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A Study of Processing Parameters in Open-End Spinning Process for Organic Cotton (Ne 24)

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open-end spinning process for organic DOI: 10.1177/0040517512441989

trj.sagepub.com

cotton (Ne 24)

Abstract

Organic cotton has become a popular product in recent years due to its environmental friendliness. Different from

conventional cotton, the planting of organic cotton does not use pesticides, herbicides, or fertilizer, which can cause

degradation in soil fertility, water and natural equilibrium. Organic cotton crop rotation can build strong soil, retain water

more efficiently, maintain a balance between pests and their natural predators, and control weed growth. This study

presented a yarn spinning process using organic cotton as the raw material. An open-end rotor spinning machine was

used in the spinning process. To analyze the processing parameters affecting yarn qualities, the Taguchi method and

response surface methodology were used to design an orthogonal array experiment and to find the relationship between

controllable input parameters (i.e. feed speed, winding speed, and rotor speed) and output qualities (i.e. strength,

unevenness, imperfection indicator/km, and hairiness). To find the optimal parameter combination, two popular opti-

mization methods, particle swarm optimization and genetic algorithm, were used. The results showed that with optimal

parameters (0.345 m/min, 34.717 m/min, 82,599 rpm for feed speed, winding speed, and rotor speed, respectively), the

proposed method can find optimum values in all observed qualities. A confirmation experiment was conducted to

validate the results.

Keywords

Organic cotton, Taguchi method, response surface methodology, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization

Introduction

speed). The results were analyzed by analysis of variance

The conventional cotton planting process causes a ser- to determine signiﬁcant parameters related to each qual-

ious environmental impact. Previous studies have sug- ity. Second, response surface methodology (RSM) was

gested that nearly all planting processes of conventional applied to use signiﬁcant parameters to build relation-

cotton would damage the environment due to long term ships between parameters and each quality. Genetic

use of pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizer. The pollu- algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization

tion contaminates the air, soil and water, and further (PSO) were used to optimize all qualities. Finally, the

causes an unbalance in the biological and natural optimization results from both methods were evaluated

system. Diﬀerent from conventional cotton, all planting based on strength quality (priority quality).

processes of organic cotton, from the seed preparation

to harvesting, are safe and environmentally friendly. It

can build strong soil through crop rotation, retain 1

Graduate Institute of Automation and Control, National Taiwan

water more eﬃciently, maintain a balance between University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan

pests and their natural predators, and control the 2

Department of Materials Science & Engineering, National Taiwan

weed growth through cultivation and hand hoeing.1 University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan

This study considered the qualities of the organic

cotton spinning process (i.e. strength, unevenness, Corresponding author:

Chung-Feng Jeffrey Kuo, Graduate Institute of Automation & Control,

imperfection indicator (IPI), hairiness), and used the L9 National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Keelung Road,

orthogonal array to reduce the number of experiments, Sec. 4, Taipei, 106, Taiwan, Republic of China

in order to combine the investigated processing Email: jeffreykuo@mail.ntust.edu.tw

Kuo et al. 1561

During the 1960s, open-end spinning was one of the

new methods proposed to overcome speed and power

consumption problems in the ring spinning method for

yarn spinning technology. This method separates yarn

twisting action and winding action, and rotates the

package winding action at the relatively low winding

speed.

In the open-end spinning, various methods have

been invented, which can be classiﬁed into ﬁve

groups: vortex assembly, axial assembly, discontinuous

assembly, friction spinning and rotor spinning. This

study used the rotor spinning method, as shown in

Figure 1.2 Some studies have analyzed and optimized

the behavior of rotor spinning method related to the

quality of resulted yarn. Yang3 et al. used a linear

dynamic model to stabilize the motion of the rotor-

spun composite yarn spinning process, and used Figure 1. The rotor spinning.

approximate oscillating frequencies in vertical and hori-

zontal directions to ﬁnd the optimal construction mix-

ture. Cheng4 et al. investigated the eﬀects on properties

of open-end cover spun yarns by changing the setting of Table 1. Investigated parameters

yarn construction and formation. Pouresfandiari5 et al.

investigated a new method of combining ﬁlament yarns Design of experiment

and staple ﬁbers on a modiﬁed open-end rotor spinning Feed speed Winding speed Rotor speed

frame. They produced three kinds of hybrid yarns by Level (m/min) (m/min) (rpm)

changing ﬁlament over-feed. Kuo6 et al. investigated

processing parameters aﬀecting multiple qualities of 1 0.315 34.705 80000

bamboo charcoal and CVC (cotton 70%/ polyester 2 0.330 35.294 84000

30%) blended ﬁbers. In their work, a combination of 3 0.345 35.882 88000

feed speed, winding speed, and rotor speed were

observed, and multiple qualities of bamboo charcoal

and CVC were also observed. In this study, the com-

bination of these three factors was investigated to ﬁnd to combine the investigated parameters (three factors –

optimal qualities for organic cotton (Ne 24). three levels), as shown in Table 1.

