\ x=
9x
5
+ 32
=
3.01 s 1021 s 32
= 0.16 gram
6.021 s 1023
\ 5x = 9x + (32 × 5)
\ 4x = 160
29. (D)
\ x = 40
Avg. at. mass =
10 s 19 11 s 81
12. (B) 19 81
1 Å = 108 cm = 10.81
10 Å = 107 cm = 1 nm 30 (C)
14. (B) 4.2
No. of moles of N31 = = 0.1
V = l × b × h = 0.6 m × 10 × 102 42
m × 150 × 103 m 1 mol N31 ions = 6.022 × 1023 = NA
= 9 × 103 m3 ions
=9L \ 0.1 mol N31 ions = 0.1 × NA ions
15. (A)
Now, number of valence electrons in one N31ion
12.6 s 10 kg3
= 3 × 5 + 1 = 16
= 12.6 kg/L
103 L
Then no. of es in 0.1 × NA ions = 1. 6 NA
16. (B)
31. (B)
1.8 × 102 km
At STP, 22.4 L = 1 mol
= 18 m
= 1800 cm 1 21
1L= mol ×
17. (A) 22.4 100
= 0.009375 mol
o
9 s 40
D F= = 72 oF 32. (C)
5
19. (B) n × 56 × 100
0.33 = where
67200
D
o
F=
9
5
(C2 C1) \ n = 3.96 » 4
n = No. of Fe atoms
9 36. (A)
18 = (111 C1)
5
p
Vol. of virus = r2l =
C1 = 101
24. (B) 22
× (7 × 108)2 × (10 × 108)
7
KCl + AgNO3 ® AgCl + KNO3
7.45 g x g 14.35 g 10.1 g = 154 × 1023 cc
\ x = 14.35 + 10.1 7.45 = 17 Mass of virus particle
779
Vol 154 s 1023 1031
= = =
Sp. Vol. 6.02 s 1023 9.108 s 6.023 s 1023
\ M.W. of virus = Vol. of NA virus particles 1
= × 108 mol e s
154 s 10 23 9.108 s 6.023
= × 6.02 × 1023
6.02 s 102 43. (B)
= 15400 gram/mol density of H2O = 1.0 gram/mL
= 15. 4 kg/mol
38. (A) \ Number of moles of H2O =
18
18
=1
Number of molecules in 15 L H2 at STP
6.023 s 1023 s 15 = 6.02 × 1023 molecules
=
22.4 Number of e s in H2O molecule
= 4.033 × 1023 = 2 (1) + 8 = 10
Number of molecules in 5L N2 at STP \ Total number of e s = 10 × 6.02 × 1023
6.023 s 1023 s 5 = 6.02 × 1024
=
22.4 44. (C)
23
= 1.344 × 10 mass of 6.023 × 1023 CuSO4.5H2O molecules
Number of molecules in 0.5 gram H2 = 249 gram
=
0.5 s 6.023 s 1023 \ 1 × 1022 CuSO4.5H2O molecules weigh
2
249 s 1022
= 1.505 × 1023 =
6.023 s 1023
Number of molecules in 10 gram O2
= 4.14 gram
10 s 6.023 s 1023 45. (B)
=
32
F69.94 O 30.06
= 1.882 × 1023 56 16
40. (C)
F1.2489 O1.8787
Mass of 6.02 × 1023 molecules = 18 gram =
\
1.2489 1.2489
Mass of one water molecule
= Fe O1.50
18
= gram Molecular Formula = Fe2O3
6.02 s 1023
48. (A)
mass 18
vol = density = 44 gram CO2 = 12 gram C
6.02 s 1023 s 1
2.64 s 12
» 3.0 × 1023 cm3 \ 2.64 gram CO2 =
44
gram
41. (C)
1
\ 1.8 gram Organic Substance =
nO
2
= 32 = 7 2.64 s 12
nN 4 32 gram carbon
2
28 44
42. (D) \ 100 gram Organic Substance =
31
9.108 × 10 kg = 1 electron
12 s 2.64 s 100
= 40 %
44 s 1.8
\ 1 kg =
1
9.108 s 1031
electrons
Similarly, H = 6.66 %
780
\ % O = 100 (40 + 6.66) 62. (B)
= 53.33 2MnO4 + 6H+ + 5 SO32
® 2Mn2+ + 5 SO42 + 3H2O
C 40 H 6.66 O 53.33
12 1 16 5 mol SO32 ion = 2 mol MnO4 ion
3×1000
= (1000 × 1.25)(158 × 3)
\ density =
8.0752
5
= 1.615 g/mL
= 3.865m \ purity =
1.615
1.8
× 100 = 89.72%
Na2S2O3 ® 2Na+ + S2O32
85. (B)
\ molality of Na+ = 2 × 3.865 = 7.73
n N
= 0.2 Q = 0.8
and molality of S2O32 = 3.865 n+N n+N
77. (A)
\ n
N
= 0.25
CuCO3 + H2SO4 ® CuSO4 + H2O + CO2
782
n × MC
\ 3V + 4(3 V) = 10
\ WC
6H6
= 0.25 \ V=2L
6H6
1
% of C4H10 = ´ 100 = 33.33%
\ WC H
n = 0.25
78
3
6 6
90. (D)
Let the mass of hydrogen = 1 gram
\ n × 1000 = 1000 × 0.25
WC H 78 = 3.2
\ mass of carbon = 10.5 gram
6 6
64 + 34V 10 M = 91.8
× 30 = × 42.9
1000 143
MW 91.8
n= = » 1
\ V=
68 EFW 92
17
\ MF = C7H8
\ more equivalence of 17 M H2SO4 =
68
34 × = 136
17 2. States of Matter
\ Equivalence of H2SO4 =
136
1000
= 0.136 27. Density of a solid crystal 19.3 gm/cm3, if
13 \ 19.3 =
4 × 197
23
6.022 × 10 × 16 2 × r
3
3V (3 V) 4(3 V) 5(3 V)
2
783
32.
4 s 197
\ r3 =
19.3 s 6.022 s 1023 s 16 2 P
Q
= 3.0 × 1024
\ r = 1.44 × 108 cm
= 144 pm
=
7.2 s 6.022 s 1023 s (2.88 s 108 )3
2
\ Number of atoms (Z) per unit cell of
diamond Z = length of the body diagonal PR of
= 51.787 gm/mole the unit cell = 3·a
dNa
3 + 2cos60o . cos60o . cos60o]1/2
Z= M
= a3 [1 3cos260o + 2cos360o]1/2
S c
P
P
Q R
G X
120o
a Q
\ PX = PQsin 60o = 2r ⋅
3
= 3r
2
R
2PX = 2 3r = 2r
PG = 3 3 3
3·a
C C bond length = PQ = = 2r (Right angle D SGP) in SP = 2r and
4
\ a=
8r
3
(in hcp unit cell C = m A = 2
3
Ð 2
3 2
512r
=
3 3 \ SG2 = SP2 PG2 = 4r2
2r
3
100 Z 4π r 100 × 8 × 4π r \
3 3 2 2r
SG =
3 = 3 3
= a3 512r3
3 3 Now, HCP c = MG = 2SG
PQ = OR = RP = 2r \ Volume of a cylinder X = pr l 2
In equilateral triangle D PQR, PX is its Now for 1 hcp arrangement of unit cell number
median and vertices and G is the centre. In of cylinder (atoms) is z = 6
right angle D PQX, mÐPQR = 60o and volume of unit cell of hcp
785
\ r
3 2 2
a  AD
V = 3a2c sin60o = 3 × 4r2 × c × sin ( ) = 2
2 2 3a
2
= 6 3r × c = 6 3r 2 × 2l = 12 3r 2 l now mathematically (as explained in theory)
hcp arrangement packing efficiency
1cos 2 FRV 2 FRV 2 FRV FRV FRV
100 Z x cos 2
= sin 2
V
1 cos 2 600 cos 2 600 cos 2 600 2cos 600 ·cos 600 ·cos 600
100 × 6 × π r l
2
= sin 2 600
= 2
12 3r l
6a
\ r = 1 cos p = 1 23
a
1
sin2 2
3
( ) ( + 90o )
r=
o
(90 ) 3a
120o a
C 1
A a B
Therefore, sin
3
Now, r
sin ( ) =
4a 2  AD2
2 3a 2
As mentioned in the figure, the longest
body diagonal of Triangle crystal = AD. 2 2
Therefore, 1 = 4a  AD
In D ABC AB = BC = a and mÐABC = 120 o
3 2 3a 2
According to the laws of Trigonometry
cosines cos 120o 2a2 = 4a2 AD2
2
a + a − AC
2 2
1 2a  AC
2 2 \ AD2 = 6a2
= Q  2= 2
\ AD =
2a a 2a
6a
\ AC2 = 3a2 Q AC = 3a
A B
D ACD{kt AC = 3a , CD = a and 45. Formula of metal oxide = 1× 1 2× 1 O
3 4
mÐACD = (p + 90o)
= A2B2O6
According to the laws of Trigonometry
2 2 2
2(a) + 3(b) + 6(2) = 0
a × ( 3a) − AD
r
cosines cos ( + 90 ) = o
2 3a a 2a + 3b = 12 solving it option (d) + 3, + 2
786
49. Number of O2 ions arranged in ccp unit cell = 4 \ 2(R + r) = 3a and a = 2R
Number of ions of metal A arranged in
tetrahedral void = 8
\ 2(R + r) = 3 (2R)
2
number of O ion 4 dividing it by
4
obtained
\ r
R
= 0.732
3
formula : A4 B 4 O4
3
\ radii ratio for body centred void Rr = 0.732
Now, out of 8 tetrahedral voids, ions of metal
A is occupying = 4 \ radii ratio for body centred void radius =
\ Percentage occupancy of tetrahedral void r = 0.732 × R
100 s 4 = 0.732 × 180
by ions of metal A = = 50 %
8
= 131.76 pm
and out of 4 octahedral viods, ions of meta
51. Spheres arranged in body centred arrangement
4
B is occupying = and the void created between them the ratio of
3
radius of sphere in lattice site is theoretically
\ Percentage occupancy of octahedral void explanied as
100 s 4 r
by ions of metal B = = 33.33 % = 0.291
4s3 R
r r +
K+ Na
58. r = 0.74 and r = 0.55
 
