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UNIVERSITÉ D’EVRY-VAL D’ESSONNE

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ÉCOLE DOCTORALE
SCIENCES ET INGEGNIERIE

N° attribué par la bibliothèque

Année 2010

Caractérisation de la microstructure et comportement à


court et long terme d’un Béton de Poudre Réactive
Extrudable
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THÈSE DE DOCTORAT
Discipline : Physico-chimie

Soutenue publiquement par

Khalid CHERKAOUI
Le 15 Octobre 2010, devant le jury ci-dessous

Rapporteurs : Mme. BAROGHEL-BOUNY Véronique HDR, L.C.P.C. Paris


Mme. CARCASSES Myriam Professeur, à l’université de Toulouse 3.
Examinateurs : Mr. LEVITZ Pierre Professeur, Ecole Polytechnique Paris
Mr. AUVRAY Loïc Professeur, Université d’Evry
Mme. COURTIAL Mireille Maître de conférences, Béthune
:
Mme DE NOIRFONTAINE Marie-Noëlle Chercheur CNRS, Polytechnique Paris
Mr. MOUNANGA Pierre HDR, Université de Nantes
Mr. KHELIDJ Abdelhafid Professeur, Université de Nantes
Membre invité : Mme. MORANVILLE Micheline Professeur honoraire

Directeur de thèse : M. Loïc AUVRAY, Professeur, Université d’Evry


Co-encadrants : Mmes Mireille COURTIAL et Marie-Noëlle de NOIRFONTAINE,et MM Frédéric DUNSTETTER, Abdelhafid
KHELIDJ et Pierrre MOUNANGA
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Les Bétons de Poudre Réactive (BPR) sont connus pour leur résistance très élevée et leur
bonne durabilité, mais aussi pour leur prix élevé. L’objectif de cette étude concerne la mise
au point d’une formulation de BPR extrudable (BPR).
Des essais préliminaires d’écoulement au mini cône d’Abrams ont été réalisés avec des
teneurs variées en superplastifiant et en substituant partiellement la fumée de silice par du
quartz broyé. Cinq mélanges ont été retenus et caractérisés de façon systématique au
microscope électronique à balayage et en diffraction des Rayons X. Une étude complète
de retrait au jeune âge, de résistance mécanique et de durabilité face à l’azote et aux ions
chlorure a été menée. Un montage expérimental d’extrusion a été mis au point.
Un mélange incorporant du quartz broyé en remplacement d’une fraction de la fumée de
silice et une composition optimisée en superplastifiant montre des propriétés
intéressantes : extrudabilité, très bonne durabilité, performances mécaniques améliorées
et retrait diminué. Sur cette composition, l’étude microstructurale met en évidence le rôle
que joue le superplastifiant sur la chimie d’hydratation avec une forte consommation en
bélite. Ce mélange permet ainsi de diminuer le coût de fabrication pour un BPR en
permettant d’économiser la fumée de silice coûteuse et en ne nécessitant aucun
traitement thermique.

Mots clés : BPR, extrusion, retrait, durabilité, microstructure, quartz broyé, bélite

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Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) is well known for ultra-high mechanical performances
and very good durability as well as for a high cost. The aim of this study is to find an
extrudable RPC.
Abrams cone preliminary tests were made with various contents of superplasticizer and a
partial substitution of silica fume by crushed quartz. Then, fives concrete samples were
chosen and systematically characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray
diffraction. Then, a complete study was made including early-age shrinkage, mechanical
strength, gas permeability and chloride diffusion measurements. An experimental extruder
was build.
Among the five compositions, one of them, where crushed quartz replaces a part of silica
fume, exhibits very good properties: good extrudability, very good durability, and better
mechanical strength with an improvement of shrinkage. The microstructural study of this
composition highlights the effect of the superplasticizer on hydration, with high belite
consumption. This composition allows a lower cost of RPC with a decreasing of silica fume
content, without thermal treatment.

Keywords: RPC, extrusion, shrinkage, durability, microstructure, crushed quartz, bélite


REMERCIEMENTS

Un grand nombre de personnes se sont trouvées impliquées dans ce travail et


c’est l’occasion pour moi de remercier tous ceux qui m’ont apporté aide, conseils
et encouragements pour l’élaboration de ma thèse.

Je remercie Mme Martine Soyer, directrice du LSI, qui m’a accueilli dans son
laboratoire et son équipe Mme Isabelle Taquin et Mme Christine Houy qui ont su
régler tous les problèmes administratifs.

M. Abdelhafid Khelidj, directeur adjoint du GEM et responsable de l’équipe IEG,


m’a accueilli dans son laboratoire et a mis à ma disposition tous les dispositifs
expérimentaux qui m’ont aidé à mener à bien ce travail. Je le remercie vivement
d’avoir participé à l’encadrement de cette thèse avec beaucoup d’attention et de
bonne humeur.

Je tiens à remercier Mme Myriam Carcasses et Mme Véronique Baroghel-Bouny


d’avoir accepté de rapporter ce travail, malgré un emploi du temps chargé.

Je remercie également Mme Micheline Moranville et M. Pierre Levitz de m’avoir


fait l’honneur de participer à ce jury de thèse.

Mes remerciements les plus sincères vont à M. Loïc Auvray, mon directeur de
thèse, qui m’a toujours soutenu. Ses qualités humaines et sa confiance en moi
m’ont toujours poussé vers l’avant. Je lui suis très reconnaissant de l’opportunité
qu’il m’a donnée de mener à bien cette thèse. Sans lui je n’en serai pas là.

Je voudrais aussi marquer ma profonde reconnaissance envers M. Frédéric


Dunstetter qui m’a permis d’intégrer son groupe de recherche. Sa collaboration
aussi bien efficace qu’amicale a été un facteur important et indispensable pour
l’aboutissement de ce travail. Je le remercie pour son investissement, ses
encouragements et son soutien sans cesse jusqu’au dernier jour.

Je veux maintenant tout particulièrement exprimer ma reconnaissance à mes


deux encadrantes au LSI, Mme Mireille Courtial et Mme Marie-Noëlle De
Noirfontaine, qui m’ont prodigué d’innombrables conseils. Je les remercie pour
leur constante disponibilité et pour avoir suivi de très près l’ensemble de ce
travail, avec beaucoup de patience et d’investissement. Merci de m’avoir
supporté.

Je tiens également à exprimer ma plus vive gratitude à M. Pierre Mounanga, pour


la constante disponibilité dont il a fait preuve en assurant également
l’encadrement de cette thèse au GEM. Qu’il en soit ici pleinement remercié.

!"
Mes remerciements s’adressent aussi à Mme Marie Claude Clochard (responsable
du MEB au LSI) et à M. Fouad Maroun (PMC) qui a accouru pour nous débloquer
à chaque panne de MEB, sans oublier M. Bernard Allali pour toute son aide
technique.

Pour les expériences de diffraction de rayons X, je remercie Mme Sandrine


Tusseau-Nenez et M. Marcel Signe Frehel pour leur aide et leurs conseils.

Ce travail a été effectué avec l’aide de nombreux membres du CTG à Guerville.


Je remercie M. Claude Haehnel, Mme Marie-Christine Lejay, responsable du
service documentation, M. Fouad Amin pour ses bons conseils en techniques de
préparation d’échantillons en microscopie et plus particulièrement M. Ratana
Soth pour sa disponibilité, son assistance technique et son soutien amical.

Mes sincères remerciements à tous mes collègues du laboratoire et du


département de Génie Civil de l’IUT de Saint Nazaire et de Polytech’ Nantes, qui
ont participé de près ou de loin au bon déroulement de ce travail. Ils ont tous
contribué, directement ou indirectement, à mon travail en apportant aide et
conseils. Un grand merci aux techniciens de l’IUT, M. Roger Coue pour son
assistance technique sur les dispositifs expérimentaux, M. Adnane Boukhouna
pour son aide et sa bonne humeur, M. Denis Fournol (dauphin pronostics), M.
René Richard, et M.Fabrice Gervot (dernier du classement pronostics) pour leurs
interventions.

Je remercie également Mme Maryse Radin et Mme Mirianne Lautier (miss speedy
à l’IUT), pour les démarches administratives et Michèle Chatelet (Mme Sarfati)
pour sa bonne humeur.

Je remercie aussi M. Arnaud Pertué pour sa présence et son aide apportée, sans
oublier M. Philippe Poullain et M. Fateh Bendahmane pour leurs interventions.

Je ne veux pas oublier les doctorants et les post-doctorants: Hai,Yacine, Aurélie,


Ahmed, Marianne, Franck et en particulier le montagnard Pierre Louis pour sa
grande consommation d’éthanol (en fait plutôt pour la vidange du granulomètre
Laser).

Une pensée à mes amis Simo, Aziz, Anas et Emmanuel pour leur soutien moral
permanent.

J’exprime toute ma gratitude à mes parents, ma petite sœur Salma et mon cher
ami et frère Amor Ben Fraj pour l’accueil, le temps et l’énergie qu’il m’a consacré
tout au long de cette thèse.

Pour finir, je dédie ce travail à ma chère Nada qui n’a jamais cessé de me
soutenir et de m’encourager pendant les moments difficiles. Qu’elle trouve ici
toute ma reconnaissance et mon amour.

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DEF:!G<!EF!;HIJ< ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4K"

* -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 42"

(L5"M&(&!$*$%*60+#M*N1&------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 42"

4-!'1!7*)&5"!#13!$&"65(!#!"+&(!M#1"&(!D&+/6+)#57&( -------------------- 42"


*:;O9GP@;A9:------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 42"

*Q#" %<!@AR<:; ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ST"


I-A-1" Fabrication du ciment ........................................................................................................ 20"
I-A-2" Composition du ciment ...................................................................................................... 23"
I-A-3" Hydratation des phases cimentaires ................................................................................. 24"
I-A-3-a" Hydratation des silicates de calcium ............................................................................. 25"
I-A-3-b" Hydratation du gypse..................................................................................................... 25"
I-A-3-c" Hydratation de l’aluminate tricalcique C3A .................................................................... 26"
I-A-3-d" Hydratation de l’alumino-ferrite C4AF ............................................................................ 27"
I-A-3-e" Réaction pouzzolanique ................................................................................................ 28"
I-A-3-f" Hydratation du ciment.................................................................................................... 28"
I-A-3-g" Constitution d’un réseau poreux.................................................................................... 33"
I-A-3-h" Paramètres influant sur la porosité................................................................................ 36"
%&" '())*+,"-./"0"%12345165"75"3(",5154+"74"6+4"7(18"3948%15 :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: $;"
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I-A-4" Structure cristallographique des composés cimentaires................................................... 38"
I-A-4-a" Les produits anhydres ................................................................................................... 39"
I-A-4-b" Produits cristallisés de l’hydratation .............................................................................. 41"
I-A-4-c" CSH ............................................................................................................................... 42"
I-A-5" L'état de l'eau dans la pâte de ciment durcie .................................................................... 43"
I-A-5-a" L’eau de constitution...................................................................................................... 43"
I-A-5-b" L’eau adsorbée .............................................................................................................. 44"
I-A-5-c" L’eau libre ...................................................................................................................... 44"

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I-A-5-d" L’eau de ressuage ......................................................................................................... 44"
I-A-6" Déformations endogènes de la pâte de ciment................................................................. 44"
I-A-6-a" Mécanismes des déformations endogènes isothermes ................................................ 45"
I-A-6-b" Contraction Le Chatelier................................................................................................ 45"
%&" A*,%*1"74"B*34C5"())(+51,"5,"75"B*34C5"(D8*34 :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: @E"
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I-A-6-c" Autodessiccation............................................................................................................ 47"
%&" '5,+(%,"79(4,*7588%66(,%*1 ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: @I"
%%&" J*1235C51,:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: @K"
I-A-6-d" Paramètres influençant le retrait.................................................................................... 49"
%&" L12345165"74"+())*+,"<.- ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: @M"
%%&" L12345165"75"3("24CF5"75"8%3%65"5,"758"(7N4B(1,8:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: @M"
I-A-7" Conclusion ......................................................................................................................... 50"

*Q$" %<!>U;9:------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 8T"


I-B-1" Propriétés requises pour un bon béton ............................................................................. 51"
I-B-1-a" Résistance mécanique .................................................................................................. 51"
I-B-1-b" Durabilité........................................................................................................................ 53"
I-B-1-c" Ouvrabilité...................................................................................................................... 54"
I-B-2" Du béton ordinaire aux bétons à ultra hautes performances (BUHP)............................... 55"
I-B-2-a" Béton ordinaire (BO)...................................................................................................... 55"
I-B-2-b" Bétons à hautes performances (BHP)........................................................................... 55"
I-B-2-c" Bétons à très hautes performances (BTHP) ................................................................. 57"
I-B-2-d" Au-delà du BTHP........................................................................................................... 58"
I-B-2-e" Bétons autoplaçants (BAP) ........................................................................................... 59"
I-B-2-f" Bétons de poudre réactive (BPR).................................................................................. 60"
I-B-3" Conclusion ......................................................................................................................... 63"

S-!&"#"!'&!%V#+"!(1+!%&(!$D+-------------------------------------------------------------------------- C8"
*Q7" MWGOF;F;A9:------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- C8"

*Q'" +<;OFA; --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- CX"

*Q&" D<OB9ORF:@<J!RU@F:AYP<J----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- C2"


I-E-1" Résistance en compression et module d’élasticité :.......................................................... 69"
I-E-2" Résistance en traction ....................................................................................................... 73"
I-E-2-a" Traction directe .............................................................................................................. 73"
I-E-2-b" Traction par flexion ........................................................................................................ 74"
I-E-2-c" Traction par fendage ..................................................................................................... 75"

*Q/" 'POF>AEA;U ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- K8"


I-F-1" Porosité.............................................................................................................................. 75"
I-F-2" Propriétés de transfert ....................................................................................................... 78"
I-F-2-a" Perméabilité au gaz....................................................................................................... 78"
I-F-2-b" Perméabilité à l’eau ....................................................................................................... 78"
I-F-2-c" Diffusion des ions chlore ............................................................................................... 79"
I-F-3" Conclusion ......................................................................................................................... 80"

** ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- X."

)&"M6'&(!'&!7#+#7"&+*(#"*65!'&(!)#"&+*#13 ------------------------------------- X."


**Q#" 0OF:PE9RU;OA<!EFJ<O----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- X."

**Q$" 7FOF@;UOAJF;A9:!J;OP@;POFE<!<;!RA@O9J;OP@;POFE< ------------------------------------------------------------------- XZ"


II-B-1" Diffraction des rayons X (DRX) ......................................................................................... 84"
II-B-1-a" Elaboration des échantillons.......................................................................................... 84"

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II-B-1-b" Appareillage et traitement de données.......................................................................... 85"
II-B-2" Microscopie électronique à balayage (MEB)..................................................................... 86"
II-B-2-a" Elaboration des échantillons.......................................................................................... 86"
II-B-2-b" Appareillage................................................................................................................... 86"

**Q7" .-!)<JPO<J!JPO!>U;9:!BOFAJ![!@HFE<POJ!GVHWGOF;F;A9:!\@FE9OARU;OA<] ------------------------------------ XK"

**Q'" Z-!+<;OFA;J --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- XX"


II-D-1" Retrait volumique............................................................................................................... 88"
II-D-2" Retrait chimique................................................................................................................. 90"
II-D-3" Retrait linéique................................................................................................................... 91"
II-D-4" Retrait empêché ................................................................................................................ 93"

**Q&" &JJFAJ!RU@F:AYP<J ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2Z"


II-E-1" Résistance en compression .............................................................................................. 94"
II-E-2" Résistance en traction ....................................................................................................... 95"
II-E-2-a" Flexion 3 points.............................................................................................................. 95"
II-E-2-b" Essai brésilien................................................................................................................ 96"
II-E-3" Module d’élasticité ............................................................................................................. 97"

**Q/" DO9^OAU;UJ!G<!;OF:JB<O;!G<J!$D+![!GPOF>AEA;U------------------------------------------------------------------------- 22"


II-F-1" Préparation des échantillons ............................................................................................. 99"
II-F-2" Porosimétrie à l’eau......................................................................................................... 100"
II-F-3" Porosimétrie au mercure ................................................................................................. 101"
II-F-4" Perméabilité à l’azote (perméamètre Cembureau) ......................................................... 102"
II-F-4-a" Séchage des échantillons............................................................................................ 102"
II-F-4-b" Protocole expérimental................................................................................................ 102"
II-F-5" Diffusion des ions chlore en milieu saturé....................................................................... 104"
II-F-5-a" Préparation des échantillons ....................................................................................... 104"
II-F-5-b" Dispositif expérimental ................................................................................................ 104"
II-F-5-c" Protocole de mesure ................................................................................................... 105"

79:@EPJA9: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4TK"

*** -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4T2"

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***Q#" 7FOF@;UOAJF;A9:!G<J!RF;UOAFP=!P;AEAJUJ-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4T2"
III-A-1" Ciment ............................................................................................................................. 110"
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III-A-2" Inclusions granulaires...................................................................................................... 114"
III-A-2-a" Fumée de silice............................................................................................................ 114"
III-A-2-b" Quartz broyé ................................................................................................................ 115"
III-A-2-c" Sable............................................................................................................................ 116"
III-A-3" Superplastifiant ................................................................................................................ 117"

***Q$" 6^;ARAJF;A9:!G<!EF!B9ORPEF;A9:!G<!$D+!<=;OPGF>E<J --------------------------------------------------------- 44K"


III-B-1" Stratégie de composition des formulations ..................................................................... 118"
III-B-2" Effet du temps de malaxage............................................................................................ 119"
III-B-3" Composition des BPR retenus ........................................................................................ 121"
III-B-4" Protocole de préparation et de conservation des BPR ................................................... 121"

79:@EPJA9: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4SZ"

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*_ -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4S8"

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*_Q#" &=;OPGF>AEA;U --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4SC"
IV-A-1" Montage expérimental ..................................................................................................... 126"
IV-A-2" Protocole expérimental.................................................................................................... 128"
IV-A-3" Etude paramétrique ......................................................................................................... 129"
IV-A-4" Répétabilité...................................................................................................................... 133"

*_Q$" DO9^OAU;UJ!FP!?<P:<!ab<![!HWGOF;F;A9:!<;!O<;OFA;------------------------------------------------------------------ 4.."


IV-B-1" Chaleurs d’hydratation..................................................................................................... 133"
IV-B-1-a" Effet du dosage en superplastifiant ............................................................................. 134"
IV-B-1-b" Effet de l’ajout du quartz broyé.................................................................................... 134"
IV-B-1-c" Influence de l’extrusion................................................................................................ 136"
IV-B-2" Retrait et fissuration au jeune âge................................................................................... 136"
IV-B-2-a" Retrait chimique et volumique ..................................................................................... 136"
%&" '5,+(%,"6?%C%G45 :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: !$I"
%%&" '5,+(%,"B*34C%G45:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: !@S"
IV-B-2-b" Retrait linéique............................................................................................................. 143"
%&" L12345165"75"84)5+)3(8,%2%(1, ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: !@@"
%%&" L12345165"74"G4(+,T:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: !@E"
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IV-B-2-c" Retrait empêché .......................................................................................................... 147"
IV-B-2-d" 2.3 Analyse croisée ..................................................................................................... 149"

*_Q7" .-!DO9^OAU;UJ!c!E9:b!;<OR<!G<J!$D+ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 48T"


IV-C-1" Propriétés mécaniques.................................................................................................... 151"
IV-C-1-a" Résistance ................................................................................................................... 151"
%&" 'F8%8,(165"51"6*C)+588%*1:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: !E!"
%%&" 'F8%8,(165"51",+(6,%*1:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: !E@"
IV-C-1-b" Module d’Young........................................................................................................... 157"
IV-C-2" 3.2. Durabilité................................................................................................................... 158"
IV-C-2-a" Porosité........................................................................................................................ 158"
%&" V*+*8%,F"W"395(4:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: !EK"
%%&" V*+*8%,F"(4"C5+64+5::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: !;!"
IV-C-2-b" Paramètres de transfert............................................................................................... 165"
%&" V5+CF(D%3%,F"W"39(T*,5 :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: !;E"
%%&" X%2248%*1"758"%*18"6?3*+5"YC%=+(,%*1"51"+F=%C5"8,(,%*11(%+5& ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: !;I"

79:@EPJA9: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4KS"

_ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4K8"

7#+#7"&+*(#"*65!("+17"1+#%&!&"!)*7+6("+17"1+#%&!'&(!$D+ ----4K8"
_Q#" 7FOF@;UOAJF;A9:!J;OP@;POFE<!G<J!$D+!:9:!<=;OPGUJ!\'+3] ------------------------------------------------ 4K8"
V-A-1" Des bétons comportant encore une grande fraction de ciment anhydre ........................ 176"
V-A-2" Identification des phases anhydres et hydratées ............................................................ 176"
V-A-3" Conclusion ....................................................................................................................... 180"

_Q$" 7FOF@;UOAJF;A9:!RA@O9J;OP@;POFE<!G<J!$D+!:9:!<=;OPGUJ!\)&$]-------------------------------------- 4X4"


V-B-1" BPR sans ajout de quartz broyé...................................................................................... 181"
V-B-2" BPR avec ajout de quartz broyé...................................................................................... 184"
V-B-2-a" 2.2.1. Localisation du quartz broyé.............................................................................. 185"
V-B-2-b" 2.2.2. Teneur en bélite................................................................................................. 186"
V-B-2-c" 2.2.3. Microstructure des CSH .................................................................................... 186"
V-B-3" Discussion ....................................................................................................................... 187"

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Figure I-A-1 : Fabrication du ciment .......................................................................................21
Figure I-A-2: Photo au microscope optique en lumière polarisée ..........................................24
Figure I-A-3 : Hydratation du ciment, évolution temporelle ....................................................31
Figure I-A-4 : Hydratation du ciment, topologie [Locher_1976]..............................................32
Figure I-A-5 : Action d’un adjuvant retardateur de prise [Cours Master Matériaux cimentaires
Evry_2005] .............................................................................................................................33
Figure I-A-6 : Imagerie en microscopie électronique à balayage de diverses espèces
chimiques présentes dans le réseau poreux du ciment hydraté ............................................34
Figure I-A-7 : Distribution bimodale [Verbeck_1968]..............................................................35
Figure I-A-8 : Porosité aux diverses échelles [Metha_1986]..................................................35
Figure I-A-9 : Influence du dosage en eau .............................................................................37
Figure I-A-10 : Composition volumique d’une pâte de ciment hydratée avec et sans apport
d’eau externe (extrait du livre [Baron_1992]) .........................................................................38
Figure I-A-11 : Volumes apparent et absolu [Garcia- Boivin_1999] .......................................46
Figure I-A-12 : Représentation phénoménologique de l’évolution des déformations
endogènes d’une matrice cimentaire au jeune et très jeune âge. Extrait de [Charron_2001].
...............................................................................................................................................46
Figure I-A-13 : Différence entre le retrait chimique et le retrait endogène (Inspirée de
[Bouasker_2007] et [Jensen_2001]........................................................................................48
Figure I-B-1 : Empilement apollonien [Taberlet_2005]...........................................................51
Figure I-B-2 : Dispersion par répulsion électrostatique (a) et par répulsion stérique (b)
[Thèse_Bonneau_1997] .........................................................................................................56
Figure I-B-3 : Evolution des bétons depuis les années 1960. On observe d’abord un progrès
constant des performances dans une même direction, puis une spécialisation entre deux
types de bétons ayant des objectifs distincts .........................................................................58
Figure I-B-4 : Contraintes et hétérogénéité du matériau ........................................................60
Figure I-D-1 : Evolution du retrait endogène et de l’humidité relative d’un BPR. [Loukili_1999]
...............................................................................................................................................68
Figure I-D-2 : Déformation endogène linéique en fonction du rapport E/C et de la teneur en
fumée de silice. [Schachinger_2002] .....................................................................................69
Figure I-E-1 : Enveloppe de meilleures résistances obtenues pour différentes densités
relatives [Richard_1995].........................................................................................................70
Figure I-E-2 : Courbe contrainte déformation du BPR200 en compression [Dugat_1996] ....71
Figure I-E-3 : Courbe contrainte déformation du BPR800 en compression [Dugat_1996] ....71
Figure I-E-4 : Développement des propriétés mécaniques de ciment Portland (a) et du
ciment à base de laitier (b) [Schachinger_2002] .............................................................72
Figure I-E-5 : Influence du dosage en fumée de silice sur la résistance en compression
[Yazici_2008]..........................................................................................................................73
Figure I-E-6 : Comportement du BPR en traction directe [Adeline_1999]..............................73
Figure I-E-7 : (a) Champ de déformation longitudinal à 45s. (b) Image de l’éprouvette au
même instant. (c) Champ de déformation longitudinale à 75s. (d) Champ de déformation
longitudinale à 180s [Huon_2001]..........................................................................................74
Figure I-E-8 : Résistance en traction en fonction du rapport E/C et du dosage en fumée de
silice [Schachinger_2002] ......................................................................................................75
Figure I-F-1 : Distribution poreuse d’un béton ultra haute performance [Loukili_1999] .........76
Figure I-F-2 : Comparaison des porosités au mercure [Lafarge_2003] .................................77
Figure I-F-3 : Distribution poreuse d’un béton avec et sans traitement thermique
[Cwirzen_2008] ......................................................................................................................77

