
dial-up connection, "we waited three and a half hours and got half a
page", he recalled. "We drank, watched TV and played cards, waiting.
But I was so proud. I proved the Internet existed".[23] At a conference in
2010, Ma revealed that he has never actually written a line of code nor
made one sale to a customer. He acquired a computer for the first time at
the age of 33.[24]

From 1998 to 1999, Ma headed an information technology company


established by the China International Electronic Commerce Center, a
department of the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation.
In 1999, he quit and returned to Hangzhou with his team to found
Alibaba, a China-based business-to-business marketplace site in his
apartment with a group of 18 friends.[25] He started a new round of
venture development with 500,000 yuan.

In October 1999 and January 2000, Alibaba twice won a total of a $25
million foreign venture capital investment. The program was expected to
improve the domestic e-commerce market and perfect an e-commerce
platform for Chinese enterprises, especially small and medium-sized
enterprises (SMEs), to address World Trade Organization (WTO)
challenges. Ma wanted to improve the global e-commerce system and
from 2003 he founded Taobao Marketplace, Alipay, Ali Mama and
Lynx. After the rapid rise of Taobao, eBayoffered to purchase the
company. However, Ma rejected their offer, instead garnering support
from Yahoo co-founder Jerry Yang with a $1 billion investment.

In September 2014 it was reported Alibaba was raising over $25 billion
in an initial public offering (IPO) on the New York Stock
Exchange.[26] Alibaba became one of the most valuable technology
companies in the world after raising $25 billion, the largest initial public
offering in US financial history. Ma now serves as executive chairman
of Alibaba Group, which is a holding company with nine major
subsidiaries: Alibaba.com, Taobao Marketplace, Tmall, eTao, Alibaba
Cloud Computing, Juhuasuan, 1688.com, AliExpress.com and Alipay. In
November 2012, Alibaba's online transaction volume exceeded one
trillion yuan. Ma has often been invited to lecture at Peking
University.[27] As of 2016, Ma is the owner of Château de Sours in
Bordeaux, Chateau Guerry in Côtes de Bourg and Château Perenne in
Blaye, Côtes de Bordeaux.[28]
On 9 January 2017, Ma met with United States President-elect Donald
Trump at Trump Tower, to discuss potential 1 million jobs openings in
the following five years through Alibaba's interest in the country.[29] On
8 September 2017, to celebrate Alibaba's 18th year of establishment, Ma
appeared on stage and turned the event into a 'Thriller' with a Michael
Jackson inspired performance. This isn't the first time Ma has performed
at an Alibaba event. He performed part of "Can You Feel The Love
Tonight" at the 2009 event while dressed as heavy metal lead
singer.[30] In the same month, Ma also partnered with Sir Li Ka-shing in
a joint venture to offer a digital wallet service in Hong Kong.[31]

Ma announced on 10 September 2018 that he will step down as


executive chairman of Alibaba Group Holding in the coming year.[32]

In 2004, Ma was honoured as one of the "Top 10 Economic Personas


of the Year" by China Central Television (CCTV).[36]

Global Leader".[36]

Fortune also selected him as one of the "25 Most Powerful


Businessperson in Asia" in 2005.[36]

Businessweek also selected him as a "Businessperson of the Year" in


2007.[37]

In 2008, Barron's featured him as one of the 30 "World's Best


CEOs"[38]

In May 2009, Time magazine listed Ma as one of the world’s 100


most powerful people. In reporting Ma’s accomplishments, Adi
Ignatius, former Time senior editor and editor-in-chief of the Harvard
Business Review, noted that "the Chinese Internet entrepreneur is
soft-spoken and elf-like — and he speaks really good English" and
remarked that "Taobao.com, Mr. Ma's consumer-auction website,
conquered eBay in China."[39] He was also included in this list in
2014.[40]

BusinessWeek chose him as one of China's Most Powerful People.[41]

Forbes China also selected him as one of the Top 10 Most Respected
Entrepreneurs in China by in 2009. Ma received the 2009 CCTV
Economic Person of the Year: Business Leaders of the Decade
Award.

In 2010, Ma was selected by Forbes Asia as one of Asia’s Heroes of


Philanthropy for his contribution to disaster relief and poverty.[42]

In 2011 it was announced that one of his companies had gained


control of Alipay, formerly a subsidiary of Alibaba Group, so as to
"comply with Chinese law governing payment companies in order to
secure a license to continue operating Alipay.[43]

Numerous analysts reported that Ma sold Alipay to himself


below market value without notifying the board of Alibaba Group or
the other major owners Yahoo and Softbank, while Ma stated that
Alibaba Group's board of directors were aware of the transaction. The
ownership dispute was resolved by Alibaba Group, Yahoo! and
Softbank in July 2011.[44]

Ma was awarded an honorary doctoral degree by the Hong Kong


University of Science and Technology in November 2013.[45]

Ma is a board member of Japan’s SoftBank and China’s Huayi


Brothers Media Corporation. He became a trustee of The Nature
Conservancy’s China program in 2009 and joined its global board of
directors in April 2010.

In 2013, he became chairman of the board for The Nature


Conservancy's China Program; this was one day after he stepped
down from Alibaba as company CEO.[46][47]
In 2014, he was ranked as the 30th most powerful person in the world
in an annual ranking published by Forbes.[48]

In 2015, Asian Award honoured him with the Entrepreneur of the


Year award.[49]

In 2017, Fortune ranked Ma second on its World's 50 Greatest


Leaders list.[50]

In 2017, a KPMG survey ranked Ma third in global tech innovation


visionary survey.[51]

In October 2017, Ma was given an honorary degree of Doctor of


Science in Technopreneurship from Manila, Philippines.[52]

In May 2018, Ma was given an honorary degree of Doctor of Social


Sciences honoris causa in recognition of his contributions to
technology, society and the world by University of Hong Kong.[53]

In May 2018, Ma received an honorable doctoral degree from


professors Yaakov Frenkel and Yaron Oz at the Tel Aviv University
in Tel Aviv, Israel.[54]