Analysis methods

set-up

The qualities (i.e. strength, unevenness, IPI/km, and

Analysis of variance (ANOVA)

hairiness) were evaluated to determine the combination After all the experiments were completed, the ANOVA

of processing parameters (feed speed, winding speed, was applied to analyze signiﬁcant parameters related to

and rotor speed) with the most signiﬁcant eﬀect. In each quality. Details of the ANOVA are presented in

the experiment, the raw material was 100% organic the following subsection, as expressed in equation 1

cotton sliver, and an Uster Quickspin open-end rotor to 8.7

spinning experimental machine was used to spin open-

end spun yarn. The opening roller revolution was a. The degree of freedom (DF) was deﬁned as:

8000 rpm, the rotor model was 31-N3; the yarn strength

was tested by a universal tension tester, Orientec DF ¼ r 1 ð1Þ

Tension RTA-1 T; and the evenness was tested by an

Uster Test-3 yarn evenness tester. Test temperature was where r is the number of experiments.

maintained at 20 C2 C, and relative humidity was

kept at 65%2%. The L9 orthogonal array was used b. Total sum of squares (TSS):

1562 Textile Research Journal 82(15)

X

n

TSS ¼ y2j CF ð2Þ

j¼1

P 2

n

j¼1 yj

CF ¼ ð3Þ

n

the number of experiments, and CF is the correc-

tion factor.

P hPn n

i2

i¼1 j¼1 yij

SS ¼ CF ð4Þ

n

XP

SSe ¼ TSS SSP ð5Þ

k¼1

of the factor.

divided by the degree of freedom:

SS Figure 3. Direction of the velocity and position updates in

V¼ ð6Þ PSO.

DF

SSe Table 2. Parameters of genetic algorithm used in this work

Ve ¼ ð7Þ

DFE

Population 60

repetitions 1) (DF). Type of crossover Two point crossover

Percentage of mutation 1%

g. Percent contribution () Generation 100–1000

Length of each chromosome 23 bit

SS DF Ve

¼ 100% ð8Þ Number of chromosome 3 (1, 2, 3)

TSS

that mimics the process of natural evolution. This heur- Inertia factor (w) Random (0.4–1.4)

istic is routinely used to generate useful solutions to Self confidence (c1) Random (1.5–2)

optimize and search problems.8 The main components Swarm confidence (c2) Random (2–2.5)

of a GA are encoding, ﬁtness function, crossover,

Generation 100–1000

Kuo et al. 1563

START

Build second order RSM equation for each quality based on results of ANOVA

No

Finding optimum

solution?

Yes

FINISH

Particle swarm optimization (PSO)

Particle swarm optimization is inspired by the ability of

Strength Unevenness Imperfection Hairiness

ﬂocks of birds, schools of ﬁsh and herds of animals to

(kgf) (%) (per km) (hairs/m)

adapt their environment. There are three main steps in

0.27925 12.535 75.75 5.3025 PSO: generating positions and velocities of particles,

0.27925 13.0525 104.25 5.1775 velocity update, and position update.9,10 Detail of

0.212 13.01 90.5 5.385 steps are brieﬂy described in following subsection.

0.30175 12.9225 104.75 5.32

0.311 13.2425 144 5.3325 1. First, deﬁning initialization positions, xik , and velo-

0.29475 13.045 78.75 5.49

cities, vik as expressed in equation 9 and 10.