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Figure II-B-1 : Diffractomètre de poudres ( / ) .....................................................................85
Figure II-B-2 : Microscope électronique à balayage (MEB-FEG) ...........................................87
Figure II-C-1 : Microcalorimètre à 8 puits ...............................................................................87
Figure II-D-1 : Dispositif de mesure du retrait volumique [Mitani_2003] ................................89
Figure II-D-2 : Dispositif de mesure du retrait chimique [Bouasker_2007].............................90
Figure II-D-3 : Retrait linéique horizontal (a) dispositif de mesure (b) éprouvettes après essai
[Bouasker_2007] ....................................................................................................................92
Figure II-D-4 : Dispositif de mesure du retrait empêché (a) schéma [Bouasker_2007] (b)
photo du montage ..................................................................................................................94
Figure II-E-1 : Essai de flexion 3 points (a), essai de compression (b) ..................................95
Figure II-E-2 : Essai de flexion 3 points (a) Schéma de principe (b) Diagramme des
contraintes dans la section de l’éprouvette ............................................................................95
Figure II-E-3 : Essai de fendage (a) Schéma de principe (b) Diagramme des contraintes dans
la section de l’éprouvette........................................................................................................97
Figure II-E-4 : Essai de fendage sur éprouvette 11 x 22........................................................97
Figure II-E-5 : Excitation des éprouvettes en utilisant le Grindosonic [Bouasker_2007]........98
Figure II-F-1 : Découpe des disques ......................................................................................99
Figure II-F-2 : (a) Saturation de l’échantillon (b) Pesée hydrostatique.................................100
Figure II-F-3 : Porosimétrie mercure (a) schéma du pycnomètre (b) photographie du
porosimètre. .........................................................................................................................101
Figure II-F-4 : Schéma du dispositif expérimental de perméabilité à charge constante
[Ben Fraj_2009]....................................................................................................................102
Figure II-F-5 : Vue en coupe d’une cellule de perméabilité..................................................104
Figure II-F-6 : Essai de durabilité aux ions chlore. Schéma de la cellule de migration ........105
Figure II-F-7 : Essai de durabilité aux ions chlore. Photo du titrimètre.................................106

Figure III-A-1 : Analyse granulométrique du ciment .............................................................110


Figure III-A-2 : Diffractogramme du ciment, avec identification des phases en présence : alite
(a), bélite (b), C3A, C4AF, gypse (g), calcite (c) et portlandite (p). Les fenêtres angulaires
caractéristiques pour l’identification de la structure de l’alite sont notées W1-W5...............113
Figure III-A-3 : Ajustement par la méthode de Rietveld du diffractogramme de ciment. Les
diffractogrammes observé et calculé sont respectivement représentés en traits bleu et rouge.
La courbe grise est la courbe différence entre le diffractogramme observé et calculé. Les
contributions des diverses réflexions de Bragg sont de haut en bas : l’alite M1, la bélite , le
C3A, le C4AF, la calcite, le gypse, et la portlandite...............................................................114
Figure III-A-4 : (a) Analyse granulométrique de la fumée de silice (b) Microstructure des
fumées de silice. Image MEB en électrons secondaires......................................................115
Figure III-A-5 : Diffractogramme de la fumée de silice. La plupart de l’échantillon contient de
la silice amorphe. Les pics fins observés sont dus à la présence d’une phase minoritaire
cristallisée de ZrO2. ..............................................................................................................115
Figure III-A-6 : Analyse granulométrique du quartz broyé....................................................116
Figure III-A-7 : Diffractogramme du quartz broyé. La quasi-totalité des pics s’explique par la
présence de la forme du quartz (q). La raie de très faible intensité à 2 = 32,1° est une
réflexion de la microcline (m). ..............................................................................................116
Figure III-A-8 : Analyse granulométrique du sable ...............................................................117
Figure III-A-9 : Formule type d’un carboxylate .....................................................................117
Figure III-B-1 : Cas de mauvaises formulations (a) mélange trop sec (b) formation de
grumeaux .............................................................................................................................119
Figure III-B-2 : Cas de formulations optimisées : états successifs lors du malaxage ..........120
Figure III-B-3 : Essai d’étalement au cône d’Abrams ...........................................................120
Figure III-B-4 : Composition des cinq formulations de BPR (cf Tableau III-B-2) ..................121
Figure III-B-5 : Protocole de malaxage des BPR .................................................................122
Figure III-B-6 : Conservation humide des éprouvettes.........................................................122

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Figure IV-A-1 : Schéma d’une extrudeuse à vis...................................................................127
Figure IV-A-2 : Extrudeuse à piston .....................................................................................127
Figure IV-A-3 : Echantillon sous vide ...................................................................................128
Figure IV-A-4 : Réservoir rempli du matériau tassé .............................................................129
Figure IV-A-5 : Essai d’extrusion sur BPR extrudable : boudin homogène et sans fissure.130
Figure IV-A-6 : Extrudat d’une formulation non extrudable (BPR3) : boudin inhomogène...130
Figure IV-A-7 : Force d’extrusion en fonction du déplacement et de la vitesse du piston pour
les BPR extrudables.............................................................................................................131
Figure IV-A-8 : Essai de répétabilité sur le BPR4 ................................................................133
Figure IV-B-1 : Flux de chaleur d’hydratation. (a) 0 – 144 h ; (b) : zoom entre 36 et 72 h ...134
Figure IV-B-2 : Influence de l’extrusion sur le flux de chaleur d’hydratation du BPR1 ........136
Figure IV-B-3 : Différence entre retrait chimique et retrait volumique (BPR2) ....................137
Figure IV-B-4 : Retrait chimique des différents BPR ............................................................137
Figure IV-B-5 : Influence de l’adjuvant sur le retrait chimique (BPR1, BPR2 et BPR3) .......138
Figure IV-B-6 : Influence de l’adjuvant sur le retrait chimique (BPR4 et BPR5)...................139
Figure IV-B-7 : Evolution du retrait chimique en fonction du taux d’adjuvant.......................139
Figure IV-B-8 : Effet du quartz broyé sur le retrait chimique ................................................140
Figure IV-B-9 : Retrait volumique des différents BPR ..........................................................141
Figure IV-B-10 : Influence de l’adjuvant sur le retrait volumique (BPR1, BPR2 et BPR3) ...142
Figure IV-B-11 : Influence de l’adjuvant sur le retrait volumique (BPR4 et BPR5)...............142
Figure IV-B-12 : Influence du quartz broyé sur le retrait volumique .....................................143
Figure IV-B-13 : Déformation linéique horizontale (µm/m) à 20°C pour les différents BPR .144
Figure IV-B-14 : Influence de l’adjuvant sur le retrait linéique horizontal (BPR1, BPR2 et
BPR3)...................................................................................................................................144
Figure IV-B-15 : Influence de l’adjuvant sur le retrait linéique horizontal (BPR4 et BPR5) ..145
Figure IV-B-16 : Influence du quartz broyé sur le retrait linéique horizontal ........................145
Figure IV-B-17 : Déformation linéique verticale (µm/m) à 20°C pour les différents BPR .....146
Figure IV-B-18 : Evolution du retrait endogène linéique (µm/m) en fonction du taux d’adjuvant
(%)........................................................................................................................................147
Figure IV-B-19 : Déformation à l’anneau (µm/m) et contrainte maximale (MPa) des différents
BPR ......................................................................................................................................148
Figure IV-B-20 : Cinétiques des déformations et de flux de chaleur d’hydratation du BPR1
.............................................................................................................................................149
Figure IV-B-21 : Cinétiques des déformations et de flux de chaleur d’hydratation du BPR4
.............................................................................................................................................150
Figure IV-C-1 : Evolution de la résistance en compression des BPR1, BPR2 et BPR3 ......151
Figure IV-C-2 : Evolution de la résistance en compression des BPR4 et BPR5 ..................152
Figure IV-C-3 : Evolution de la résistance en compression des BPR ..................................152
Figure IV-C-4 : Moule (a) et éprouvettes (b) pour essai de compression après extrusion ...153
Figure IV-C-5 : Evolution de la résistance en compression avant et après extrusion des BPR
.............................................................................................................................................154
Figure IV-C-6 : Evolution de la résistance en traction des BPR...........................................155
Figure IV-C-7 : Résistance en traction par fendage des BPR à 28 jours .............................156
Figure IV-C-8 : Comparaison de la résistance en traction obtenue par fendage (plein) et par
flexion (pointillé) des BPR à 28 jours ...................................................................................156
Figure IV-C-9 : Evolution du module d’Young en fonction du temps....................................157
Figure IV-C-10: Porosité à l’eau des BO, BHP [Djerbi_2007], BUHP [Respledino_2003] et
des BPR de cette étude .......................................................................................................160
Figure IV-C-11 : Intrusion du mercure..................................................................................161
Figure IV-C-12 : Distribution des pores des différents BPR .................................................163
Figure IV-C-13 : Distribution de la taille des pores d’un BO, un BHP [Djerbi_2007] et des
BPR de cette étude. .............................................................................................................164
Figure IV-C-14 : Perméabilité apparente en fonction de l’inverse de la pression moyenne. 166
Figure IV-C-15 : Perméabilité intrinsèque au gaz d’un BO, BHP [Djerbi_2007] et des BPR de
cette étude............................................................................................................................167

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Figure IV-C-16 : Evolution de la concentration cumulée des ions chlore en fonction du temps.
.............................................................................................................................................168
Figure IV-C-17 : Flux de chlorures traversant un BO, un BHP [Djerbi_2007] et le BPR4. ...170
Figure IV-C-18 : Coefficient de migration des ions chlore d’un BO, un BHP [Djerbi_2007] et
des BPR de cette étude. ......................................................................................................171

Figure V-A-1 : Diffractogramme du BPR1 (rouge) comparé à celui du ciment anhydre initial
(noir). Les raies fortes (rouges) non labellisées sont celles du quartz. ................................176
Figure V-A-2 : Diffractogrammes des cinq BPR comparés à celui du ciment anhydre ........177
Figure V-A-3 : Diffractogrammes des BPR1, BPR4 et BPR5 aux bas angles .....................178
Figure V-A-4 : Diffractogrammes des cinq BPR dans la fenêtre 2 Co = 33,5 – 41°. ............179
Figure V-A-5 : Ajustement par la méthode de Rietveld du diffractogramme du BPR4. Les
diffractogrammes observé et calculé sont respectivement représentés en traits bleu et rouge.
La courbe grise est la courbe différence entre le diffractogramme observé et calculé. Les
contributions des diverses réflexions de Bragg sont de haut en bas : l’alite M1, la bélite , le
C3A, le C4AF, portlandite, quartz et ettringite. ......................................................................180
Figure V-B-1 : Micrographies (électrons secondaires) à faible grossissement du BPR1
(section polie) grains de sable, pâte et bulles d’air ..............................................................182
Figure V-B-2 : Micrographies (électrons rétrodiffusés) de la pâte de BPR1 (section polie) :
.............................................................................................................................................183
Figure V-B-3 : Micrographie (électrons secondaires) d’une pâte de BPR3 âgée de 2 mois
(fracture) : (a) grain d’alite M1 et fumées de silice (FS) très peu hydratés ; (b) grain de
microcline .............................................................................................................................183
Figure V-B-4 : Micrographies (électrons secondaires) d’une pâte de BPR3 âgée de 2 mois
(fracture) : Fumées de silice peu hydratées .........................................................................184
Figure V-B-5 : Micrographies (électrons secondaires) des BPR4 et BPR5 (sections polies) :
(a-b) BPR4 : quartz broyé réparti de façon homogène, (c-d) BPR5 : quartz broyé accroché
aux grains de sable ..............................................................................................................185
Figure V-B-6 : Micrographies (électrons rétrodiffusés) des BPR4 et BPR5 (sections polies) :
(a) BPR4 : clinker résiduel contenant encore de la bélite, (b) BPR5 : clinker résiduel ne
contenant plus beaucoup de bélite.......................................................................................186
Figure V-B-7 : Micrographies sur BPR4 des CSH (a) électrons secondaires (contraste
topographique) (b) électrons rétrodiffusés (contraste chimique)..........................................187
Figure V-B-8 : Micrographie (électrons secondaires) d’une pâte de BPR2 (section polie) :
fractures qui contournent les grains anhydres .....................................................................187
Figure V-C-1 : Diffractogrammes des BPR4 et BPR5, extrudés et non extrudés ................189

Figure A-1- 1 : Fiche technique


Figure A-1- 2 : Fiche technique
Figure A-1- 3 : Fiche technique
Figure A-2- 1 :.Retrait linéique : coupe longitudinale de la manchette en PVC
Figure A-2- 2 : Retrait linéique horizontal : vue de gauche et de dessus du dispositif
Figure A-2- 3 : Retrait linéique vertical : vue de gauche et de face du dispositif
Figure A-2- 4 :Principe de fonctionnement d’un capteur à courant de Foucault.
Figure A-2- 5 : Illustration d’un capteur à courant de Foucault mesure
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Tableau I-A-1 : Les quatre phases principales du ciment ......................................................23


Tableau I-A-2 : Les notations de la chimie des oxydes..........................................................23
Tableau I-A-3 : Relation entre E/C et le temps de segmentation ...........................................37
Tableau I-A-4 : Structure cristallographique et polymorphisme des composés
anhydres.(système : R=Trigonal, M=Monoclinique, T=Triclinique, O=Orthorhombique,
C=Cubique). Pour le C3S : pOH = pseudo Orthorhombique et pM = pseudo Monoclinique
correspondent à des mailles multiples. L’évolution des mailles pOH montre la distorsion de la
maille de C3S et les surstructures. La maille multiple(pM) permet de relier la maille Pc du
polymorphe T1 à la maille du polymorphe M1, ce qui n’est pas possible avec la maille P-1de
Golovastikov...........................................................................................................................40
Tableau I-A-5 : Structure cristallographique et polymorphisme des produits d’hydratation. La
tobermorite, argile non présente dans les produits d’hydratation du ciment sert de prototype
ordonné à la structure mal ordonnée des CSH ......................................................................41
Tableau I-B-1 : Loi de Féret : effet des paramètres E/C et V/C .............................................52
Tableau I-C-1 : Influence de la cure et du traitement thermique sur l’hydratation des BPR
[Zanni_1996]. .........................................................................................................................67
Tableau I-C-2 : Récapitulatif des pics de chaleur et des degrés d’hydratation. .....................67
Tableau I-E-1 : Caractéristiques mécaniques des BPR 200 et BPR 800 [Richard_1995] .....70
Tableau I-E-2 : Caractéristiques mécaniques en compression uniaxiale du BPR
[Dugat_1996]..........................................................................................................................70
Tableau I-E-3 : Résistances maximales en compression en fonction du traitement et du
dosage en substitution minérale optimaux .............................................................................72
Tableau I-F-1 : Récapitulatif des différents indicateurs de durabilité des BPR depuis leur
apparition................................................................................................................................81
Tableau III-A-1 : Caractéristiques des matières premières (d’après les fiches techniques des
fournisseurs).........................................................................................................................110
Tableau III-A-2 : Mesures granulométriques laser des matières premières.........................110
Tableau III-A-3 : Proportions des phases (en pourcentage massique) du ciment déterminées
d’après la méthode approximative de Bogue (cf. fiche technique) ou selon la méthode de
Rietveld par diffraction des rayons X....................................................................................111
Tableau III-A-4 : Structures cristallographiques des phases présentes dans le ciment utilisé
.............................................................................................................................................113
Tableau III-B-1 : Optimisation des formulations en fonction de leur extrudabilité ................118
Tableau III-B-2 :. Composition des cinq formulations de BPR (cf Figure III-B-4) .................123
Tableau IV-A-1 : Récapitulatif des forces correspondant au palier d’extrusion en fonction de
la vitesse du piston pour les différents BPR extrudables .....................................................132
Tableau IV-B-1 : Récapitulatif des pics de chaleur ..............................................................135
Tableau IV-B-2 : Déformation endogène horizontale et verticale (µm/m) à 20°C pour les
différents BPR après 100 heures .........................................................................................147
Tableau IV-C-1 : Résistance en traction (MPa) des différents BPR à 28 jours....................155
Tableau IV-C-2 : Récapitulatif des propriétés mécaniques des différents BPR ...................158
Tableau IV-C-3 : Porosité accessible à l’eau de différents BPR ..........................................159
Tableau IV-C-4 : Porosité au mercure des BPR ..................................................................162
Tableau IV-C-5 : Perméabilité au gaz des BPR ...................................................................166
Tableau IV-C-6 : Coefficients de migration des différents BPR ...........................................169
Tableau IV-C-7 : Propriétés à long terme des BPR étudiés.................................................172
Tableau A-1- 1 : Analyse chimique par fluorescence X du quartz broyé

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! (a)
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! (b)
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à ciment

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! (c)
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Procédé
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Portland
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Figure I-A-1 : Fabrication du ciment

#!"
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Tableau I-A-2 : Les notations de la chimie des oxydes
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"
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"

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Figure I-A-2: Photo au microscope optique en lumière polarisée


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+F85(4" )*+54U" 74" C(,F+%(4:" H58" D%(%8" 758" CF,?*758" )(+" %1,+48%*1" )54B51," k,+5"
6*1,*4+1F8" )(+" 75" 1*4B53358" ,56?1%G458" 75" RMN" Y'F8*1(165" C(=1F,%G45" A463F(%+5&a"
G4%"+58,51,"1F(1C*%18",+^8"3*4+758"5,"7941"48(=5"5U65),%*1153:"H(" diffusion aux petits
anglesa" 51" )(+,%643%5+" 3(" 7%2248%*1" 75" 154,+*18" G4%" )5+C5," 758" F6?(1,%33*18" )348" =+*8a"
)54," F=(35C51," 7*115+" 758" +5185%=15C51,8" 84+" 35" 8Q8,^C5" )*+54Ua" 2*+C5" 758" )*+58" 5,"
+4=*8%,F"758"84+2(658"75")*+5:"H9%1,5+)+F,(,%*1"51"+58,5"7%22%6%35:"
"
 La RMN du solide" )5+C5," F=(35C51," 79F,47%5+" 39*+7+5" 3*6(3" (4,*4+" 758" (,*C58"
+F8*1(1,8:" <335" (" (%18%" )5+C%8" 79(CF3%*+5+" 6*18%7F+(D35C51," 358" 6*11(%88(1658"
8,+46,4+(358"84+"35"-/[:"H("1F6588%,F"794,%3%85+"758"%8*,*)58 !"51"+517"35"6*h,",+^8"F35BF:"
"
 Les diverses microscopiesa" optique" *4" électroniquea" )5+C5,,51," 415" *D85+B(,%*1" 74"
C(,F+%(4"W",*4,58"358"F6?53358a"74"=+(%1"(4"N*%1,"75"=+(%1"5,"(4U"6*46?58"(,*C%G458:"X5"
1*CD+54U" (4,+58" )(+(C^,+58" )?Q8%6*R6?%C%G458" )54B51," k,+5" (,,5%1,8" 51" 4,%3%8(1," 358"
)+*)+%F,F8" 75" +F2+%1=5165" 51" C%6+*86*)%5" *),%G45" *4" 358" (1(3Q858" F3FC51,(%+58" 51"
C%6+*86*)%5" F356,+*1%G45:" Z1" *D,%51," (%18%" 758" cartographies" 758" 7%B5+858" )+*)+%F,F8"
(4U"7%B5+858"F6?53358"(66588%D358:"V(+"(%3354+8a"758"%12*+C(,%*18"84+"3("C%6+*CF6(1%G45"
758"6*C)*8F8"8*1,"*D,51458")(+"415"C584+5"75"1(1*"%1751,(,%*1:"
"
 Les rayons X" 8*1," ,+^8" 4,%3%8F8" )*4+" 7F,5+C%15+" 3(" 6*C)*8%,%*1" F3FC51,(%+5" )(+"
fluorescence:" H(" diffraction" 758" +(Q*18" i" Y*4" 758" 154,+*18&" )5+C5," )(+" (%3354+8" 75"
7F,5+C%15+" 358" 8,+46,4+58" 6+%8,(33%158" 5,a" )(+" 3Wa" 79(1(3Q85+" G4(1,%,(,%B5C51," 3("
6*C)*8%,%*1"C%1F+(3*=%G45a"C(%8"656%"85435C51,"3*+8G45"358"6*C)*8F8"8*1,"6+%8,(33%8F8a"
G4941" C*7^35" 8,+46,4+(3" 58," 6*114" 5," G45" 35" CF3(1=5" 1958," )(8" ,+*)" 6*C)35U5:" H5"
m"-/["n" 6*4+(1," +F41%," +(+5C51," 395185CD35" 75" 658" 6*17%,%*18a" 5," 3(" 7%22+(6,%*1" +58,5"
8*4B51,")54"())3%6(D35")*4+"8("6(+(6,F+%8(,%*1:"
"
 Les mesures acoustiques" +5)*851," 84+" 394,%3%8(,%*1" 758" 43,+(8*18:" <3358" )5+C5,,51," 75"
84%B+5"35"7FB53*))5C51,"CF6(1%G45"74"C(,F+%(4"51"6*4+8"79FB*34,%*1:"
"
 Les mesures dimensionnelles" 6*18,%,451," 415" )(+," %C)*+,(1,5" 75" 65" ,+(B(%3" 5," 85+*1,"
7%864,F58" 51" 7F,(%3" )348" 3*%1:" H(" C584+5" 74" +5,+(%," C(6+*86*)%G45" 58," 415" 6*C)*8(1,5"
%C)*+,(1,5"758"F,4758"75"'zX"84+"358"1*4B5(4U"C(,F+%(4U:"
"
 Les simulationsa" =F1F+(35C51," 6*4)3F58" (4U" CF,?*758" 5U)F+%C51,(358a" )5+C5,,51," 75"
C*7F3%85+" 358" )+*658848" +F(6,%*11538" 5," 7%2248%28" 5,a" 51" 6*18,+4%8(1," 14CF+%G45C51," 35"
8Q8,^C5")*+54U"2%1(3a"75"6*C)+517+5"35"3%51"51,+5"6?%C%5"5,",*)*3*=%5:"<1"C*7F3%8(1,"75"
)348" 358" )?F1*C^158" %1,5+B51(1," 7(18" 358" 7%B5+858" CF,?*758" 75" C584+58a" *1" )54,"
F=(35C51," (CF3%*+5+" 39%1,5+)+F,(,%*1" 758" C584+58" 52256,4F58" 51" 358" 6*++F3(1," W" 758"
)(+(C^,+58" 6%1F,%G458" *4" ,*)*3*=%G458" %1(66588%D358" (4,+5C51," 7(18" 358" 8Q8,^C58"
6*C)35U58"G45"6*18,%,451,"358"C(,F+%(4U"6%C51,(%+58:"
"

""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
!
"V*4+"758"+(%8*18"B*%8%158a"3%F58"(4U"%1,5+(6,%*18"5,"(4U"8,+46,4+58"1463F(%+58a"358"%8*,*)58",+^8"(D8*+D(1,8"(4U"
154,+*18"8*1,"(488%"654U"G4%"+F8*1151,"51"'\A:"H("7%2248%*1"75"154,+*18"1F6588%,5"75"+5C)3(65+"395(4")(+"75"
395(4"3*4+75"X#Z"5,"3("'\A"1F6588%,5"41"51+%6?%885C51,"%8*,*)%G45")*4+"2(%+5"+F8*115+"35"8%3%6%4Ca"35"6(36%4C"*4"
35")?*8)?*+5:"V(+"6*1,+5"3("'\A"74")+*,*1"58,"7%+56,5C51,"4,%3%8(D35"(B56"395(4"1(,4+5335:""

