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Plant

diversity: evolu1on and


classifica1on of plants

Plants Make the The Move to Land
The ancestors of plants were multicellular green algae. They
were completely immersed in water & dissolved minerals.
To move onto land, plants had to solve these problems:

1.  How to get chemical resources (water, minerals,


oxygen, and carbon dioxide) separated into air and
soil
2.  How to transport resources within the plant.
3.  How to prevent from drying out
4.  How to reproduce without water
Some Adaptations (solutions)-
1.  Have body parts extending into both air and
soil
2.  Develop a vascular system to transport
resources in plant
3.  Have a protective layer – cuticle (waxy outer
layer) to keep from drying out
4.  Specialized structures for reproduction
including spores & seeds that do not dry out
Key
Vascular
tissue
Leaf Spores

Spores
Flagellated
sperm
Alga Flagellated
Water supports sperm
alga. Whole alga
performs photo- Leaf Stem
synthesis;
absorbs water, Stem
CO2, and Roots
minerals from
water. Fern
Roots Stomata; roots anchor plants,
absorb water; lignified cell
Moss walls; vascular tissue;
Stomata only on sporophytes; fertilization requires moisture
Flagellated primitive roots anchor plants,
sperm no lignin; no vascular tissue;
fertilization requires moisture

Holdfast
(anchors alga)
Origin of land plants
Gymnosperms Angiosperms

Seedless vascular
plants

Bryophytes

Evolution of specialized
cells / tissue
Green algae Evolution of cuticle
Some important defini1ons
•  Cladogram- Tree-shaped diagram showing
rela1ons among organisms
•  Clade- Groups of organisms derived from a
single common ancestor. It is also known as
monophyle1c group.
eg. All land plants form a monophyle1c group
or clade since they are all derived from green
algae.
Plants are classified based on whether or
not they have

1.  Vascular System (transport)

2.  Seeds

3.  Flowers (enclosed seeds)


Plant Groups
1.  Bryophytes-Mosses (seedless, non-vascular)

2.  Seedless vascular plants-Ferns

3.  Gymnosperms-Evergreens

4.  Angiosperms-Flowering plants


Bryophytes

•  moss
Bryophytes -
NONVASCULAR

1.  Most primitive plants


2.  Found in moist, shady areas
3.  NO vascular (transport) system
4.  Small size due to no vascular tissue
5.  No true roots, stems, or leaves
6.  Needs water for reproduction.
7.  Reproduces using spores, -a water-proof
single cell that can grow into a new organism.
8.  Most common example: Mosses
Bryophytes
sporophyte

gametophyte
Alternation of generations

Key Gametophyte
Haploid (n) plant (n)
Mitosis Mitosis
Diploid (2n) Sperm

Spores (n)
Gametes (n) Egg

Meiosis Fertilization

Zygote (2n)

Mitosis
Sporophyte
plant (2n)
Cladogram
Gymnosperms Angiosperms

Seedless vascular
plants

Bryophytes

Evolution of
vascular tissue

Evolution of specialized
cells / tissue
Green algae
Evolution of cuticle
Vascular 1ssue
•  Set of tubes that transport materials around
plant

•  Allows plants to grow taller

•  Water travels up through xylem

•  Sugar travels throughout in phloem


Seedless vascular plants
•  Ferns
Ferns live further on land
•  S1ll must be in moist areas

•  Sporophyte survives fine with vascular 1ssue

•  But sperm must s1ll swim to egg in 1ny


gametophyte
Fern gametophyte
Cladogram
Gymnosperms Angiosperms

Seedless vascular
plants
Evolution of
pollen grains /
Bryophytes seeds

Evolution of
vascular tissue

Evolution of specialized
cells / tissue
Green algae
Evolution of cuticle
Pollen grains
•  Hard covering around sperm, light weight
allows travel by wind

•  Removes water requirement for fer1liza1on


Sperm s1ll swims
•  At the very end when
pollen lands on another
plant of same species

•  Pollen tube connects to


ovary, sperm swim to
egg
Full coloniza1on of land
•  Vascular 1ssue

•  +

•  Reproduc1on through air


Seeds
•  Tough coat protects newly fer1lized embryo

•  Also contains supply of food (endosperm) to


survive during dormancy period
Gymnosperms
•  Conifers like pine trees

female ovary

male pollen cone


Sequoia

Gymnosperms-Conifers
1.  Most common gymnosperms are
Conifers
2.  Conifers have leaves called
needles or scales have a reduced
surface area and thick waxy coat
on the needle to reduce water loss
and prevents freezing.

Juniper
Pine
Conifer
1. 
Reproduction
Male cones produce Pollen
pollen and the female
cone produces eggs and
seeds.
2.  Pollen is inefficiently
transferred by the wind.
3.  Once mature, the scales
on the female cone dry Seed
out and open scattering Cone

the seeds by the wind.

Pollen
Cone
Cladogram
Gymnosperms Angiosperms

Evolution of
Seedless vascular flowers / fruits
plants
Evolution of
pollen grains /
Bryophytes seeds

Evolution of
vascular tissue

Evolution of specialized
cells / tissue
Green algae
Evolution of cuticle
Angiosperms
•  Flowers (most diverse plant group)
Angiosperms- enclosed seeds
1.  These are flowering plants the encourage
direct and efficient pollen transfer (smell,
color and offering nectar)
2.  Pollinators are flying insects, birds, and
bats that transfer pollen from flower to
flower.
3.  Flowers contain ovaries, which is where
eggs/seeds are produced.
4.  A fruit is the pollinated ovary containing
mature seeds.
Flowers
•  AXract animals to help carry pollen to the next
flower

•  Color or scent aXractors guide animals to obtain


sugar from plan

•  Some angiosperms s1ll wind pollinate (grass)
AZer fer1liza1on, ovary becomes fruit
Fruit
•  Typically collects sugar to aXract animals

•  Seeds survive animal diges1ve system,


pooped out far away from parent (and with
free fer1lizer!)

•  Some are not eaten by animals, just help wind


carry seed (dandelion)
Asexual reproduc1on
•  Plants can also reproduce asexually

•  Many plant parts can regrow to make a whole


new organism when separated (vegeta1ve
reproduc1on)
Cladogram
Gymnosperms Angiosperms

Evolution of
Seedless vascular flowers / fruits
plants
Evolution of
pollen grains /
Bryophytes seeds

Evolution of
vascular tissue

Evolution of specialized
cells / tissue
Green algae
Evolution of cuticle
Quiz Time
•  What did plants have to overcome to live on land?
•  What is the most primitive division of plants because
they have no vascular system?
•  What is the most common example in this division
and how do they reproduce?
•  Why are mosses so small?
•  What is the division of plants that contain a vascular
system?
•  What did a vascular system do for plants size-wise?
•  How are mosses and ferns different?
•  How are mosses and ferns alike?
Acknowledgements- Slides partially adapted from internet resources