a Cl Cl
1.74 ¥ 1µ
\
2 2
= 2XR  m
1.55 cos (cos1 ¦§ ¶· ) = 2
3 2XR
= 1.226
60. anions are in a unit cell of fcc arrangement and 2XR 2  m 2
Hence
2XR 2
4(r + + r  )
their edge length a =
3 \ 2XR2 = 6XR2 3m2
¥ 1µ
=
2a =
+ −
a = 4(r + r ) = 4 × 205 Ð
and m RPQ = 109028 = cos1 ¦§ ¶·
3
2 2 6 6
Cosine Law of cos (m RPQ) Ð
= 334.76 pm
RP2 + PQ2 − RQ2
62. 2
O = anion (S ) and O = cation (Zn ) 2+ =
2 RP PQ
N
¥ 1µ 2
2m  c
2
cos (cos1 ¦§ ¶· ) =
R
\ 2
M 3 2m
m Y
1 2 2
2m  c
\ = 2
3 2m
c P
788
8 8 Gaseous state
From result (1) and (2) c2 = s XR2
3 3
8 + P2 = ?
c= (r + r )
3 V1 = 100 ml
V1 = 1 litre = 1000 ml
8 8 s 103.7
\ c = (74 + 29.7) = P1V1
3 3
∴ P2 = V
2
= 276.53 pm
71. Due to metal defficiency defect FexO is mostly 200 s 100
=
Fe0.92O calculate the percentage of Fe 2+
and 1000
3+
Fe ions in them ? = 20 millibar
OR
Suppose Fraction of Fe2+ ion = x
d1 d 2
\ Fraction of Fe3+ ion = 0.95 x 2. = P1 = 1 bar d1 = 2.5
P1 P2
2+ 3+ 2
\ metal oxide formula : Fex Fe (0.95x)
O
P2 = 0.5 bar d2 = ?
Compound by charge is neutral hence some
of the oxidation state of ions in it is zero d1P2
d2 =
\ 2x + 3 (0.95 x) + ( 2) 0 P1
\ x = 0.85
2.5 s 0.5
= = 1.25
100 s 0.85 1
\ % Fe2+ ion =
0.95 3. T1 = 400 K V1 = 4 litre
= 89.47 T2 = ? V2 = 2 litre
% » 89.5 and
V1 T1 T1V2
% of Fe3+ ion = 100 89.5 =
V2 T2 ∴ T2 = V
1
= 10.5 %
400 s 2
72. Metal oxide has formula is M0.98O, when M is = = 200 K
4
M2+ and M3+ form.
T2 = 73oC
3+ 2+
If M ion is x mole and M ion is (0.98 x)
4. T1 = 27oC = 300 K
mole
\ Metal oxide formula (stochiometrically)
T2 = 77oC = 350 K
Fex3+M2+(0.98x)O2 T1 P1
=
Compound by charge is neutral hence some of T2 P2
the oxidation state of ions in it is zero P1 = 1 bar
\ 3x + 2(0.98 x) 2 = 0 Hence 0.04 M3+
P2 = ?
0.04 s 100
% ions =
0.98 P1T2 1 s 350
∴ P2 = T1 = 300 = 1.17 bar
= 4.08 %
789
5. T1 = 400 K T2 = ? 14 1
12. moles of N2 = =
P1 = 4 bar P2 = 5 bar 28 2
\ Mx = 14.3 gm / mole
18 gm pure water (H2O) = 1 mole H2O,
Number of electrons = 2 + 8 = 10 mole
35. Molecular mass of CaCO3 = 100 gm / mole
50
\ In 36 gm pure water (H2O) number of
moles of CaCO3 = 100 = 0.5 electrons
no. of molecules of CaCO3 = 2 × 10
23
= 0.5 × 6.022 × 10 = 20 mole
23
= 3.011 × 10
= 20 × 6.022 × 1023
One molecule CaCO3 has total five atoms
\ total atoms = 3.011 × 1023 × 5
= 1.2044 × 1025
PV = W
M
RT
2E
\ v2 = m
\ PVM
W = RT =
1 × 2.24 × 2
0.0831 × 273
N = 0.2 gm \ V = 2E
m
Substituting the value in the equation
14
38. mole of N2 = 0.5 h m
28 \ l =
at STP volume of 1 mole gas = 22.4 litre m 2E
\ 0.5 mole has volume = 11.2 litre
h
40. PV = nRT If value of n is higher volume is \ l = 2mE
RT
more V = n P . Here mass is same so the
h 6.626 × 10 –34
one with higher molecular mass will have =
28. 2mE =
\
l
2 × 9.109 × 10 –31 × 1.64 × 10 –17
less mole and less volume HI has more
molecular mass so has less volume = 1.2 × 1010 m
= 1.2 Å
791
34. 400 nm = 400 × 109 m, photon energy 41. According to Heisenbergs principle,
hc 6.626 s 10 3.0 s 10 h
–34 8
Dx × Dp ³
DE = 4p
M 400 s 10 –9
Now Dx = Dp is given.
= 4.97 × 1019 joulephotons1
h
To absorb 4.97 × 1019 joule energy 1 photon is \ (Dp)2 = (Dx)2 ³
4p
required
\ number of 1 joule energy photons h
\ D v = Dx ³
2 p
1
= According to Heisenbergs principle,
4.97 s 10–19 42.
= 2.01 ×1018 h
Dx × Dp ³ and Dp = m × Dv
4p
35. Calculate wave number in cm1 for photon hav
h
ing 1.5 × 1016 joule energy ? \ D x × m × Dv ³
4p
hc 6.626 s 10 3.0 s 10
–34 8
Now D v = 16Dx is given
=
l
%E 1.5 s 10 –16
h
\ 16(Dx)2 × m ³
= 1.3252 × 10 m 9 4p
h
43. According to Heisenbergs principle,
hence D x × m × Dv ³
4p
h
x × Dp ³ yLku Dp = m × Dv
4Q
D
h
Now Dx = Dv is given, (Dx)2 × m ³
4p
h
\ D x × m × Dv ³
h 4p
(Dv)2 = (Dx)2 ³
4pm Now D v = 4Dx is given
h
h \ 4(Dx)2 × m ³
\ D v = Dx × ³ 4p
2 Qm
792
h 53. angluar momentum of electron of Hydrogen
\ (Dx) ³
16pm nh
atom moving in nth orbit is mvr =
2p
h
\ D x³
4 pm \ Velocity of Hydrogen electron in nth orbit
h nh
v=
\ D v = 4Dx ³ 2π mr
pm
\ D p = m × Dv \ P (n = 6) orbit electron of Hydrogen atom
m h 6h 3h
p³ has velocity v = =
\ D
pm 2π mr PU
\ l = 2π r . h
n \ m=
lv
\ de Broglie wavelength of electron
revolving in 3rd orbit (n = 3)
6.626 × 10 –34
2 ×π × 9 x \ mass of photon = 3.6×10 –10 ×3.0×108
l =
3
= 6px = 6.135 × 1033 kg
h
51. l = mv and l = v 56. Ionization enthalpy of potassium is DE
\ v2 =
h = 416 KJ mole1
m
416 × 1000
h = 6.022×1023
\ v=
m
793
= 6.91 × 1019 Jmole1 \ Ionization enthalpy of sodium Atom
794
1 – 1 1 – 1 1 – 1 5 6.626 × 10–34 × 3.0 × 108
n12 n22 42 62 16 36 144 = 0.0347 = 7.57 × 10 –20
77. Electron of Hydrogen atom in an electrically
= 2.63 × 103 nm
discharge tube undergoes transition of n2® n1
(n2 > n1) 80. Change in energy for transition of ni ® nf of
an electron of single electron system (H, He+)
Energy of emitted photon DE = 2.18 × 1018 ×
is
¨1 ¸ 1 1
© 2 – 12 ¹ = 2.18 × 1018 × ¨ 1 – 2 ¸
ª n1 n2 º ©ª1 4 º¹ 1 1
DE = Enf Eni × Z2 2 – 2
n n f
i
18 15
= 2.18 × 10 ×
16 To calculate ionization enthalpy ni = 1, nf = ¥
18
= 2.044 × 10 joule \ Ionization enthalpy of 1H atom
78. Electron of Hydrogen atom in an electrically
discharge tube undergoes transition of n2 ® n1
¨ 12 – 12 ¸ = R
D Ea E1 = RH × (1)2 ©ª1 d ¹º H
(n2 > n1)
Energy to remove electron from nth orbit
Frequency of emitted photon DE = hv = 2.18 ×
(nth quantum state) of 2He+ and ionization en
¨1 1¸ ¨1 1¸ thalpy of Hydrogen atom is same and for He+
1018 × © n 2 – n 2 ¹ = 2.18 × 1018 × © 2 – 2 ¹
ª 1 2º ª2 5º z=2
\ Energy to remove electron from nth orbit (nth
\ v=
2.18 × 10 –18
h
×
21
100 quantum state) of 2He+ is
2.18 × 10–18 × 21
= 6.626 × 10 –34 × 100
DE = E¥ En = RH × (2)2 ¨ª© n12 – d12 ¸º¹ = RH \
4 × RH
= 6.91 × 1014 Hz = RH
n2
79. Electron of Hydrogen atom in an electrically
\ n2 = 4
discharge tube undergoes transition of n2 ® n1
(n2 > n1)
\n=2
82. In Balmer series for maximum emitted
Energy of emitted photon DE = 2.18 × 1018 ×
wave length n1 = 2, n2 = 3
¨ 1 ¸ 1 1
© 2 – 12 ¹ = 2.18 × 1018 × ¨ 2 – 2 ¸ h × c× 36
©ª 4 6 ¹º
ª n1 n2 º
lmax = RH ×5
5
= 2.18 × 1018 × 6.626 × 10 –34 × 3.0 × 108 × 36
144 =
2.18 × 10 –18 × 5
= 7.57 × 1020 joule
= 6.565 × 107 m
hc = 656.5 nm
Now D E=
M
83. In Paschen series for minimum emitted wave
=
hc length n1 = 3, n2 = ¥
\ l
%E
hc × c×9
lmin = RH
795
6.626 × 10 –34 × 3.0 × 108 × 9 ¨ ¸ joule
=
2.18 × 10 –18
DE = En1 En2 = RH × Z2 × ©ª n1 2
2
– 12 ¹
n1 º electron
= 8.206 × 107 m n1 = 2, n2 = 5 and Z = 1
= 820.6 nm
1 1 joule
84. In lyman series for minimum emitted frequency D E = 2.18 × 1018 × 12 × ¨ª© 52 – 22 ¸º¹
electron
n1 = 1, n2 = 2
2.18 × 10 –18 × (–21) joule
=
R H ×3 100 electron
vmin =
h×4
joule
= 4.578 × 1019
electron
2.18 × 10 –18 × 3
=
6.626 × 10 –34 × 4
91. For electron of Hydrogen atom moving from
= 2.4675 × 10 s 15 1 4th exited state to lower energy state then
85. In Brackett series for minimum emitted calculate the number of lines of in U.V. region
visible region and Infrared region.
frequency n1 = 4, n2 = 5
Fourth exited state = fifth orbit (fifth energy
R ×9
vmin = H level)
h × 400
(Fourth exited state n = 5)
2.18 × 10 –18 × 9
=
6.626 × 10 –34 × 400
n=5
13 1 n=4
= 7.40 × 10 s Infrared : 3 lines
n=3
86. In pfand series the minimum emitted frequency n=2 Visible region : 3 lines
for n1 = 5, n2 = 6
n=1 Ultraviolet region : 4 lines
R H ×11 Total number of lines = 10
vmin =
h × 36 × 25
2.18 × 10 –18 × 11 106. All orbits between nuclear atom and P orbit
= possess one (l = 0) orbital.
6.626 × 10 –34 × 36 × 25
796
® number of orbitals = 1 pletely fill all orbitals between Nucleus and
O orbit is = 60
n = 4, l = 1 ® 4p orbital
® number of orbitals 113. Orbits between nucleus and P orbit is K(n = 1),
L (n = 2), M(n = 3) and N(n = 4) total four
= (4px, 4py, 4pz)
orbits. There are 2n2 number of electrons in any
n = 3, l = 0 ® 3s orbital
nth orbit
® number of orbitals = 1
For K (n =1) possible number of electrons to
n = 3, l = 1 ® 3p orbital
be filled ® 2(1)2 = 2
® number of orbitals
For L (n = 2) possible number of electrons to
= 3(3px, 3py, 3pz)
be filled ® 2(2)2 = 8
n = 3, l = 2 ® 3d orbital
For M (n = 3) possible number of electrons to
® number of orbitals be filled ® 2 (3)2 = 18
= 5(3dxy, 3dyz, 3dxz, 3dx2y2, 3dz2) For N (n = 4) possible number of electrons to
n = 2, l = 0 ® 2s orbital be filled ® 2 (4)2 = 32
200 s 20
= =1
4 1000
798
1 nh nh
electron is n = 3, l = 1, ms =1, s = . mvr =
2p
. OR r =
2 pmv
2
130. wavelength l of electron in nth orbit, nl = 2pr Now
h
mv
= l (deBroglie wavelength)
2
\ l = 2p × 52.9 × n = 2p × 52.9 × n
n
\ r=
nl
2p
\ For 2nd orbit (n = 2) wavelength of
electron :
\ Now deBroglie wavelength for nth orbit
2 pr
l = 2 × 3.14 × 52.9 × 2 = 664.424 pm l = and raduis of nth orbit
n
\ l = 664.424 × 1012 m = 6.64 × 1010 m r = 5.29 × 1011 × n2 m
131. Wave length of an electron moving in nth orbit
of the single electron system is n = 2 r l p \ l
–11
n
2
= 2p × 5.29 × 10 × n m
\ nl = 2p × 52.9
Z
×n
2
\ l = 2p × 5.29 × 1011 × n m
For transition of electron 4 ® 2 the
\ n=
Z× l
2p × 52.9
decrease in deBroglie wavelength is
¨1 ¸
Cl
DE = 2.18 × 10 18
× © 2 – 12 ¹
ª4 nf º
F
× 12 electron
4.0876 × 10 –19 ¨1 1¸ F × × F
= = © 2 –
2.18 × 10 –18 ª4 n f2 ¹º 8. (c) SF6 ×
S
×
F × F
¨ F
1¸
\ 0.1875 = ©0.0625 – n 2 ¹
ª f º
9. (b) Hydrazine : NH2 NH2
1
\ n f2 = 0.1875 + 0.0625 = 0.25 H H
N–N
\ nf2 =
1
0.25
= 4 and nf = 2 H H
Transition of electron will be 4 2 ®
angular momentum of n electronth 10. (b) Aceta ion : CH3COO
799
valence electron :
26. (c) (i) P = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1, L = 1s2 2s2 2p4:
= 2 (C) + 3 (H) + 2 (O) + 1 P = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 do
= 2 (4) + 3 (1) + 2 (6) + 1 = 24 natir y 2 e –
(a) Peroxide ion : O22
11.
no. of electrons = 2 (O) + 2