0.30175 13.055 85.75 5.6725

xi0 ¼ xmin þ rand ðxmax xmin Þ ð9Þ

0.30725 12.8525 60.75 5.7

0.26725 12.7625 68.5 5.645 xmin þ rand ðxmax xmin Þ position

vi0 ¼ ¼ ð10Þ

t time

ticles at time k + 1. The three values that aﬀect the

mutation, population, and selection models. The gen- new search direction, namely, current motion, par-

eral procedure is depicted in Figure 2. ticle own memory, and swarm inﬂuence, are incor-

In a GA, a potential solution of a problem is pre- porated via a summation approach as shown in

sented for each chromosome where an evolution pro- equation 11 with three weight factors: inertia

cess run on a population of chromosomes corresponds factor, w; self conﬁdence factor, c1; and swarm con-

to a search through a potential solution. This algorithm ﬁdence factor, c2.

i

is usually used in global minimum or optimum solu- p xik

i i

tions to a function which has many local minimums vkþ1 ¼ wvk þc1 rand

|{z} t

|ﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ{zﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ}

or optimums such as the Schaﬀer function, Rastrigin current

motion particle memory influence

function, Rosenbrock function and Griewank function.

For those functions, GA has proved that it can ﬁnd the pgk xik

þ c2 rand ð11Þ

best solution from many traps of local minimums or t

|ﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ{zﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ}

maximums. swarm influence

1564 Textile Research Journal 82(15)

A 2/2 3.4390/ 0.0346 1.7195/ 0.0173 88.06328/ 16.6949 3.400/ 0.0325 40.4423/ 21.0879

B 2/2 3.3895/ 0.0306 1.6947/ 0.0153 86.7955/ 14.7733 3.3504/ 0.0285 39.8534/ 18.5061

C 2/2 1.0122/ 0.0589 0.5061/ 0.0295 25.9191/ 28.4577 0.9731/ 0.0568 11.5753/ 36.8927

Error 29/29 0.5662/ 0.0300 0.0195/ 0.0010 – – 8.1290/ 23.5133

Total 35/35 8.4069/ 0.1540 – – 7.5911/ 0.1178 100/ 100

A 2/2 18.4843/ 0.6407 9.2421/ 0.3204 223.2005/ 1426.8696 18.4015/ 0.6403 46.0813/ 85.3715

B 2/2 4.8815/ 0.0480 2.4407/ 0.0240 58.9445/ 106.8961 4.7987/ 0.0476 12.0169/ 6.3403

C 2/2 15.3661/ 0.0548 7.6830/ 0.0274 185.5479/ 121.9278 15.2833/ 0.0543 38.2726/ 7.2403

Error 29/29 1.2008/ 0.0065 – – – 3.6293/ 1.0478

Total 35/35 39.9326/ 0.7500 – – 38.4834 100/ 100

The tuning of the PSO algorithm weight factors is a where " is a random error. The coeﬃcients, which

topic that warrants proper investigation but is out- should be determined in the second-order model, are

side the scope of this work. For optimization par- obtained by the least square method.

ameters investigated in this work, the weight factors In this work, PSO and GA were programmed in

use the random values, 0.4 to 1.4, 1.5 to 2, 2 to 2.5 MATLAB with the following computer speciﬁcation:

for w, c1 , and c2 respectively. Windows operating system and 2 GB of memory. The

3. The last step is the position update. The position of input parameters were encoded as X1, X2, and X3, for

each particle is updated using its velocity vector as feed speed, winding speed, and rotor speed, respect-

expressed in equation 12 and depicted in Figure 3. ively. The qualities were encoded as Y1, Y2, Y3, and

Y4 for strength, unevenness, imperfection indicator,

xikþ1 ¼ xik þ vikþ1 t ð12Þ

and hairiness, respectively. The solutions were bounded

in the following conditions: 0.315 X1 0.345,

34.705 X2 35.882, and 80000 X3 88000. Details

of properties are presented in Tables 2 and 3.

Proposed analysis method Figure 4 shows the ﬂow diagram of proposed method.

To optimize all qualities of organic cotton spun yarn,

PSO and a GA were employed. These two optimization

methods aimed to ﬁnd as high as possible values for Results and discussion

strength and as low as possible for unevenness, IPI, and Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and response surface

hairiness. The analysis ﬁrstly applied ANOVA to ﬁnd

methodology

the most signiﬁcant processing parameters related to

each quality. Second-order RSM, as expressed in equa- The investigation was accomplished with four repeti-

tion 13, was employed to build a relationship between tions. Table 4 shows the average of results based on

signiﬁcant processing parameters and each quality. an L9 orthogonal array design. To ﬁnd signiﬁcant fac-

Four equations derived from RSM were subsequently tors related to each quality, ANOVA was employed,

integrated to obtain a ﬁtness function which will be with the results shown in Table 5 and 6. As seen, all

optimized by both optimization methods. processing parameters showed signiﬁcant eﬀects on all

qualities. Based on this result, all parameters were

X

k X

k included to build the second-order response surface

y ¼ 0 þ i xi þ ii x2i methodology in equation 13.