#M"
" H9?Q7+(,(,%*1"74"6%C51,"58,"3("84)5+)*8%,%*1"758"+F(6,%*18"79?Q7+(,(,%*1"%17F)517(1,5"
758" 6*C)*8F8" 74" 63%1b5+" 5," 74" =Q)85" G4%" *1," F,F" 7F6+%,58" )+F6F75CC51,:" L3" 89(=%," 7941"
)?F1*C^15" 6*C)35U5" G4%a" W" 39?54+5" (6,45335a" 19(" )(8" 516*+5" F,F" 6*C)3^,5C51," F346%7F:" <1"
!KKIa"H5"-?(,53%5+"(")+*)*8F"41"CF6(1%8C5")*4+"%1,5+)+F,5+"358"+F(6,%*18"6?%C%G458"853*1"41"
)+*658848" 75" 7%88*34,%*1" )+F6%)%,(,%*1"0" (4" 6*1,(6," (B56" 395(4a" 358" )+*74%,8" (1?Q7+58" 85"
7%88*3B51," )+*=+588%B5C51,a" ,(17%8" G4941" )+5C%5+" ,Q)5" 79?Q7+(,58" )+F6%)%,5:" H58" )+*74%,8"
(1?Q7+58a" )348" 8*34D358" G45" 358" ?Q7+(,58a" 8(,4+51," (3*+8" 3(" 8*34,%*1a" 51" )+*B*G4(1," 3("
)+F6%)%,(,%*1" 79(4,+58" ?Q7+(,58:" L3" 51" +F843,5" 415" 7%C%14,%*1" 758" 58)^658" 51" 8*34,%*1a" 65" G4%"
)5+C5,"41"1*4B5(4")(88(=5"758"6*18,%,4(1,8"(1?Q7+58"51"8*34,%*1:"
H(")>,5"75"6%C51,"(%18%"2*+CF5"85")+F851,5"(3*+8"6*CC5"41"8Q8,^C5"7%8)5+8Fa"*e"358"=+(%18"75"
6%C51," (1?Q7+5" %1%,%(4U" 85" 7%88*3B51," 51" C5,,(1," 51" 8*34,%*1" 758" %*18" G4%" 6+%8,(33%851,a" 51"
%16*+)*+(1,"758"C*3F64358"795(4"7(18"354+"8,+46,4+5:"
"
H9?Q7+(,(,%*1"74"6%C51,")(885")(+"358"E"F,()58"84%B(1,58"0"
 Période I"0"VF+%*75"75")+F"%1746,%*1"
-958,"3(")?(85"%1%,%(35"G4%"84+B%51,"(4"C*C51,"74"=>6?(=5"5,"15"74+5"G453G458"C%14,58:"
O4" 6*1,(6," 75" 395(4a" 358" =+(%18" 75" 6%C51," 6*CC51651," W" +F(=%+" %CCF7%(,5C51,:" H("
7%88*34,%*1" %1%,%(35" 74" 6%C51," (1?Q7+5" 58," C(+G4F5" )(+" 41" 7F=(=5C51," %C)*+,(1," 75"
6?(354+a" 745" )+%16%)(35C51," W" 3(" 7%88*34,%*1" 758" )?(858" (34C%1(,58" 5," 75" 39(3%,5:" -56%"
5U)3%G45" 35" )+5C%5+" )%6" ,?5+C%G45" *D85+BF:" X^8" 358" )+5C%^+58" C%14,58a" %3" 85" 2*+C5" 74"
8%3%6(,5" 75" 6(36%4C" ?Q7+(,F" YCSH&" 5," 75" 3l5,,+%1=%,5" Y]/O&:" X4+(1," 65,,5" )F+%*75a" 3("
)*+,3(17%,5"Y-[-(YZ[&#&"15"85"2*+C5")(8"516*+5"5,"358")?(858"-$/"5,"-$O"8*1,"358")348"
(6,%B58:"
 Période II"0"VF+%*75"7*+C(1,5"*4")F+%*75"7l%1746,%*1"
-5,,5" )F+%*75" 58," C(+G4F5" )(+" 3(" 7%C%14,%*1" 74" 234U" ,?5+C%G45" 3%F5" W" 3(" 6?4,5" 75" 3("
B%,5885" 75" 7%88*34,%*1" 758" )?(858" (1?Q7+58:" H9F3FB(,%*1" +()%75" 74" )[" 745" W"
3l(4=C51,(,%*1" 75" 3(" 6*1651,+(,%*1" 758" %*18" ?Q7+*UQ358" YZ[R&" 5," W" 3l(664C43(,%*1" 758"
%*18"6(36%4C8"-(#w"7(18"3("8*34,%*1"+(351,%,"65,,5"7%88*34,%*1:"-5,,5")?(85"74+5"G453G458"
?54+58" 5," 7F)517" 75" 3(" 6*C)*8%,%*1:" H(" )?(85" (G45485" 85" 84+8(,4+5" 51" )*+,3(17%,5a" G4%"
6*CC5165"W"6+%8,(33%85+:"
"

$S" "
"

"

! (a)
"
Calorimétrie :
Puissance
dissipée lors de
l’hydratation
d’un ciment
Portland

"

! (b)
"
"
Ultrasons :
Modules et
puissance
dissipée

"
"
1 heure d’hydratation 5 heures d’hydratation

! (c)
"
XFD4,"75")+%85
Microstructure :
E"{C
E"{C évolution au
24 heures d’hydratation 1 mois d’hydratation
cours de
l’hydratation.
Simulation
[Vernet_1992]
"

E"{C E"{C
"
Figure I-A-3 : Hydratation du ciment, évolution temporelle"
"

$!"
Période III"0"VF+%*75"7l(66F3F+(,%*1"*4")F+%*75"75")+%85:"
H("84+8(,4+(,%*1"75"3(")?(85"(G45485"51"%*18"-(#w"5,"Z[R"51,+(p15"3(")+F6%)%,(,%*1"75"3("
)*+,3(17%,5" -(YZ[&#:" -5,,5" )+F6%)%,(,%*1" 75" )*+,3(17%,5" B(" 6*18*CC5+" 358" %*18" -(#w" 5,"
Z[R" " 5," (66F3F+5+" 75" 1*4B5(4" 3(" 7%88*34,%*1" 758" 6*18,%,4(1,8" 74" 6%C51," (1?Q7+5:" -5,,5"
)F+%*75" 79(66F3F+(,%*1" 85" ,+(74%," )(+" 415" (4=C51,(,%*1" 74" 234U" ,?5+C%G45" Yd%=4+5" LR
OR$(&:" H58" -/[" G4%" 85" 2*+C51," 51" )F+%)?F+%5" 758" =+(%18" (1?Q7+58" 6+*%8851," 5,"
89%1,5+)F1^,+51,",*4,"51"+%=%7%2%(1,"358"6*1,(6,8"51,+5"358"=+(%18"75"6%C51,"tA*1(,u!MMIv:"
X4")*%1,"75"B45"C(6+*86*)%G45a"*1"*D85+B5"415"(4=C51,(,%*1"+()%75"75"B%86*8%,F"5,"*1"
)(885"79415"6*18%8,(165"B%8G45485"W"415"6*18%8,(165"+%=%75:"H("+F8%8,(165"CF6(1%G45"74"
C(,F+%(4"6*CC5165"W"85"7FB53*))5+:"
 Période IV"0"VF+%*75"75"+(351,%885C51,"*4"75"74+6%885C51,"
H58" 6*46?58" 79?Q7+(,58" W" 3(" 84+2(65" 758" =+(%18" (1?Q7+58" 75B%51151," 75" )348" 51" )348"
F)(%8858a"65"G4%"+(351,%,"3("7%2248%*1"75"395(4"B5+8"3("84+2(65"758"=+(%18:"-56%"85",+(74%,"
)(+"415"D(%885"75"3l(6,%B%,F"6?%C%G45"74"C%3%54a"5,"7*16"74"234U",?5+C%G45"6*CC5"1*48"
)*4B*18"35"B*%+"84+"3("d%=4+5"LROR$:"H(")+*)*+,%*1"758")+*74%,8"79?Q7+(,(,%*1"(4=C51,5"
5," +5C)3%," 3(" )*+*8%,F:" H9%CD+%6(,%*1" 758" C43,%)358" 58)^658" )+*74%,58" 6*1,+%D45" (4"
7FB53*))5C51," 758" )+*)+%F,F8" C(6+*86*)%G458" Y8,(D%3%,F" B*34C%G45a" +F8%8,(165"
CF6(1%G45&"74"C(,F+%(4:"H58"+F(6,%*18"79?Q7+(,(,%*1"85")*4+84%B51,a"84+"758"C*%8"*4"758"
(11F58",(1,"G4l%3"+58,5"74"6%C51,"(1?Q7+5"(66588%D35"5,"75"3l5(4"7%8)*1%D35a"C(%8"(B56"415"
6%1F,%G45")348"351,5:"
"

" H9(1(3Q85"75"3("C%6+*8,+46,4+5"74"6%C51,"(4"6*4+8"75"3(")?(85"79?Q7+(,(,%*1")5+C5,"75"
C%54U" 6*C)+517+5" 858" )+*)+%F,F8" CF6(1%G458:" H(" 2*+C(,%*1" 75" 65,,5" C%6+*8,+46,4+5"
(66*C)(=15" 3(" =5+C%1(,%*1" 758" ?Q7+(,58" Yd%=4+5" LROR$6&" 5," *1" *D85+B5" 39())(+%,%*1" 7941"
+F85(4")*+54U:""
"
H("d%=4+5"LROR@"86?FC(,%85",*4,58"658"F,()58:"
"

"
Figure I-A-4 0"Hydratation du ciment, topologie [Locher_1976]"

$#" "
"
H5"CF6(1%8C5"5,"3("6%1F,%G45"79?Q7+(,(,%*1"8*1,"%1234516F8")(+"75"1*CD+54U")(+(C^,+58:"
<1" )(+,%643%5+a" 3(" 6%1F,%G45" 79?Q7+(,(,%*1" )54," k,+5" C*7%2%F5" )(+" 39(N*4," 79(7N4B(1,8:" -58"
(7N4B(1,8" )54B51," k,+5" 758" )+*74%,8" 8%C)358" *4" 6*C)*8F8a" *+=(1%G458" *4" %1*+=(1%G458:" L38"
)5+C5,,51," 75" +F74%+5" *4" 79(4=C51,5+" 35" ,5C)8" 75" )+%85" 51" (=%88(1," 84+" 3(" B%,5885" 75" 3("
+F(6,%*1"79?Q7+(,(,%*1"0"*1"358"())5335"358"+5,(+7(,54+8"*4"(66F3F+(,54+8"75")+%85:"H5")+*74%,"35"
)348"6*114a"6*CC5"(66F3F+(,54+"75")+%85"58,"35"-?3*+4+5"75"6(36%4C"Y-(-3#&:"H58"(66F3F+(,54+8"
75")+%85"8*1,"=F1F+(35C51,"4,%3%8F8"51")+F2(D+%6(,%*1"5,")(+",5C)8"2+*%7:"V(+C%"358"+5,(+7(,54+8"
75")+%85a"*1"6%,5"0"358"3%=1*8432*1(,58a"358"(6%758"6(+D*UQ3%G458"5,"354+8"8538a"358"(C%158f"L38"
8*1," 4,%3%8F8" )(+" ,5C)8" 6?(47:" H("d%=4+5"LRORE"6%R7588*48"86?FC(,%85"39(6,%*1"7941"(7N4B(1,"
+5,(+7(,54+"75")+%85a"()+^8"8*1"%1,+*746,%*1"7(18"35"CF3(1=5""2%=4+5"Y(&"0"
 O78*+),%*1"75"3l(7N4B(1,"84+"3("84+2(65"74"=+(%1"(1?Q7+5:"-5"75+1%5+"75B%51,")+*,F=F"75"
3l(,,(G45")(+"3l5(4"2%=4+5"YD&:"
 Hl(7N4B(1,"+F(=%,"(B56"35"=+(%1"75"6%C51,"5,"2*+C5"415"6*46?5")+*,56,+%65"(4,*4+"74"
=+(%1"Y2%=4+5"Y6&:"
 "Hl(7N4B(1,"5C)k6?5"3("2*+C(,%*1"758")+*74%,8"7l?Q7+(,(,%*1"51"2*+C(1,"758"6*C)35U58"
(B56"358")?(858"?Q7+(,F58"2%=4+5"Y7&:"
"

Y(&" YD&" Y6&" Y7&"


d%=4+5"LRORE"0" Action d’un adjuvant retardateur de prise [Cours Master Matériaux
cimentaires Evry_2005]"
"
" X(18" 65" G4%" 84%,a" 1*48" (33*18" %1,+*74%+5" 358" 7%22F+51,8" )+*74%,8" 79?Q7+(,(,%*1" 5," 354+"
8,+46,4+5"6+%8,(33%15:"A*48"(33*18"5184%,5"7F6+%+5"35"+F85(4")*+54U"5,"39%12345165"758"7%22F+51,8"
)(+(C^,+58"Y+())*+,"<.-"5,"(N*4,8"C%1F+(4U&"84+"8(",*)*3*=%5:"
"

*Q#Q.Qb!! 79:J;A;P;A9:!GVP:!OUJ<FP!^9O<P=!
"
" H(" 2*+C(,%*1" 758" C43,%)358" 58)^658" 6?%C%G458" 7F6+%,58" 7(18" ,*4," 65" G4%" )+F6^75"
6*174%," W" 39516?5Bk,+5C51," 758" C43,%)358" 6+%8,(4U" (%18%" 2*+CF8a" 6*18,%,4(1," 41" 8Q8,^C5"
)*+54U:"

$$"
"
H(" d%=4+5" LROR;" C*1,+5" 758" 5U5C)358:" Z1" B*%," 84+" 3(" 2%=4+5" d%=4+5" LRORE(" 75" =+*8"
6+%8,(4U"75")*+,3(17%,5"51"2*+C5"75")3(G45,,58a"84+"3("d%=4+5"LROR;6"41")*+5"51,*4+F"75"-/["5,"
7941"=+*8"6+%8,(3"75")*+,3(17%,5"-[a"5,"84+"358"d%=4+5"LROR;D"5,"7"758"(%=4%3358"795,,+%1=%,5")348"
*4"C*%18"516?5Bk,+F58"5,"74"-/[:"
"

(a) Plaquette de portlandite d’après (b) Aiguilles d’ettringite enchevêtrées


[Stutzman_2001] d’après [Merlini_2008]"

3 µm

"
(c) Pâte de silicate tricalcique (E/C = 0,5) âgée de
28 jours : CSH, portlandite et pores capillaires (d) CSH et aiguilles d’ettringite (aluminate)
d’après [Regourd_1977] d’après [Stutzman_2001]
"

Figure I-A-6 : Imagerie en microscopie électronique à balayage de diverses espèces


chimiques présentes dans le réseau poreux du ciment hydraté
"
" H58"7%(C^,+58"758")*+58"89F,(351,"75"39F6?5335"1(1*CF,+%G45"W"39F6?5335"651,%CF,+%G45:"
Z1"7%8,%1=45"51"=F1F+(3"754U",Q)58"75")*+58"Yd%=4+5"LRORI&"0""

 Les pores capillaires :"%3"89(=%,"758"58)(658"%1,5+"=+(143(%+58"%1%,%(35C51,"*664)F8")(+"


3l5(4" 75" =>6?(=5" 5," G4%" 1l*1," )(8" F,F" 6*CD3F8" )(+" 358" ?Q7+(,58:" L38" )54B51," k,+5"
+F)(+,%8"51"CF8*)*+58"Y75"#a;"W"ES"1C&"5,"C(6+*)*+58"Y75",(%335"84)F+%54+5"W"ES"1C&:"H5"

$@" "
+F85(4"6()%33(%+5a"%1%,%(35C51,"6*1156,Fa"58,"+5C)3%")+*=+588%B5C51,")(+"358")+*74%,8"75"
3l?Q7+(,(,%*1" 5," )5+7" 8(" 6*1156,%B%,Fa" W" 3l5U65),%*1" 758" C(,F+%(4U" (Q(1," 41" +())*+,"
5(4.6%C51,"F35BF"Y<.-`"S:;&a"7*1,"35"+F85(4")*+54U"6()%33(%+5"+58,5+(%,"6*1,%14:""
"
 Les pores des hydrates ou pores du gel : 65,,5")*+*8%,F"58,"%1,+%18^G45"(4U"?Q7+(,58"
5," %17F)517(1,5" 75" 3(" 2*+C43(,%*1" 75" 3(" )>,5" 75" 6%C51,:" -58" 58)(658" %1,5+2*3%(%+58"
8*1,"1*CCF8"|1(1*)*+58|"5,"354+"+(Q*1"6(+(6,F+%8,%G45"58,"75"39*+7+5"75"!aE"W"#"1C:"L38"
+5)+F851,51,"(4"C%1%C4C"#;"W"#Kq"51"B*34C5")*4+"415")>,5"*+7%1(%+5"Yd%=4+5"LRORI&:""
"

"
Figure I-A-7 : Distribution bimodale"[Verbeck_1968]
"
H("d%=4+5"LRORK"%3348,+5"3("+F)(+,%,%*1"75"3(")*+*8%,F"853*1"35"7%(C^,+5"758")*+58:""
"

"
Figure I-A-8"0"Porosité aux diverses échelles [Metha_1986]

$E"
"
" OQ(1,"7F6+%,"358"(8)56,8",*)*3*=%G458"3%F8"W"3(")*+*8%,Fa"1*48"(33*18"C(%1,51(1,"7%864,5+"
358")(+(C^,+58"(Q(1,"415"%12345165"84+"5335:"
"

*Q#Q.QH!! DFOFRI;O<J!A:BEPF:;!JPO!EF!^9O9JA;U!
"
" L3" 5U%8,5" 754U" )(+(C^,+58" 75" 6*C)*8%,%*1" ,+^8" %C)*+,(1,8a" 358" +())*+,8" <.-"
Y5(4"."6%C51,&"5,"-./"Y6(36%4C"."8%3%6%4C&"G4%"6*17%,%*1151,"3("6%1F,%G45"79?Q7+(,(,%*1"5,")(+"3W"
3(",*)*3*=%5"74"8Q8,^C5")*+54U"(4"6*4+8"74",5C)8:"
"

%& Rapport C/S : influence de la teneur du cru dans l’usine


"
" H5"+())*+,"-./"58,"7F2%1%"6*CC5"+())*+,"758"C(8858"79(,*C58"75"6(36%4C"5,"79(,*C58"
75"8%3%6%4C:"
" O" 39%8845" 758" C43,%)358" +F(6,%*18" 6?%C%G458" 7F6+%,58" )348" ?(4,a" 3(" 6*C)*8%,%*1" 74"
CF3(1=5"2%1(3"Y35"6+4"7F2%1%"(4")(+(=+()?5"LR!&"7F)517"75"3("D(3(165"758",+*%8"(,*C58"-(a"/%a"
O3a"%1,+*74%,8"7(18"39(+=%35"5,"35"6(36(%+5"%1%,%(3a"5,"7F6+%,8"75"2(c*1")348"*4"C*%18")+F6%85")(+"3("
+53(,%*1"75"P*=45"5,"858"(CF3%*+(,%*18"43,F+%54+58:"
" O"39F6?5335"84DR1(1*CF,+%G45a"3("6*1156,%B%,F"758"8%3%6(,58a"7(18"358"-/["7F)517"75"3("
G4(1,%,F" 7%8)*1%D35" 75" 8%3%6%4C:" H58" C584+58" 75" '\A" )5+C5,,51," 65" ,Q)5" 79F,475" 51"
7F,5+C%1(1,"3("6*1156,%B%,F"758"=+*4)5C51,8"8%3%6(,58"/%Z@"Y358"}1&:"H("3*1=454+"758"6?(p158"
6*1156,F58" Y#" W" $" =+*4)5C51,8" 8%3%6(,58&" 7%C%145" 3*+8G45" 35" +())*+," -./" (4=C51,5" 6(+" 41"
1*CD+5" 6+*%88(1," 79%*18" -(#w" 8*1," 7%8)*1%D358" )*4+" 51,*4+5+" 6?(G45" =+*4)5C51," 8%3%6(,5"
t~34+u!MM;va"tV*+,5154B5u#SS#v:"
"

%%& Rapport E/C : influence du dosage en eau lors du gâchage


"
" H5"+())*+,"<.-"58,"7F2%1%"6*CC5"+())*+,"758"C(8858"51"5(4"5,"51"6%C51,"74"CF3(1=5"
%1%,%(3:"H5"7*8(=5"51"5(4a"(%18%"G4(1,%2%Fa"58,"41")(+(C^,+5"79415"5U,+kC5"%C)*+,(165"7(18"35"
)+*658848" 79?Q7+(,(,%*1" 74" 6%C51,a" 51" 656%" G49%3" 6*17%,%*115" 2*+,5C51," 3(" 6%1F,%G45"
79?Q7+(,(,%*1"5,"3(",*)*3*=%5"75"3(")*+*8%,F"6()%33(%+5:""
A*48"8(B*18"79()+^8"65"G4%")+F6^75"G49(4"6*1,(6,"75"395(4a"758"?Q7+(,58"85"2*+C51,"(4,*4+"758"
)?(858"(1?Q7+58"N48G49W"85=C51,5+"35"+F85(4"6()%33(%+5:"
-56%" 1958," )(8" ,*4N*4+8" B+(%a" )4%8G49(4" 753W" 7941" 65+,(%1" +())*+," <.-a" 7%," m")+5C%5+" +())*+,"
6+%,%G45"na"35"+F85(4"6()%33(%+5"+58,5",*4N*4+8"%1,5+6*1156,Fa"65"G4%"2(B*+%85"358")?F1*C^158"75"

$;" "
,+(18)*+," W" ,+(B5+8" 35" C(,F+%(4" Y2*+,58" )5+CF(D%3%,F" 5," 7%2248%B%,F&:" -5" 854%3" B(+%5" 853*1" 3("
6*18,%,4,%*1"6?%C%G45"74"6%C51,a"5,"%3"(B*%8%15"S:IS")*4+"35"6%C51,"V*+,3(17:"
H5" ,5C)8" 1F6588(%+5" )*4+" 3(" 85=C51,(,%*1" 74" +F85(4" 6()%33(%+5" )(+" 358" ?Q7+(,58" (4=C51,5"
2*+,5C51,"(B56"35"+())*+,"<.-a"6*CC5"35"C*1,+5"35",(D35(4"84%B(1,"tV*s5+8u!MEMv"0"

temps de segmentation
Rapport E/C
du réseau capillaire
Sa@S" $"N*4+8"
Sa@E" I"N*4+8"
SaES" !@"N*4+8"
S"a;S" ;"C*%8"
SaIS" !"(1"
SaIS" %C)*88%D35"
"
Tableau I-A-3 : Relation entre E/C et le temps de segmentation
du réseau capillaire [Powers_1959]
"
H(")*+*8%,F"6()%33(%+5"%1,5+6*1156,F5",517"5335"(488%"W"(4=C51,5+"(B56"35"7*8(=5"51"5(4"Yd%=4+5"
LRORM(&:"Z1")*4++(%,"(3*+8")5185+"G45"35"C5%3354+"C*Q51"75"C%1%C%85+"65,,5")*+*8%,F"85+(%,"75"
+F74%+5"35"7*8(=5"51"5(4:""
\(%8" 395U(C51" 75" 3(" d%=4+5" LRORMD" C*1,+5" G45" 35" 6*522%6%51," 75" )5+CF(D%3%,F" 58," 7FNW" ,+^8"
)+*6?5" 75" 8(" B(354+" C%1%C(35" 7^8" G45" 35" +())*+," <.-" 89())+*6?5" 75" Sa@:" -5,,5" +F=%*1" 74"
7%(=+(CC5"58,"51"2(%,"3%F5"W"3(",*)*3*=%5a"6*CC5"*1"B("35"B*%+"%CCF7%(,5C51,:"-958,")*4+G4*%"
*1"6?*%8%+("35"854%3"7*11F")(+"3(",*)*3*=%5"YSa@#"C*7%2%F")348"+F65CC51,"51"S:$K"5,"S:$M&:"
"

" "
(a) : Influence du rapport E/C sur le degré (b) : Influence du rapport E/C sur le coefficient de
d’hydratation nécessaire à l’interruption de la perméabilité à l’eau des pâtes de ciment
continuité capillaire [Powers_1959] totalement hydratées [Powers_1954]
Figure I-A-9 :"Influence du dosage en eau
"
Z1" *D85+B5" Yd%=4+5" LROR!S&" G45" )*4+" 358" 2(%D358" 7*8(=58" 51" 5(4a" 35" 6%C51," 1958," )(8"
,*,(35C51,"?Q7+(,F"5,"%3"84D8%8,5"415")*+*8%,F"6()%33(%+5"6*18,%,4F5"41%G45C51,"75"B%758"=(T54U"

$I"
+F843,(1,"75"3("6*1,+(6,%*1"H5"-?(,53%5+a"G4%"85+("7%864,F5"51"7F,(%3"7(18"41"6?()%,+5"43,F+%54+:"
Z1" 6*18,(,5" G45" 35" +())*+," <.-" *),%C(3" 85" 8%,45" (4" B*%8%1(=5" 74" 854%3" E/C=0.42" )*4+" 358"
8Q8,^C58" 25+CF8:" -5" 854%3a" ())53F" m"754U%^C5" +())*+," 6+%,%G45"na" 2(B*+%85" 39?Q7+(,(,%*1"
6*C)3^,5"74"6%C51,"5,"3("7%8)(+%,%*1"758"6()%33(%+58"()+^8"41",5C)8"(885T"3*1="Y84)F+%54+"W"$"
N*4+8&:" O4R753W" 75" 65" 854%3a" 39?Q7+(,(,%*1" 58," 65+,58" 6*C)3^,5" C(%8" 35" B*34C5" 758" 6()%33(%+58"
,517"W"(4=C51,5+:""
"
" H5"](D35(4"LROR$"C*1,+5"G45"35",5C)8"75"85=C51,(,%*1"74"+F85(4"6()%33(%+5a"(88*6%F"W"
3("6?4,5"75"3(")5+CF(D%3%,Fa"B(+%5"D5(46*4)"Y2(6,54+"#&"7(18"3("T*15"Sa@S"W"Sa@E:"Z1"*),%C%85"
3("74+F5"51"85")3(c(1,"41")54"51"7588*48"74"854%3"S:@#:"X58"F,4758")348"+F651,58"*1,"7%C%14F"
35"854%3"F,(D3%")(+"V*s5+8"75"Sa@#"W"Sa$K"R"S:$M"tP+*4s5+8u#SS@v:"
"

" "
(a) : sans apport d’eau externe (b) : avec apport d’eau externe
Figure I-A-10"0" Composition volumique d’une pâte de ciment hydratée avec et sans apport
d’eau externe (extrait du livre [Baron_1992])
"
H58" *4B+(=58" 51" )35%1" (%+" 15" 8(,%82*1," )(8" (4U" ?Q)*,?^858" 6*174%8(1," W" 3(" d%=4+5" LR
OR!S(" 7*1," *1" B%51," 75" 7%864,5+:" L38" )54B51," +565B*%+" 758" ())*+,8" 5U,F+%54+8" 51" 5(4" G4%"
)5+C5,,51,"(3*+8"415")*4+84%,5"75"39?Q7+(,(,%*1:"H5"854%3")+F6F751,")(885"W" E/C=0.36"5,"%3"58,"
(3*+8"())53F"m",+*%8%^C5"+())*+,"6+%,%G45"n:"
"

