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Literature most generically, is anybody of written works. More restrictively, literature writing is
considered to be an art form, or any single writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual value, often due
to deploying language in ways that differ from ordinary usage.

Its Latin root literatura/litteratura (derived itself from littera: letter or handwriting) was used to refer to all
written accounts, though contemporary definitions extend the term to include texts that are spoken or
sung (oral literature). The concept has changed meaning over time: nowadays it can broaden to have non-
written verbal art forms, and thus it is difficult to agree on its origin, which can be paired with that of
language or writing itself. Developments in print technology have allowed an ever-growing distribution
and proliferation of written works, culminating in electronic literature.

Literature can be classified according to whether it is fiction or non-fiction, and whether it is poetry or
prose. It can be further distinguished according to major forms such as the novel, short story or drama;
and works are often categorized according to historical periods or their adherence to certain aesthetic
features or expectations (genre).

Poetry Prose Drama

1. 1. How to distinguish poetry, prose, and drama?

2. 2. Poetry
3. 3. Purpose of Poetry Poetry is a form of writing that is meant to : 1.
entertain 2. describe 3. inform 4. persuade
4. 4. Features of Poetry These are: 1. Varied length. 2. Written in lines and
stanzas. 3. Uses sound devices (rhyme, alliteration, onomatopoeia). 4. Use
of word pictures to create images in your mind. 5. Use of the sound of
words by rhymes of phrases. 6. Is usually intended to be read aloud.
5. 5. Forms of Poetry 1. Shape Poems 2. Acrostic Poems 3. Ballads 4. Lyrical
Poems 5. Haikus 6. Narrative Poems 7. Free Verse 8. Blank Verse
6. 6. Quick Check #1 Write three things that you have learned about poetry.
7. 7. Prose
8. 8. Prose’s Purpose Prose is a form of writing that is meant to: 1. inform 2.
entertain 3. persuade 4. describe.
9. 9. Features of Prose These are: 1. Written using paragraphs 2. Contains
dialogue 3. Can be either fiction or nonfiction 4. Can have headings and/or
subheadings 5. Can be complemented by graphics (charts, photos)
10. 10. Forms of Prose 1. Biography 2. Autobiography 3. Essay 4. Novel 5. Short
Story 6. Novella(Short story) 7. Article 8. Fable / Folktale 9. Folktale
11. 11. Quick Check # 2 Write three things that you have learned about prose.
12. 12. Drama
13. 13. Drama’s Purpose Drama is a form of writing that is meant to: 1. inform
2. persuade 3. entertain 4. describe.
14. 14. Features of Drama These are: 1. Staging directions 2. A list of
characters 3. Written to be performed 4. Written in the form of a script
(dialogue) 5. Can include directions for costuming and physically setting a
15. 15. Forms of Drama 1. Play 2. Skit 3. Opera 4. Musical 5. Monologue
16. 16. Quick Check # 3 Write three things that you have learned about drama.

1b. Short Story This is a narrative involving one ormore characters, one plot and one

single impression.Examples:

1. 6. c. Plays This is presented on a stage, is divided into acts and each act has

many scenes.

2. 7. d. Legends These are fictitious narratives, usually about origins. It provides

historical information regarding the culture and views of particular group of

people or country. Examples: The Bikol Legend Legend of Pineapple Legend of


3. 8. e. Folk tales A traditional narrative, usuallyanonymous, and handed down

orally. Example: The adventures of Juan The Hawk and the Hen Fairy Tales

4. 9. f. Fables (special type of folk tale) These are also fictitious and they deal

with animals and inanimate things who speak and act like people. Their

purpose is to enlighten the minds of children to events that can mold their

ways and attitudes.Examples: Aesop’s Fables The Lion and the Mouse

5. 10. g. Myths A traditional sacred story, typicallyrevolving around the activities

of godsand heroes, which aim to explain anatural phenomenon or cultural

practice.Example: The Story of Cupid and Psyche The Fall of Troy The Myth

about Creation - Tagalog

6. 11. h. Anecdotes These are merely products of the writer’s imagination and

the main aim is to bring out lessons to the reader. “The Moth and the Lamp” –

Dr. Jose Rizal The Best Advice I ever Had

7. 12. i. Essay This expresses the viewpoint or opinion of the writer about a

particular problem or event. The best example of this is the Editorial page of a

newspaper. Examples: Of Studies – Francis Bacon On Doors – Christopher


8. 13. j. Biography This deals with the life of a person which may be about

himself, his autobiography or that of others. Example: Cayetano Arellano –

Socorro O. Albert

9. 14. k. News This is a report of everyday events in society, government, science

and industry, accidents etc., happening nationally or not.