\ formed compound P L 2
(ii) R = 1s 2s 2p 3s , L = 1s 2s 2p 4
2 2 6 2 2 2
= 2 (8) + 2 = 18
don
13. (a) Nuclear charge of K+ is more than K, atir y 2e –
has nucleur charge increase size formed compound RL
decreases hence size of K+ is smaller
(iii) P = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1, Q = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5:
than K.
d on a t i
15. (a) In NaCl Bond is formed due to transfer r y 1e –
formed compound PQ
of electron which is known as ionic
electro valent bond. (iv) R = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 : Q = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5
16. (b) x : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 2 electron in valence Q =1s2 2s22p6 3s2 3p5
d on
orbit. atir y –
2e
\ x ® x+2 + 2e formed compound RQ2
*There are 7e in valence orbit of chlorine. 28. (c) In LiF electronegativity of F is more and
hence attraction between Li and F is strong.
\ 2Cl + 2e ® 2Cl
Hence solubility of LiF is more.
\ x+2 + 2Cl ® xCl2 is formed.
29. (b) In CsF size of Cs+ is large so attraction
17. (c) Z : 1s 2s 2p5 posses 7e in valence
2 2
between Cs+ and F is weak, so CsF has
orbit bond has a strong tendency to
high solubility.
gain one electron. Hence produces bond
by transfer of electron hence has a 31. (d) According to Fajans rule as size of
cation increases covalent characteristics
higher tendency to form ionic bond.
decreases and melting pt increases.
18. (d) Molecular formula of metal phosphate
} Li} }< K} <}R}b }< C}}m size increases
+
MPO4 + s + +
MPO4
+3 3–
\ }}}}}}}}}}}}}}}
Li CO < K CO < Rb CO < Cs CO
2 3
}m 2 3 2 3 2 3
M PO 4
Melting point increases
Metal nitrate formula of same metal
33. (a) According to Fajans rule as size of anion
M+3 + 3(NO3) ® M (NO3)3 decreases their covalent characteristic de
19. (d) Metal oxide formula : MO creases.
MO
}}}}}}}} m size decreases
– – – –
I > Br > Cl > F
2+ 2–
M O
Metal phosphate formula of the same \ }}}}}}}}}}}}
SnI >SnBr >SnCl > CnF
4
m 4 4 4
\ }}}}}}}m
H N B F Coordinate covalent bond
RbI > CdI > PbO solubility
2 de2 H F
creases 74. (a) In the same group moving from top to bot
37. (c) According to Fajaans rule as charge of cat tom attraction of nucleus towards electron
ion/anion is less their covalent character decreases. Hence according to VSEPR
istics decreases. Therefore (·) stability in principle, compounds of element have re
creases and does not undergo dissociation pulsion between them and decrease bond
easily (·) Na2CO3 (Na+) angle.
38. (c) As size of positive ion is more covalent
characteristics is less and ionic character
\ }}}}}}}}}}}
NH > PH > AsH > SbH
3
m 3 3 3
O O
H C C O CO:1
87. (b)
O O O O C=O:1
2 sigma and one pie bond H
90. (b) Calcium Carbide : CaC2 100. (a) XeO3 :
Xe dQ  pQ bond
Ca O O xe  O : 03
O
C C Calcium carbide
XeO4 :
2 2 3
H
Sp Sp Sp Sp
+
133. (a) H–N H ® Cl
..
114. (b) distorted tetrahedral H
N
3
H H hybridisation : SP NH4Cl possess polar and non polar bond.
H 135. (b) CO 3 2 :
116. (c) O O O
B C C C
Trigonal pyramidal O O O O O O
2
Sp hybridisation
Cl Cl
Cl 141. (b) Li2 < Li2+ < Li2
¯ ¯ ¯
119. (c) CCl4 : It is regular tetrahedral structure.
® linear, planar triangle, tetrahedral,
bond order :
1 1
1
Triagonal bipyramidal, definite actahedral, 2 2
as well as pentagonal bipyramidal have Nuclear charge bond order
their dipole moment zero. increases and increases
122. (c) 4.8 D stability increases stability increases
® Ionic charge : 4.8 × 1010 esu 142. (c)
803
147. (a) Bond order 156. (b) electron
C1O2 : 33
O2+2 : 3
ClO2 : 34 paired electron
® O2 + : 2.5 \ NO2 : 23
O2 : 1.5 Bond order a
1 NO : 15
Bond length 162. (d) : Bond order
2
O2 : 1.0 CN : 03
+
\ O2 < O2+ < O2 < O22
+2 NO : 03
164. (b) : O2+ > O2 > O2 > O22
3 2.5 \ 3= ( Nb2 4 )
¯ ¯
\ 6 = Nb 4
O: Diamagnetic paramagnetic \ Nb (BMO electron) = 10
152. (b) : O2+ bond order = 2.5 paramagnetic 166. (c) : Bond order in PO43
property Number of Bonds in PO4 –3
154. (c) N2 electronic configuration Number of resonating structure in PO4 –3
( s 1s ) 2 ( s * 1s ) 2 ( s 2s ) 2 ( s * 2s ) 2 ( p 2 px) 2
5
= (p2py)2 (s2pz)2 = = 1.25
4
N2+ electronic configuration 167. (d) : Bond order in perchlorate ion [ClO4]
( s 1s ) 2 ( s * 1s ) 2 ( s 2s ) 2 ( s * 2s ) 2 ( p 2 px) Number of Bonds in ClO4
=
= (p2py)2 (s2pz)1 Number of resonating structure of ClO 4
ABMO electrons = 8
( s 1s ) 2 ( s * 1s ) ( s 2s ) 2 ( s * 2s ) 2 ( s 2s ) 2 ( s 2p ) 2
z s s s s s
O2 : ( 1s)2 ( * 1s)2 ( 2s)2 ( *2s)2 ( 2s)2 ( 2P )2 = s
= (p2p )2 = (p2p )2 = (p*2p )1 = (p* 2p )0
p
( *2p )1
x
®
x y x y
y
So when O2+ is formed from O2 electron is ABMO electrons : 07
removed from (p *
2py
) or (p *
2px
). O2+ : (s1s)2 (s* 1s)2 (s2s)2 (s* 2s)2 (s2p )2
z
155. (c) NO +
> NO > NO (p* 2p )2 = (p2p )1 (p*2p )1
x y x
® ABMO electrons : 05
¯ ¯ ¯
169. (b) : Ne2
Bond order 3 2.5 2.0 (s1s)2 ( s* 1s)2 (s2s)2 (s* 2s)2 (s2p2)2 (p2p )2 =
x
Bond order a stability (p2p )2 (p*2p )2 = (p*2p )2 (s*2p )2
y x y z
stability a Bond order ® Total number of electron pair = 10
804
(373 273) = 831.4 Joule
177. (c) H–C–O–H
14. D H = 38880 Cal,
O Hydrogen bond D H = DU + Dn(g)RT
CH3 – C – O – H \ D U = DH Dn(g)RT
= 38880 (4 × 2 × 373)
O
= 38880 2984
181. (c) O O intramolecular HBond = 35896 K cal mol1
N H = 35.89 K cal
O 25. CH3COOH CH3COO + H+
D H = 0.30 K cal mol1
\ 2CH3COOH 2CH3COO + 2H+
(O nitrophenol) DH = 0.60 K cal
189. (b) F2 < Cl2 < Br2 < I2 Ca(OH)2 Ca2+ + 2OH
DH = O
as Nuclear charge increases altration
increases. 2H + 2OH ® 2H2O
+
DH = 13.7 × 2 = 27.4
198. (a) as charge of cation increases, attraction
\ DH = 27.4 + 0. 60
increases and bond strength increases. = 26.80 K cal
199. (b) In a diamond, one carbon is attached to four 28. D H = Dso1H1 + Dso1H2
hyd
other carbon atoms by tetrahedral. Three = 91.21 13.81
dimensional rigid network structure due to = 105.02
which it becomes hard. 29. D H = [4((BH))
CH
+ (BH)C=C + (BH)HH]
200. (b) Based. on metallic bond. [6(BH)CH + (BH)CC]
Note : assume BH = Bond enthalpy
Heat conductivity
41.75 joule
Electrical conductivity 31. Cv = 0.1mole×20° = 20.875 JK1 mol1
ductileability
\ Cp = Cv + R = 20.875 + 8.314 = 29.189
Maleability like properties can be ex JK1 mol1
plained.
C P 29.189
\ = 1.4
C V 20.875
\ Gas is diatomic.
3
32. Monoatomic gas Cv = R and T = 10
5. Chemical Thermodynamics 2
D
3 3
607.8 \ D U = Cv DT = R × T = × 2 = 3 cal
9. W= = 6 litre atm, P = 20 atm 2 2
101.3 41. For the process DU = O
\ W = PDV \ 6 litre atm = 20 \ q=w
0 1
atm × DV 42. DrG = 702.6 K J mole
(x
200 = 2 + 2
0.5x
) (x) 6. Solution
\ x = 800 1. 98 % H 2 SO 4 means 980 gm H 2SO 4 is
dissolved in 1000 solution. Now density of
62.
P
V
=1 \ P=V ... (i) solution = Mass
\
dq
dT
= Cv +
R
2
3
= R+
2
R
2
= 2R \ moles of solvent =
1000
18
= 55.56 mole
3
\ CH2 + O ® CO2 + H2O 10 3
2 2 = = 0.01 M
0.1
DH = 158 K cal 4. For an aqueous solution of a given substance If
x molar solution is more concentrated than x
\ DcombustionH (C H ) = DcombustionH(CH ) molal solution. Then the value of molarity of the
10 22 4
+ [9 × DcombustionH(CH )] solution is less than the molarity of the
2 solution.
806
molarity molarity \ glucose = 18 gm, solution = 100 gm, sol
\
molarity
< 1, Now,
molarity
= vent (water) = 82 gm
M × Wo
= 1000 × W
18
´
M×V 1000 × W
\ Glucose = 180
18 82
molarity W (gm)
\ = Vo (m) 180 18
molarity
Wo 0.1 0.1
\ < 1 gram ml1 = = 0.021
V 0.1 4.56 4.66
Wo W +W  W Wo + W
Now, = o =  W 8. 2 litre of 3 M AgNO3 solution contains 6
V V V V
mole of AgNO3
W
=d 3 litre of 1 M BaCl2 solution contains 3
V
mole of BaCl2.
= d + 1000 × W × ® 2 AgCl + Ba(NO )
Wo W M
\ =d+
V V M×V 1000 2 AgNO3 + BaCl2 3 2
Wo (gm) gm Molarity × M.W. That is 6 mole of AgNO3 will react with 3 mole
\
V (ml)
=d + of BaCl2 .
ml 1000
\ d
gm
<1
gm
+
Molarity × M.W. \ 2 + 3 = 5 litre solution contains 6 moles of
ml ml 1000 NO31 ion.
Now, for 0.5 M H2SO4 aqueous solution.
¥ 0.5 s 98 µ
\ molarity of NO3 ion =
6
5
= 1.2
d < ¦§1 ¶
1000 · 9. M1V1 + M2V2 = M3 (V1 + V2)
5.
\ d < 1.049 gram/ml
For a given substance of two different concen
\ 6 × 250 + 3 × 650 = M3 (250 + 650)
trated solution are mixed the concentration of ob \ 1500 + 1950 = 900 M3
tained concentration of the mixture of the solu
tion. Concentration of dilute soultion < Concen \ M3 =
3450
900
M
tration of mixed solution < concentration of con
centrated solution. that is molarity of mixed solution will be
6. 25% of NH4NO3 in 300 gm solution
3450
25 M.
900
= × 300 = 75 gm
100 ® Before dilution After dilution
40% of NH4NO3 150 gm solution
M1 V1 = M2 V2
40
= × 150 = 60 gm 3450
100 × 900 = 3 × V'2
900
Total mass of the solution = (300 + 150)
= 450 gm \ V'2 = 1150 ml
Total mass of solute = (75 + 60) gm Amount of volume of water to be added
= 135 gm
= 1150 900 = 250 ml
Percentage by mass (concentration)
10. Molarity of a solution is 11.5. Which means
135
= × 100 = 30 % 11.5 moles of H2SO4 is disolved in 1 litre.
450
7. 18 % W/W glucose solution means 18 gm Suppose density of 1 litre solution is d
glucose dissolved in 100 gm solution. gm/ml then 1000 ml solution = 1000 d gm.
807
\ 1000 d gm solution of H2SO4 = 11.5 mole 16. millimole = 500 × 0.2 = 100
\ 11.5 × 98 gm = 1127 gm
\ mass of water = (1000 d 1127) gm \ Molarity of dilute solution = 100 = 0.1428
700
\ molarity =
11.5
1000 d  1127
× 1000 = 94.5 m M
OR moles of solute
15500 = 94.5 × 1000 d 94.5 × 1127 17. Molarity =
volume of solution in litre
OR
94500 d = 11500 + 106501.5 = 118001.5 120 s 1.15
=× 1000 = 2.05 M
60 s 1120
\ d=
118001.5
94500
= 1.2487 gm litre1 Normality molecular mass
Molarity = Equivalent mass = n
18.
W 5.85
11. Molarity (M) = M.W. × V = For 2N HCl For 4N H2SO4
lit 58.5 s 0.5
= 0.2 M
M = N × E.W. M = N × E.W.