*Q#QZ! (;OP@;PO<!@OAJ;FEE9bOF^HAYP<!G<J!@9R^9JUJ!@AR<:;FAO<J!
"
" A*48"1*48"%1,F+588*18"58851,%5335C51,"(4U")+*74%,8"79?Q7+(,(,%*1"G49*1"7%864,5+("7(18"
358" 6?()%,+58" 43,F+%54+8" 51" ,(1," G45" 6*C)*8(1,58" 74" DF,*1:" -958," )*4+G4*%" 6958," 84+,*4," 54U"
G45"1*48"7F6+%+*18"%6%:"-5)517(1,"3948(=5"75"DF,*18"75")348"51")348"8568"6*174%,"W"Q",+*4B5+"

$K" "
758" )+*)*+,%*18" C(88%B58" 79(1?Q7+58" 19(Q(1," )(8" +F(=%:" -958," )*4+G4*%" 1*48" 7F6+%+*18"
F=(35C51,"358")?(858"(1?Q7+58"5,"354+")*3QC*+)?%8C5:"
"

*Q#QZQF!! %<J!^O9GPA;J!F:HWGO<J!
"
" H5" ](D35(4" LROR@" 7*115" 415" 3%8,5"Y1*1" 5U?(48,%B5&" 75" 8,+46,4+58" 6+%8,(33%158" )*4+" 358"
1*CD+54U" )*3QC*+)?58" *D85+BF8" 7(18" 358" 754U" 8%3%6(,58" -#/" 5," -$/" 5," 758" 754U" (34C%1(,58"
-$O"5,"-@Od"7FNW"7%864,F8"(4")(+(=+()?5"LROR#:"
"
" L3" 58," %C)*+,(1," 75" 1*,5+" G45" 3(" ,+5C)5" 74" 63%1b5+" 52256,4F5" 51" 8*+,%5" 75" 2*4+" 15"
8,(D%3%85" G45" G453G458" 418" 758" 1*CD+54U" )*3QC*+)?58" )*88%D358:" H(" 1(,4+5" 758" %C)4+5,F8"
)+F851,58" 7(18" 35" 63%1b5+a" G4953358" )+*B%51151," 758" C(,F+%(4U" 75" 3(" 6(++%^+5" *4" 758"
6*CD48,%D358"6*17%,%*115"35")*3QC*+)?5"8,(D%3%8F:"-958,",+^8"15,")*4+"35"-$O"7*1,"35"](D35(4"
LROR@" C*1,+5" 3(" 7F)517(165" B%8RWRB%8" 75" 39%C)4+5,F" A(:" H5" -@Od" 15" )+F851,5" )(8" 75"
)*3QC*+)?%8C5" C(%8" 6958," 415" 8*34,%*1" 8*3%75" -(#YO3Ud5!RU&ZE" )+F851,(1," 415" B(+%(,%*1" 51"
2*16,%*1" 75" 3(" 8,*56?%*CF,+%5"g" ,+*%8" 8,+46,4+58" +F8*3458" 8*1," 7*11F58" )(+" 35" ,(D35(4:" H("
856*175" 6*3*115" 74" ,(D35(4" %17%G45" 35" 8Q8,^C5" 6+%8,(33%1" Y'y]+%=*1(3a" ]y]+%63%1%G45&" 5," 3("
1*,(,%*1"YZ[&"8%=1%2%5"G49%3"89(=%,"79415"C(%335")8547*R*+,?*?5U(=*1(35a"C(%335"7*4D35"75"3("
C(%335" )8547*R?5U(=*1(35" 4,%3%8F5" )*4+" %175U5+"758" +(%58" 75" 7%22+(6,%*1" 75" )*47+5" 3*+8G49*1"
15"7%8)*85")(8"7941"C*1*6+%8,(3:"H9(B(1,"75+1%^+5"6*3*115"%17%G45"8%"35")*3QC*+)?5"58,",+*4BF"
7(18"358"6%C51,8"75"6%C51,5+%5:"
"
" H58"7*C(%158"75",5C)F+(,4+5"758"7%B5+8")*3QC*+)?58")54B51,"k,+5"86?FC(,%8F8"75"3("
2(c*1"84%B(1,5"0"
"
"" Q")*4+"39(3%,5a"*1"*D85+B5";"2*+C58"74"6*C)*8F"-$/")4+"t](Q3*+u!MMIv"0"
"
20°C 980°C 1050°C 2070°C
Température (°C)
3 formes tricliniques : T1, T2, T3 2 formes 1 forme rhomboédrique : R
monocliniques :
Fusion du
M1, M2
C 3S
"
"
"

$M"
/Q8,^C5" =+*4)5"75"
6*C)*8F" ("Y&" D"Y&" 6"Y&" 
  48%15" 'F2F+5165"
6+%8,(33%1" 8QCF,+%5"
Ia!$E" Ia!$E" #EaEK;" tA%8?%u!MK@v"
-$/"'" '" '$C" MS" MS" !#S" "
IaSE;I" IaSE;I" #@aMI@" tL39%15,8u!MKEv"
-$/"\$" \" -C" $$aSK$" IaS#I" !Ka@MM" MS" M@a!#" MS" *4%" tA%8?%u!MKEv"
-$/"(3%,5"75"63%1b5+" \" -C" !#a#$E" IaSI$" Ma#MK" MS" !!;a$!" MS" *4%" t\4CC5u!MMEv"
-$/"\#")4+" !#a$@#" Ia!@$" #Ea@$@" tP%=(+Fu!M;Iv"
\"" Y)Z[&" MS" MS" MS" "
-$/"\#"%C)4+5,F"€1" !#a$$$" Ia!$I" #Ea@@#" t'5=*4+7u!MIMv"
-$/"\!")4+" Y)Z[&" !#a$$#" Ia!@#" #Ea@#S" MS" KMaKE" MS" tP%=(+Fu!M;Iv"
\" *4%"
-$/"\!"%C)4+5,F"\=" V6" #IaKI$;" IaSEMS" !#a#EIE" MS" !!;aS$S" MS" t75"A*%+2*1,(%15u#SS$v"
-$/"]$" Y)Z[&" #@a;$$" !@a#MS" #Ea@!#" MSaS;" KMaK;" KMaM!" tP%=(+Fu!M;Iv"
]" "
-$/"]$"%C)4+5,F"\=wO3" VR!" !!a;$KM" !@a!I!;" !$a;@$@" !S@aMK#" M@a;##" MSa!SI" t75"H("]*++5u#SSKv"
-$/"]#" Y)Z[&" #@aE#K" !@a#IS" #Ea#MK" KMaMK" KMaIE" KMaK#" tP%=(+Fu!M;Iv"
]" "
-$/"]#"%C)4+5,F"\=" VR!" !!aI@!I" !@a#IKE" !$aII$#" !SEa!#M" M@a@!E" KMaKKM" tV5,5+8*1u#SS@v"
-$/"]!"" Y)Z[&" #@a$MK" !@a#!#" #Ea!S$" KMaM!" KMa;M" KMa;M" tP%=(+Fu!M;Iv"
-$/"]!"" ]" VR!" !!a;I" !@a#@" !$aI#" !SEaE" M@a$$" MSaS" +(+5" tJ*3*B(8,%b*Bu!MIEv"
-$/"]!"C(%335",+%)35" VR!"Y)\&" #IaMSM" #!a!#$" !Ka$MS" MSa$MS" !@$aSSS" KMa;$" tX418,5,,5+u#SS;v"
-#/" " '" V$!6" EaEIM" EaEIM" Ia!E" MS" MS" !#S" " t_7(=(s(u!MKSv"
-#/" 9[" Z" V1C#!" Ma@" #!aI!" ;aK$" MS" MS" MS" " t/((32537u!MK!v"
-#/" 9H" Z" V1(#!" #SaK;$" MaE" Ea;SSE" MS" MS" MS" " tL39%15,8u!MMSv"
-#/"
" \" V#!.1" EaES#" ;aI@E" Ma#MI" MS" M@aEM" MS" *4%" t*8,u!MIIv"
-#/" " Z" VD1C" EaSK!S" !!a##@" ;aIIK" MS" MS" MS" " t_7(=(s(u!MKSv"
-$O")4+" V($" !Ea#;$" !Ea#;$" !Ea#;$" t\*17(3u!MIEv"
-" MS" MS" MS" *4%"
-$O"-(K:EA(O3;Z!K" V#!$" !Ea#@K" !Ea#@K" !Ea#@K" tA%8?%u!MIEv"
-$O"-(K:@A(!:#O3;Z!K" !SaKIE" !SaKE@" !Ea!!E" t'5=*4+7u!MI$v"
Z" VD6(" MS" MS" MS" *4%"
-$O"-(K:EA(O3;Z!K" !SaKIE" !SaKEM" !Ea!SE" tA%8?%u!MIEv"
-$O"-(K:#EA(!:EO3;Z!K" \" V#!.(" !SaKII" !SaK@E" !Ea!$E" MS" MS" MSa!" " t](b546?%u!MKSv"
-@Od"-(#d5O3ZE" EaEK@" !@a;S" Ea$I@" t-*3B%335u!MI!v"
-@Od"-(#d5!:@$O3S:EIZE" Z" LDC#" EaEKK" !@a;!" Ea$KS" MS" MS" MS" *4%" t-*3B%335u!MI#v"
-@Od"-(#d5!:#KO3S:I#ZE" EaEK$" !@aEK" Ea$I@" t-*3B%335u!MI#v"

Tableau I-A-4 : Structure cristallographique et polymorphisme des composés anhydres.(système : R=Trigonal, M=Monoclinique, T=Triclinique,
O=Orthorhombique, C=Cubique). Pour le C3S : pOH = pseudo Orthorhombique et pM = pseudo Monoclinique correspondent à des mailles multiples.
L’évolution des mailles pOH montre la distorsion de la maille de C3S et les surstructures. La maille multiple(pM) permet de relier la maille Pc du polymorphe
T1 à la maille du polymorphe M1, ce qui n’est pas possible avec la maille P-1de Golovastikov.

@S" "
"
5,"415")?(85"C*1*63%1%G45"\$"G4%"19())(+(p,"G4951")+F85165"79%C)4+5,Fa"51,+5"358"2*+C58"\#"
5,"'"0""

"
"
Z1"15")54,"8,(D%3%85+")(+",+5C)5"(46415"758"2*+C58"?(4,5",5C)F+(,4+5"t'5=*4+7u!MK#v:"
H58" 75+1%5+8" ,+(B(4U" 75" 3(" 3%,,F+(,4+5" *1," )*+,F" 84+" 758" (1(3Q858" 75" 7*11F58" 8Q16?+*,+*1:"
V5,5+8*1"tV5,5+8*1u#SS@v"tV5,5+8*1u#SS@v"5,"75"H("]*++5"t75"H("]*++5u#SSKv"*1,")+*)*8F"758"
C*7^358" 8,+46,4+(4U" 7F+%BF8" 75" 3(" 8,+46,4+5" 75" J*3*B(8,%b*B" tJ*3*B(8,%b*Bu!MIEv" )*4+" 358"
,+*%8"(3%,58",+%63%1%G458:""
"
Q" )*4+" 3(" DF3%,5" tH5(u!MMKva" *1" 19*D85+B5" )(8" 358" CkC58" )?(858" (4" 6?(422(=5" Y(&" (4"
+52+*%7%885C51,"YD&"
"
(a)" 20"°C" 1425"°"C 2130°C

3 formes orthorhombiques : , ’L, ’H 1 forme hexagonale :


Fusion du
C2S
(b) 20"°C" < 500"°C" 630-680°C 1160°C 1425"°C" 2130°C

1 forme 1 forme orthorhombiques: : ’L, ’H" 1 forme hexagonale :


2 formes orthorhombique
orthorhombique : monoclinique :

"
"

*Q#QZQ>!! DO9GPA;J!@OAJ;FEEAJUJ!G<!EVHWGOF;F;A9:!
"
" H5"](D35(4"LRORE"7*115"3("3%8,5"758"8,+46,4+58"6+%8,(33%158"758")+*74%,8"6+%8,(33%8F8"758"
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t\5+3%1%u#SSKv"
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V3*CD%5+%,5"y"
\" P!!D" ;aI$E" Ia@#E" #IaMKI MS" MS" !#$a#E" tP*1(66*+8%u#SSEv"
,*D5+C*+%,5"!@""
Tableau I-A-5 : Structure cristallographique et polymorphisme des produits d’hydratation.
La tobermorite, argile non présente dans les produits d’hydratation du ciment sert de
prototype ordonné à la structure mal ordonnée des CSH
"
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"

*Q#QC! 'UB9ORF;A9:J!<:G9bI:<J!G<!EF!^a;<!G<!@AR<:;!!
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@@"
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*Q#QCQF!! )U@F:AJR<J!G<J!GUB9ORF;A9:J!<:G9bI:<J!
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*Q#QCQ>!! 79:;OF@;A9:!%<!7HF;<EA<O!
"

%& Notion du volume apparent et de volume absolu


"
" L3"58,"%17%8)518(D35"75"2(%+5"3("7%8,%16,%*1"51,+5"35"B*34C5"())(+51,"5,"35"B*34C5"(D8*34"
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=(T5485:"H5"B*34C5"(D8*34"79415")>,5"6*++58)*17"W"3(")(+,%5"74"B*34C5"())(+51,"*664)F")(+"
75"3("C(,%^+5"8*3%75"5,")(+"395(4"Yd%=4+5"LROR!!&"

" @E
"

"
Figure I-A-11 : Volumes apparent et absolu [Garcia- Boivin_1999]
"
" H("B(+%(,%*1"74"B*34C5"())(+51,"58,"())53F5"+5,+(%,"5U,5+15"*4"517*=^15:"H("B(+%(,%*1"
74"B*34C5"(D8*34"58,"())53F5"+5,+(%,"6?%C%G45"*4"+5,+(%,"H5"-?(,53%5+:"
"

%%& Conséquences de la contraction Le Chatelier


"
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75" K" W" !Sq" W" 3(" 8*CC5" 758" B*34C58" %1%,%(4U" 75" 6%C51," (1?Q7+5" 5," 795(4" 758,%1F8" W" 85"
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)54,")(+2*%8"(4=C51,5+:"
"
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79415"C(,+%65"6%C51,(%+5:"]+*%8")?(858")54B51,"k,+5"7%8,%1=4F58"0"
"

"
Figure I-A-12 : Représentation phénoménologique de l’évolution des déformations
endogènes d’une matrice cimentaire au jeune et très jeune âge. Extrait de [Charron_2001]:"

@;"
"
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"
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39?Q7+(,(,%*1"51,+(p15"79415"C(1%^+5"7%+56,5"415"*))*8%,%*1"(4U"7F2*+C(,%*18"517*=^158"75"3("
)>,5"
"
V?(85"$"0"O4"6*4+8"75"65,,5")?(85"39?Q7+(,(,%*1"85")*4+84%,a")+*74%8(1,"758"6(B%,F8"=(T54858"
7(18"3(")*+*8%,F"6()%33(%+5"5,"7*16"758"CF1%8G458"79%1,5+2(65"3%G4%75RB()54+:"H("6*CD%1(%8*1"
758"6(B%,F8"=(T54858"5,"74"7F)(+,"795(4a")+*B*G4F")(+"39?Q7+(,(,%*1a"51=517+5"415"7F)+588%*1"
6+*%88(1,5"tO6b5+u!MKKv"

*Q#QCQ@!! #P;9G<JJA@@F;A9:!

" H9(4,*7588%66(,%*1" 58," 3(" 7%C%14,%*1" 75" 3l5(4" 7(18" 3l58)(65" )*+54Ua" 656%" 51=517+5" 41"
7F)(+," 7l5(4" 85" ,+(74%8(1," )(+" 415" 7%C%14,%*1" 75" 3l?4C%7%,F" +53(,%B5" %1,5+15" 75" 3(" )>,5" 75"
6%C51," tP(+*=?53RP*41Qu!MM@v:" -5" )?F1*C^15" 51=517+5" 415" 7F2*+C(,%*1" ())53F5" +5,+(%,"
79(4,*7588%66(,%*1:"

%& Retrait d’autodessiccation


"
H5"+5,+(%,"79(4,*7588%66(,%*1"58,"3("6*18FG45165"75"3("6*18*CC(,%*1"75"395(4"6()%33(%+5"
7(18"35")+*658848"79?Q7+(,(,%*1:"-56%"51=517+5"41",+(1825+,"75"B*34C5"=(T54U"5,"39())(+%,%*1"
758"CF1%8G458"795(4:"O%18%a"3(")+588%*1"75"B()54+"795(4"51"FG4%3%D+5"(B56"3(")>,5"75"6%C51,"
7%C%145:"V348"39?Q7+(,(,%*1"(B(165a")348"%3"Q"("75"B%758"G4%"85"6+F51,"5,")348"3(")+588%*1"795(4"
51"FG4%3%D+5"7%C%145:"
-5"+5,+(%,"51+5=%8,+F"58,"=F1F+(35C51,"D5(46*4)")348"2(%D35"G45"6534%"7941"588(%"75"C584+5"75"
6*1,+(6,%*1"H5"-?(,53%5+"Yd%=4+5"LROR!$&:"
"

" @I
Figure I-A-13 : Différence entre le retrait chimique et le retrait endogène (Inspirée de
[Bouasker_2007] et [Jensen_2001].
"
" ]+*%8"CF6(1%8C58"8*1,"(3*+8"(B(16F8")*4+"3%5+"39(4,*7588%66(,%*1"(4"+5,+(%,"51+5=%8,+F"
3*+8"74"74+6%885C51,"75"3("C(,+%65"51"6*17%,%*18"517*=^158"0"
R" H5" CF6(1%8C5" 75" 7F)+588%*1" 6()%33(%+5a" ,+(74%8(1," 39(4,*7588%66(,%*1" (4" 85%1" 75" 3("
)*+*8%,F"6()%33(%+5:"
R"H5"CF6(1%8C5"75"B(+%(,%*1"75",518%*1"84)5+2%6%5335a"6*++58)*17(1,"(4"7F)(+,"75"395(4"
(78*+DF5"84+"35"8G4535,,5"8*3%75:"
R"H5"CF6(1%8C5"75"3("B(+%(,%*1"75")+588%*1"7%8N*16,%B5a"3%F"W"39(4,*7588%66(,%*1"(4"85%1"
758"1(1*)*+58"758"=538"79?Q7+(,58:"
"

%%& Gonflement
"
" H("2*+C(,%*1"758"?Q7+(,58"(4"6*4+8"74")+*658848"75"7FB53*))5C51,"C%6+*8,+46,4+(3"74"
C(,F+%(4"%174%,"758"B(+%(,%*18"7%C518%*1153358"51",5+C58"75"=*1235C51,"*4"75"6*1,+(6,%*1:"
X(18"35"6(8"74"=*1235C51,a"3("2*+C(,%*1"795,,+%1=%,5")54,"k,+5"W"39*+%=%15"75"65")?F1*C^15:"Z1"
)(+35"(3*+8"75"=*1235C51,"5,,+%1=%,%G45:"Z1")5185"51"5225,"G45"358")+588%*18"75"6+%8,(33%8(,%*18"
(88*6%F58"W"3("6+*%88(165"758"6+%8,(4U"795,,+%1=%,5")54B51,")+*B*G45+"415"5U,518%*1"74"B*34C5"
())(+51,"tP(+*=?53RP*41Qu#SS;v:"H5"6(8"758"6+%8,(4U"75")*+,3(17%,5"7(18"358"P[V"("F,F"7F6+%,"
)(+"tƒ5+15,u!MM#v:""
" H9?Q)*,?^85"74"CF6(1%8C5"2*+C43F5")(+"P(+653*"tP(+653*u#SS!v"5,"H4+("tH4+(u#SS!v"
1*48"85CD35")348"%1,F+588(1,5")*4+"5U)3%G45+"41"=*1235C51,"7(18"3("C(,+%65"75"DF,*1"W"<.-"
+F74%,8"
" X(18"35"6(8"758"-/[a"754U"6*12%=4+(,%*18"8*1,")*88%D358"0"

@K"
" R""358"-/["5U,5+158"G4%")*48851,"7(18"3958)(65"%1,5+=+(143(%+5"75"7F)(+,"15")(+,%6%)51,"
)(8"(4"=*1235C51,"6(+"%38"*1,"3(")3(65"75"85"7FB53*))5+a"
" R""358"-/["%1,5+158"tƒ(1"P+54=53u!MM!v"G4%")*48851,"W"39%1,F+%54+"758"3%C%,58"%1%,%(358"
758"=+(%18"(1?Q7+58")(+,%6%)51,"(4"=*1235C51,:"
"

*Q#QCQG!! DFOFRI;O<J!A:BEP<:gF:;!E<!O<;OFA;!
"
" X5" 1*CD+54U" )(+(C^,+58" )54B51," %12345165+" 39(4,*7588%66(,%*1" 5," 7*16" 35" +5,+(%,"
517*=^15:" Z1" 89%1,F+5885" %6%" (4" +())*+," <.-a"3(" )+F85165" 79415" (77%,%*1" C%1F+(35" Y24CF5" 75"
8%3%65&"5,"39(N*4,"7941"(7N4B(1,:"
"

%& Influence du rapport E/C


"
" V348%54+8"(4,54+8"85"8*1,"%1,F+588F8"W"39%12345165"74"+())*+,"<.-"84+"35"+5,+(%,"517*=^15:"
L38"*1,"C*1,+F"G45"3("7%C%14,%*1"74"+())*+,"<.-"51=517+5"415"8,+46,4+5")348"75185"5,"7*16"41"
+5,+(%," )348" %C)*+,(1,:" <1" 5225,a" 3(" 7%C%14,%*1" 75" 39?4C%7%,F" +53(,%B5" %1,5+15" (4" 6*4+8" 75"
39?Q7+(,(,%*1" 75" )>,58" W" 2(%D358" +())*+,8" <.-" 58," %1,5185" 5," )348" +()%75a" 65" G4%" 51=517+5" 758"
7F)+588%*18" 6()%33(%+58" %C)*+,(1,58a" 5," )(+" 6*18FG451," 75" )348" =+(1758" 7F2*+C(,%*18"
517*=^158"tP(+*=?53RP*41Qu#SS;v:""
"

%%& Influence de la fumée de silice et des adjuvants


"
" H9(N*4," 75" 3(" 24CF5" 75" 8%3%65" 7518%2%5" 3(" C%6+*8,+46,4+5" 74" C(,F+%(4" 5," (22%15" 8("
)*+*8%,F:" H(" 6*CD%1(%8*1" 75" 65," 5225," 5," 3(" =+(175" 84+2(65" 8)F6%2%G45" 75" 65,,5" (77%,%*1"
C%1F+(35"51=517+5"79%C)*+,(1,58",518%*18"5,"7F)+588%*18"6()%33(%+58:"
-5,"5225,"75"3("24CF5"75"8%3%65"84+"3(")*+*8%,F"("F,F"*D85+BF")(+"P(+*=?53RP*41Q"5,"~?5%+D5b"
tP(+*=?53RP*41Qu#SS!va"G4%"*1,"F=(35C51,"C584+F"415"(4=C51,(,%*1"3%1F(%+5"5,"6+*%88(1,5"74"
+5,+(%,"517*=^15"75")>,58"75"6%C51,"51"2*16,%*1"75"354+",5154+"51"24CF5"75"8%3%65:"](T(s("5,"
\%Q(T(s("t](T(s(u!MMEv"*1,"*D,514"758"+F843,(,8"8%C%3(%+58:"L38"*1,")(+"(%3354+8"C*1,+F"G45"
39(N*4," 75" 84)5+)3(8,%2%(1," 7%C%14(%," 39(C)3%,475" 74" +5,+(%," 517*=^15" Y588(%8" C51F8" 84+" !SS"
N*4+8&:"H58"(4,54+8"(,,+%D451,"65")?F1*C^15"(4U")+*)+%F,F8"+5,(+7(,+%658"758"84)5+)3(8,%2%(1,8"
84+"3("6%1F,%G45"79?Q7+(,(,%*1:"
"

" @M
"

*Q#QK! 79:@EPJA9:!
"
" X(18" 65,,5" )(+,%5a" 1*48" 1*48" 8*CC58" %1,F+588F8" W" 3(" 2(D+%6(,%*1" 74" 6%C51," V*+,3(17"
(%18%" G49W" 858" 7%22F+51,58" )?(858" 5," W" 354+" ?Q7+(,(,%*1:" A*48" (B*18" 7F6+%," 358" F,()58" 75"
39?Q7+(,(,%*1"79415")>,5"6%C51,(%+5"5,":6*CC51,F"39FB*34,%*1"74"+F85(4")*+54U"5,"75"858"7%B5+8"
)(+(C^,+58a" 51" C51,%*11(1," 358" ,56?1%G458" 4,%3%8F58" )*4+" 35" 84%B%" 75" 3(" C%6+*8,+46,4+(,%*1:"
A*48" (B*18" 3%8,F" 358" 8,+46,4+58" 6+%8,(33*=+()?%G458" 758" 6*C)*8F8" 6%C51,(%+58a" (1?Q7+58" 5,"
)+*74%,8" 79?Q7+(,(,%*1" " V*4+" 2%1%+a" 754U" )*%1,8" 58851,%538" *1," F,F" (D*+7F8" W" 8(B*%+" 39F,(," 75"
395(4"7(18"415")>,5"75"6%C51,"74+6%"(%18%"G45"358"7%22F+51,58"7F2*+C(,%*18"517*=^158"5,"354+8"
CF6(1%8C58:"
"
"