10. 15. l. Oration This is a formal treatment of a subject and is intended to be

spoken in public. It appeals to the intellect, to the will or to the emotions of

the audience. Examples: “Because of What We Are, and What We Believe” I

have A Dream – Martin Luther King

11. 16. II. Poetry It is an imaginative awareness of experience expressed through

meaning, sound, and rhythmic language choices as to evoke emotional

response.A. Narrative Poetry: This form describes important events in life

either real or imaginary.

12. 17. . Epic It is an extended narrative about heroic exploits under supernatural

control. It may deal with heroes and gods. The hero/heroine usually has the

following characteristics: idealism, courage, wisdom, beauty, endurance,

chivalry and justice. Two Kinds of Epic poetry a. Popular or ancient epic –

often without a definite author and is of slow growth. b. Modern epic – with a

definite author.
13. 18. Examples: Biag ni Lam-ang Epic

14. 19. 2. Metrical Tales This is a narrative which is written in verse and can be

classified either as a ballad or metrical romance. Examples of these are

simple idylls or home tales, love tales, or tales of the supernatural or tales

written for a strong moral purpose in verse form. “The Lady of Shallot” by Lord

Alfred Tennyson

15. 20. 3. Ballads This is considered as the shortest and simplest of the narrative

poems. It has a simple structure and tells of a single incident. Variations of

these are: love ballads, war ballads, sea ballads, humorous, moral, historical,

or mythical ballads. Example: The Rime of the Ancient Mariner – Samuel Taylor


16. 21. Ballad of a Mother’s Heart Jose La Villa Tierra The night was dark,For the

moon was young,And the Stars were asleep and rare, The clouds were thick,

Yet Youth went out, To see his Maiden fair. Dear one, he pleaded as he knelt

before her feet in tears. My love is true, Why you have kept me waiting all this

years? The maiden looked at him. Unmoved it seemed, And whispered low,

17. 22. Persistent Youth, You have to prove by deeds, Your love is true. "Theres not

a thing I would not do for you, Beloved" said he."Then, go." said she. "To your

mother dear, And bring her heart to me. Without another word, Youth left and

went to his mother dear. He opened her breast and took her heart! But he did

not shed a tear. Then back to his Maiden fair, He run unmindful of the rain. But

his feet slipped, And he fell down, And loud, he groaned with pain!
18. 23. Still in his hand he held the prize,That would win his Maidens hands.But he

thought of his mother dear, So kind, so sweet, so fond. And then, he heard a

voice! Not from his lips, But all apart! "Get up" it said. "Were you hurt, Child?"

It was his mothers heart.

19. 24. B. Lyric Poetry: Originally, this refers to that kind of poetry meant to be

sung to the accompaniment of a lyre, but now, this applies to any type of

poetry that expresses emotions and feelings to the poet. They are usually

short, simple and easy to understand.

20. 25. Types of Lyric Poetry1.Folksongs (Awiting Bayan) These are short poems

intended to be sung. The common theme is love, despair, grief, doubt, joy,

hope, and sorrow.

21. 26. 2. Sonnets This is a lyric of poem of 14 lines dealing with an emotion, a

feeling or an idea. There are two types: the Italian and the Shakespearean.

22. 27. Sonnet: By The Creek By Paul McCann I escaped down to the creek today .

I lost my way and wished you would come I sat down on the grass in the sun,

In the silence I began to pray . In the water some stepping stones lay where

my reflections just had begun . Your presence I felt had overcome, I was not

lost and alone that day . I walked away and stood on a stone . In the water I

saw the blue sky. You came to me in a quiet place. In reflective prayer Im not

alone with the sound of water flowing by, on stepping stones I walk in Gods


23. 28. 3. Elegy This is a lyric poem which expresses feelings of grief and

melancholy, and whose theme is death. Angie

No one knows what really happened to her

all they know that she was good and dead

some people say it was foul play some people say

it was something wrong in her head but then I began to have these weird drea

ms about her

some beautiful some horrible,but how do we know whats real and whats a fant

asy when Angies not here to tell.

24. 29. 4. Ode This is a poem of a noble feeling, expressed with dignity, with no

definite number of syllables or definite number of lines in a stanza.

25. 30. Ode to Sir Lucius Gray and Sir H. Morison Ben Jonson (1572-1637) It is not

growing like a tree In bulk, doth make man better be; standing long an Oak,

three hundred yea To fall a log at last, dry, bald, and sear. A Lily of a day Is

fairer far, in May Although it fall and die that night;

26. It was the plant and flower of light. n small proportions we just beauties

seeAnd in short measure, life may perfect be

26. 31. 5. Psalms This is a song praising God or the Virgin Mary and containing a

philosophy of life.