12. Decimolar solution means 0.1 M M.W. M.W.
Now, molarity = Mole
vol. in 2 s 36.5 4 s 49
1 = =
× li × 1000 = 0.1
W 36.5 98
=
200 tre
100
=2M =2M
\ 0.1 =
W
20
\ W = 2 gm 21. According to Raoults law
162 S
= 0.1234 mole
\ molar concentration of solution
T
0.1234 U
= × 1000 Q V
90.91 mole fraction
= 1.357 M
mass of solute (mg) 22. YA = 0.4 and PA = 400 mm
14. PPm = × 106
mass of solvent (kg)
Now, PA = PTotal . YA
=
0.025
× 106 = 25 PPm \ 400 = PTotalX0.4
103
15. 2 litre solution = 2000 ml solution
\ PTotal = 400/0.4
P1
o
=
n1 \ 10
100
60
= 180
18
0.5
143  P1
\ \
= 65 x
143 158
154
P1 = 141.93 mm
\ 1
10
=
60
10
26. Suppose in a solution XA = x and XB = 2x \ x = 60 gmmole 1
and PAo = P and PBo = 2P 31. P = PAXA + PBXB
\ PA = X × P and PB = 2x × 2P = 4x × P = PAXA + PB (1 XA)
\ PTotal = 5xP
\ molefraction in vapour state
= PAXA + PB PBXA
= PB + XA (PA PB)
PA xp 1
YA = P1o  P1
PTotal = 5x p = 5 = 0.2
32. According toRaoults Raw :
n2
= n
o
27. According to Raoults law for volatile sub P1 1
P1o  P1 n W2 4
= 2 where, P1o = 0.850 bar n2 = M = 0.0667 mole
P1 n1 2 60
P1 = 0.845 bar Substituting the value in equation of
809
Raoults law \ D Vmix = Ve (negative) DHmix Ve
0.025  P1 0.0667 \ Total volume of solution = < (30 + 50) ml
= = < 80 ml
0.025 5.33
50. Due to Hbond formation between Butyl Al
0.0667 s 0.025 cohol (C4H9OH) and H2O (water)
0.025 P1 =
5.33 52. According to Henrrys law : PH S = K .XH S 2 H 2
\ P1 = 0.025 0.000313
\ XH2S = K
2
H
=
5.6 s 10 4
= 0.5357 ×
\
n1 + n 2
\
n2
n2 = 80 = 55.55 mole XH2S = n 55.55
2
\ \
n1 n2
n 2 + 1 = 80 5.357 × 105 =
55.55
\ n2 = 5.357 × 105 × 55.55
\
n1 n1 55.55
n2 = 297.58 × 105 mole
n 2 = 79 and n2 = 79 = 79 = 0.70
n2 = 2.9798 ml mole
where, (n2) = 0.70 M 55. PN2 = KH.XN2
34. Pvappressure = 80 torr, and Qvappressure = 60 torr
\ PTotal press = [Pvap press × Xp] + [Qvap press × XQ] \ XN2 =
1
105
× 0.8 × 5
2 2 2 2 H(O 2)
nol becomes more volatile and its vapour pres
sure increases. PN
38. Chloroform and acetene form a non ideal PN = KH(N ) · XN OR XN = K
2
2 2 2 2 H(N 2)
solution where due to Hbond formation
attraction between AB is more attrection XO PO K H(N )
between A A and B B as result they show \
2
= 2
× 2
XN PN K H(O )
negative deviation in Raoults law. 2 2 2
810
XO 7
70. (ii) 0.1 M glucose, p = CRT = 0.1 RT
2 0.2 bar 6.60 ×10 torr 1 (iii) 100 ml solution has 0.6 gm urea dissolved
\
XN = 0.8bar × 7 =
2 3.3×10 torr 2 in it.
\ XO : XN = 1 : 2 0.6
63.
2 2
According to DTb = i.Kb.m more the number of
W s 1000
n M 60
p= RT = V RT = × RT
particles in the solution higher is its boiling V 100
point.
= 0.1RT
Here, KNO3= 2, Na3PO4 = 4, (iv) 1.0 gm nonvolatile solute (x) disolved in
BaCl2 = 3, K2SO4 = 3 50 ml solution.(x)
64. According to DTb = iKf.m more the number of
particles in the solution lower is its freezing 0.1
point. p =
200 × 1000 RT = 0.1 RT
50
K4[Fe(CN)6]=5, C6H12O6=1, KCl = 2 NaCl = 2
Hecen, (ii), (iii) and (iv) will have equal os
DTf 0.186
65. D Tf = kf.m \ m = K = = 0.1 motic pressure.
f 1.86 71. For sugar cane (sugar) solution :
\ D Tb = kb m WB = 5 gm, WA (water) = (100 5) = gm 95
= 0.512 × 0.1 MB (sugar) = 342 gm mole1,
= 0.05120 C DTf = 273.15 271 = 2.15K
66. P V = nRT K f × WB
500 V1 Now, DTf = M × W
nR × 283 B A
105.3 V2 = nR × 298
Kf × 5
2.15 = (1)
V1 1 180 × 95
\
V2 = 5 \ V2 = 5V1
For glucose solution :
67. D Tb = kb.m WB (glucose) = 5 gm,
DTb WA (water) = (100 5) gm = 95 gm
0.128
\ m= K = = 0.25 MB (glucose) = 180 gm mole1, DTf = (?)
b 0.512
Now, Kf = 1.860 C and m = 0.25 Kf × 5
® D Tf = (2)
180 × 95
\ Tf = kf × m
D
811
78. According to p = CRT
1000 ×1.86 × W1
\ 2.8 =
62 ×1000 36
C1 = RT, p1 = 4.98 bar
180
\ W1 = 93.33 gm
C2 = (?); p2 = 1.76 bar
73. Boiling point (Tb) = 100 + DTb
36
= 100 + kb m \ 4.98 = ... (1)
180
Freezing point (Tf) = 0 DTf \ 1.76 = C2RT ... (2)
Now, dividing equation (2) by (1),
= kf m
1.76 C2
Now, Tb Tf = (100 + kbm) ( kf m) = × 180
4.98 36
\ 105 = 100 + 0.151 m + 1.86 m
1.76 36
\ 2.37 m = 5 \ C2 = × = 0.071 M
4.98 180
5
\ m= = 2.11 79. Osmotic pressure p = CRT OR C =
p
2.37 RT
® mass of sucrose soluble in 100 gm water
2.0
C= = 0.0812 mole litre 1
2.11 s 342
\
0.0821 s 300
= × 100 = 72 gm 3
1000 ® Now, density of water is 1.0 gm cm mo
74. D Tb = i × kbm larity and molality of aqueous solution can be
considered same.
13.44 \ DT = K m = 1.86 × 0.0812 = 0.151
o
= 3 × 0.52 = 0.16 gm f f
134.4 Freezing point of solution = 0 0.151
W WRT 1 = 0.151o C
75. P= RT where, is constant P a
MV V M 80. DT = K m ... (i)
f f
\ P2 > P1 > P3 DT = K m . ... (ii)
b b
76. According to p = iCRT dividing equation (ii) by (i)
(A) p = 4 × 0.01 RT = 0.04 RT DTf K f ·m DTf Kf
(B) p = 2 × 0.01 RT = 0.02 RT DTb = K b ·m \
DTb = Kb
(C) p = 1 × 0.1 RT = 0.1 RT
Kf
(D) p = 3 × 0.1 RT = 0.3 RT \ D Tf = K × DTb
® Concentration is more
b
W2 = 0.5143 gm \ To = Kb m + 100
0.033 W1 = 40 gm
\ M2 = = 22.0 gm mole1
3 s 0.0005 D Tb = 0.81K
K b × 1000 × W2
WB \ M2 = ∆Tb × W1
o MB
P1  P1
91. o
= xB = W W 2.53 s 1000 s 3.24
P1 A
+ B = = 253 gm
MA MB 0.81 s 40
® Suppose formula of sulphur = Sx
Now, WB = 30 gm, PA = 2.9 k Pa
atomic mass of sulphur = 32
WB × M A atomic mass = 32x
»
M B × WB \ 32x = 253
\ x = 791 » 8
WA = (90 gm + 18 gm) = 108 gm
\ molecular formula = S8
P1o − 2.8 30 × 18 0.52 s 12.5 s 1000
\
= 93. MB = = 53.06 gm
P1o MB 90 0.70 s 175
94. For compound AB2 and compound AB4
1  2.9 = 5
o MB K f × WB × 1000
P1
MB = WA × ∆Tf
1  2.8 = 6 K f × WB × 1000
o MB
P1 MB = WA × ∆Tf
814
Subtracting equation (2) from equation (1), 100. D Tf = i × Kf × m,
2b = 85.28 \ b = 42.64 gm
∆Tf × WA 3.82 s 45
Substituting value of b in equation, i = K × n ×1000 =
¥ 5 µ
f B
1.86 s ¦ s 1000
a + 2 × 42.64 = 110.87 § 142 ¶·
\ a = 110.87 85.28 = 25.59
= 2.63
\ a = 25.59
101. Vant Hoff factor based on osmotic pressure
95. p (blood) = p (glucose solution) = 8.21 atm. pV = inRT
\ PV = nRT OR n=
PV K f × WB ×1000
RT 102. MB = ∆Tf × WA
8.21 s 1.0 10 Where, WB = 0.5 gm,
\ n=
0.0821 s 310 31 WA = 100 gm
10 DTf = 0 ( 0.24)
\ mass of glucose = × 180 = 58.06 gm
31 = 0.240 C
K f ×1000 × WB
1.86 s 0.5 s 1000
96. MB = = 1.86 × 1000 ×15 \ MB =
0.24 s 100
= 38.75 gm
∆Tf × WA 0.34 × 450
molecular mass of KCl = 39 + 35.5
= 182. 35 gm mole1 = 74.5 gm mole1
where, D Tf = 0 ( 0.34) Vant Hoff factor (i)
Normal molecular mass
= 0.340 C =
Abnormal molecular mass
97. Napthoic acid (C11H8O2) molecular mass
74.5
= = 1.92
= 172 gm mole1 38.75
K f ×1000 × W2 KCl K+ + Cl
M2 = = 1000 × 1.72 × 20
∆Tf × W1 50 × 2 Initial mole 1 0 0
moles after dissociation 1a a a
= 344
Total moles after dissociation
Actul molecular mass
Vant Hoff factor (i) = =1 a + a + a + a = 1 + a
Abnormal molecular mass
number of moles of solute after dissociation
172 i= normal moles of solute
= = 0.5
344 1 2
=
98. AxBy XAy+ + YBx 1
After dissociation (1 a) xa ya 1B
\ = 1.92 Hence 1 + a = 1.92
y+
i = n (AxBy) + n(A ) + n(B ) x 1
\ a = 1.92 1 = 0.92
i = 1 a + ax + ya
\ Percentage iconization = 92 %
i = 1 + a (x + y 1)
K f ×1000 × WB
i 1 103. D Tf = i × WA × M B
\ a =
(x + y  1)
1.86 ×1000 × WB
99. Na2SO4 2Na+ + SO42 7.50 = 1.87 ×
65.0 × 58.5
Before dissociation 1 0 0
7.50 s 65.0 s 58.5
After dissociation 1a 2a 1a \ WB = = 8.2 gm
1.87 s 1.86 s 1000
Now, i = 1 a + 2a + a = 1 + 2 a
815
104. Molecualr mass of CH2FCOOH = 78 gm mole1 C2 0.01
\ i= C = = 2.5
19.5 1 0.004
moles of CH2FCOOH = 0.25 mole
78 Now, number of particles in Na2SO4 n = 3
\ i = 1 + (n 1) a
0.25 s 1000
\ molality (m) =
500
= 0.50 m 2.5 = 1 + 2a
\ 1.5 = 2a
\ D Tf = Kf m = 1.86 × 0.50 = 0.93 K \ a = 0.75
m(1 + a ) 3.33 1
i= = 1 + a = 1.0753 = = 0.778
m 4 1
\ a = 1.0753 1 = 0.0753
108. Molecular mass of phenol (C6H5OH)
[CH2FCOO] = ma
= 94 gm mole1
= 0.50 × 0.0753 = 0.03765 Practical molecular mass of phenol
[H+] = ma = 0.50 × 0.0753 = 0.03765
1000 × K f × W2
[CH2FCOOH] = m (1 a) = 0.50 M2 = ∆Tf × W1
(1 0.0753) = 0.462
1000 s 4.0 s 1.5
CH FCOO− H+ M2 =
2 = (0.03765)× (0.03765) 0.56 s 100
Ka=
CH2 FCOOH 0.462 M2 = 107.14 gm
= 3.07 × 103 Now, Vant Hoff factor
105. i = 2.47 p = iCRT Actual molecular mass
(i) = Practical molecualr mass
nB
p =i RT 94
V = = 0.879
10.7.14
2.47 × n B × 0.082 × 300 Now,
\ 0.75 =
2.47 × 0.082 × 300
¥ n µ
0.75 s 2.5 degree of association (x) = (1 i) ¦§ ¶
nB = = 0.03 mole n 1·
2.47 s 0.082 s 300
106. Osmotic pressure, p = iCRT ¥ 2 µ
= (1 0.879) ¦§ ¶ = 0.121 × 2 = 0.242
Here, C1 = 0.004 M and C2 = 0.01 M 2 1·
p
1
= p2 109. When solute undergoes association in a
iC1RT = iC2RT solution i < 1 (less than 1) when dissociation
i > 1 (more than)
816
110. 50% dissociation 134. As sucrose undergoes association it possesses
\degree of dissociation a = 0.5 least number of particles and highest freezing
point.
K4[Fe(CN)6](ag) 4K+(ag) +[Fe(CN)6]4(ag)
135. K4[Fe(CN)6] 4K+ + [Fe(CN)6)]4
Initial mole 1 0 0
moles at \ i=5
equilibrium 1a 4a a D Tf = i Kf m = 5 × 0.52 × 0.1 = 0.260
Total moles of solution = 1 a. + 4a +a
Tb = 100.260 C
= 1 + 4a
136. Ba(NO3)2 Ba2+ + 2NO3
1 4B 1 4(0.5)
Vant Hoff factor (i) = = =3 Initial 1 0 0
1 1
p = iCRT = 3 × 0.1 × 0.082 × 300
after dissociation 1 a a 2a
= 7.38 atm Total mole = 1 a + a + 2 a
P1 T1 V2 = 1 + 2a
111. According P = V × T \ i=1+2a
2 1 2
1
\ D Tb = Kb(water) × m = 0.52 × 6.17 = 3.2 K
10  9 = M2 \ Boiling point of solution = Tob(water) + DTb
10 20 + 1 = 373 + 3.2 = 376.2K
200 M2
10.6 1000
140. (A) Molarity (M) = s = 1M
1 1 × 1 = 1 106 100
10 10 M 2 M2
34.2gm litre –1
9 1 = 1
(B) Molarity (M) = = 0.1M
342gm mole –1
\
10 M 2 100 \ M2 = 90 gm mole1
817
(C) 9.8 % H 2SO 4 means 9.8 gm H 2SO 4 in 151. K4[Fe(CH)6] ® 4K+ + [Fe(CN)6]4
100 gm solution 1 mole 0 0
\ Volume of solution = 100/1.25 = 80 ml
1a 4a a
818
5. CO(g) +H2O(g) CO2(g)+H2(g) 16. I2(g) 2I(g)
Initial pressure 4 bar 4 bar partial pressure of I atom,