i¼1 i¼1

XX For the RSM analysis, the results are expressed in

þ ij xi xj þ " ð13Þ equations 14 to 17. The R-squared (R2) values of the

i j models are 99.78%, 99.95%, 99.97%, and 99.84% for

Kuo et al. 1565

Iteration value (second) (strength) (um%) (IPI) (hairiness) X1 X2 X3

100 89.05 17.89 0.28846 12.869 68.658 5.6474 0.345 34.712 86324

200 63.38 35.87 0.27389 12.606 43.233 5.6788 0.345 34.710 83311

400 77.42 70.29 0.28132 12.744 57.156 5.6502 0.345 34.718 85013

600 58.91 108.37 0.27244 12.563 38.792 5.6959 0.345 34.717 82599

800 90.21 144.02 0.28918 12.885 69.796 5.6493 0.345 34.706 86484

1000 84.71 180.20 0.28562 12.824 64.363 5.6475 0.345 34.711 85879

Iteration value (second) (strength) (um%) (IPI) (hairiness) X1 X2 X3

100 86.77 0.18 0.28045 12.93 66.331 5.6492 0.345 35.882 81964

200 43.10 0.50 0.26871 12.431 23.03 5.8045 0.345 34.705 80000

400 86.77 0.75 0.28045 12.93 66.331 5.6492 0.345 35.882 81964

600 86.77 1.12 0.28045 12.93 66.331 5.6492 0.345 35.882 81964

800 86.77 1.48 0.28045 12.93 66.331 5.6492 0.345 35.882 81964

1000 86.77 1.98 0.28045 12.93 66.331 5.6492 0.345 35.882 81964

ness), respectively.

80:094X21 6:3986 102 X22 þ 5:3536

1010 X23 þ 1:5833X1 X2 2:991

105 X1 X3 8:5209 106 X2 X3 ð14Þ

Figure 5. Fitness value in different generations. 198:69X21 0:21562X22 þ 5:5986

109 X23 þ 10:297X1 X2 2:8729

103 X1 X3 1:2532 104 X2 X3 ð15Þ

9:8296 104 X21 43:313X22 þ 3:8311

107 X23 þ 2126:9X1 X2 0:13356X1 X3

5:2156 103 X2 X3 ð16Þ

þ 351:02X21 þ 0:16201X22 þ 4:3119

109 X23 6:9371X1 X2 þ 3:2549

Figure 6. Output of optimal parameters using GA. 104 X1 X3 þ 1:7520 105 X2 X3 ð17Þ

1566 Textile Research Journal 82(15)

both methods. In this work, by analyzing the ﬁtness

values, except in 200 iterations, PSO was trapped in

local maximum. Conversely, GA, with its operator

such as mutation, can escape from local maximum to

other solutions. This condition is a special advantage to

provide alternative solutions in engineering practice

level. In the next analysis, the most important quality

(strength) will be considered as a key factor to deter-

mine the solution.

To choose the best solution, the output of all quali-

ties in Figures 6 and 7 are analyzed. The chosen gener-

ation for each method is based on best ﬁtness value:

Figure 8. Comparison of output values.

600th generation for GA and 200th generation for PSO.

The comparison among GA, PSO, and the set of best

Genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm single qualities is shown in Figure 8 and Table 9.

For the ﬁrst quality, strength, the result of GA is

optimization (PSO)

stronger than PSO, 0.27244 to 0.26871. Both values

In the optimization process, the ﬁtness function, equa- are still below the best single observed data, 0.3. If

tion 18, was derived by adding equation 14 to 17. compared to the average strength of observed data,

Because ﬁtness values were evaluated based on the 0.2838, the optimal parameter is 4% less for GA and

maximum value, the Y2, Y3, and Y4 values, which are 5.31% less for PSO. This condition is still within toler-

minimum functions, were changed to minus signs. The ance because of other quality consideration. In terms of

results of the optimization are provided in Tables 7 the second quality, unevenness, the result of PSO is

and 8. better than GA and the observed data with values of

12.5, 12.4, 12.5 for GA, PSO and observed data,

respectively. Although the result of PSO is better than

max f ðx1 , x2 , x3 Þ ¼ Y1 ðY2 þ Y3 þ Y4 Þ

GA, the result of GA is still the same as minimum

¼ 5:6163 104 2:7858 103 X2 observed data.