27. 32. Psalm 23 A psalm of David. 1 The LORD is my shepherd, I lack nothing. 2

He makes me lie down in green pastures, he leads me beside quiet waters,

3 he refreshes my soul. He guides me along the right paths for his name’s

sake. 4 Even though I walk through the darkest valley, I will fear no evil,

for you are with me; your rod and your staff, they comfort me. 5 You

prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies. You anoint my

head with oil; my cup overflows.6 Surely your goodness and love will follow
me all the days of my life, and I will dwell in the house of the LORD


28. 33. 6. Awit (Song) These have the measures of twelve syllables

(dodecasyllabic) and slowly sung to the accompaniment of a guitar or

banduria. Example: Florante at Laura(Francisco Balagtas) O pagsintang labis

ng kapangyarihan, Sampung mag-aama’y iyong nasasaklaw; Pag ikaw ang

nasok sa puso ninuman, Hahamakin ang lahat masunod ka lamang!

29. 34. 7. Corridos These have measures of eight syllables (octosyllabic)and

recited to a martial beat. The songs are often about oppressions, daily life of

peasants, and other socially important information.

30. 35. Ibong Adarna Sagot sa Panalangin Diyos nga’y di natutulog at ang tao’y

sinusubok; ang salari’y sinusunog! ang banal ay kinukupkop!

31. 36. C. Dramatic Poetry: This is an emotional piece of literature which includes

a story which is recited or sung. Soliloquy and dramatic monologues are the

main instruments of this form of poetry.

32. 37. .Comedy This word comes from the Greek term “Komos” meaning festivity

or revelry. This form usually is light and written with a purpose of amusing,

and usually has a happy ending.

33. 38. Daddy Fell into the Pond a poem by Alfred Noyes Everyone grumbled. The

sky was grey. We had nothing to do and nothing to say. We were nearing the

end of a dismal day,And then there seemed to be nothing beyond, Then Daddy

fell into the pond!And everyones face grew merry and

34. bright,And Timothy danced for sheer delight."Give me the camera, quick, oh

quick!Hes crawling out of the duckweed!" Click!

35. 39. Then the gardener suddenly slapped his knee, And doubled up, shaking

silently,And the ducks all quacked as if they were daft, And it sounded as if the

old drake laughed. Oh, there wasnt a thing that didnt respond When Daddy Fell

into the pond!

36. 40. 2. Melodrama This is usually seen in musical play with the opera. Today,

this is related to tragedy just as the farce to comedy. It arouses immediate

and intense emotion and is usually sad but there is a happy ending for the

principal character.

37. 41. Annabel LeeIt was many and many a year ago,In a kingdom by the sea,That

a maiden there lived whom you may knowBy the name of ANNABEL LEE;And

this maiden she lived with no other thoughtThan to love and be loved by me.I

was a child and she was a child,In this kingdom by the sea;But we loved with a

love that was more than love-I and my Annabel Lee;With a love that the winged

seraphs of heavenCoveted her and me.

38. 42. 3. Tragedy This involves the hero struggling mightily against dynamic

forces; he meets death or ruin without success and satisfaction obtained by

the protagonist in a comedy. Examples: Romeo and Juliet Hamlet

39. 43. 4. Farce This is an exaggerated comedy. It seeks to arouse mirth by

laughable lines; situations are too ridiculous to be true; the characters seem

to be caricatures and the motives undignified and absurd.

40. 44. 5. Social Poems This form is either purely comic or tragic and its pictures

the life of today. it may aim to bring about changes in the social conditions.
41. 45. Literary Compositions that have influenced the World. 1. The Bible or the

Sacred Writings: This has become the basis of Christianity originating From

Palestine and Greece. 2. Koran: The Muslim Bible originating from Arabia. 3.

The Iliad and the Odyssey: These have been the source of myths and legends

of Greece. They were written by Homer. 4. The Mahabharata: The longest epic

of the world. It contains the history of religion in India.

42. 46. 5. Canterbury Tales: It depicts the religion and customs of the English in

the early days. This originated from England and was written by Chaucer.6.

Uncle Tom’s Cabin: Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe of the U.S. This depicted

the sad fate of slaves; this became the basis of democracy later on.7. The

Divine Comedy: (by Dante of Italy) This shows the religion and customs of

early Italians.

43. 47. 8. El Cid Compeador: This shows the cultural characteristics of the

Spaniards and their national history.9. The Songs of Rolando: This includes

Doce Pares and Roncesvalles of France. It tells about the Golden Age of

Christianity in France10. The Book of the Dead: This includes the Cult of Iris

and the mythology and theology of Egypt.

44. 48. 11. The Book of the Days: This was written by Confucius of China.12. One

Thousand and One Nights or the Arabian Nights: From Arabia and Persia (Iran).

It shows the ways of governments, of industries and of the society of the

Arabs and Persians.

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