pressure at
105 s 40
equilibrium 4P bar4P bar P P PI = = 0.4 × 105 Pa
100
PCO ·PH
\ kp = P ·P
CO H
2
2O
2
partial pressure of I2 molecule PI2 =
105 s 60
100
= 0.6 × 105 Pa
1
6. Kc = 2
(K C ) 2 2
PI
s 105
=
0.4
0.6 s 105
= 2.67 × 104
Initial pressure 4.0 atm
18. From the formula Kp = Kc (RT)Dn(g)
pressure at
equilibrium 4.0P atm P P 90.55
20. mole of CO = 3.234
28
PC H ·PH
2 4 2
Kp = P 9.45
C H mole of CO2 = = 0.215
2 6 44
2
¥2 µ ¥ Pµ 3.234
10. Kp = ¦ P¶ ¦ ¶
PCO = Xco PTotal XCO =
§3 · § 3· 3.234 + 0.215
= 0.938 × 1 = 0.938)
4p3 = 0.938 atm
p = 3.0 atm substituting in Kp =
27
PCO = Xco2 PTotal XCO = 1 0.938
2 2
11. PCl5 PCl3 + Cl2 = 0.62 × 1 = 0.062)
Initial 1 = 0.062 atm.
at equilibrium 10.4 0.4 0.4
= 0.6 \ P 2co
Kp = Pco
® Total mole = 0.6 + 0.4 + 0.4 = 1.4
2
\ Density =
208.5
45.92
27. D Go = SDfGfao(m) SD Gaof(g)
& Do = 2.30 3 RT log Kp
1
= 4.54 gm litre
K2 %H T2  T1
15. CO2(g) + C(s) 2CO(g) 31. log K = R T T
1 1 2
Initial pressure 0.48 bar
pressure at 9.25 %H s 75
log
18.5 2.303× 8.3114 9.25 s 1000
\
(bar) equilibrium 0.48x bar 2x
2 \ H = 71.08 K joule mole1
( PCO ) 4x
2
Kp = P = 32. On comparing QC and KC
CO 0.48  x
2
33. Based on Lechateliers principle
819
[H3O+] = µ c pKa = log ka
= log 1.8 × 105 = 4.745
\ a C= a&
[H k ]
\ 4 = 4.745 + log [0.1] moles of salt can be
Ka
\ a =
C calculated
1 68. ksp = 2754
44. Na + H2O ® NaOH + H
2 2
ksp
23 gm Na produces 1 mole NaOH. \ S= 4
27
0.023 gm Na produces 103 mole NaOH.
\ S = 1 × 103 M
–3
10 × 1000
\ [NaOH] = _ = 102 M \ Solubility (S) = 1 × 103 × 78
100
= 7.8 × 102 gm litre1
[OH] = 102 M \ pOH = 2 so pH = 12
\
\
820
x
initial 1x 4x 4 P1 x 2 P2
2
\ Kp1 =
(1 – x 2 )
Kp2 =
(1 – x 2 )
\ Total mole = 1x + x +
x
2
x
\ KP1 1 4P1
KP2 = 9 = P2
=1+
2
(PAB )2 (PB2 )
\ P1 1
P2 = 36
\ Kp = (P ) 2
AB2 104. AB(g) A(g) + B(g)
initialt 1
2
x equilibrium1033 0.33 0.33
x
× P 2 P
1+ x 1+ x
\ Kp = 2 2 0.33 P 0.33 P
\
2 1.33
1.33
Kp =
1– x 0.67
P 1.33 P
1+ x
2
0.33×0.33×P
=
x x 0.67×1.33
Now, 1+
2
»1 1
2
»1
1
\ P = 8 Kp
\ x3p
\ 2Kp µ 3
¥
Kp = x= § P · 1
2 107. pH = (Pkw + Pka + log C)
2
97. A + 3B 4C \ 8.9 × 2 = 14 + pka + log 0.1
initial cane a b
\ 17.8 = 14 + pka 1
At equilibrium ax b3x 4x
initial a = b and at equilibrium a x = 4x
\ pka = 4.8
\ a = b = 5x \ ka = antilog ( 5 .2)
(4x)4 (4x)4
= = =8
(5x – x) (5x – 3x)3 (4n ) (2x)3 8. Redox Reactions and
100. X 2Y Z P + Q
initial 1 1
Electro Chemistry
equilibrium1x 2x 1x x x 19. Aq. solution salt Y can be filled in container X.
Reation :
2x
2 x 2 P22
1+ x P1 2 X(s) + Yn+(aq) Xn+(aq) + Y is not spontane
(1+ x)
Kp1 = 1– x Kp2 = 1– x ous in forward direction.
1+ x P1 1+ x P2
(EoYn+/y < Eoxn+/x )
Aq. solution of salt Z can be filled in container
of Y.
821
Reaction : 42.
2+ +
For the cell, Zn  Zn (0.04M)  Ag (c2 )  Ag
Y (s) + Z n+ (aq) Y n+ (aq) + Z (s) is not
Ecell = E ocell , Q = 1
spmteneous in forward direction.
(EoYn+/y < EoYn+/y) [Zn 2+ ]
\
[Ag + ]2 = 1
EoZn+/z < Eoyn+y < EoXn+/x
Decreasing strength as reducing agent is 0.04
C22 = 1\ C2 = 0.2 M
\
\
Z>Y>X
43. Fe  Fe2+(C )  Cl(C )  Cl2(1) Pt For the given cell,
31. Cell regn for cell Co  Co2+(C1)  Ag+(C2)  Ag is 1 2
2+ –
Co(s) + 2Ag+(aq) Co2+(aq) + 2Ag(s) reaction is Fe(s) + Cl2(l) Fe(aq) + 2Cl(aq)
\ n=2 n = 2 and Q = [ Fe(aq) ] [Cl]2.
2+
1
RT [Co 2 + ] 2 C1
E o
= Ecell + ln \ Q= decrease. \ C1 < 0.5.
\
cell F [Ag + ] 0.5
2+
45. For cell Co  Co (C1 ) Sn2+(C ) Sn, cell reation :
35. Equation const. Kc for cell reaction of cell : 2
\ E 0Zn 2+Zn 0.059 log ( 1 ) < E oZn 2+ Zn RT [Ni 2+ ] RT1 [Ni 2+ ]
2 x T < T1 \ log [Ag + ]2 < log [Ag + ]2
2F 2F
0.059 1 0.059
\ log < 0 \ log ( 1x ) > 0 RT [Ni 2+ ] RT1
2 2 2 As Q > 1, log [Ag + ]2 >
2F 2F
\ log ( 1x ) > 0 \ x < 1 \ x = 0.2 M
[Ni 2+ ]
log [Ag + ]2
822
56. For reaction – 2+
71. For the forward reaction : 2I(aq.0.1 M) + Cu (aq.0.05 M)
+
2H2O(l) O2(g.1 bar) + 4H (aq)
+ 4e
n = 4, at 25o C [H+] = 107 M and I°2(s) + Cu(s) Calculation of cell poten
standard cell potential = 1.23 V tial gives positive value. Whereas for other cells
it will be negative.
0.059
Ox. pot. of water = 1.23 log [H+]4
4 72. E 0ox for Fe  Fe2+ and Fe2+  Fe3+ will be + 0.44V
= 1.23 0.059 × log 107 and 0.77 V respectively.
= 0.817 V (1) Fe(s) Fe2+(aq) + 2e
65. EH + = 0.059 × pH (25° C, 1.0 bar) n1 = 2 and E10 = + 0.44 V
2/H
\ 0.118 = 0.059 × pH 2+
(2) Fe(aq) Fe3+
(aq) + 2e
\ pOH = 14 pH = 14 2 = 12
n3 = 3 and E 03 = ?
E cell – E ocell log [M n+ ] 0.635 – 0.34 Reaction (3) = (1) + (2) \ D G3o = D G1o + D Go2
66. pH = =
0.059 n 0.059
\ n3 FE3o = n1 FE1o n2 FEo2
log (0.01)
= 6.0
2 n1E1o + E o2 2×0.44+1×(–0.77)
\ Eo3 = n3
=
3
E ocell – E cell log [M n+ ] 2.36 – 2.09 = 0.037 V
67. pH = =
0.059 n 0.059
73. E 0CuCu 2+ = 0.34 V and E 0Cu 2+Cu + = + 0.16
log (0.01)
= 5.58 Cu ® Cu2+ + 2e, n1 = 2, E1o = 0.34 V
2
Cu2+ + e ® Cu+, n2 = 1, Eo2 = 0.16 V
68. Pt  H2(g.1.0 bar)  HCl(XM)  Au3+(0.001 M)  Au
Cu ® Cu+ + e, n3 = 1, E3o = ?
E cell – E 0cell log [M n+ ] 1.6655 – 14
pH = = \ n3 E3o = n1 E1o + n2 Eo2 \ Eo2 = 0.52 V
0.059 n 0.059
– +
–3
75. Pt/H2(g.1.0 bar)  OH (aq)  H (aq)  H2(g.1.0 bar)  Pt
log (10 )
= 5.5
3 1 –
anode : H2(g) + OH (aq) H2O(l) + e
2
69. Ecell = E(OX.)(anode) E(Ox)(cathode)
E 0ox = + 0.83
= 0.59 × (pH(anode) pH(cathodes)
+ 1
cathode : H (aq) + e H E o = 0.0
= 0.059 × (4.5 2.5) 2 2(g) red
= 0.118 V D G0 = nF E ocell = 2.303 RT log K
= 0.0885 V 1
\ log K = log K
w
823
3+
+ 1 78. Initial concentration of Fe (aq) is 1.0 × 103 M
Cathode : H (aq) + e H E o = 0.0V
2 2(g) red
and equation 5% of it remains.
+ –
Total : H (aq) + OH (aq) –3
At eqn. 1.0 × 10 × 5 = 5.0 × 105 M Fe (aq) is
3+
H2O(l) E o
cell
= + 0.83 100
824
nE ocell o o
SO2(g) +
1
O SO3(g)
logK = Here, E ocell = E Cd2+ Cd E Fe2+ Fe 2 2(g)
0.059
10 = 0.5 F
Theoretical mole of Cl2(g) =5
2 = mole of H2 produced by this electri cal
\ Vol. of Cl2(g) produced theoretically at STP.
0.5
= 5 × 22.4 = 112 L charge = = 0.25
2
Cell efficiency =
\ Vol. of H2 at STP = 0.25 × 22.4 = 5.6 L
exp. amount of product
theoretical amount of product × 100 104. CdHg amalgam is obtained by electrolysis of
CdCl2 using 2gm Hg cathode.
84
= × 100 = 75 % At cathode CdHg amalgam containing 20%
112
Cd produce.
90. D G0 = nFE0 n =
%G o = –35126 = 2.0
FE o 96500 × 0.182 20 × 2
\ Mass of Cd produced at Cathode =
80
Therefore reaction will be :
= 0.5 gram
825
0.5 93.93× 100
\ mol of Cd = = 0.004444 = = 104.37 seconds
112.5 90
\ Quantity of electricity passed through the 134. R = 50 W , k = 1.3 S m1 = 0.013 S cm1
cell = 0.004444 × 2 = 0.00889 F l
cell constant = = kR = 0.013 × 50
A
96500 × F = 0.65 cm1
\ Electric current (I) =
time
Now for 0.4 M solution, R = 260 W given
96500 × 0.00889 1 l 1
= \ k= × = × 0.65 = 0.0025 S cm1
100 R A 260
= 8.58 amp
Lm = 1000×K
C
\ L m
=
1000×0.0025
0.4
105. 5A current for 2.15 hr is passed in unknown
salt solution of Pd. = 6.25 S cm2 mol1
\ Lm = 6.25 × 104 S m2 mol1
I× t 137. The quantity of electric current passing
Quantity fo electricity F =
96500 through wire having resistance 10 W , when
applied a potential of 20 V can be calcu
5 × 2.15 × 3600
= lated as follows:
96500
potential 20
= 0.4 F Electric current = = =2A
Resistants 10
Let ox. no. of Pd be + X Now, Q = I × t = 2 × 2 × 60 = 240 C
151. Value of Lom for A2B, X3Y2 and A3Y are 2.4,
Faraday 0.466
\ mole of Pd =
Oxi. no. of Pd
=
X 1.5 and 1.8 mho. cm2.mole1 respectively.
(1) A2B ® 2A+ + B2 × 3 = 3A2B ® 6A+ + 3B2
0.4 10.64 (2) X3Y2 ® 3X2+ + 2Y3 × 1 = X3Y2
\ \ X=+4
X 106.4 2+
® 3X + 2Y3
125. Thickness of Ag layer = 0.01 mm = 1.0 × 103 (3) A3Y ® 3A+ + Y3 × 2 = 2A3Y ® 6A+ 2Y3
cm. Vol. of Ag consumed for electro plating =
\ 3 × (1) + (2) 2× (3) = 3X2+ + 3B2 = 3XB
surface area of statue × thickness of layer
= 150 × 103 cm3. \ 3Lo(XB) = 3 L o m(A B) + L o m(Y Y )
2Lom(A
2 2 2
L= 1000 × K
Normality ¥ E 2 E1 µ
Where DH = nFEcell + TnF ¦§ T – T ¶·
2 1
1 l 1 1.8
Where K= × = × \ D H = (2 × 96500 × 0.6753) + 298 × 2 ×
R A 32 5.4
¥ 0.6753 – 0.6915 µ
1 96500 ¦ Joule
=
96
mho (cm)1 § 298 – 273 ¶·
– 0.0162
\ L = 100096×10 = 104.17 S m2 gmeq1 \ D H = 1303329 + 57514000 × 25
\ DH = 167601.972 joule
159. MmAg
0
= 5.0 × 103 S cm2 mol1 ionic mobility
DH = 167.6 Kg joule
+
\
K 2 ¨ A2 ¸
n
2K 1 ¨ 8A1 ¸
n
\ rate = 1 1 = 0
25. = \ =
K1 ©ª A1 ¹º K 1 ©ª A1 ¹º 1
36. rate = K [Y] <Z> 2 =r 1
1 r2 = 1.414 r1
\ (2) = (8)n .\ n = \
3
1
26. rate µ [B]2 \ doubling concentration of B will rate = K [Y] <2Z> 2 = r2
make rate 4 times. 1
r2 = 2 K [Y] <Z> 2
27. V1 = K [A]2 [B] = x V2 = [2A]2 [2B] = K [A]2
[B] × 8 = 8x 37. r = K [A]n .. 8r = K [4 A]n \ 8 = 4n \ N = 1.5
28. r = K [A]n 2r = K [16 A]n = K.[A]n (16)n 38. For zero order reaction, t = 1
{[A]0 [A]} But
K
2r = K [A ] (16 )
n n
1 [A]0 = a and on completion of reaction [A] = 0.
2 = 16n \ n =
K [A ]
n \
r 4
\ t = aK
29. increase in conc. is 10 times.
<R >o
\ increase in rate 102 64. For zero order reaction, t 1 =
2 2K
\ n=2
2 <R >o 2
¨ B¸ 1
30. r = [A] [B]2, r1 = K [2A] = K [A] [B]2 \ K = 2 × t 1 = 2 × 1 = 1 m hr1
©ª 2 ¹º 2 2
1 [ R ]o  [ R ]t
r1 = r
= 0.5  0.25 = 0.25 hr1
\
2 t=
K 1
31. [A] is made four times and [B] is constant so
rate becomes four times. a0 a0
67. t 3 = 2.303 log =
2.303
log
\ w.r.t A, rate µ [A] K K
a0 – a0 3 a0
4
4 4
[B] is made double and [A] is constant so rate
becomes four times.
2.303
\ w.r.t B, rate µ [B]2 = log 4
K
rate = K [A] [B]2
}}m A2 }}m A4 }}m A8
\
\ rate µ [A]2
Rate does not change on doubling [B]. \ T = 3 × t 12 = 3 × 14 = 42 s
828
Approximate T = 3 × t 12 to 4 × t 12 N 0 2.303
log N 2 × 60 log
2.303 1 2.303
76. K=
t
\ T = » 450 to 600 second
t
1 – 3 120
4
\ Approximate 500 second log 4 = 0.01155 min 1
71. Amount left after n half lives = a t 1 = 0.693 0.693 = 60 min
2n 2 K 0.01155
T = n t 12
77. K = 0.693 0.693 min1
t1 120
2
T 60