*Q$! %<!>U;9:!
"
" OB(1,"79(D*+75+")348"3*%1"358"1*4B5(4U"DF,*18"7*1,"358")5+2*+C(1658"8*1,"*),%C%8F58"
)(+" +())*+," W" 758" ())3%6(,%*18" )(+,%643%^+58a" 7F6+%B*18" 79(D*+7" +()%75C51," 65" G4958," m"35"
DF,*1"n"(4"8518"35")348"3(+=5:"
"
" H5"DF,*1"58,"41"C(,F+%(4"6*C)*8%,5"C43,%RF6?53358:"-958,"41"CF3(1=5"75"=+(143(,8"G4%"
)54B51,"k,+5"758"=+(B%33*18"*4"74"8(D35")348"*4"C*%18"2%1a"41"3%(1,a"=F1F+(35C51,"74"6%C51,"
(+,%2%6%53a"75"395(4"G4%"58,"%16*+)*+F5"(4"CF3(1=5"5,"G4%")+*B*G45"35"74+6%885C51,"74"C(,F+%(4:"
H58"DF,*18"(+CF8"5,")+F6*1,+(%1,8"6*1,%51151,"F=(35C51,"758")(+,%58"CF,(33%G45"75"7%C518%*18"
,+^8" B(+%(D358"0" )*4,+58a" 6>D358a" 25+8" W" DF,*18a" 2%D+58" 5," C%6+*2%D+58a" ,*4,58" 758,%1F58" W"
6*C)3F,5+"358")+*)+%F,F8"CF6(1%G458:"H5")[",+^8"F35BF"74"6%C51,"YB*%8%1"75"!$&"358")+*,^=5"51"
358")(88%B(1,:"
"
" O"65"CF3(1=5"75"D(85"*1"(N*4,5"758"(7N4B(1,8"G4%"*1,")*4+"*DN5,"75"C*7%2%5+"415"*4"
)348%54+8" )+*)+%F,F8" 6*CC5" 8(" +F8%8,(165" ()+^8" 74+6%885C51," )(+" 7%C%14,%*1" 75" 395(4a" 8("
74+(D%3%,F"*4"8("C(1%(D%3%,F"3*+8"75"8("C%85"51")3(65:"]*4,5"3("6*C)35U%,F"+F8%75"(3*+8"7(18"35"
6(+(6,^+5" C43,%)?(8%G45" 74" C(,F+%(4" G4%" +517" 7%22%6%35" 3(" C(p,+%85" 75" 858" )+*)+%F,F8"
CF6(1%G458"5,"758"7%22F+51,8"CF6(1%8C58")?Q8%6*R6?%C%G458"G4%"89Q"7F+*4351,:""
"
" <1"2*16,%*1"758"6*18,%,4(1,8a"*1"7%8,%1=45+("0"

ES"
"
 H(" pâte de cimenta"6*18,%,4F5"8%C)35C51,"79eau"5,"75" ciment"51"6*4+8"75")+%85a"(B(1,"
74+6%885C51,"Y)F+%*758"L"5,"LL"7F6+%,58"(4„"LROR$R2"&:"O)+^8"74+6%885C51,a"*1")(+35"(3*+8"
75"pâte durcie:"
 H5" mortier"58,"415")>,5"75"6%C51,"W"3(G45335"*1"("(N*4,F"74"sable:"Z1")+F6%85+("(3*+8"8%"
3(")>,5"75"6%C51,"6*18,%,4(1,"35"C*+,%5+"58,"74+6%5"*4"1*1:"
 H5"béton"58,"41"C*+,%5+"(4G453"*1,"F,F"(N*4,F8"758"granulats:"-958,"3(",(%335"758"=+(%18"5,"
1*1"354+"6*C)*8%,%*1"G4%"7%8,%1=45"8(D35"YCC&"5,"=+(143(,"Y6C&""
"

*Q$Q4! DO9^OAU;UJ!O<YPAJ<J!^9PO!P:!>9:!>U;9:!
"
" H58" )+*)+%F,F8" +5G4%858" )*4+" 41" D*1" DF,*1" 8*1," 3(" +F8%8,(165a" 3(" 74+(D%3%,F" 5,"
39*4B+(D%3%,F:"X(18" 65" G4%" 84%,a" 1*48" (33*18" 5U)3%6%,5+" 658" 1*,%*18" 5," 358" +53%5+" (4U" )+*)+%F,F8"
)?Q8%G458a"6?%C%G458"5,",*)*3*=%G458"758"6*18,%,4(1,8"74"C(,F+%(4:"
"

*Q$Q4QF!! +UJAJ;F:@<!RU@F:AYP<!
"
" H9415"758",*4,58")+5C%^+58"6(+(6,F+%8,%G458"8*4?(%,F58")*4+"41"DF,*1"75"D*115"G4(3%,F"
58,"8("6()(6%,F"W"+F8%8,5+"(4U"522*+,8"75"6*C)+588%*1a"75",+(6,%*1"5,"75"235U%*1:"H("+F8%8,(165"74"
DF,*1" 51" 6*C)+588%*1" 58," (CF3%*+F5" 51" Q" %16*+)*+(1," 758" =+(143(,8" 75" 7%22F+51,58" ,(%3358a"
7%8)*8F8" 75" 8*+,5" W" C(U%C%85+" 3(" 6*C)(6%,F" 74" CF3(1=5:" O%18%a" =+>65" W" 394,%3%8(,%*1" 75" 3("
7%8,+%D4,%*1" =+(143*CF,+%G45" 3(" )348" 3(+=5" )*88%D35a" *1" )54," 58)F+5+" *D,51%+" 41" 5C)%35C51,"
*),%C(3" 7%," ()*33*1%51" Yd%=4+5" LRPR!&:" V*4+" 65" G4%" 58," 75" 39(CF3%*+(,%*1" 75" 3(" +F8%8,(165" 51"
,+(6,%*1"5,"51"235U%*1a"*1"4,%3%85"758"(+C(,4+58"*4"758"2%D+58:""
"

"
"
Figure I-B-1 : Empilement apollonien [Taberlet_2005]
"

" E!
H("3*%"75"dF+5,"Y!KMK&"58,"3(")+5C%^+5"3*%"5C)%+%G45"+53%(1,"3("+F8%8,(165"CF6(1%G45"(4"
+())*+,"<.-"0"
"

(1.9)
"
"
'6"58,"3("+F8%8,(165"74"DF,*1"W"#K"N*4+8"51"6*C)+588%*1"
~"58,"410"2(6,54+"7F)517(1,"75"3("63(885"74"6%C51,"Yb-&"5,"74",Q)5"75"=+(143(,8"YbJ&"
b-"58,"3("+F8%8,(165"74"C*+,%5+"(4"CkC5">=5""
-" 58," 35" B*34C5" 75" 6%C51,a" <" 35" B*34C5" 795(4" 5," ƒ" 35" B*34C5" 79(%+" 84D8%8,(1," Y51" =F1F+(3"
1F=3%=5(D35&:"
"
W4! WS! W.! WZ! y1 / y160 y2 / y260 y3 / y360 y4 / y460

=h&i7! Tj! 8j! 4Tj! 48j! =h&i7! Tj! 8j! 4Tj! 48j!

$D+! 0,15 0,76 0,69 0,64 0,59 ! 0,15 1,94 1,89 1,85 1,81
$D+! 0,20 0,69
,69 0,64
0, 0,59
0,5 0,55
,55 $D+! 0,20
0 1,78 1,74
1, 1,71
1,7 1,68
,68
! 0,25 0,64 0,59 0,55 0,51 ! 0,25 1,64 1,61 1,59 1,56
$"MD! 0,30 0,59 0,55 0,51 0,48 $"MD 0,30 1,51 1,49 1,47 1,46
$MD! 0,35
5 0,55 0,51 0,48 0,44 $MD! 0,35
5 1,40 1,39 1,37 1,36
! 0,40 0,51 0,48 0,44 0,42 0,40 1,31 1,29 1,28 1,27
$#D! 0,45 0,48 0,44 0,42 0,39 $#D! 0,45 1,22 1,21 1,20 1,20
$#D! 0,50 0,44
,44 0,42
0, 0,39
0,3 0,37
,37 $#D! 0,50 1,14
,14 1,13
1, 1,13
1,1 1,12
,12
$6! 0,55 0,42 0,39 0,37 0,35 $6! 0,55 1,07 1,06 1,06 1,06
$6! 0,60 0,39 0,37 0,35 0,33 $6! 0,60 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
0,65 0,37 0,35 0,33 0,31 0,65 0,94 0,94 0,94 0,95
2
(a) variation de z = 1/(1+x+y) (b) valeurs de z rapportées à celles d’un béton
où x=E/C et y=V/C ordinaire x=60% ; yn/yn60 = yn/yn(x=60%)

Tableau I-B-1 : Loi de Féret : effet des paramètres E/C et V/C

" /*%," T" 35" ,5+C5" 51" !" .Y!w<.-wƒ.-&#" 75" 3(" 3*%" 75" dF+5,:" H5" ](D35(4" LRPR!(" %3348,+5" 3("
B(+%(,%*1" 75" 65" ,5+C5" T" y" !.Y!wUwQ&#" )*4+" 415" 8F+%5" 75" B(354+8"+(%8*11(D358" 758" )(+(C^,+58"
Uy<.-"5,"Qyƒ.-:"H5"](D35(4"LRPR!D"7*115"758"B(354+8"+53(,%B58"+())*+,F58"(4U"B(354+8")*4+"
41" DF,*1" *+7%1(%+5" (B56" ƒ.-y;Sq:" V*4+" 415" ,5154+" U" 51" 5(4" 7*11F5a" *1" 19*D85+B5" G49415"
B(+%(,%*1"75"T"75"S"W"!E"q")*4+"358",5154+8"48453358"51"B%758"YQyƒ.-yS"W"!Eq"g"6*3*1158"Q!"W"
Q@"7(18"415"CkC5"3%=15&:"V*4+"415")+*)*+,%*1"7*11F5"75"B%758a"*1"*D85+B5"415"B(+%(,%*1"75"T"
7941"2(6,54+"#a"8*%,"!SSq"75"B(+%(,%*1")*4+"358",5154+8"48453358"51"5(4"YUy<.-"B(+%(1,"75"!Eq"
)*4+"41"PV'"W";Sq")*4+"41"PZ"g"35"3*1="79415"6*3*115&:""
"
-56%"C*1,+5"G45"35"B*34C5"758"B%758"58,"D5(46*4)"C*%18"6+%,%G45"G45"3(",5154+"51"5(4:""
"

E#"
" H9*),%C%8(,%*1"75"395C)%35C51,"Y1(,4+5"758"C(,F+%(4U"5,"F,51745"=+(143*CF,+%G45&"58,"
41"758")(+(C^,+58")+%16%)(4U")*4+"(CF3%*+5+"3("+F8%8,(165"51"6*C)+588%*1:""
"

*Q$Q4Q>!! 'POF>AEA;U!
"
" Z4,+5"3("6()(6%,F"W"+F8%8,5+"(4U"522*+,8"G4%"34%"8*1,"())3%G4F8a"35"DF,*1"7*%,"2(%+5")+54B5"
75" 74+(D%3%,F:" V(+" 74+(D%3%,Fa" *1" 51,517" 3(" 6()(6%,F" W" +F8%8,5+" W" 3(" )F1F,+(,%*1" 758" (=51,8"
5U,F+%54+8"(=+588%28"(%18%"G49W"3("8466588%*1"758"6Q6358"75"=53.7F=53:"H9(CF3%*+(,%*1"75"65,,5"
6(+(6,F+%8,%G45")(885"7*16")(+"3("+F746,%*1"75"3(")*+*8%,F"74"C(,F+%(4:""
"
-5,,5")*+*8%,F"("754U"*+%=%158"0""
"
 358"7F2(4,8"75"395C)%35C51,"=+(143(%+5"%1%,%(3"C51,%*11F"(4")(+(=+()?5")+F6F751,a"G4%"
B("794" 15")(+,")5+C5,,+5"3(")+F85165"79(%+"+F8%7453"Y,+*48"W"39F6?5335"C%33%CF,+%G458&"5,"
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"
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F=(35C51,"1F6588(%+5")*4+"FB%,5+"358"+F(6,%*18"(4"6*1,(6,"74"6%C51,:"
"

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"

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60 MPa:"
"

*Q$QSQ>!! $U;9:J!c!HFP;<J!^<OB9ORF:@<J!\$MD]!
"
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"
""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
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"

" "
(a) (b)
Figure I-B-2 : Dispersion par répulsion électrostatique (a) et par répulsion stérique (b)
[Thèse_Bonneau_1997]
"

E;"
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"

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"
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"

"
"
Figure I-B-3 : Evolution des bétons depuis les années 1960. On observe d’abord un progrès
constant des performances dans une même direction, puis une spécialisation entre deux types
de bétons ayant des objectifs distincts
"
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"
"
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BO BHP BTHP 25-40 000 MPa
BPR 50-75 000 MPa
sable, silice 70 000 MPa
CSH 20 000 MPa
C3S 117 000 MPa
" "
Contraintes induites par Modules d’Young des divers
" constituants du béton
des inclusions
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Figure I-B-4 : Contraintes et hétérogénéité du matériau

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C%6+*6(3*+%CF,+%5a"41")%6"75"6?(354+"75"#a#"C‡.="75"6%C51,"W"#S?:"
<1" #SS!a" d5Q3588*42%" 5," (3:" td5Q3588*42%u#SS!v" *1," 84%B%" 39?Q7+(,(,%*1" 7941" PV'" )(+"
C%6+*6(3*+%CF,+%5:" H5" PV'" F,47%F" (" 41" +())*+," <.-" 75" Sa!;:" L38" *1," C584+F" 41" )%6"
79?Q7+(,(,%*1" Y!aE" C‡.=" 75" 6%C51,&" W" $S?:" -5" G4%" 6*++58)*17" W" 41" 75=+F" 79?Q7+(,(,%*1" 75"
Mq:"O";S"?54+58a"35"75=+F"79?Q7+(,(,%*1"(,,5%1,"#!q:"
_1"(1")348",(+7a"\*+%1"5,"(3:"t\*+%1u#SS#v"*1,"F,47%F"41"PV'"75"+())*+,"<.-"75"Sa#!:"
H5" )%6" 79?Q7+(,(,%*1" Y!aIE" C‡.=" 75" 6%C51,&" (" F,F" 7F,56,F" W" @E" ?54+58" )*4+" 41" 75=+F"
79?Q7+(,(,%*1"75"Kq:"O"IS"?54+58a"65"75=+F"(,,5%1,"!K"q:""
"
H5" ](D35(4" LR-R!" +F6()%,435" 358" 7%22F+51,58" B(354+8" 75" )%68" 75" 6?(354+a" 354+8" ?54+58"
79())(+%,%*1"(%18%"G45"35"75=+F"79?Q7+(,(,%*1"C584+F"W"3("2%1"75"39588(%:"
"
"

;;"
"
<6?(1,%33*1" -!.+F2" -!.$7" -!.I7" -!.#K7" -#.+F2" -#.MS.K?" -#.MS.#@?" -#.MS.@K?" -#.#SS.K?" -#.#ES.K?"
<(4.-%C51," Sa!!E" Sa!E"
-4+5"7(18"395(4"#So-" S" $"N*4+8" I"N*4+8" #K"N*4+8" 1*1" 1*1" 1*1" 1*1" 1*1" 1*1"
]+(%,5C51," ]5C)F+(,4+5"Yo-&" 1*1" 1*1" 1*1" 1*1" R" MS" MS" MS" #SS" #ES"
,?5+C%G45" X4+F5"Y?&" 1*1" 1*1" 1*1" 1*1" R" K" #@" @K" K" K"
'())*+,"79?Q7+(,58"2*+CF8"Yq&" S" !S" !E" !E" S" !S" !E" #E" @S" EE"
O6,%B%,F")*4TT*3(1%G45"758"
S" E" E" !S" S" !S" !S" @S" ;E" IE"
24CF58"75"8%3%65"Yq&"
O6,%B%,F")*4TT*3(1%G45"74"
R" R" R" R" S" S" $S" @S" #S" ;E"
G4(+,T"D+*QF"
'())*+,"75"6*1156,%B%,F" R" !a$!" !a$K" !a@!" R" !a@" !a@I" !aE;" !a;E" !aI$"
Tableau I-C-1 : Influence de la cure et du traitement thermique sur l’hydratation des BPR [Zanni_1996].
"
"
V%6"75"6?(354+"YC‡.="75"6%C51,&" X5=+F"79?Q7+(,(,%*1"
'F2F+5165" <.-"
B(354+" C584+F"W" "Yq&" C584+F"W"
tH*4b%3%u!MMMv" Sa#" R" R" EIaE" #K"N*4+8"
tP*115(4u#SSSv" Sa#" #a#" #S"?" #;" M;"?"
td5Q3588*42%u#SS!v" Sa!;" !aE" $S"?" #!" ;S"?"
t\*+%1u#SS#v" Sa#!" !aIE" @E"?" !K" IS"?"
Tableau I-C-2 : Récapitulatif des pics de chaleur et des degrés d’hydratation.
"
"

" ;I"
*Q'! +<;OFA;!
"
<1" !MMEa" ](T(s(" 5," \%Q(T(s(" t](T(s(u!MMEv" *1," C584+F" 41" +5,+(%," 517*=^15"
3%1F%G45"75"39*+7+5"75"#ESSU!SR;"5,"@SSSU!SR;"W"!"5,"!@"N*4+8"+58)56,%B5C51,a")*4+"415")>,5"
6%C51,(%+5"75"+())*+,"<.-"75"Sa!I:"
X54U"(18")348",(+7a"358"CkC58"(4,54+8"t](T(s(u!MMIv"*1,"F,47%F"395225,"74"C*75"75"
6*185+B(,%*1"75"39F6?(1,%33*1"84+"8*1"+5,+(%,:"/4+"758"F)+*4B5,,58")+%8C(,%G458"75"PV'"Y<.H"y"
Sa!I&a" %38" *1," C584+F" 35" CkC5" +5,+(%," 3%1F%G45" YKSS" {C.C&" ()+^8" 754U" C*%8" )*4+" 758"
F6?(1,%33*18"6*185+BF8"7(18"39(%+a"(B56"5,"8(18")+*,56,%*1:""
H*4b%3%"5,"(3:"tH*4b%3%u!MMMv"*1,"C584+F"35"+5,+(%,"3%1F%G45"517*=^15"7941"PV'"2%D+F"
75" +())*+," <.-" 75" Sa#:" L38" *1," C*1,+F" G45" 3(" 7F2*+C(,%*1" W" !" N*4+" +5)+F851,5" @E" q" 75" 3("
7F2*+C(,%*1",*,(35"YW"!;S"N*4+8&"5,"ME"q"75"65335"W"!S"N*4+8"Yd%=4+5"LRXR!&:"
"

"
Figure I-D-1 : Evolution du retrait endogène et de l’humidité relative d’un BPR. [Loukili_1999]
"
<1" #SS!a" d5Q3588*42%" 5," (3:" td5Q3588*42%u#SS!va" *1," C584+F" 41" +5,+(%," 517*=^15"
B*34C%G45"7941"PV'"Y<.-"y"Sa!;&"75"Sa@"q"W"@E?:"
_1"(1"()+^8a"/6?(6?%1=5+"5,"(3:"t/6?(6?%1=5+u#SS#v"85"8*1,"(488%"%1,F+588F8"(4"+5,+(%,"
517*=^15"3%1F%G45"7941"PV':"L38"*1,"C584+F"51"2*16,%*1"75"3(",5154+"51"5(4"Y75"Sa#"W"Sa#@&"35"
6?(1=5C51," 75" 3*1=454+" 758" F)+*4B5,,58" 6Q3%17+%G458" $@U!;E" CC:" H5" +5,+(%," C584+F" W" #K"
N*4+8"58,"75"!ESS"Y{C.C&")*4+"41"DF,*1"75"+())*+,"<.-"y"Sa#"Yd%=4+5"LRXR#&:""
"

;K"
"
Figure I-D-2 : Déformation endogène linéique en fonction du rapport E/C et de la teneur en fumée
de silice. [Schachinger_2002]
"

"
H("CkC5"(11F5a"\*+%1"5,"(3:"t\*+%1u#SS#v"*1,"C584+F"41"+5,+(%,"B*34C%G45"517*=^15"
75"$aIE"q"W"IS?")*4+"41"PV'"75"+())*+,"<.-"y"Sa#!:"
"
"

*Q&! D<OB9ORF:@<J!RU@F:AYP<J!
"

*Q&Q4! +UJAJ;F:@<!<:!@9R^O<JJA9:!<;!R9GPE<!GVUEFJ;A@A;U![!
"
" '%6?(+7"5,"-?5Q+5TQ"t'%6?(+7u!MMEv"F,(%51,"358")+5C%5+8"W",+(B(%335+"84+"358")+*)+%F,F8"
CF6(1%G458"758"PV':"L38"*1,"2(D+%G4F"758"PV'"#SS"5,"PV'"KSS"7*1,"35"+())*+,"<.-"B(+%(%,"75"
Sa!E"W"Sa!M:"X(18"65,,5"F,475"358"(4,54+8"85"8*1,"%1,F+588F8"W"39%12345165"74")+588(=5"Y(B(1,"5,"
)517(1,"3(")+%85&"5,"75"39(N*4,"758"2%D+58"84+"3("+F8%8,(165"51"6*C)+588%*1"758"DF,*18:"<1"5225,"
35")+588(=5"7%C%145"3("6*C)(6%,F"51"FB(64(1,"395(4"3%D+5"+F8%745335:"H("d%=4+5"LR<R!"C*1,+5"
39FB*34,%*1" 75" 3(" +F8%8,(165" 51" 6*C)+588%*1" 51" 2*16,%*1" 75" 3(" 7518%,F" +53(,%B5" Y+())*+," 758"
7518%,F8" 75" 3(" )>,5" 75" DF,*1" (4" 7FC*43(=5" 84+" 3(" 7518%,F" 758" )*47+58" 8^6?58" %1,+*74%,58"
84))*8F58"6*C)(6,58&:"
"

" ;M
Figure I-E-1 : Enveloppe de meilleures résistances obtenues pour différentes densités relatives
[Richard_1995]
"

"
H58" 6(+(6,F+%8,%G458" CF6(1%G458" C584+F58" 758" F6?(1,%33*18" 8*1," +F84CF58" 7(18" 35"
](D35(4" LR<R!" 6%R7588*48:" Z1" 1*,5" G45" 3(" 6*CD%1(%8*1" m")+588(=5R,+(%,5C51," ,?5+C%G45"n"
(4=C51,5"+5C(+G4(D35C51,"358")+*)+%F,F8"CF6(1%G458"74"C(,F+%(4:"
" PV'"#SS" PV'"KSS"
V+588(=5"(B(1,")+%85"Y\V(&" (4641" ES"
]+(%,5C51,",?5+C%G45"Yo-&" #S"W"MS" #ES"W"@SS"
OB56"8(D35"G4(+,T54U" @MS"W";KS"
'F8%8,(165"51"6*C)+588%*1"Y\V(&" !IS"W"#$S"
OB56"2%D+58" ;ES"W"K!S"
\*7435"79…*41="Y\V(&" ESSSS"W";SSSS" ;ESSS"W"IESSS"
Tableau I-E-1"0"Caractéristiques mécaniques des BPR 200 et BPR 800 [Richard_1995v"

" _1" (1" ()+^8a" X4=(," 5," (3:" tX4=(,u!MM;v" *1," 2(D+%G4F" 51" 3(D*+(,*%+5" 758" PV'" #SS" 75"
+())*+,"<.-"y"Sa!E"5,"758"PV'"KSS"75"+())*+,"<.-"y"Sa!@"7*1,"358"6(+(6,F+%8,%G458"CF6(1%G458"
8*1,")+F851,F58"7(18"35"](D35(4"LR<R#:"
"
PV'" PV'"#SS" PV'"KSS"
MS"W"#;S"(B56"
]+(%,5C51,",?5+C%G45"Yo-&" MS"
)+588(=5"75";S"\V("
'F8%8,(165"51"6*C)+588%*1"fc Y\V(&" !M@R#S$" @#SRE#S"
\*7435"79…*41="8,(,%G45"Ec"Y\V(&" ;#SSSR;;SSS" ;$SSSRI@SSS"
\*7435"79…*41="7Q1(C%G45"Edyn"Y\V(&" EMSSSR;!SSS" $#SSSR$;SSS"
-*522%6%51,"75"V*%88*1"8,(,%G45" Sa##RSa#@" Sa!MRSa#K"
-*522%6%51,"75"V*%88*1"7Q1(C%G45" Sa##RSa#@" R"
H%C%,5"79F3(8,%6%,F"3%1F(%+5"51"q"75"3("+F8%8,(165"
;S" R"
43,%C5"
Tableau I-E-2"0"Caractéristiques mécaniques en compression uniaxiale du BPR [Dugat_1996]
"

IS"
H58" 2%=4+58" d%=4+5" LR<R!" 5," d%=4+5" LR<R#" )+F851,51," +58)56,%B5C51," 358" 6*4+D58"
6*1,+(%1,58"7F2*+C(,%*18"7941"588(%"75"6*C)+588%*1"758"PV'"#SS"5,"758"PV'"KSS:"O")(+,"358"
B(354+8" F35BF58" 758" 6*1,+(%1,58a" 358" PV'" KSS" )+F851,51," 41" 6*C)*+,5C51," 7%22F+51," Y1*1"
3%1F(%+5&"75"6534%"74"VP'"#SS:""
"

Figure I-E-2 : Courbe contrainte déformation du BPR200 en compression [Dugat_1996]

Figure I-E-3 : Courbe contrainte déformation du BPR800 en compression [Dugat_1996]