1:7331 101 X3 þ 9:8063 PSO leads over GA in terms of the third quality, IPI.

However, both are better than the minimum observed

104 X21 þ 4:3303 10X22 data: 38.792, 23.03, 68.5 for GA, PSO and observed

3:9249 107 X23 2:1287 data, respectively. For the last quality, hairiness, the

103 X1 X2 þ 1:3607 101 X1 X3 result of GA is stronger than PSO, 5.6959 compared

to 5.8045. Both of them are still worse than the best

þ 5:3148 103 X2 X3 ð18Þ single observed data, 5.1775. If compared to the

Kuo et al. 1567

is better) is better) is better) is better) X1 X2 X3

PSO 0.26871 12.4 23.03 5.8045 0.345 34.705 80000

Best from 0.30725 12.5 68.5 5.1775 – – –

experiment

Table 10. Confirmation experimental results Table 11. Optimal value and standards

No. (kgf) (%) (per km) (hairs/m)

Strength (kgf) 24 Ne 0.252 kgf 0.297 kgf

1 0.311 12.62 41 5.53 Um (%) Less than 10.8% 12.71%

2 0.285 12.58 62 5.55 IPI (per km) Less than 107 per km 48.8 per km

3 0.314 12.54 58 5.59 Hairiness (hairs/m) No fixed standards 5.49 (hairs/m)

4 0.276 12.60 39 5.52

5 0.297 13.20 44 5.26

Average 0.297 12.71 48.8 5.49 where Z is the average value and Z^ is the S/N average.

S/N ratio 10.5886 22.2083 33.9256 14.7934

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

(dB)

1 1

CIsn ¼ F;1,v2 Ve þ ð20Þ

neff r

average hairiness of observed data, 5.45, the optimal

parameter is 4.56% and 6.56% higher, respectively where Fa;1,v2 is the F-value with signiﬁcance level a, v2

for GA and PSO. is the degree of freedom of the pooled error variance,

Both optimization methods can ﬁnd high optimal Ve is the pooled error variance, neﬀ is the number of

solutions in term of all qualities. PSO can lead in valid observations, and r is the number of observations

term of Y2 and Y3, but not for others. Conversely, used to calculate the mean.

GA shows stable performance in all qualities. It can

reach a better quality of strength than PSO, but is Z^ CIsn 5 mZ 5 Z^ þ CIsn ð21Þ

not too weak for other qualities. Based on engineering

judgment (considering the most important quality, where Z^ is the S/N ratio average and mZ is the actual

strength),9 the result of GA is chosen as the solution mean value in the conﬁrmation experiment.

of this problem. The optimum parameters are 0.345 m/ Hence, S/N ratio conﬁdence intervals are,

min, 34.717 m/min, and 82,599 rpm for feed speed, 12.9394 < mstrength < 6.1179, 22.9913 < mum%

winding speed, and rotor speed, respectively. < 21.0688, 41.9179 < mIPI < 26.3015, and

14.9903 < mhairiness < 13.6761; S/N ratios of all

quality characteristics fall within the 95% CI, indicat-

Confirmation experimental ing that this experiment is reproducible and reliable.

This study conducted ﬁve veriﬁcation tests on open-

Veriﬁcation testing was conducted to verify whether the

end spun yarn multiple quality optimal parameter com-

mean under the estimated optimal condition is valid, in

bination, as shown in Table 10.

order to determine if data analysis conclusion is correct.

The conﬁdence interval of one factor level mean was

calculated. This study conducted an estimation by Conclusion

using the S/N ratio of the combination of greatest

In this work, the parameter design of the Taguchi

impact factor and optimal process parameter. The

method, RSM and optimization methods, GA and

95% conﬁdence interval of its S/N ratio is calculated

PSO, were employed to ﬁnd the optimal processing par-

as follows:

ameters for organic cotton spun yarn. ANOVA was

conducted to determine the signiﬁcant parameters for

Z^ ¼ Z þ ðA2 ZÞ þ ðB3 ZÞ þ ðC1 ZÞ ð19Þ each response. The RSM was then used to build the

1568 Textile Research Journal 82(15)

responses. The relationship between them is described This work was supported by the National Science Council of

by RSM’s quadratic model. the Republic of China (grant number 97-2221-E-011-030-

The optimal parameters are: feed speed of MY3).

0.345 m/min, winding speed of 34.717 m/min and

rotor speed of 82,599 rpm. The analysis of two opti-

mization methods indicated that both methods can

reach a high performance in terms of ﬁtness value References

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