\ n= = =4
t1 15 2.303 a
2 t= log
t a–a%
1 1 2.303 × 120 100
\ Amount left = t= log log
24 16 0.693 100 – 90
72. n=
T 96
=4 2.303 × 120 10 = 120 × 2.3036 = 398.8 min
t 1 24 0.693 0.693
2
0.0693
T 20 \ log = log 3 = 0.4771
\
t1 = = = 10 min 0.0231
2 n 2
0.4771 × 2.303 × 8.3 × 300 × 320
Ea =
}}m }}m }}m }}m
\
1 1 1 1 20
1 t1 t1 t1 t1
2 2 2 4 2 8 2 16 = 43.84
\ T = 4 × 10 = 40 min 92. Coefficient of temperature m = 2 D T = 50
%T K 2 50
K 2 K2
\ m
10 K1 \
m10 K \ 25 = K = 32
1 1
829
Ea 101. D H = Ea Ear + 5 = + 15 Ear \ Ear = + 10
93. log K = log A
2.303 RT 102. D H = Ea Ear 30 = + 70 Ear \ Ear = + 100
K 2.303RT 110. From slow step, rate K = [A] [B2]
\ log A – 2.303RT
= 1.0
From reaction (1) Keq = [A]2 / [A2]
K 1 1
\ = Antilog 1.0 = 0.1 \ [A] = K e q 2 <A 2 > 2 rate
A
1 1
Ea %T
1
K2 K = [B2] K e q 2 <A 2 >
2
= K1 [B2] <A 2 > 2
94. log K 2.303 R T T
1 1 2
\ n = 1.5
2.303 × 1.987 × 303 × 333 6.735 111. For slow step, r = K1 [O3] [O] From eq. (1)
\ Ea = log
33 0.325 Keq = [O2] [O] / [O3]
\ Ea = 20260 cal \ [O] = Keq [O3] / [O2]
K2 Ea %T r = K1 = [O3] Keq [O3][O2]
log K 2.303 R T T
\
95. \
1 1 2 = K [O3]2 [O2]1
9000 × 5 2
= = 0.1104 <NO>
2.303 × 2 × 295 × 300 112. N2(g) + O2(g) 2NO(g) K1 =
< N 2 ><O 2 >
K2
log K = 0.1104 2
1
< NO 2 >
2NO(g) + O2(g) 2NO2(g) K2 = 2
< NO> <O 2 >
K2
\
K1 = 1.289 \ K2 = K1 × 1.289
1
NO2(g) N + O2(g)
96. K1 = Al e E1/RT
, K2 = A2e E2/RT 2 2(g)
1
K1 A1 (E Ei)
2
<N 2 > <O 2 >
K 2 A1 e
2
/RT = A.e(2E1E1)/Rt K=
< NO 2 >
E1/RT
=A e
1 s 1
\ K1 = K2.A.eE1/RT \
K1 K 2
K1 E1 ¨ %T ¸
97. log K 2.303 R © T T ¹ But 1 1 1 1
ª º <N 2 >
2
<O 2 >
2
<NO><O 2 >
2
<N 2 >
2
<O 2 >
s
1 1 2
=
<NO> < NO 2 > < NO 2 >
K12 E 2 ¨ %T ¸
log K 2.303 R © T T ¹ But E1 > E2
2 ª 1 2º b
m
2000 1000
\ 2.303 log 10 =
T T <A>0 – <A>t 0.50 – 0.25
t= = 0.25 hr
K 1
1000
\ T=
2.303
830
P0
115. K=
2.303
t
log P 10. Surface Chemistry
t
16
t1
3
2
t1
4
2
per gram weight of adsorbent molecules is
x ap
0.1 related with pressure, so = 1 + bp .
= 0.00625 mol Amount of N2O5 left. m
16
Moles of N2O5 consumed = 0.1 0.00625 = 43. P(N2) = 0.001 atm, V = 2.46 cm3 T = 298 K;
0.09375 mol R = 82.0 atm cm3 K1.
0.09375
\ moles of O2 produced = = 0.04875 PV 0.001 × 2.46
2 Moles of N2 (n) =
RT 82.0 × 298
\ Vol. of O2 at STP = 22.4 × 0.04875
= 1.05 L = 1.006 × 107
117. A(g) ® 2B(g) + C(g) Number of adsorbed N2 molecules
Initial Po 0 0
= 1.006 × 107 × 6.022 × 1023
At Eq. PoP 2P P
Total pressure at a time = 6.022 × 1016
PoP + 2P + P = P0 + 2P = Pt Total sides = sides in per cm2 × area
Pt – P0 = 6.023 × 1014 × 1000
Pt Po = 2P \ P=
2
= 6.023 × 1017
2.303 P0
K= log P – P Side of surface on which N2 gas adsorbed
t 0
17
=
2.303
log
P0 = 6.023 × 10 × 20 = 12.046 × 1016
t ¥ Pt – P0 µ 100
P0 – ¦
§ 2 ¶·
12.046 × 1016
Side adsorbed by N2 gas = =2
2.303 2P0 6.023 × 1016
= log 2P – P + P
t 0 t 0
W × 1000
2P0 44. Molarity (M) = M W × V (ml)
2.303
= log 3P – P
t 0 t
M × M W × V (ml)
initial (W) =
1000
831
Ea 101. DH = Ea Ear + 5 = + 15 Ear \ Ear = + 10
93. log K = log A
2.303 RT 102. DH = Ea Ear 30 = + 70 Ear \ Ear = + 100
\ K 2.303RT
log A – 2.303RT
= 1.0
110. From slow step, rate K = [A] [B2]
From reaction (1) Keq = [A]2 / [A2]
1 1
Ea %T
1
K2 K = [B2] K e q 2 <A 2 >
2
= K1 [B2] <A 2 > 2
94. log K 2.303 R T T
1 1 2
\ n = 1.5
\ Ea =
2.303 × 1.987 × 303 × 333
33
log
6.735
0.325
111. For slow step, r = K1 [O3] [O] From eq. (1)
Keq = [O2] [O] / [O3]
\ Ea = 20260 cal \ [O] = Keq [O3] / [O2]
95. \ log KK 2
Ea %T \ r = K1 = [O3] Keq [O3][O2]
1 2.303 R T1T2 = K [O3]2 [O2]1
9000 × 5 2
= = 0.1104 <NO>
2.303 × 2 × 295 × 300 112. N2(g) + O2(g) 2NO(g) K1 =
< N 2 ><O 2 >
K2
log K = 0.1104 2
1
< NO 2 >
2NO(g) + O2(g) 2NO2(g) K2 = 2
< NO> <O 2 >
\ K2
K1 = 1.289 \K 2
= K1 × 1.289
1
NO2(g) N + O2(g)
96. K1 = Al e E1/RT
, K2 = A2e E2/RT 2 2(g)
1
K1 A1 (E Ei)
2
<N 2 > <O 2 >
K 2 A1 e
2
/RT = A.e(2E1E1)/Rt K=
< NO 2 >
E1/RT
=A e
\ K1 = K2.A.eE1/RT \ 1 s 1
K1 K 2
K1 E1 ¨ %T ¸
97. log K 2.303 R © T T ¹ But 1 1 1 1
ª º <N 2 >
2
<O 2 >
2
<NO><O 2 >
2
<N 2 >
2
<O 2 >
s
1 1 2
=
<NO> < NO 2 > < NO 2 >
K12 E 2 ¨ %T ¸
log K 2.303 R © T T ¹ But E1 > E2
2 ª 1 2º b
m
K11 K1 K1 K1
log K ¸ log K 2 > 1 OR K1 > K 2
r ′′ = K
1 2 1 2 n n m –m
/ =2 a b a
r′ K / n m = 2n 2m = 2(nm)
98. K1 = K2 \ 1016 e 2000/T = 1015 e 1000/T a b
<A >0
\ In 10 2000
T
=
1000
T
2
K = 2 t 1 2 s 1 = 1 M litre1 hr1
2
2000 1000
\ 2.303 log 10
T
=
T <A>0 – <A>t 0.50 – 0.25
t= = 0.25 hr
K 1
1000
\ T = 2.303
832
P0
115. K=
2.303
t
log P 10. Surface Chemistry
t
16
t1
3
2
t1
4
2
per gram weight of adsorbent molecules is
x ap
0.1 related with pressure, so = 1 + bp .
= 0.00625 mol Amount of N2O5 left. m
16
Moles of N2O5 consumed = 0.1 0.00625 = 43. P(N2) = 0.001 atm, V = 2.46 cm3 T = 298 K;
0.09375 mol R = 82.0 atm cm3 K1.
0.09375
\ moles of O2 produced = = 0.04875 PV 0.001 × 2.46
2 Moles of N2 (n) =
RT 82.0 × 298
\ Vol. of O2 at STP = 22.4 × 0.04875
= 1.05 L = 1.006 × 107
117. A(g) ® 2B(g) + C(g) Number of adsorbed N2 molecules
Initial Po 0 0
= 1.006 × 107 × 6.022 × 1023
At Eq. PoP 2P P
Total pressure at a time = 6.022 × 1016
PoP + 2P + P = P0 + 2P = Pt Total sides = sides in per cm2 × area
Pt – P0 = 6.023 × 1014 × 1000
Pt Po = 2P \ P=
2
= 6.023 × 1017
2.303 P0
K= log P – P Side of surface on which N2 gas adsorbed
t 0
17
=
2.303
log
P0 = 6.023 × 10 × 20 = 12.046 × 1016
t ¥ Pt – P0 µ 100
P0 – ¦
§ 2 ¶·
12.046 × 1016
Side adsorbed by N2 gas = =2
2.303 2P0 6.023 × 1016
= log 2P – P + P
t 0 t 0
W × 1000
2P0 44. Molarity (M) = M W × V (ml)
2.303
= log 3P – P
t 0 t
M × M W × V (ml)
initial (W) =
1000
833
Surface area of every silver molecule = = 3.567
pr2 = p × (0.407 1029 m3)2/3 gm/lit = N × E
= 3.567 × 17
10 12
= = 60.7
(0.407 s 1029 )2 / 3
38. H2O2 KMnO4
108 N1V1 = N2V2
= = 1.6 × 107
×2 N1 × 30 = 0.1 × 30
= y 10x N1 = 0.1, M = 0.05
\ x=7 gm/lit = N × E
203. Emulsion = Coldcream, Butter, Cod liver oil, = 1.7
Hair cream, milk, vanishing cream. Total = 6 Volume = 11.2 × M
= 11.2 × 0.05
= 0.56
13. Hydrogen
W
39. M =
W M1 × V
33. Volume = 1 × 11.2
M ×V
284
=
40 34 × 10
= × 11.2
34 = 0.835
= 13.17 litre N = 2M
= 1.67
W
34. Volume = × 11.2 % /W/V = 3.4 × M
M1 × V
= 2.839
=
440
× 11.2 gm lit1 = 28.39
34 × 6
Volume = 11.2 × M
= 24.156 litre = 9.352
35. Volume = M × 11.2 40. 400 × 1.25 + 350 × 2.1 + 250 × 2.65
= 2.823 × 11.2 = 1000 × %W/V
= 31.62 % W/V = 1.897
% /W/W = 2.823 × 3.4 gm litre1 = 18.97
= 9.6 Volume = % W/V × 3.94
= 6.25
W
36. M= Volume = 11.2 × M
M1 × V
M = 0.558
W N=2M
3.72 =
34 × 8
= 1.116
W = 1011.8 gram
41. H2O2 KMnO4
% W/V = M × 3.4
1.5 × 30 = strength (Volume) × 10
= 12.648
Volume = 4.5
37. Volume = 11.2 × M
Volume = 11.2 × M
20 = 11.2 × M
M = 0.4
M = 1.785
N = 2M
N = 2M
M = 0.8
= 2 (1.785)
834
14. sblock elements Cl
91. Cl Be Be Cl Every Be attach with
5. Chilliesaltpeter NaNO3 Nitrate salt
Cl
time
7. Number of Half life (n) = Half life period
three Cl.
63 Down the group in (II) solubility of hydroxide
= =3 94.
21
increases.
Initial amount 500
leftout amount 97. BaO2 + O3 ® BaO + 2O2
2n 23
= 62.5 gram 102. MgSO4 + Na2HPO4 + NH4OH
12. As atomic size increases, strength of metallic
bond decreases and melting point decreases. ® Mg (MP4) PO4 + Na2SO4 + H2O
13. Due to small size of Li+ its hydration enthalpy 118. Hydration enthalpy of Be2+ and Mg2+ is more
is maximum and so Li is strong reducing agent. than lattice enthalpy. So, they are soluble in
22. % m Na O
2Na + O2 (Enough) }} water.
2 2
29. Lithium bicarbonate is not in solid state. 122. Mg3N2 + 6H2O ® 3Mg(OH)2 + 2NH3
30. As ionic size increases, nature of covalent bond
strong. \ 1 mole 2 mole
}}}}m
H O 1.4 × 2 × 10
135. HCOOH + H2SO4 2 CO 63. (C) % N = = 56
0.5
105. Cl2 reacts with CaO in presence of moisture 66. (C) Molecular weight of acid
gives bleaching powder. ¨ 108 × 0.38 ¸
®
CaO + H2O + Cl2 CaOCl2.H2O = 2 © 0.27
–107¹ 90
ª º
142. 6 NaOH + 3I2 }} % m NaIO + 5NaI + 3H O
62 × 0.20 × 100
®
3 2
69. (C) % P = = 11.17
143. 2Na2S2O3 + I2 Na2S4O8 + 2NaI 222 × 0.5
148. Cl2 is weak oxidising agent than F2. So, it cant
2 ¨ 195 × 0.984 ¸
remove F2 from NaF. 71 (D) M.w. of base = 2 © 0.39
– 410¹ 82
ª º
149. Bleaching powder possess all the properties.
72. (C) M. eq. of H2SO4 for absorption of
151. I2 is dark purple coloured solid substance.
NH3 = 0.2 × 100 = 20
176. XeF4 + 2SF4 ® Xe + 2SF 6 M.eq. of H2SO4 left after absorption of NH3
F = M.eq. of NaOH
O 2°Carbocation (more stable)
Xe : = 0.5 × 20 = 10
177.
\ M. eq. of H 2 SO 4 consumed for NH 3
O
= 20 10 = 10
178. XeF2 > XeF4 > XeF6
200 Pm 195 Pm 189 Pm 1.4 × 10
%N= = 46.66
0.3
836
38.07 2.38
o
w O = 2.38 =2
P –P= m 16 1.19
73. (B) Po w+W \ E.F. = (C3H2NO2)n
m M
1000 × Kb × W
Now, M.W. = %Tb × W0
3
2 m
1.306 × 10 = 3 100
+ 1000 × 2.53 × 5.5
m 78 = = 168
1.84× 45
\ m = 176.83 M.W. 168
n= =2
E.F. of hydrocarbon = (C7H5) × n E.F.w. 84
NO2
M.w. 176.83
\ n=
E.F.w. 89
» 2 \ M.W. : C6H4N2O4 i.e.
NO2
\ C3.5 H3 O1 \ C3H4N
Now, n=
M.w. 122
E.F.w 122
=1 20. Some Basic Principles of
\ M.W. = C7H6O2
Organic Chemistry
NO2 2. Dicyanoethene : N ≡ C CH = CH C ≡ N
}}}m CH
2.40 2.40
H = 2.40 =2 8. P2O5
C N
1 1.19 CH3 C NH2 % 3
O
16.67 1.19 sp2 sp
N = 1.19 =1
14 1.19
21. Four isomers ® (i) Propan 1 amine
(ii) propan2amine (iii) Ethylmethylamine
(iv) Trimethyl amine
837
22. Three isomers ® But1en, But2en, 60. In C6H5CHCH3, + I effect of CH3 group and
2Methyl propen resonance effect of C 6H 5 group increases
23. Because first number is given to carbon of
stability.
CHO group.
79. COOH is main functional group. So, the
25. Ether does not show isomerism with ketone.
lowest number is given to this carbon.
26. Four isomeric alcohols and 3 isomeric ethers.
So, total 7 isomers. 80. COOCH3 is main functional group and other
_ groups are substituent groups.
28. NH 2 C NH 2 NH C _ NH 2
 