" <1"!MMMa"\(,,5"t\(,,5u!MMMv"8958,"(488%"%1,F+588F5"W"3("+F8%8,(165"51"6*C)+588%*1"758"
PV'"7*1,"35"+())*+,"<.-"F,(%,"75"Sa!E"5,"Sa##:"O)+^8",+(%,5C51,",?5+C%G45a"5335"("*D85+BF"G45"
35" PV'" W" D(85" 75" G4(+,T" 5," 75" 2%D+58" CF,(33%G458" )*4++(%," (,,5%17+5" 415" +F8%8,(165" W" 3("
6*C)+588%*1" 75" ESS" \V(:" -5,,5" +F8%8,(165" 58," W" #SSR$SS" \V(" )*4+" 358" PV'" 8(18" G4(+,T" 1%"
2%D+58:"
"

" I!
" <1"#SS#a"/6?(6?%1=5+"t/6?(6?%1=5+u#SS#v"("F,47%F"39%12345165"75"3("24CF5"75"8%3%65"5,"
74"3(%,%5+"84+"358")+*)+%F,F8"CF6(1%G458"758"PV'"1*1"2%D+F8"7*1,"35"+())*+,"<.-"B(+%5"75"Sa#"W"
Sa$$:"L3"("C584+F"415"+F8%8,(165"W"3("6*C)+588%*1a"W"#K"N*4+8a"75"!I!"\V("5,"!@K"\V(")*4+"41"
DF,*1"W"D(85"75"6%C51,"8(18"3(%,%5+"5,"(B56"3(%,%5+a"+58)56,%B5C51,:"
H58"C*74358"79…*41="C584+F8"Yd%=4+5"LR<R@&"C5,,51,"51"FB%75165"3("+F(6,%*1"W"3*1=",5+C5"75"
6%C51,"W"D(85"75"3(%,%5+:"

(a) (b)
Figure I-E-4 : Développement des propriétés mécaniques de ciment Portland (a) et du ciment à base
de laitier (b) [Schachinger_2002]
"

"
" <1" #SSIa" …(T%6%" t…(T%6%u#SSIv" (" ,+(B(%33F" 84+" 39%12345165" 74" 3(%,%5+a" 75" 6517+58"
B*3(1,58"5,"75"3("64+5"84+"3("+F8%8,(165"W"3("6*C)+588%*1"758"PV'"Y<.H"y"Sa!$&:"H58"588(%8"*1,"
F,F" +F(3%8F8" 84+" 758" F)+*4B5,,58" 64D%G458" 75" ES" CC" 75" 6‚,F:" !#" ?" ()+^8" 354+" 2(D+%6(,%*1a" 358"
F6?(1,%33*18"*1,"F,F"7FC*43F8"5,"*1,"84D%"41",+(%,5C51,",?5+C%G45:"
H5"](D35(4"LR<R$"+F84C5"358"B(354+8"C(U%C(358"75"3("+F8%8,(165"51"6*C)+588%*1"(%18%"G45"35"
,+(%,5C51,"())3%G4F"5,"35"7*8(=5"*),%C(3"51"84D8,%,4,%*1"C%1F+(35"74"6%C51,"6*++58)*17(1,8:"
"
" ]+(%,5C51,"
fcmax X*8(=5"
]?5+C%G45" -*12%15C51,"
" X4+F5" (MPa) *),%C(3"Yq&"
Yo-&" Y\V(&"
A*1" A*1" A*1" !#E" @S"
-517+58"
MS" A*1" !#N" !;S" @S"
B*3(1,58"
#!S" #" K?" !IS" S"W"@S"
A*1" A*1" A*1" !#S" @S"
H(%,%5+" MS" A*1" !#" !EK" @S"
#!S" #" K?" !KE" @S"
Tableau I-E-3 : Résistances maximales en compression en fonction du traitement et du dosage en
substitution minérale optimaux
"
_1"(1")348",(+7a"…(T%6%"5,"(3:"t…(T%6%u#SSKv"85"8*1,"%1,F+588F8 W"395225,"75"3("24CF5"75"
8%3%65" 84+" 3(" +F8%8,(165" W" 3(" 6*C)+588%*1" 758" DF,*18" (B56" )+588(=5" 75"+())*+," <.H" B(+%(1," 75"

I#"
Sa!$" W" Sa!;:" L38" *1," C*1,+F" G45" 39(N*4," 75" 24CF5" 75" 8%3%65" (CF3%*+5" 358" )5+2*+C(1658"
CF6(1%G458"758"DF,*18"Yd%=4+5"LR<RE&:"<1"5225,a"3("+F8%8,(165"51"6*C)+588%*1")(885"75"#$@"W"
#;#"\V("51"(4=C51,(1,"35"7*8(=5"51"24CF5"75"8%3%65"75"##"W"$E"q:"

Figure I-E-5 :"L12345165"74"7*8(=5"51"24CF5"75"8%3%65"84+"3("+F8%8,(165"51"


6*C)+588%*1 [Yazici_2008]
"

*Q&QS! +UJAJ;F:@<!<:!;OF@;A9:!!
"

*Q&QSQF!! "OF@;A9:!GAO<@;<!
"
JF1F+(35C51,a"65,,5"+F8%8,(165"58,"3%F5"(4"7*8(=5"51"2%D+58"(%18%"G49W"354+"*+%51,(,%*1:"
<1"5225,a"O753%15"tO753%15u!MMMv"("C*1,+F",+*%8",Q)58"75"6*C)*+,5C51,8"Yd%=4+5"LR<R;&"758"
F)+*4B5,,58"Y<.-"y"Sa#&"8*33%6%,F58"51",+(6,%*1"7%+56,5:"H5",Q)5"L"58,"6(+(6,F+%8,%G45"7941"PV'"
6*1,51(1,"41"2(%D35"7*8(=5"51"2%D+58:"H58",Q)58"LL"5,"LLL"6(+(6,F+%851,"41"PV'"6*1,51(1,"758"
2%D+58"C*Q5115C51,"5,"D%51"*+%51,F58a"+58)56,%B5C51,:""

Figure I-E-6 : Comportement du BPR en traction directe [Adeline_1999]


"

" I$
"
H9FG4%)5"75"H(2(+=5"tH(2(+=5u#SS$v"("+())*+,F"758"B(354+8"75",+(6,%*1"7941"C(,F+%(4"
X46,(3"75"E"W"K"\V("84%B(1,"3("1(,4+5"758"2%D+58"4,%3%8F58:"
"
"" <1"#SS!a"[4*1"5,"(3"t[4*1u#SS!v"85"8*1,"%1,F+588F8"W"3("3*6(3%8(,%*1"75"3("7F2*+C(,%*1"
84+"758"F)+*4B5,,58"75"PV'"75"2*+C5"?(3,^+5a"8*33%6%,F58"51",+(6,%*1:"L38"*1,"+5C(+G4F"G45"358"
PV'"8(18"2%D+58"*1,"41"6*C)*+,5C51,"51",+(6,%*1"G4(3%,(,%B5C51,"%751,%G45"W"6534%"7941"DF,*1"
63(88%G45:" V*4+" 358" PV'" 8422%8(CC51," 2%D+F8a" %38" *1," 6*1634" G45" 39())3%6(,%*1" 79415"
8*33%6%,(,%*1" 6*174%," W" 39())(+%,%*1" 75" )348%54+8" T*158" 75" 3*6(3%8(,%*1" )*4+" 3(" 7F2*+C(,%*1"
Yd%=4+5"LR<RI&:"-56%"51=517+5+(%,"758"C(6+*2%884+58"G4%"(4+*1,",517(165"W"85"C43,%)3%5+:"

Figure I-E-7 : (a) Champ de déformation longitudinal à 45s. (b) Image de l’éprouvette au même
instant. (c) Champ de déformation longitudinale à 75s. (d) Champ de déformation longitudinale à
180s [Huon_2001]
"

*Q&QSQ>!! "OF@;A9:!^FO!BE<=A9:!!
"
'%6?(+7" 5," -?5Q+5TQ" t'%6?(+7u!MMEv" *1," C584+F" 358" +F8%8,(1658" 51" 235U%*1" 758" PV'"
#SS"5,"PV'"KSSa")+F851,F58")+F6F75CC51,"Y](D35(4"LR<R!&:"-58"+F8%8,(1658"B(+%51,"51,+5"$S"5,"
;S"\V(")*4+"35"PV'"#SSa"5,"51,+5"@E"5,"!@!"\V(")*4+"35"PV'"KSS:"
"
<1" !MM;a" X4=(," 5," (3:" tX4=(,u!MM;v" *1," C584+F" 415" +F8%8,(165" 51" 235U%*1" 79415"
F)+*4B5,,5" @U@U!;" 7941" PV'" #SS" 75" $#" \V(:" X(18" 8*1" +())*+,a" 39FG4%)5" 75" H(2(+=5"
tH(2(+=5u#SS$v"("+())*+,F"415"+F8%8,(165"51"235U%*1"75"@K"\V(")*4+"41"C(,F+%(4"X46,(3:"
"

I@"
*Q&QSQ@!! !"OF@;A9:!^FO!B<:GFb<!
"
/6?(6?%1=5+" 5," (3:" t/6?(6?%1=5+u#SS#v" *1," +F(3%8F" 758" 588(%8" 75" ,+(6,%*1" )(+" 2517(=5"
84+" 758" F)+*4B5,,58" 6Q3%17+%G458" ES" U" !SS" CC" )*4+" 7%B5+8" 7*8(=58" 51" 24CF5" 75" 8%3%65:" H("
Yd%=4+5"LR<RK&"C*1,+5"G49*1")*4B(%,"(,,5%17+5"!@"\V("W"#KN")*4+"758"DF,*18"1*1"2%D+F8"5,"8(18"
,+(%,5C51,",?5+C%G45:"
"

Y(&" YD&"
Figure I-E-8 : Résistance en traction en fonction du rapport E/C et du dosage en fumée de silice
[Schachinger_2002]
"
"
"

*Q/! 'POF>AEA;U!
"

*Q/Q4! D9O9JA;U!
"
V348%54+8"6?5+6?54+8"85"8*1,"%1,F+588F8"(4U")+*)+%F,F8")?Q8%G458"758"PV'a"1*,(CC51,"
3(" )*+*8%,F" 5," 3(" 7%8,+%D4,%*1" )*+5485a" G4%" +F=%8851," =F1F+(35C51," 35" ,+(1825+," 75" C(,%^+5" W"
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Figure I-F-1 : Distribution poreuse d’un béton ultra haute performance [Loukili_1999]
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Figure I-F-2 : Comparaison des porosités au mercure [Lafarge_2003]
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Figure I-F-3 : Distribution poreuse d’un béton avec et sans traitement thermique [Cwirzen_2008]

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Figure II-B-1"0"Diffractomètre de poudres (/)"


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Figure II-B-2 : Microscope électronique à balayage (MEB-FEG)

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Figure II-C-1 : Microcalorimètre à 8 puits

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"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""(a)""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""(b)""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
Figure II-E-1 : Essai de flexion 3 points (a), essai de compression (b)
"

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"

"
(a) (b)
Figure II-E-2 : Essai de flexion 3 points (a) Schéma de principe (b) Diagramme des
contraintes dans la section de l’éprouvette
"

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"
"
(a) (b)
d%=4+5"LLR<R$"0"Essai de fendage (a) Schéma de principe (b) Diagramme des contraintes dans
la section de l’éprouvette
"
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Figure II-E-4 : Essai de fendage sur éprouvette 11 x 22


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"
Figure II-E-5 : Excitation des éprouvettes en utilisant le Grindosonic [Bouasker_2007]
"
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Figure II-F-1 : Découpe des disques
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(a) (b)
Figure II-F-3 : Porosimétrie mercure (a) schéma du pycnomètre (b) photographie du
porosimètre.
"

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Figure II-F-4 : Schéma du dispositif expérimental de perméabilité à charge constante
[Ben Fraj_2009]
"

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Figure II-F-5 :"Vue en coupe d’une cellule de perméabilité


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Figure II-F-7 : Essai de durabilité aux ions chlore. Photo du titrimètre
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H5"](D35(4"LLLROR!"+5)*+,5"358"6(+(6,F+%8,%G458"758"C(,%^+58")+5C%^+58"7F3%B+F58")(+"358"
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B*34C%G45:"H5"](D35(4"LLLROR#"3%8,5"358"+F843,(,8"75"1*8"(1(3Q858"=+(143*CF,+%G458"3(85+:"

" !SM
" " -%C51," d4CF5"75"8%3%65" /(D35" }4(+,T"D+*QF"
-(Z" ;@aEK" "$SS"))C" ˆ"SaS#$"q" $SS"))C"
/%Z#" #!a$M" M$aES" `"MKaI"q" `"MKaM"q"
O3#Z$" $a;;" ˆ"Sa;"q" KSSS"))C"
-*C)*8%,%*1""
d5#Z$" @a#E" ]5154+"51"*UQ758" ˆ"SaS@E"q" KSS"))C"
6?%C%G45"
\=Z" SaM;" Y€+a"O3a"d5a"-(a"]%&" " "
Yq"C(88%G45&"
~#Z" Sa#K" ;a!S"q" ˆ"Sa@;S"q" ;SSS"))C"
/Z$" #a;$" " "
A(#Z" Sa!S" Sa!E" " "
/4+2(65"8)F6%2%G45" $K#S" !@SSSS" !#I" !S$SS"
"
Y6C#.=&" YP3(%15&" YP<]&" YJ"d&" YP3(%15&"
\(885"B*34C%G45"
" $a#" #a#" #a;E" #a;E"
Y=.6C$&"
Tableau III-A-1 : Caractéristiques des matières premières (d’après les fiches techniques des
fournisseurs).
"
" " -%C51," d4CF5"75"8%3%65" /(D35" }4(+,T"D+*QF"
7!S"Y{C&" !aME" Sa#" !$E" !$aI"
J+(143*CF,+%5" 7ES"Y{C&" #;aE#" !aE" #$K" EaK"
7MS"Y{C&" I$aS$" @aE" $KK" #a#"
Tableau III-A-2 : Mesures granulométriques laser des matières premières
"

***Q#Q4! 7AR<:;!
"
" H5"6%C51,"V*+,3(17"4,%3%8F"58,"41"6%C51,"+F2F+516F"-<\"L"E#aEA"-<"V\R</R-V#"Ad"
75"3948%15"74"[(B+5"YH(2(+=5&:"H("6*4+D5"=+(143*CF,+%G45"74"6%C51,"58,"7*11F5"W"3("d%=4+5"
LLLROR!:""
"

Figure III-A-1 : Analyse granulométrique du ciment


"
" H58" )+%16%)(358" 6(+(6,F+%8,%G458" 75" 65" ,Q)5" 75" 6%C51," 8*1," 415" ?(4,5" ,5154+" 51" 8%3%65"
Y[]/&"5,"415"2(%D35",5154+"51"-$O"Y„"LRPR#RD"&:"H("6*C)*8%,%*1"C%1F+(3*=%G45"75"65"6%C51,"
7F,5+C%1F5")(+"3("CF,?*75"75"P*=45"58,"+5)*+,F5"(4"](D35(4"LLLROR$:""

!!S"
"
"

V?(85" -$/" -#/" -$O -@Od JQ)85 d%335+ V*+,3(17%,5"


P*=45" ;IaE" !SaI" #a;@ !#aK" $a$" !aE" R"
'%5,B537 E;aK" #EaM" Sa#" !#a;" !a$" #aI" SaE"
Tableau III-A-3 : Proportions des phases (en pourcentage massique) du ciment déterminées
d’après la méthode approximative de Bogue (cf. fiche technique) ou selon la méthode de
Rietveld par diffraction des rayons X.
"
" H("d%=4+5"LLLROR#"+5)*+,5"35"7%22+(6,*=+(CC5"74"6%C51,"(B56"%751,%2%6(,%*1"758")?(858"
6*++58)*17(1,58:" H5" 6%C51," 6*1,%51," 358" 6%1G" )?(858" 6*4+(1,58"0" (3%,5" Y(&a" DF3%,5" YD&a" -$Oa"
-@Od"5,"=Q)85"Y=&:""
"

%& Aluminates

" H58"+(%58"74"-$O"8*1,"B+(%C51,",+^8")54"%1,51858a"51"(66*+7"(B56"3("2(%D35")+*)*+,%*1"
75"-$O"(11*16F5")(+"3("CF,?*75"75"P*=45"Y](D35(4"LLLROR$&:"A*48"(B*18")+%8"8*%1"75"BF+%2%5+"
G49%3" 19Q" (B(%," )(8" 54" 75" ,+(182*+C(,%*1" 74" =Q)85" 51" ?FC%R?Q7+(,5" 5," (1?Q7+%,5" 84%,5" (4"
D+*Q(=5"758")*47+58"Y„"LRPR!&"3*+8"75"3(")+F)(+(,%*1"75"1*8"F6?(1,%33*18:""
"

%%& Autres phases mineures


"
" H58" +(%58" +F8%7453358" 75" 2(%D35" %1,518%,F" 8*1," (,,+%D4F58" W" 754U" )?(858" C%154+58a" 3("
6(36%,5" -(-Z$" Y6&" )+*B51(1," 74" 2%335+" 6(36(%+5" Y](D35(4" LLLROR$&" 5," W" 3(" )*+,3(17%,5" Y)&"
)+*B51(1,"75"39?Q7+(,(,%*1"75"3("6?(4U"3%D+5"(B56"39?4C%7%,F"75"39(%+:""
"

%%%&Alite
"
" H(" 7F,5+C%1(,%*1" 75" 3(" 8,+46,4+5" 75" 39(3%,5" +5G4%5+," 415" (1(3Q85" ())+*2*17%5" 74"
7%(=+(CC5:" X(18" 3(" )34)(+," 758" 63%1b5+8" %1748,+%538a" 39(3%,5" 58," 35" )348" 8*4B51," 8*48" 2*+C5"
C*1*63%1%G45" 75" ,Q)5" \!" *4" \$:" H58" ,+(B(4U" 75" ,?^85" 75" \:RA:" 75" A*%+2*1,(%15" t75"
A*%+2*1,(%15u#SSSva"t-*4+,%(3u#SS$va"tX418,5,,5+u#SS;v"*1,"C*1,+F"G49*1")54,",+*4B5+"G4(,+5"
,Q)58"75"8,+46,4+58"1*,F58"0"\!"Y84+8,+46,4+5&a"ˆ\`!" YC(%335"C*Q5115&a"\$"Y84+8,+46,4+5&a"5,"
ˆ\`$" YC(%335" C*Q5115&:" H(" 8,+46,4+5" 75" 39(3%,5" )54," 85" 7F74%+5" W" )(+,%+" 75" 39*D85+B(,%*1" 75"
6%1G" 251k,+58" (1=43(%+58" 6(+(6,F+%8,%G458" Y1*,F58" ‡!R‡E&" t-*4+,%(3u#SS$va" %3348,+F58" 7(18"

" !!!
1*,+5"6(8"W"3("d%=4+5"LLLROR#:"H9(D85165"758"+(%58"75"84+,+46,4+5"Y1*,F58"X"W"#-*"y"$#aI;o"5,"
["W"#-*"y"@#aKo&"6(+(6,F+%8,%G458"75"39(3%,5"\$"Y;ˆ\`"LC&a"+58)56,%B5C51,"(,,517458"7(18"358"
251k,+58" ‡#" 5," ‡@a" F3%C%151," 39?Q)*,?^85" 75" 3(" 84+8,+46,4+5" \$:" V(+" (%3354+8a" 39(334+5"
8QCF,+%G45" 758" +(%58" 2*+,58" 75" 8,+46,4+5" Y<a" da"L&" 7(18" 358" 251k,+58" ‡$" 5," ‡E" 84==^+51," 415"
(3%,5" 75" ,Q)5" )34,‚," \!:" -5,,5" ?Q)*,?^85" 58," 6*12*+,F5" )(+" 3(" 2*+,5" ,5154+" 51" /Z$" 7(18" 35"
63%1b5+" 79*+%=%15" YSaM!" q" \=Z" 5," !aE;" q" /Z$&a" 6*1145" 75)4%8" 358" ,+(B(4U" 75" \(b%" 5," (3:"
t\(b%u!MK#v" )*4+" 2(B*+%85+" 3(" )+F85165" 79415" (3%,5" 75" ,Q)5" \!:" H(" 84+8,+46,4+5" \!" 58,"
6(+(6,F+%8F5" )(+" 41" 7*4D35," 75" +(%58" 7(18" 3(" 251k,+5" ‡!" 6*1,51(1," 415" +(%5" 75" 8,+46,4+5" YO&"
84%B%5"79415"+(%5"75"84+8,+46,4+5"YP&:"H9(D85165"75"3("+(%5"P"C*1,+5"G45"3("8,+46,4+5"G4%"7F6+%,"
35" C%54U" ,*48" 358" )%68" 75" 39(3%,5" 58," 415" 8,+46,4+5" C*Q5115" ˆ\`!:" H5" ](D35(4" LLLROR@"
+F6()%,435"3("1(,4+5")*3QC*+)?%G45"758"7%B5+8"6*C)*8F8"51")+F85165:"
"

%B& Bélite
"
" H("DF3%,5"85",+*4B5"8*48"3("2*+C5")*3QC*+)?%G45"
"6*CC5"7(18"3(")34)(+,"758"63%1b5+8"
%1748,+%538:" -*165+1(1," 35" =Q)85a" 358" +(%58" S#S" 5," S#!" Yd%=4+5" LLLROR#&" 8*1," 51" ,?F*+%5" 754U"
+(%58"75",+^8"2*+,5"%1,518%,F"Y!SSq&:"H("+(%5"S#!"*D85+BF5"58,"75"D5(46*4)")348"2(%D35"%1,518%,F"
G45" 3(" +(%5" S#S:" -5" )?F1*C^15" 895U)3%G45" )(+" 415" 2*+,5" *+%51,(,%*1" )+F2F+51,%5335" 758"
6+%8,(33%,58a"74"2(%,"75"3("8,+46,4+5"51"254%335,8"G4%"8*1,")(+(33^358"(4U")3(18"YS!S&:"L3"58,",*4N*4+8"
7%22%6%35"75"8951"(22+(16?%+",*,(35C51,"t75"3("]*++5u#SS$v:"
"

B& Analyse semi-quantitative des diffractogrammes par la méthode de Rietveld


"
" /4+" 3(" D(85" 75" 65,,5" %751,%2%6(,%*1" 75" )?(858a" 1*48" (B*18" (1(3Q8F" 35" 7%22+(6,*=+(CC5"
)(+"3("CF,?*75"75"'%5,B537"Y„"LLRPR!RD"&:"H58"C*7^358"8,+46,4+(4U"4,%3%8F8")*4+"6?(6415"758"
)?(858" 8*1,"+5)*+,F8" 7(18" 35" ](D35(4" LLLROR@:" A*48" (B*18" (N48,F" 358" 6*522%6%51,8" 74" D+4%," 75"
2*17" Y2*16,%*1" )*3Q1*C%(35&" 5," 358" )(+(C^,+58" 75" C(%335" 75" ,*4,58" 358" 8,+46,4+58:" H(" D*115"
6*16*+7(165"51,+5"358"7%22+(6,*=+(CC58"*D85+BF"5,"6(3643F"Yd%=4+5"LLLROR$&"B(3%75"3(")+F85165"
758" 7%B5+858" )?(858" %751,%2%F58" 5," 354+8" 8,+46,4+58" 6+%8,(33*=+()?%G458:" H9(1(3Q85" 85C%R
G4(1,%,(,%B5"7F74%,5"75"65,,5"CF,?*75"58,"+5)*+,F5"(4"](D35(4"LLLROR$a"51"6*C)(+(%8*1"(B56"3("
CF,?*75"())+*U%C(,%B5"75"P*=45:""
"

!!#"
1,0

Fl>
Fl>
0,8

Fl@
Intensité normalisée

Fl>
0,6

Fl>l7.#l7Z#/
Fl>
7.#lF 7 #/
0,4
b!!TST

Fl>
7Z#/

> l7Z#/

Fl>

Fl>
F
b!!TS4

Fl>
0,2

> 4ST

Fl>
7Z#/
F

Fl>
Fl>

Fl>
Fl^
F
F
^

>
F

F
0,0 m4 mS m. mZ m8

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
2 Co (°)
"
> 020 l!7Z#/121

m4 $ mS '
7Z#/ 130

0,10 0,10

> 11-2
#
7

0,05 0,05

0,00 0,00
28,5 29,0 29,5 30,0 30,5 31,0 31,5 32,0 32,5 33,0
2 Co (°) 2 Co (°)
" "
1,0 &
m. mZ M
m8
/ 0,4
0,8 *
0,3
0,6
0,1
0,2
7.# 440

0,4

0,2 0,1

0,0 0,0
0,0
37,0 37,5 38,0 38,5 39,0 42,0 42,5 43,0 43,5 60,0 60,5 61,0 61,5 62,0
2 Co(°) 2 Co (°) 2 Co (°)
"
Figure III-A-2 : Diffractogramme du ciment, avec identification des phases en présence :
alite (a), bélite (b), C3A, C4AF, gypse (g), calcite (c) et portlandite (p). Les fenêtres
angulaires caractéristiques pour l’identification de la structure de l’alite sont notées W1-W5.
"

V?(85" \(%335" 'F2F+5165"


O3%,5"\!"Y(&" \*1*63%1%G45"ˆ\`!"y"ˆ\`"V6" t75"A*%+2*1,(%15u#SS;v"
PF3%,5"YD&" \*1*63%1%G45"
" t\4CC5u!MMEv"
-$O"" -4D%G45" t\*17(3u!MIEv"
-@Od"" Z+,?*+?*CD%G45" t-*3B%335u!MI!v"
JQ)85"Y=&" \*1*63%1%G45" t-*35u!MI@v"
-(36%,5"Y6&" '?*CD*F7+%G45" t-?588%1u!M;Ev"
V*+,3(17%,5"Y)&" '?*CD*F7+%G45" tV5,6?u!M;!v"
Tableau III-A-4 : Structures cristallographiques des phases présentes dans le ciment utilisé

" !!$
7 500
C3S-M1-Pc-Dunstetter 56.80 %
7 000 C2S beta (MUMME) 25.87 %
6 500 C3A cubic 0.23 %
C4AF Colville 12.65 %
6 000
Calcite 2.69 %
5 500 Gypsum 1.29 %
5 000 Portlandite 0.47 %

4 500

4 000

3 500

3 000

2 500

2 000

1 500

1 000

500

-500

-1 000

-1 500

-2 000

-2 500
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
" 120 130

d%=4+5" LLLROR$"0 Ajustement par la méthode de Rietveld du diffractogramme de ciment. Les


diffractogrammes observé et calculé sont respectivement représentés en traits bleu et rouge.
La courbe grise est la courbe différence entre le diffractogramme observé et calculé. Les
contributions des diverses réflexions de Bragg sont de haut en bas : l’alite M1, la bélite
, le
C3A, le C4AF, la calcite, le gypse, et la portlandite.

***Q#QS! *:@EPJA9:J!bOF:PEFAO<J!
"

***Q#QSQF!! /PRU<!G<!JAEA@<!
"
" H(" d%=4+5" LLLROR@" Y(&" +5)*+,5" 3(" 6*4+D5" =+(143*CF,+%G45" 758" 24CF58" 75" 8%3%65a" 5," 3("
d%=4+5"LLLROR@"YD&"%3348,+5"3("C*+)?*3*=%5"8)?F+%G45"758")(+,%64358:"H5"7%22+(6,*=+(CC5"75"3("
24CF5"75"8%3%65"Yd%=4+5"LLLRORE&"C*1,+5"3(")+F85165"79415")?(85"C(N54+5"(C*+)?5a"%6%"3("8%3%65"
(C*+)?5:"H58")%68"2%18"*D85+BF8"8*1,"748"W"3(")+F85165"79415")?(85"C%1*+%,(%+5"6+%8,(33%8F5"75"
€+Z#" Y„" LRPR#R6" &:" H(" )+F85165" 75" 65,,5" )?(85" 75" €+Z#" 58," 6*C)(,%D35" (B56" 39(1(3Q85"
F3FC51,(%+5" 75" 3(" 2%6?5" ,56?1%G45" Y](D35(4" LLLROR!&" 5," 1*8" C%6+*(1(3Q858" i" Y\<PR<Xi&"
+F(3%8F58"84+"358")(+,%64358"75"24CF5"75"8%3%65:""

!!@"
"

(a) (b)
Figure III-A-4 : (a) Analyse granulométrique de la fumée de silice (b) Microstructure des
fumées de silice. Image MEB en électrons secondaires.

1,0

0,8
Intensité normalisée

0,6 ZrO2

0,4
ZrO2
0,2 ZrO2 ZrO2

0,0

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
2 Co (°)
Figure III-A-5 : Diffractogramme de la fumée de silice. La plupart de l’échantillon contient
de la silice amorphe. Les pics fins observés sont dus à la présence d’une phase minoritaire
cristallisée de ZrO2.
"

***Q#QSQ>!! NPFO;e!>O9WU!
"
H5" G4(+,T" D+*QF" 4,%3%8F" (4" 6*4+8" 75" 1*8" 588(%8" 58," 35" C%33%8%3" -@SS" 74" 651,+5" 75"
)+*746,%*1" 75" -*C)%^=15" 6*CC5+6%(3%8F" )(+" /%D536*:" /*1" (1(3Q85" =+(143*CF,+%G45" 58,"
+5)*+,F5" W" 3(" d%=4+5" LLLROR;:" H5" 7%22+(6,*=+(CC5" )+F851,F" W" 3(" d%=4+5" LLLRORI" 6*12%+C5" 3("
)+F85165" C(N*+%,(%+5" 75" 3(" )?(85" RG4(+,T" YG&:" H5" G4(+,T" 58," ,+^8" D%51" 6+%8,(33%8F" 5," *1" B*%,"
CkC5"(B56"35"C*1,(=5"4,%3%8F"358"+F235U%*18"75",+^8"2(%D35"%1,518%,F"75"3("+(%5"~
"74"-*"5,"H !"
74"‡:"H58"(4,+58")%68"+F8%74538"75",+^8"2(%D35"%1,518%,F")54B51,"k,+5"(,,+%D4F8"W"3("C%6+*63%15"
~O3/%$ZKa" )?(85"8*4B51,")+F851,5"7(18"35"G4(+,T:"H5"8543")%6"D%51"%8*3F"Y1*,F"C&"58,"8%,4F"W"

" !!E
#-*"y"$#a!oa"358"(4,+58")%68"8*1,"7(18"358")%578"75"+(%58"74"G4(+,T:"_15"234*+5865165"i"("F,F"
+F(3%8F5"Y62:"O115U5"!&"5,"B(3%75"D%51"3(")+F85165"758"F3FC51,8"C%154+8"~"5,"O3:""
"

"
Figure III-A-6 : Analyse granulométrique du quartz broyé"

1,0
Y

0,8
Intensité normalisée

0,6

0,4
Y

0,2
Y

Y
Y

Y
Y
R

Y
0,0

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
2 Co (°)
Figure III-A-7 : Diffractogramme du quartz broyé. La quasi-totalité des pics s’explique par
la présence de la forme du quartz (q). La raie de très faible intensité à 2 = 32,1° est une
réflexion de la microcline (m).
"

***Q#QSQ@!! (F>E<!
"
" H5" 8(D35" 4,%3%8F" 58," 41" 8(D35" +F2F+516F" -ƒ$#" 74" 651,+5" 75" )+*746,%*1" 75" -+F)Q" 51"
ƒ(3*%8"6*CC5+6%(3%8F")(+"/%D536*:"L3"+5)+F851,5"35")348"=+*8"=+(143(,"74"PV':"/("7%8,+%D4,%*1"
=+(143(%+5"58,"7*11F5"W"3("d%=4+5"LLLRORK:"H5"7%22+(6,*=+(CC5"58,"G4(8%R%751,%G45"W"6534%"74"
G4(+,T" D+*QFa" )4%8G45" 35" 8(D35" 6*1,%51," )+%16%)(35C51," 3(" )?(85" RG4(+,Ta" 5," 75" 2(c*1" ,+^8"
C%1*+%,(%+5"75"3("C%6+*63%15"Yd%=4+5"ƒRPR$&:""

!!;"
"
Figure III-A-8 : Analyse granulométrique du sable
"
"

***Q#Q.! (P^<O^EFJ;ABAF:;!
"
Z1"4,%3%85"41"84)5+)3(8,%2%(1,")*4+"(CF3%*+5+"39*4B+(D%3%,F"74"CF3(1=5"(B56"41"+())*+,"
<.-" 6*18,(1,:" A*48" (B*18" 4,%3%8F" 35" -%C234%7#SS#" 79OU%C" 8*48" 2*+C5" 3%G4%75" Y5U,+(%," 856"
$Eq&:" -958," 41" (7N4B(1," *)(G45" D5%=5" ?(4," +F746,54+" 795(4" W" D(85" 75" )*3Q6(+D*UQ3(,5"
C*7%2%F:"H5"7*8(=5"51"(7N4B(1,"85+("7*11F"51"C(885"795U,+(%,"856"5,"5U)+%CF"51")*4+651,(=5"
75"3("C(885"75"6%C51,:"

"
Figure III-A-9 : Formule type d’un carboxylate

"

***Q$! 6^;ARAJF;A9:!G<!EF!B9ORPEF;A9:!G<!$D+!<=;OPGF>E<J!
"
H95U,+48%*1" 58," 41" )+*6F7F" CF6(1%G45" )(+" 35G453" *1" 2(%," )(885+" 41" C(,F+%(4" 8*48"
)+588%*1" W" ,+(B5+8" 415" 2%3%^+5" (2%1" 75" 34%" 7*115+" 3(" 2*+C5" B*4345:" O" 3(" 8*+,%5" 75" 3(" 2%3%^+5a" 35"
C(,F+%(4"7*%,"k,+5"(),5"W"84))*+,5+"8*1")+*)+5")*%78:"-5,,5",56?1%G45"=F1F+(35C51,"())3%G4F5"
(4U")+*74%,8"CF,(33%G458"5,")3(8,%G458a"6*18,%,45"415"(3,5+1(,%B5")+*C5,,5485"75"C%85"51"2*+C5"
758" C(,F+%(4U" 6%C51,(%+58:" H58" C(,F+%(4U" 5U,+47F8" )*88^751," =F1F+(35C51," 758" )+*)+%F,F8"

" !!I
)?Q8%G458" 5," CF6(1%G458" 5U65),%*1153358:" X(18" 65" G4%" 84%,a" *1" 7F,(%335+(" 3(" 8,+(,F=%5" 75"
6*C)*8%,%*1"51"C5,,(1,"39(6651,"84+"35",5C)8"75"C(3(U(=5:""

***Q$Q4! (;OF;UbA<!G<!@9R^9JA;A9:!G<J!B9ORPEF;A9:J!
"
H5"D4,"75"65,,5"F,475")+F3%C%1(%+5"6*18%8,5"W"*),%C%85+"3("6*C)*8%,%*1"74"CF3(1=5"(2%1"
G49%3" 8*%," 5U,+47(D35:" V*4+" 65,,5" +(%8*1a" %3" 2(4," G45" 35" C(,F+%(4" (%," 41" 6*C)*+,5C51,"
58851,%5335C51," )3(8,%G45" 5," G49%3" 8*%," 6()(D35" 75" 89F6*435+" W" )(+,%+" 79415" 65+,(%15" B(354+" 75"
8*33%6%,(,%*1:" _15" 2*%8" 39F6*435C51," 7FC(++Fa" 35" C(,F+%(4" 89F6*435" (488%" 3*1=,5C)8" G45"
895U5+65" 3(" 8*33%6%,(,%*1:" O" 3(" 8*+,%5" 75" 3(" 2%3%^+5a" *e" 3(" 8*33%6%,(,%*1" 89(11435a" 35" C(,F+%(4"
)+F851,5"41"(8)56,"8*3%75a"65"G4%")5+C5,"W"39*DN5,"75"6*185+B5+"3("2*+C5"75"39*4,%3"75"C%85"51"
2*+C5:""
"
H5" C(,F+%(4" 7*%," +F)*17+5" W" 754U" 6+%,^+58" 795U,+47(D%3%,F"0" 3(" 234%7%,F" 5," 3(" 8,(D%3%,F"
7%C518%*115335"51"8*+,%5"75"3("2%3%^+5:"<1"5225,"415")>,5",+^8"234%75"58,"2(6%35C51,"5U,+47(D35"
C(%8"C(1G45"75"+F8%8,(165"CF6(1%G45"7*16"75"8,(D%3%,F"7%C518%*115335"51"8*+,%5"75"2%3%^+5:""
H58",+(B(4U")+F3%C%1(%+58"*1,"6*18%8,F"W"*D85+B5+"35"6*C)*+,5C51,"75"3(")>,5"51"D(3(Q(1,"51"
<(4.-%C51,"Y<.-"y"Sa#"W"Sa!;&a"V*3QC^+5.-%C51,"YV.-&:"H5"7*8(=5"51"24CF5"75"8%3%65"Yd/.-&"
58," 2%UF" W" !.@" *4" $.!;" 853*1" 3(" )+F85165" *4" 1*1" 75" G4(+,T" D+*QF" Y}P.-&:" H58" )>,58" 8*1,"
,*4N*4+8"*D,51458"%6%"(B56"35"CkC5",5C)8"75"C(3(U(=5"75"#S"C%14,58:"O"39%8845"75"658"588(%8a"
358"2*+C43(,%*18"+5,51458"8*1,"653358"W")348"2(%D35"+())*+,"<.-"y"Sa!;"Y](D35(4"LLLRPR!&:"
"
<.-" V.-" d/.-" }P.-" <,(," <U,+47(D%3%,F"
SaE" Sa#E" S" 234%75" 5U,+47(D35"
Sa#"
!" Sa#E" S" ,+*)"234%75" 1*1"5U,+47(D35"
SaE" Sa#E" S" 234%75" 5U,+47(D35"
Sa!K"
!" Sa#E" S" 234%75" 5U,+47(D35"
SaE" Sa#E" S" 234%75" 5U,+47(D35"
!" Sa#E" S" 234%75" 5U,+47(D35"
!aK" Sa#E" S" ,+*)"234%75" 1*1"5U,+47(D35"
Sa!;"
!:K" Sa#E‰$.@" Sa#E‰!.@" 234%75" 5U,+47(D35"
#" Sa#E‰$.@" Sa#E‰!.@" 234%75" 5U,+47(D35"
#:#" Sa#E‰$.@" Sa#E‰!.@" ]+*)"234%75" 1*1"5U,+47(D35"
Tableau III-B-1 : Optimisation des formulations en fonction de leur extrudabilité
"

!!K"
***Q$QS! &BB<;!GP!;<R^J!G<!RFEF=Fb<!
"
_15")+FRF,475"74",5C)8"75"C(3(U(=5"84+"358"6*C)*8%,%*18"+5,51458"Y<.-"y"Sa!;&"("F,F"
+F(3%8F5" (B(1," 75" 3(165+" 3(" 8F+%5" 79588(%8" 84+" 35" CF3(1=5a" )*4+" 7F,5+C%15+" 358" 6*17%,%*18"
*)F+(,*%+58a"51")(+,%643%5+"39*+7+5"5,"3("6(75165"79%1,+*746,%*1"758"7%22F+51,8"6*18,%,4(1,8"7(18"
3("64B5"5,"84+,*4,"35",5C)8"75"C(3(U(=5:"_15"2*%8"*),%C%8F58a"658"6*17%,%*18"85+*1,"+58)56,F58"
)*4+",*48"358"CF3(1=58:"
"
H5" +58)56," 75" 658" )+*6F74+58" 75" C(3(U(=5" 7*%," )5+C5,,+5" 79(884+5+" 3(" C5%3354+5"
?*C*=F1F%,F" 75" 3(" )>,5" 2%1(35" )*4+" 415" D*115" +5)+*746,%D%3%,F:" H58" CF3(1=58" +5,5148" 8*1,"
654U"G4%")54B51,"k,+5"5U,+47F8:"
"
H(" )+F85165" 79415" G4(1,%,F" ,+^8" 2(%D35" 795(4" 7(18" 1*8" CF3(1=58" 6*C)+*C5," 79415"
2(c*1" %C)*+,(1,5" 3(" 6*?F8%*1" 758" =+(%18" 5," )(+" 84%,5" 39F6*435C51," 74" C(,F+%(4:" H9(N*4," 74"
84)5+)3(8,%2%(1," )*4++(%," k,+5" 415" D*115" (3,5+1(,%B5" )*4+" +5CF7%5+" W" 65,,5" 6*1,+(%1,5" W"
6*17%,%*1" 79(B*%+" 415" F15+=%5" 75" C(3(U(=5" 8422%8(1,5:" -5335R6%" )5+C5,,+(" 415" C5%3354+5"
,?%U*,+*)%5"75"3(")>,5"2%1(35:"V*4+"6*1,+‚35+"65")(+(C^,+5a"39%18)56,%*1"B%845335")54,"k,+5"7941"
=+(17"856*4+8:"H("d%=4+5"LLLRPR!"("C*1,+5"41"CF3(1=5",+*)"856"5,"7*1,"39F,(,"15"6?(1=5+(")(8"
CkC5" 51" )+*3*1=5(1," 35" ,5C)8" 75" C(3(U(=5:" -5," F,(," 58," 6(+(6,F+%8,%G45" 7941" CF3(1=5" ,+*)"
)(4B+5"51"5(4")*4+"(884+5+"758"3%(%8*18"%1,5+=+(143(%+58:"H("d%=4+5"LLLRPR!"D"C*1,+5"41"(4,+5"
F,(," G4%" 58," 6*C)3^,5C51," 7%22F+51," 74" )+5C%5+a" %17F)517(CC51," 74" ,5C)8" 75" C(3(U(=5:" L3"
6(+(6,F+%85")34,‚,"41"5U6^8"75"7*8(=5"51"84)5+)3(8,%2%(1,a"65"G4%"51=517+5+("3("2*+C(,%*1"758"
=+4C5(4U:"
"

"
"
Y(&" YD&"
Figure III-B-1 : Cas de mauvaises formulations (a) mélange trop sec (b) formation de
grumeaux
"

" !!M
-58" 754U" CkC58" F,(,8" )54B51," k,+5" +516*1,+F8" 6*CC5" )?(85" %1,5+CF7%(%+5" (B(1,"
39*D,51,%*1" 79415" )>,5" 6*?F8%B5:" <1" 5225," 35" )+5C%5+" F,(," 58," *D,514" ()+^8" 41" ,5C)8" 75"
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84))3FC51,(%+58" 51,+5" )(+,%64358" 2*+C(1," (%18%" 758" =+4C5(4U:" -56%" 58," *D85+BF" ()+^8" 7%U"
C%14,58"75"C(3(U(=5"Yd%=4+5"LLLRPR#"D&:"<1"+(C51(1,"65",5C)8" W" B%1=," C%14,58a" 3(" C(N*+%,F"
758")*%1,8"75"6*1,(6,"51,+5")(+,%64358"85+*1,"+53%F8")(+"758")*1,8"3%G4%758"5,"3(")*+*8%,F"%1,5+R
)(+,%643(%+5" 758" (==3*CF+(,8" 2*+CF8" 7%8)(+(p,+(" )+*=+588%B5C51,:" Z1" *D,%51," (%18%" 415" )>,5"
6*?F8%B5"5,"C(1%(D35"Yd%=4+5"LLLRPR#"6&:"

Y(&"E"C%14,58" YD&"!S"C%14,58" Y6&"#S"C%14,58"


Figure III-B-2 0 Cas de formulations optimisées : états successifs lors du malaxage
"
" O"39%8845"75"65,,5"F,475")+F3%C%1(%+5a"6%1G"DF,*18"1*48"85CD351,"%1,F+588(1,8"W"F,47%5+a"
7*1,"G4(,+5"8*1,"5U,+47(D358:"H58"CF3(1=58"+5,5148"*1,"F,F"6(+(6,F+%8F8"(4"C*Q51"758"588(%8"
79F,(35C51,"(4"6‚15"79OD+(C8:"H9*DN56,%2"F,(%,"75"BF+%2%5+"3("234%7%,F"74"C(,F+%(4"Yd%=4+5"LLLR
PR$"&:""
"

" " "


Figure III-B-3 : Essai d’étalement au cône d’Abrams
"

!#S"
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84D8,%,45"415")(+,%5"75"3("24CF5"75"8%3%65")(+"74"G4(+,T"D+*QF")*4+"358"754U"75+1%5+8"DF,*18:"
H58"2*+C4358"*1,"F,F"6?*%8%58"(2%1"79F,47%5+"395225,"74"7*8(=5"51"84)5+)3(8,%2%(1,"5,"75"39(N*4,"
74" G4(+,T" D+*QF" 84+" 1*8" 2*+C43(,%*18" )*4+" 41" CkC5" +())*+," <.-:" H5" 7F,(%3" 75" 6?(6415" 758"
2*+C43(,%*18"6*18%7F+F58"58,"+5)*+,F"7(18"35"](D35(4"LLLRPR#"5,"86?FC(,%8F")(+"3("d%=4+5"LLLR
PR@:"
"

"

Figure III-B-4 :"Composition des cinq formulations de BPR (cf Tableau III-B-2)
"

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"
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74"+F85(4")4D3%6"75"3("B%335"75"/(%1,RA(T(%+5:"H58")+*6F74+58"5,"358",5C)8"75"C(3(U(=5"8*1,"
7F,(%33F8"84+"3("d%=4+5"LLLRPRE:"H5"C(3(U54+"75"6()(6%,F"#S"3"4,%3%8F"58,"6*12*+C5"W"3("1*+C5"
<A"!M;R!:"
"

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]5C)8"YC%1&"
0 5 min 25 min
\(3(U(=5"351," \(3(U(=5"+()%75"
$S",+.C%1" ;S",+.C%1"
"
Figure III-B-5 0"Protocole de malaxage des BPR
"
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"
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)*4+"358"588(%8"CF6(1%G458"5,"75",+(1825+,"*1,"F,F"2(D+%G4F58:""
"
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"

"
Figure III-B-6 : Conservation humide des éprouvettes
"
"

!##"
"

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Tableau III-B-2 :. Composition des cinq formulations de BPR (cf Figure III-B-4)
"
"

!#$"
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B%86*)3(8,%G458" ,53358" G45" 358" 6F+(C%G458" t'%D5%+*u#SSEva" 358" )*3QC^+58a" 358" )+*74%,8"
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"
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758" C(,F+%(4U" 6%C51,(%+58" )+F851,5" 39(B(1,(=5" 75" 85" 2(%+5" W" ,5C)F+(,4+5" (CD%(1,5" 5," 358"
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V348%54+8" ,56?1%G458" 8*1," 4,%3%8F58" tO32(1%u#SSEva" W" 8(B*%+" 35" +?F*C^,+5" 6()%33(%+5a" 35"
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"
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"

!#;"
"
Figure IV-A-1 : Schéma d’une extrudeuse à vis"
"
X(18"1*,+5"6(8a"415"5U,+475485"W")%8,*1"("F,F"4,%3%8F5:"<1"5225,a"395U,+48%*1"8952256,45"
(4"C*Q51"79415")+5885"F356,+*CF6(1%G45"41%(U%(35"FG4%)F5"7941"6(),54+"75"2*+65"75"ES"bA:"
-5,,5")+5885a"6*CC5+6%(3%8F5")(+"€s%6ba"2(%,"C*4B*%+a"W"B%,5885"6*18,(1,5a"41")%8,*1"B5+,%6(3"
7(18"41"+F85+B*%+"+5C)3%"75")>,5"Yd%=4+5"LƒROR#&:"H("2%3%^+5"5,"35"+F85+B*%+"8*1,"2%UF8"(4"8*635"
75"3(")+5885"=+>65"W"41"84))*+,"CF,(33%G45"G4%"358"C(%1,%51,"651,+F8:"H5"7%(C^,+5"5,"3("3*1=454+"
75"3("2%3%^+5"8*1,"75"!#"CC"5,"$S"CCa"+58)56,%B5C51,:""
"
Presse
électromécanique
Piston

Réservoir

Extrudeur

Filière

Matériau
extrudable
"
Figure IV-A-2 : Extrudeuse à piston
"

!#I"
H5"C*4B5C51,"75")%8,*1"58,"=F+F"(4,*C(,%G45C51,")(+"41")+*=+(CC5"G49*1"("6+FF"5,"
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51=517+5" 41" 7F)3(65C51," 75" 3(" C(,%^+5" G4%" 85+(" 6*1,+(%1,5" 75" ,+(B5+85+" 3(" 2%3%^+5:" -56%" 1*48"
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D43358"79(%+"*66348"Yd%=4+5"LƒROR$&"G4%"%123451651,"D5(46*4)"3("2*+65"795U,+48%*1:"Z1"84))*85"
G45"65,,5"*)F+(,%*1"15"C*7%2%5")(8"8518%D35C51,"3(",5154+"51"5(4"74"C(,F+%(4:"
"

"
Figure IV-A-3 : Echantillon sous vide"
"
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5184%,5" %1,+*74%,a" C(145335C51," 5," 8*48" 2*+C5" 75" D*435,,58" Y=F1F+(35C51," 6%1G&a" 7(18" 3("
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6?(G45"D*435,,5"58,",(88F5"Y6%1G"6*4)8&"W"39(%75"79415",%=5"CF,(33%G45:"<184%,5a"*1"7586517"35"
)%8,*1"N48G49W"65"G49%3"522354+5"3(")>,5:"
"

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Figure IV-A-4 0 Réservoir rempli du matériau tassé"
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!#M"
"

" "
Figure IV-A-5 0 Essai d’extrusion sur BPR extrudable : boudin homogène et sans fissure"
"

"
Figure IV-A-6 : Extrudat d’une formulation non extrudable (BPR3) : boudin inhomogène"
"
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1000 10 mm/min 500

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D9JA;A9:!^AJ;9:!\RR] D9JA;A9:!^AJ;9:!\RR]

(c)"""PV'@" (d)"""PV'E"
Figure IV-A-7 : Force d’extrusion en fonction du déplacement et de la vitesse du piston
pour les BPR extrudables"
"
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la vitesse du piston pour les différents BPR extrudables"

"
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'U^EF@<R<:;!GP!^AJ;9:!\RR]
"
Figure IV-A-8 : Essai de répétabilité sur le BPR4"
"
"

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(a) (b)
Figure IV-B-1 [ Flux de chaleur d’hydratation. (a) 0 – 144 h ; (b) : zoom entre 36 et 72 h
"