NC _ CH 2 _ CH _ CH 2 _ COO CH 3
4 3 2 1
O urea OH

31. Geometrical isomerism in alkene OCH 3
CH3 CH3 CH3 H 81. Carbonitrile suffix is used.
C C and C C 82. pent 3en1yne is correct.
H H H CH3 83. R is correct ® longest chain should contain
Cis trans C = C group.
33. and CH3 CH2 C ≡ CH 85. R is correct ® in styrene CH = CH2
Cyclobutene But1yne two H atoms at one end are identical.
_ _
34. CH3CH2CH2OH and CH 3 CH CH 3 87. R is correct ® Due to more number of alkyl

OH groups, positive charge is more distributed, so
stability increases.
npropylalcohol isopropylalcohol
37. C5H10O formula containing compound is ke 90. R is correct ® In a compound if C = C (double
bond) may present or may not be present but
tone. So, it will show all the given isomerism.
rotation around CC bond is not possible, then
CH3 _ CH 2 _ CH _ CH _ CH3 _ CH3
6 5 4 3 2 1
41. geometrical isomerism is possible.
 
CH 3 C2H5
42. Double bond should be involved in main hy
drocarbon chain. 21. Hydrocarbons
4 3 2
CH3  CH  C  CH2  CH3
  CH 3
CH3 1CH2 
_ _
6. Neopentane CH 3 C CH 3
45. CHO is main functional group according to 
CH 3
priority and OH group becomes substituent.
CH3 _ CH _ CH = C _ CHO
5 4 3 2 1
CH 3
  
OH CH3 7. CH 3 _ C __ CH _ CH 2 _ CH 3
 
CH 3 CH 3
2 _1
CH3 _ CH = CH _ C _ CH
5 4 3
47.
sum of position is 1 + 3 = 4 which is less. 8. CH 3 _ CH __ CH _ CH 3
 
CH 3 CH 3
CH 2 _CH 3

50. c ® CH 3 _ CH 2 _ C ______ CH 2 _ CH 3 CH 3
  1°
CH 3 _ CH 2 _ C _ CH 3
1° 2°
CH 3 _ CH 2
1°
9. 
CH 3
line structure Structural formula
(3o carbon is not present)
838
10. It should be alkyene according to CnH2n2 59. Both steps are exothermic in a reaction of
_ __ _ alkene with HBr in presence of peroxide. So,
13. Isopentane CH 3 CH CH 2 CH 3 the reaction occurs easily. While one of step is

CH 3 endothermic in a reaction of alkene with HCl
and HI.
14. CH3 CH CH2 CH2 CH3 2Methylpentane 60. C6H5 CH2 CH = CH2 + H+ ®
CH3 C6H5 CH2 +CH CH3
Isopropyl group
2ocarbocation (less stable)
15. Molecular mass is 72. i.e. three isomers are
possible for C5H12 1, 2 hydride shift
CH4 + Na2CO3 Br
27. 2CH3COONa + 2H2O }}}}}}
Electrolysis
m 68. CH3 _ CH = C = CH 2
4 3 2 1
CH3CH3+2CO2 + 2NaOH + H2
33. CH3CH2COOH + 6HI }}}}
Red P
m CH3

_ _
CH 3

_
CH3CH2CH3 + 2H2O + 3I2 70. CH 3 C C y C – C CH3
 
1
CH3 CH 3
2 3 4 5 6
38. CH 3 – CH – CH = CH – CH = CH 3
 7
 72. CH3 C ≡ CH and CH2
CH 3 CH – CH 3
8
 9
CH 2 – CH 3 HC CH
CH 3
75. Br CH2= CH2Br + 2KOH }}}}
ethanolm
%
 CH ≡ CH + 2KBr + 2H2O
®
3 4 25
39. CH 3 – CH 2 – C – CH – C y CH
1
78. HC ≡ C Na+ + CH3Br
CH 2
HC ≡ C CH3 + NaBr
42. CH2 = C = CH2 80. CH ≡ CH + CH3CH2Mg Br ®
CH3 CH3 + CH ≡ C MgBr
¯ ¯ ¯
sp2 sp sp2
43. CH2 = CH CH = CH2 87. CnH2n6m = C14H2818 = C14H10
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
2 2 2
sp sp sp sp2 88. Pyridine
N
Br
45. Three cis isomers, trans CH2 C
Br 93. Phenanthrene 4n + 2 = 4(3) + 2 = 14
54. According to Markovnikov rule.
55. According to Markovnikov rule. p e
56. antiMarkovnikov CH 3 C = CH 2 + HBr
 95. Biphenyl
CH 3
O–H
}}}}}m CH CH
peroxide

CH Br 3 2
CH 3 97. Phenol
839
108. Because, in toluene CH3 is o/p directing group
(e donating group) . So it will activate benzene H –*N – CH3
ring.
6. Nmethyl aniline
109. Because, in acetophenone COCH 3 is m
directing group ( e attractive group). So, it will
decreases reactivity of benzene ring. 8. Four (nButylamine, isobutylamine, secondary
126. Huckle rule is not obeyed due to 4 p e butyl amine, ter. butylamine)
127. According to Huckle rule, 2, 6, 10,..... p 11. In 3oamine three different alkyl groups are
electron containing cyclic system is aromatic. attached to nitrogen. So, during racemization
In the given options A, B, C, D no. of p e are it will lost optical activity.
8, 6, 4, 4 respectively. So, (B) is aromatic. 16. Only primary aromatic amine gives dye test.
128 Because in the given three compounds 6pe are 17. 3o amine does not give reaction. A. B, D are 3°
present. amines.
132. R is correct ® Benzene is more stable than alk 23. Boiling Point order for same number of carbon
ene. is : alkane < amine < alcohol.
133. R is correct ® Cis is polar and trans is 28. Primary aromatic amine is not obtained by this
nonpolar. reaction because
134. R is correct ® Benzene is more stable and less
reactive due to resonance. Cyclic p molecular 30. NH2 + ClCO
orbital is also formed.
135. R is correct ® Due to symmetrical structure of NHCO
neopentane, molecules of this compound are
Benzenilide
arranged nearer.
136. A is correct ® On dehydration Butan 1ol O
137.
give main product which is but2en.
R is correct ® Benzene gives substitution reac
34
C
NH2 }}}}
LiAlH
m4
840
53. CH3NH+Cl is salt. It completely dissociate. So 110. RNH2 + HNO2 ® ROH + N2 + H2O
dissociation constant is high. aliphatic alcohol
amine
55. NO2 group is e attracting group.
70. nC4HqLi is strong base which gain proton from
114. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2
*
CH – CH3

}}}}}m
HNO / H O
–N
2
2
2
– HCl
amine gives salt. NH3
[(CH3)2CH]2 NH + nC4H9Li ® [(CH3)2 CH]2 CH3CH2CH2 CH – CH 3

NLi + n C4H10
OH
Lethiumdi isopropyl nbutane amine * Due to chiral carbon it is optically active.
73. CCl3 NO2 is known as chloropcirin.
77. (CH3)4.N.OH }}
% m (CH ) N + CH OH
3 3 3 25. Polymers
81. 2CH3CH2NH2 + 2Na ® 2CH3CH2NHNa + H2 1. Resin : Phenolformaldehyde resin is known as
82. CH3CH2NH2 + CS2 + HgCl2 ® CH3CH2NCS bakelite, which is obtained on condensation.
+ HgS + 2HCl 22. CF2 = CF2 is monomer of teflon.
ethylisocyanate 28. Above reaction is an example of electrophilic
This reaction is known as Hoffman mustard substitution reaction.
oil reaction. 29. Use : In plastic pain and beaker.
O O 30. CF2 = CF2 (tetra floro ethene)
 vv vv  v v 31. Terylene is an example of condensation reac
94. R – C – CH – N y N }}}
–N2 m R – C – CH tion.
Carbene 32. Terylene is an example of condensation reac
96. OCH3 group is electron donating group. So, tion.
it gives Hoffman reaction easily. 33. Polymer made from two different type of
103. Selective reduction reaction monomers is called copolymer.
Nylon66 is obtained from hexamethelene
NO2 diamine (HMDA) and adipic acid.
36. Celofane is a natural polymer.
NO 2
+ 3 (NH4)2 S
41. (C2H5)3 Al + TiC14 ® ZieglerNata catalyst.
42. Nylon66 is a polymer of adipic acid and
mDNB hexamethylene diamine.
48. This bottle is made from polytheneterpthalate
NH2
(PET) plastic.
50. Nylon66 i made from adipicacid and HMDA
+ 6 NH3 + 2H 2O + 3 S
53. Nylon66
NO2
O
mnitroaniline 
105. Due to electron with drawing effect of NO2 –[ NI + –(CH 2 )– Nl + CO –(CH 2 )–4 C ]–n
841
57. Polyfeen is a doublebond containing 8a 8 × 0.1361
hydrocarbon. 2. Tc = 27bR
27 × 3.85 × 10 –5 × 8.314
= 125.98 K
Sample Questionnaire (JEE) (1) 7. Solubility of Fe(OH)2 in 0.01 M NaOH is SM
then,
1. 312.5 gm metal carbonate in close container
2+ –
on decomposition gives 80% decomposition by Fe(OH)2(s) Fe(aq) + 2OH (aq)
mass. (S + 0.01) M
Mass of decomposed metal carbonate = 2+
Ksp = [ Fe(aq) ] [ OH (aq) ]2
–
liberated = mole =
56
= 2.5
\ 1
2 (s)
+
B + M (aq)
1 2+
B + M(s)
2 (aq)
224
Equilibrium constant for reaction is,
Moles of carbon in 2.5 mole of gas = 2.5 =
– 12
2.5(12) = 30 gm C (2) 1.0 × 1010 ( )
mole
litre
In result (1) and (2),
\ + 2+
B (s) + 2 M (aq) B(aq) + M (s) equilibrium
weight of carbon will be same = –1
6 × 250
constant for reaction is 1.0 × 1010 ( )
mole
litre
= 30 gm carbon E + 30 = 50
E + 30
2 s E oCell
\ equivalent weight of metal E = 20 gm
log(Kc) =
0.059
842
Metal oxide obtained by decomposition of
2 s E oCell
\ log (1.0 × 1010) = metal hydroxide possess equivalent weight
0.059
(E + 8) gm/equi.
0.059 s10 \ Mass of metal in (E + 8) gm metal oxide =
\ E oCell = 0.295 V E gm
\
2
Mass of metal in 1 gm metal oxide
At 25o C temperature, for cell,
E
= gm
A A
2+
(XM)  M
+
(YM) M E +8
Now, Mass of metal is equal in metal
cell reaction is, hydroxide which decomposes and metal oxide
+ 2+ which is obtained.
A(s) + M (aq) A (aq) + 2M(s) ... (3)
Now reaction (3) = reaction (1) + reaction (2)
\ E
20
=
E
E +8
\E + 8 = 20
\ standard cell potential for reaction (3) is, \ Equivalent weight of metal = 12 gm/equi.
2. Inverstion temperature of H2 and He is lower.
n3 E3o = n1 Eo3 + n2 Eo2 So, at room temperature such gases gets effect
of heating.
\ 2 × E3o = 2 × 0.295 + 2 × 0.295 4. What is minimum distance between two F
centres in crystal lattice structure of CaF2?
\ E3o = 0.295 + 0.295 = 0.59 V
In calcium fluoride, Ca2+ posses Fec structure.
Equilibrium constant for reaction (3) is, and F ions are situated in tetrahedral holes :
log(Kc) =
2 s E oCell
0.059
=
2 s 0.59
0.059
= 20 \ r+ + r = 3a
4
–1
\ Minimum distance between centres of two
\ Kc = 10 20
( )mole
litre
+
a (r + r )
F ions 2
–
3
7. H2O(g) reacted by mass 40 %
Sample Questionnaire (JEE) (2) Moles which experienced reaction
1 × 40
1. Equivalent of N normality contained solution = = 0.4
100
=
V× N
, H2O(g) + CO(g) H2(g) + CO2(g)
1000 Initial mole : 1 1 0 0
Moles at
100 × 1 equilibrium : (10.4) 0.6 0.4 .04
1 3 1
100 ml N H2SO4 = 1000 = equivalent = 0.6
3 30
Equivalence of metal hydroxide which is Concentration
1 0.6
neutralised by acid = = 30% metal at equilibrium = = 0.06 M 0.06 M 0.0 M 0.04
30 10
hydroxide by mass. Equivalence of metal 0.04 × 0.04 4
hydroxide which decomposed 60 % by mass = Kc = = . As number of moles of
0.06 × 0.06 9
60 1 gaseous reactant and products are equal,
= .
40 × 30 20 4
Kc = Kp =
Suppose, equi. w. of metal = E gm/equivalent. 9
\ Equi. w. of metal hydroxide = 9. Ea1 = 41720 J/mol, T1 = 350 K, rate constant = K1
(E + 17) gm/equivalent. Ea2 = 35760 J/mol, T2 = ?, rate constant = K2
Mass of metal in l equivalent of metal Time required to complete 40 % of reaction is
hydroxide = E gm. equal,
\ K1 = K2
\ Mass of metal in
1
20
equivalent of metal \ According to Arrhenious equation,
E Ea1 Ea 2
hydroxide = gm
20 T1 T2
843
7. Concentration of aqueous solution of
\ 41720 35760
350 T2 monobasic strong acid and monoacidic weak
\ T2 = 300 K
base is Co M.
\ Aqueous solution of salt obtained from
Sample Questionnaire (JEE) (3) monobasic strong acid and mono acidic weak
base posses,
N N
1. 50 ml NaOH ≡ 50 ml HCl ≡ 5 ml 1 N HCl K w [H 2O + ]2 Kw
10 10 and [H O +
] =
Kb C0 3 [OH – ]
\ To dissolve 1 gm alkaline earth metal
carbonate 25 5 = 20 ml 1 N HCl solution [K w ]2
is required. \ Kw
K b [OH – ]2 ×C0
20 ml 1 N HCl ≡ 1 gm metal carbonate
\ [OH]2 =
Kb × Kw
\ 1000 ml 1 N HCl ≡
1000 × 1 × 1
20 × 1
= 50 gm
C0
\ 1015 e
– 2000
T
1014 e
–1000
T
Weight of CO32– =12 + 3(16) = 60 gm mole
1 –1000
–1000
\
T
10 = e – 2000 e T
Equivalent weight of CO32– 60 = 30 gm e T
2
\ Equivalent weight of alkaline earth
\ In(10) =
1000
= 50 30 = 20 gm T
1
1
o
o
=
740 × 304 × 273
288 × 760
= 9 × 2 = 18
= 2.88.53 ml
844
\ At STP, volume of hydrogen gas
produced = 288.53 ml \ 9.5 gm oxygen gives
9.5 × 40
16
= 23.75 gm
\ At STP, 22400 ml dihydrogen gas = 1 NaOH
mole H2 gas \ 25 gm NaOH sample actually contains
\ At STP, 288.53 ml dihydrogen gas 23.75 gm NaOH
=
288.53 s 1
22400
= 0.012526 mole H2 gas \ Purity of sample =
100 × 23.75
25
= 95 %
a
(3b)
» 0.375
PC × VC 27b2
= =3
RTC
R (
8a
27bR
8
) P
Q
3. For, n = 4, l = 3, m = 0 only one orbital is
available and that is 4 d2z. For every orbital only
one wave function (ψ) is accepted.
5. W = 4 litrebar (work done on the system),
R
P = 1 bar, Vf = 10 litre, V1 = ?
W = P (Vf Vi)
\ 4 = 1 × (10 Vi) In unit cell of diamond :
\ Vi = 14 litre length of body diagonal of diamond unit cell
20. Suppose, Initial concentration of A is C then = PR = 3 a
half reaction time of both reaction are equal.
CC bond length = PR = 3 v a 2r
\ C
2K
=
1n (2)
K
4
\ C = 2ln(2) M \ a=
8r
3
\ 3 v a = 8r
Sample Questionnaire (JEE) (5) In unit cell of diamond on body diagonal three
carbon atoms are present. Out of which two
1. Molecular weight of NaOH = 40 gm mole1 carbons are on corners of unit cell while one is
\ 16 gm oxygen is in 40 gm NaOH in tetrahedral void. Radius of two carbon
845
present on corner = (r + r) and diameter of carbon
1 ¥ [R]0 µ
present in tetrahedral void is 2r. K= × In ¦§ [R] ¶
\ Total 4r length is occupied by carbon atoms
t t ·
(a x) µ (P ∞
P20) % of carbon (by weight) =
100 × 0.09
= 81.82
\ µP
0.11
P20 = 50 mm and P∞ = 75 a ∞
and
µ (P
100 × 0.02
(a x) P20) and % of hydrogen (by weight) =
∞ 0.11
= 18.18 %
[R]0 a Pd 75
after 20 minutes [R] a – x (P s P ) 25 \ Empirial formula of hydro carbon gas = C H
t d d 3 8
d PA dA MB
1 ¥ [R]0 µ 1 2. Pµ \ = d × M
=3K= × In ¦ [R] ¶ K= × In3 M PB B A
t § t · 20
\ K = 0.05 × In3
2
=
1
×
2
1
=
4
1
=4:1
after 40 minutes
3. The radius of first orbit of Bohrs model is x
[R]0 Pd \ a = x
a 75
[R]t a – y (Pd P40 ) (75 – P40 ) Now
o
radius of any orbit (nth orbit) of Bohrs model
= a o × n2
\ radius of second orbit (n = 2) of Bohrs
846
model is = ao × 22 = x × 4 = 4x for given reaction K, n and ([R]0)1 are constant
Relation between the deBroglie wave length
([R]0 ) n  1  ([R]t )n  1
(l) of the electron rotating in any orbit (nth \ the group of ® t is
n 1
orbit) of that atom and radius (r) : 2pr = nl l ([R]t )
2 pr
= [R]0  [R]t
n straight line. \ for n = 2 graph of [R]t
\ It the deBroglie wave length of the
electron rotating in second orbit (n= 2) of that ® t (time) is traight line.
1
Answers
\
n  1 = Kt + C 1. : 1, Group 2 16 18
(1  n)[R]
Ca S Ar
(integration constant) Ba Se
Now t = 0 than [R] = [R]0 2. In 0.72 gm H2O, 0.08 gm hydrogen is present.
1
While, 0.84 gram carbon is present in
\ C= n 1 3.08 gm CO2
(1  n)[R]0
0.84 0.08
1 1 \ C:H= : = 0.07 : 0.08 = 7 : 8
\
n 1
= Kt + n 1
12 1
(1  n)[R] (1  n)[R]0
\ Empirical formula : C7H8
1 1 K2 1 1
n  1 = Kt
 E
− . Apply above
\ a
(1  n)([R]t )
n 1
(1  n)([R]0 ) 3. log K =
1 2.303R T1 T2
n 1 n 1
equation.
([R]0 )  ([R]t ) 4. :3
\ n 1
([R]t ) NH3
5. : 2, CH3CH2COOH
n1.t
= K (1 n) ([R]0)
CH3CH2COONH4
847
Br2/KOH
CH3CH2CONH2 CH3CH2NH2 ¥1 1µ
27. : 3, E = 2.178 × 1018 ¦§ ¶
22 ·
D
:2
2
6. 1
O
¥1 1µ
\
hc
= 2.178 × 1018 ¦§ ¶·
7. : 4, R NH2 + Cl C C CH3 ®
λ 1 4
O \ = 1.24 × 107 m
l
20. : 1, C* =
2RT \ PV +
a
V
= RT
M
8RT
\ PV = RT
a
V
C =
\
pM PV a
=1
RT RTV
3RT
C=
M
\ Z=1
a
RTV
4 3
\ C* : C : C = 1 : : LiAlH4
p 2 9. : 2, CH 3 COOH CH 3 CH 3 OH
= 1 : 1.128 : 1.225 PCl5
21. :1 CH3CH2Cl CH2 = CH2
KOH
22. :2 10. :2
23. : 4, Electron gain is a reverse reaction of
Number of O 2 molecules 1 28
ionisation. 11. : 1 Number of N molecules = × = 7 : 32
24. :2 2 4 32
25. : 4, Bond order for Li2 and Li2+ is same. But 12. : 4, one unpaired electron is present in NO gas
in Li2 number of electron in antibonding 13. :3
molecular orbital is more. 14. :3
26. : All statements are correct, so no one is 15. : 2, Cs+ and Cl touches eachother on
incorrect. boadydiagonal in unit cell of CsCl.
848
:4
\ rCs+ + rCl = 2r, for bcc structure r =
4
3
a
1. CH3
+ O3
\ rCs+ + rCl = 2 ×
4
3
a=
2
3
a CH3
16. :4 H3C O O
17. :3
Zn
18. : 4, From DH = DU + Dn(g) RT equation,
+ H3O
Here DU = 1364.47, Dn(g) = (1) C H3
19. : 1, L1  red colour, L3  yellow colours
L2  green colour, L4  blue colour H3C O
H
Strength of ligand a energy of adsorb light O
1
a
Wavelength
+ H2O2
\ Order of energy : Blue > Green > Yellow 2. :3
> Red 3. :4
20. : 1, Ma Va Na = MbVbNb 5. : 1,
1 1 NH2
× Va × 2 = × 20 × 1
10 10 NaNO2 + 2 HCl
\ Va = 10 mL 05 oC
\ Used H2SO4 = 60 10 = 50 mL
C H3
– NaCl
–2H2O
\ % of N =
1.4 × N(H 2SO 4 ) × V(H 2SO4 )
W + –
N·Cl
2
K1R1 CH3
1.4 ´ 50
\ K2 = R =
280
= 0.25
2 5. : 3, 4r = 3a
2
K 0.25 25 s 10
\ Dm = 1000 2× M = 1000 s 0.5 = 1.732 s 4.29
5 s 102 \ r= 3a
4
=
4
= 1.857 » 1.86Å
= 5 × 104
26. : 4, Salicylic acid by KolbeSmith and then 6. :3
aspirin
7. : 1, En = 13.6 × 12 eV
27. :1 n
28. : 4, e structure : [Kr] 5s1
: 3, rate a [A] from practical results.
\
29. 1
:1 E2 = 13.6 × = 3.4eV
30. (2) 2
8. :1
JEE MAIN PAPER3 9. :3
10. :4
Answers
849
11. :2 20. :1
CH3 COOH 21. :2
22. :3
KMnO4 SOCl2
23. : 3, Mole of CH3COOH adsorbs by 3 gram
50 s 0.06 50 s 0.042
charcoal =
COCl CHO 1000 100
H2/P = 0.0009
\ 1 gram charcoal CH3COOH = 0.0003
\ Weight of CH3COOH = 0.0003 × 60 ×
12. :3 1000
13. :3 = 18 mg
14. :4 24. :4
15. :4
1
16. : 2, From 2C8H7SO3Na + Ca2+ ® 25. : 4, From DGo = RT In Kc, Kc =
2.718
(C8H2SO3)2 Ca + 2Na+
1
2 s 63.5 2×
17. : 4, weight of Cu = = 63.5 gm [13][C] 2
2 and QC = = 2 = 4
[A ]2 1
:4
18. 2
19. : 3, Molecular mass of AgBr
\ For QC > Kc, reaction occurs in reverse
= 108 + 80 = 188 g/mole
direction
141 mg AgBr = 0.141 gm AgBr
26. :2
Weight of Br in 180 g AgBr = 80 g
27. :4
Weight of Br in 0.141 gm AgBr = 0.06 gm
28. :2
100 s 0.06 29. :3
\ % of Br = = 24 %
0.25 30. :3
850
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