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tJ4u!MM@va"tH*,(u#SSSva"t\*33(?u#SSSv"(B(1651,"39())+*6?5"758"+F(6,%*18")*,51,%53358"51,+5"
358" %*18" -(#w" 5," 358" (1%*18" 758" C(6+*C*3F64358" 75" 39(7N4B(1,:" <1" 5225,a" 35" 6*C)35U5" 2*+CF"
+(351,%," 3(" 1463F(,%*1" 5," 3(" )+F6%)%,(,%*1" 758" 6*C)*8F8" 6*1,51(1," 35" 6(36%4Ca" 1*,(CC51," 3("
)*+,3(17%,5"Y-(YZ[&#&a"65"G4%"51=517+5"41"+5,(+7"74")+*658848"79?Q7+(,(,%*1:"
"

*_Q$Q4Q>!! &BB<;!G<!EVF?9P;!GP!YPFO;e!>O9WU!
"
H9(N*4,"75"G4(+,T"D+*QF")5+C5,"75"3%C%,5+")(+,%5335C51,"358"5225,8"75"39(7N4B(1,"84+"3("
6%1F,%G45"79?Q7+(,(,%*1"0"51"5225,a"35")%6"75"234U"75"6?(354+"74"PV'@"())(+(p,"51B%+*1"@"?")348"
,‚," G45" 6534%" 74" PV'$:" -5,,5" (66F3F+(,%*1" 75" +F(6,%*1" 58," 745" W" ,+*%8" 5225,8"

!$@"
)?Q8%G458"tH(s+5165u#SS$v:" X(18" 1*,+5" 6(8a" 35" CF6(1%8C5" C*,54+" 58," 3(" 1463F(,%*1"
?F,F+*=^15"G4%"75B%51,"8%=1%2%6(,%B5"7(18"35"6(8"758"2%158"C%1F+(358:"
"
-5,"5225,"DF1F2%G45"74"G4(+,T"D+*QF"84+"39(B(165C51,"758"+F(6,%*18")54,"k,+5"3%F"W"41"
5225,"75"8%,5"75"1463F(,%*1"0"-Q+"5,"(3:"t-Q+u#SS;v"*1,"C%8"51"FB%75165"G45"3(")+F85165"75",+^8"
2%158" )(+,%64358" Y)*88F7(1," 415" 84+2(65" 8)F6%2%G45" 84)F+%54+5" W" !SS" C‹.b=&" )*4B(%," (6,%B5+"
39?Q7+(,(,%*1"74"6%C51,")(+"1463F(,%*1"?F,F+*=^15:"V348%54+8"F,4758"*1,"8*43%=1F"G45"3("24CF5"
75"8%3%65")*88F7(%,"F=(35C51,"65,,5")+*)+%F,Fa"C(%8"~(7+%"5,"(3:"t~(7+%u#SSMv"*1,"+F65CC51,"
)+*4BF"G45"65,"5225,"(66F3F+(,54+"7F)517(%,"2*+,5C51,"74"+())*+,"5(4.6%C51,"5,"74"7*8(=5"51"
24CF5"75"8%3%65:""
"
/53*1"358"+F843,(,8"75"3(")+F851,5"F,475a"35"G4(+,T"D+*QF"85"C*1,+5")348"522%6(65"G45"3("
24CF5" 75" 8%3%65" )*4+" (66F3F+5+" 35" )+*658848" 79?Q7+(,(,%*1:" V(+" (%3354+8a" 3(" =+(143(+%,F" 758"
)(+,%64358" 75" G4(+,T" D+*QFa" )348" =+*88%^+5" G45" 65335" 75" 3(" 24CF5" 75" 8%3%65a" )*4++(%," 3%C%,5+" 35"
)?F1*C^15" 79(78*+),%*1" 795(4" W" 3(" 84+2(65" 758" =+(%18:" -53(" 85" ,+(74%+(%," (3*+8" )(+" 415"
(4=C51,(,%*1"75"3(")+*)*+,%*1"795(4"%CCF7%(,5C51,"7%8)*1%D35")*4+"39?Q7+(,(,%*1"74"6%C51,:"
H5" ](D35(4" LƒRPR!" +F6()%,435" 358" 7%22F+51,8" )%68" 758" 7%22F+51,8" DF,*18" (%18%" G45" 354+8" >=58"
79())(+%,%*1:"
"
" Pic du flux de chaleur
Mélanges Age Intensité
(h) (mW/g de ciment)
PV'!" #Ea#" !aIM"
PV'#" @SaI" !aII"
PV'$" EMaI" !a#!"
PV'@" EEa$K" !a#K"
PV'E" EKa;" !a#;"
"
Tableau IV-B-1 : Récapitulatif des pics de chaleur

"" O4" 2%1(3a" 358" B(354+8" 75" )%68" *D,51458" 7(18" 35" 6(7+5" 75" 65,,5" F,475" 8*1," )+*6?58" 75"
653358"+())*+,F58")(+"3("3%,,F+(,4+5"Y„"LR-&:"V*4+"41"+())*+,"<.-"YSa!;&"5,"41"7*8(=5"51"(7N4B(1,"
Y!aK"q&"F=(4U"(4U"1‚,+58"YPV'$&a"d5Q3588*42%"5,"(3:" td5Q3588*42%u#SS!v"*1,"*D,514"41")%6"75"
!aE"C‡.="75"6%C51,"W"$S?:"-5,,5"7%22F+5165")*4++(%,"k,+5"5U)3%G4F5")(+"3("1(,4+5"75"39(7N4B(1,"
4,%3%8F:"
"

!$E"
*_Q$Q4Q@!! *:BEP<:@<!G<!EV<=;OPJA9:!
"
A*48" (B*18" C584+F" 39FB*34,%*1" 75" 234U" 75" 6?(354+" 79?Q7+(,(,%*1" 74" PV'!" (B(1," 5," ()+^8"
5U,+48%*1:" H5" )%6" 75" 6?(354+" 7F,56,F" ())(+(p," (4" CkC5" C*C51," 5," 85CD35" (B*%+" 3(" CkC5"
B(354+" )*4+" 358" 754U" F,(,8:" -*1,+(%+5C51," W" 65" G49*1" (,,517(%,a" 395U,+48%*1" 15" 85CD35" )(8"
C*7%2%5+"3(",5154+"51"5(4"74"DF,*1"5,"(%18%"8*1"?Q7+(,(,%*1:""
"

2,00E+00
Avant extrusion
Après extrusion

1,50E+00
/EP=!G<!@HFE<PO
!Rmib7AR<:;

1,00E+00

5,00E-01

0,00E+00
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
"<R^J!\H]
‹"
Figure IV-B-2 :"Influence de l’extrusion sur le flux de chaleur d’hydratation du BPR1
"

*_Q$QS! +<;OFA;!<;!BAJJPOF;A9:!FP!?<P:<!ab<!

X(18" 65,,5" 856,%*1a" *1" F,47%5" 35" +5,+(%," 6?%C%G45" 5," 517*=^15" 758" E" 2*+C43(,%*18" 75"
PV':"H(")+5C%^+5")(+,%5"85+("6*18(6+F5"W"395225,"75"3(",5154+"51"(7N4B(1,"84+"658"754U",Q)58"75"
+5,+(%,:"X(18"3("754U%^C5")(+,%5"Z1"F,47%5+("395225,"75"3("84D8,%,4,%*1"79415"2+(6,%*1"75"24CF5"
75"8%3%65")(+"74"G4(+,T"D+*QF"84+"658"7F2*+C(,%*18:"_15"(1(3Q85"6+*%8F5"(B56"358"+F843,(,8"75"
84%B%"79?Q7+(,(,%*1"5,"74"+5,+(%,"5C)k6?F"85+("39*DN5,"75"3("75+1%^+5")(+,%5:"

*_Q$QSQF!! +<;OFA;!@HARAYP<!<;!d9EPRAYP<!
"
H5" +5,+(%," 6?%C%G45" 6*++58)*17" W" 3(" )+5C%^+5" )?(85" 758" 7F2*+C(,%*18:" L3" 58," 7h" W" 3("
7%22F+5165" 75" 7518%,F" (D8*345" 51,+5" 358" +F(6,(1,8" Y3%(1," 5," 5(4" 75" =>6?(=5&" 5," 358" )+*74%,8" 75"
39?Q7+(,(,%*1:"H(")+%85"5,"3(")+*=+588%B5"7F8(,4+(,%*1"74"+F85(4")*+54U"74"C(,F+%(4"%174%851,"
41" 856*17" ,Q)5" 75" 7F2*+C(,%*1a" ())53F" +5,+(%," 79(4,*7588%66(,%*1:" H9(4,*7588%66(,%*1" 758"
C(,+%658" 6%C51,(%+58" 58," 7%+56,5C51," 3%F5" W" 3(" ,5154+" 51" 5(4" %1%,%(35" 74" C(,F+%(4a" 41" 2(%D35"

!$;"
+())*+,"5(4.6%C51,"51=517+(1,"41"+5,+(%,"79(4,*7588%66(,%*1"F35BF"t…(T%6%u#SSIv:"H(",+(18%,%*1"
51,+5" +5,+(%," 6?%C%G45" 5," +5,+(%," 79(4,*7588%66(,%*1" 58," =F1F+(35C51," C(+G4F5" )(+" 41"
m"()3(,%885C51,"n" 75" 3(" 6*4+D5" 75" +5,+(%," 517*=^15" Yd%=4+5" LƒRPR$&" t%(1=u#SSEv"
t…(T%6%u#SSIv:"H("2%=4+5"C*1,+5"G45"3("B(+%(,%*1"75"B*34C5"(D8*34"58,")348"%C)*+,(1,5"G45"3("
B(+%(,%*1"75"B*34C5"5U,5+15:"<1"5225,a"35"+5,+(%,"6?%C%G45"58,"=F1F+(35C51,")348"%C)*+,(1,"G45"
35"+5,+(%,"517*=^15"Y5U,5+15&a"65,,5"7%22F+5165"F,(1,")(+,%643%^+5C51,"%C)*+,(1,5"()+^8"3(")+%85:"
H("7%B5+=5165"51,+5"358"754U"+5,+(%,8"8952256,45")517(1,"65,,5")F+%*75:"
"

20

Retrait chimique
15 [mm3/gCiment]
+<;OFA;!FP!?<P:<!ab<

10

Retrait volumique
5 [%]

0
0 50 100 150 200
"<R^J!\H]
"
Figure IV-B-3 : Différence entre retrait chimique et retrait volumique (BPR2)
"

%& Retrait chimique


"
H(" d%=4+5" LƒRPR@" %3348,+5" 358" 6*4+D58" 74" +5,+(%," 6?%C%G45" )*4+" 358" 6%1G" 2*+C43(,%*18"
F,47%F58:""
"

30
+<;OFA;!@HARAYP<!\RR.ib7AR<:;]

25

20
$D+.
15
$D+S
10 $D+4

$D+Z
5
$D+8
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
"<R^J!\H]
"
Figure IV-B-4 : Retrait chimique des différents BPR
"

!$I"
A*48")*4B*18"7%8,%1=45+"B%845335C51,"754U",Q)58"79FB*34,%*1"74"+5,+(%,:"<1"5225,a"358"
6*4+D58"75"PV'!"5,"PV'#a"75"2(%D358"7*8(=58"51"(7N4B(1,a")+F851,51,"415"(334+5"7%22F+51,5"75"
653358" 75" PV'$a" PV'@" 5," PV'E" 7*1," 35" 7*8(=5" 51" (7N4B(1," 58," 15,,5C51," 84)F+%54+:" -58"
75+1%^+58")+F851,51,"754U")*%1,8"79%1235U%*1:"
"
o L12345165"74"84)5+)3(8,%2%(1,"
"
O2%1"75"B*%+"395225,"75"39(7N4B(1,"84+"35"+5,+(%,"6?%C%G45"1*48"(B*18"+5)+F851,F"84+"35"
CkC5"=+()?%G45"39FB*34,%*1"74"+5,+(%,"6?%C%G45"758"PV'!a"PV'#"5,"PV'$"Yd%=4+5"LƒRPRE&a"
75",5154+8"+58)56,%B58"51"84)5+)3(8,%2%(1,"75"S"aE"qa"!"q"5,"!aK"q"5,"65335"75"PV'@"5,"PV'E"
Yd%=4+5"LƒRPR;&"75"7*8(=58"+58)56,%28"75"!aK"q"5,"#"q:""
"

30
+<;OFA;!@HARAYP<!\RR.ib7AR<:;]

25

20
$D+.

15
$D+S
10
$D+4
5

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
"<R^J!\H]
"
Figure IV-B-5 : Influence de l’adjuvant sur le retrait chimique (BPR1, BPR2 et BPR3)
"
A*48" +5C(+G4*18" G45" 3(" 2*+C43(,%*1" (B56" 415" 2(%D35" ,5154+" 51" 84)5+)3(8,%2%(1,"
)+F851,5"41"+5,+(%,"6?%C%G45"15,,5C51,"C*%18"%C)*+,(1,"G45"358"(4,+58"2*+C43(,%*18:"<1"5225,a"
W"!SS"?"79?Q7+(,(,%*1a"35"+5,+(%,"6?%C%G45"74"PV'!"Y/V"75"SaE"q&"58,"75"!S"CC$.=-"(3*+8"G45"
6534%"74"PV'$"Y/V"y!aK"q&""58,"75"#@"CC$.=-:""
"
H(" ,5154+" 51" 84)5+)3(8,%2%(1," (" 415" %12345165" 7%+56,5" 84+" 3(" +F(6,%*1" 79?Q7+(,(,%*1"
6*CC5" *1" 39(" C51,%*11F" (4" „" LROR;R7" :" <1" 5225,a" 358" 6?(p158" C(6+*C*3F643(%+58" 74"
84)5+)3(8,%2%(1," 89(78*+D51," W" 3(" 84+2(65" 74" 6%C51," 5," 758" %16348%*18" =+(143(%+58a" 5," 7*16"
C%1%C%851,"358"6*1,(6,8"8*3%758:"-53("+5,(+75"39())(+%,%*1"7941"8G4535,,5"=+(143(%+5"6()(D35"75"

!$K"
+F8%8,5+" (4U" 7F2*+C(,%*18:" -5)517(1," 3(" )+F85165" 74" G4(+,T" " 85CD35" 7%88%)5+" 395225," 75"
39(7N4B(1,"0"41"CkC5"+5,+(%,"YK"q&"("F,F"C584+F"W"!SS?")*4+"35"PV'@"5,"35"PV'E:"
"

15
+<;OFA;!@HARAYP<!\RR.ib7AR<:;]

$D+8
10

5
$D+Z

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
"<R^J!\H]
"
Figure IV-B-6 : Influence de l’adjuvant sur le retrait chimique (BPR4 et BPR5)
"
A*48"(B*18"+F488%"W",+*4B5+"415"6*++F3(,%*1"3%1F(%+5"51,+5"35"+5,+(%,"6?%C%G45"5,"35",(4U"
79(7N4B(1," )*4+" 358" 2*+C43(,%*18" 8(18" G4(+,T" D+*QF" Yd%=4+5" LƒRPRI&:" H5" 6*522%6%51," 75"
6*++F3(,%*1"58,",+^8")+*6?5"75"!:"
"

30
+<;OFA;!@HARAYP<!\RR.ib7AR<:;]

25
y = 10,814x + 4,438
R2 = 0,999
20

15

10

0
0 0,5 1 1,5 2
"FP=!GfFG?PdF:;!\j]
"
Figure IV-B-7 : Evolution du retrait chimique en fonction du taux d’adjuvant.
"

!$M"
o L12345165"74"G4(+,T"
"
H9(N*4,"75"G4(+,T"D+*QF")5+C5,"75"3%C%,5+")(+,%5335C51,"358"5225,8"75"39(7N4B(1,"84+"3("
6%1F,%G45" 79?Q7+(,(,%*1" 5," )(+" 84%,5" 84+" 35" +5,+(%," 6?%C%G45" " Y„" LR-&:" H95225," C(6+*86*)%G45"
(%18%"*D85+BF"58,"7*16"F,+*%,5C51,"3%F"W"39F,(,"79?Q7+(,(,%*1"74"C(,F+%(4:"
"
H(" d%=4+5" LƒRPRK" C*1,+5" 39FB*34,%*1" 74" +5,+(%," 6?%C%G45" 74" PV'$" 5," PV'@:" Z1"
+5C(+G45"G45"35"+5,+(%,"75"3("2*+C43(,%*1"(B56"G4(+,T"D+*QF"YPV'@&"58,"$"2*%8"C*%18"%C)*+,(1,"
G45" 3(" 2*+C43(,%*1" 8(18" G4(+,T" D+*QF" YPV'$&" ()+^8" !SS" ?" 79?Q7+(,(,%*1:" -53(" 58," ,+^8"
B+(%85CD3(D35C51,"7h"W"39(4=C51,(,%*1"75"3("6*C)(6%,F"75"3(")>,5"G4%"+F843,5"75"394,%3%8(,%*1"
74"G4(+,T:"-5"75+1%5+"(884+5")+*D(D35C51,"41"C5%3354+"(++(1=5C51,"=+(143(%+5:"
"

30
+<;OFA;!@HARAYP<!\RR.ib7AR<:;]

25

20
$D+.
15

10

5
$D+Z
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
"<R^J!\H]
"
Figure IV-B-8 : Effet du quartz broyé sur le retrait chimique
"

%%& Retrait volumique


"
H("d%=4+5"LƒRPRM"%3348,+5"358"6*4+D58"74"+5,+(%,"B*34C%G45")*4+"358"6%1G"2*+C43(,%*18"
F,47%F58:" L3" 58," W" 1*,5+" G45" 354+8" (334+58" 8*1," %751,%G458:" <3358" )+F851,51," ,*4,58" 41" )*%1,"
79%1235U%*1:"
A*48" )*4B*18" +5C(+G45+" G45" 3(" 6*1,+(6,%*1" B*34C%G45" 517*=^15" 6*CC5165" )(+"
(4=C51,5+"2*+,5C51,"84+"415"6*4+,5"74+F5"YW")54")+^8"@?&a"(B(1,"G45"3(")51,5"75"3("6*4+D5"15"
6*CC5165" W" 7%C%145+" 51" %17%G4(1," G45" 35" +5,+(%," FB*345" C*%18" B%,5:" H(" 74+F5" 75" 65,,5"
FB*34,%*1" 351,5" B(+%5" 79415" 2*+C43(,%*1" W" 39(4,+5:" <335" 74+5" #@?a" $@?a" ES?" )*4+" 358" PV'!a"
PV'#"5,"PV'E"+58)56,%B5C51,a"5,"51B%+*1"@@?")*4+"358"PV'$"5,"PV'@:"

!@S"
'5C(+G4*18"G45"658")F+%*758"6*++58)*1751,"W"758")F+%*758"75"2(%D35"(6,%B%,F"6?%C%G45""
79()+^8"358"6*4+D58"74"234U"75"6?(354+"79?Q7+(,(,%*1"Yd%=4+5"LƒRPR!&:"
"
9

8 $D+.
Points d'inflexion
+<;OFA;!d9EPRAYP<!\j]

6 $D+S
5 $D+8
4
$D+Z
3

2 $D+4
1

0
0 20 40 60 80 100
"<R^J!\H]
"
Figure IV-B-9 : Retrait volumique des différents BPR
"
o L12345165"74"84)5+)3(8,%2%(1,"
"
H("+5)+F851,(,%*1"74"+5,+(%,"B*34C%G45"74"PV'!a"PV'#"5,"PV'$"79415")(+,"5,"74"VP'@"5,"
PV'E" 79(4,+5" )(+,a" 1*48" )5+C5," 75" 6*1634+5" G4(1," W" 41" FB51,453" 5225," 74" 7*8(=5" 51""
(7N4B(1,"84+"3("6*1,+(6,%*1"517*=^15"Yd%=4+5"LƒRPR!S"5,"d%=4+5"LƒRPR!!&:"
"
A*48"6*18,(,*18"G45"3(")F+%*75"75"2(%D35"(6,%B%,F"6?%C%G45"58,"79(4,(1,")348"6*4+,5"G45"
3(" ,5154+" 51" 84)5+)3(8,%2%(1," 58," 2(%D35:" -5,,5" *D85+B(,%*1" 58," %3348,+F5" )(+" 39FB*34,%*1" 75"
39(6,%B%,F" 6?%C%G45" G4%" (4=C51,5" )348" ,‚," )*4+" 358" 2*+C43(,%*18" 75" 2(%D35" 7*8(=5" 51"
84)5+)3(8,%2%(1,a"65"G4%")5+C5,"(4"C(,F+%(4"75"85"8,+46,4+5+")348",‚,:"H5"+5,(+7"75")+%85"%174%,"
415"(4=C51,(,%*1"=3*D(35"74"+5,+(%,"517*=^15"
"
-?(G45" 6*4+D5" )+F851,5" 41" )*%1," 79%1235U%*1a" 8QCD*35" 74" 6?(1=5C51," 75" +F=%C5" 74"
+5,+(%,"517*=^15a"5,"G4%"6*r16%75"(B56"35"7FD4,""75"3("C*1,F5"74"234U"75"6?(354+"79?Q7+(,(,%*1a"
%17%G4(1,"35"7FC(++(=5"758"+F(6,%*18"6?%C%G458"G4%"75B%51151,"75")348"51")348"%1,51858"Y„"LR
OR$R2" &:" " O" )(+,%+" 75" +F843,(,8" *D,5148a" 1*48" )*4B*18" 6*18,(,5+" G45" 35" +5,+(%," C584+F" W" 41"
%18,(1,"7*11F"(4=C51,5"51"(4=C51,(1,"35"7*8(=5"51"84)5+)3(8,%2%(1,:"<1"5225,a"W"!SS"?54+58"

!@!"
79?Q7+(,(,%*1a" 35" +5,+(%," 74" PV'!" YSaE" q" 75" /V&" 58," 75" #a;" q" 6*1,+5" ;aE" q" 5," KaE" q""
+58)56,%B5C51,")*4+"358"PV'#"Y!"q"75"/V&"5,"PV'$"Y!aK"q"75"/V&:""
"
9

7
$D+.
+<;OFA;!d9EPRAYP<!\j]

5 $D+S
4

2 $D+4
1

0
0 20 40 60 80 100
"<R^J!\H]
"
Figure IV-B-10 : Influence de l’adjuvant sur le retrait volumique (BPR1, BPR2 et BPR3)
"
7

6
+<;OFA;!d9EPRAYP<!\j]

5
$D+8
4
$D+Z
3

0
0 20 40 60 80 100
"<R^J!\H]
"
Figure IV-B-11 : Influence de l’adjuvant sur le retrait volumique (BPR4 et BPR5)
"
o L12345165"74"G4(+,T"D+*QF""
"
H(" +5)+F851,(,%*1a" 84+" 35" CkC5" =+()?%G45a" 75" 39FB*34,%*1" 74" +5,+(%," B*34C%G45" 74"
PV'$"5,"74"PV'@"Yd%=4+5"LƒRPR!#&"C*1,+5"G45"3("6*1,+(6,%*1"6?4,5"75"C*%,%F""51"84D8,%,4(1,"

!@#"
415" 2+(6,%*1" 75" 3(" 24CF5" 75" 8%3%65" )(+" 74" G4(+,T" D+*QF:" -53(" B54," 7%+5" G45" 3(" )+*)*+,%*1" 74"
G4(+,T"%1,+*74%,5"85+,"W"F,(D3%+"758"6*1,(6,8"CF6(1%G458"+%=%758"51,+5")(+,%64358"5,"W"51+%6?%+"35"
8G4535,,5"=+(143(%+5"(2%1"75"3%C%,5+""3("6*1,+(6,%*1"B*34C%G45:"
9

7 $D+.
+<;OFA;!d9EPRAYP<!\j]

3 $D+Z

0
0 20 40 60 80 100
"<R^J!\H]
"
Figure IV-B-12 : Influence du quartz broyé sur le retrait volumique
"
H9())(+%,%*1a"(4"CkC5"C*C51,a"74")*%1,"79%1235U%*1"Y(4U"(351,*4+8"75"@@?&"6*18*3%75"
3(",?F*+%5"7941")?F1*C^15")4+5C51,"CF6(1%G45a"6(+(6,F+%8F")(+"41"D3*6(=5"75"7F2*+C(,%*18:"
X(18"65"6*1,5U,5a"39(6,%B%,F"6?%C%G45"74"G4(+,T")*4++(%,"k,+5"1F=3%=F5:""

*_Q$QSQ>!! +<;OFA;!EA:UAYP<!

H(" d%=4+5" LƒRPR!$" )+F851,5" 358" 6*4+D58" 75" +5,+(%," 517*=^15" 3%1F%G45" ?*+%T*1,(3" 758"
PV'a" W" #So-:" O4" N5415" >=5a" 358" 7F2*+C(,%*18" 517*=^158" +F843,51," 75" 3(" 6*CD%1(%8*1" 75"
7F2*+C(,%*18" 79*+%=%15" 6?%C%G45" Y6*1,+(6,%*1" H5" -?(,53%5+&" 5," 79(4,*7588%66(,%*1"
t%(1=u#SSEv:""
"
X(18" 3(" )+F851,5" F,475a" 6*C),5" ,514" 758" 7*8(=58" %751,%G458" 51" 6%C51," 5," 51" 5(4" 758"
PV'"5,"75"3("2(%D35"+F(6,%B%,F"758"(N*4,8"C%1F+(4U"Y24CF5"75"8%3%65"5,"G4(+,T"D+*QF&"(4"N5415"
>=5a" 3(" 7%22F+5165" 75" +5,+(%," 517*=^15" 51,+5" 358" DF,*18" F,47%F8" )54," k,+5" )+%16%)(35C51,"
(,,+%D4F5"(4"7*8(=5"B(+%(D35"51"(7N4B(1,"5,"W"3("84D8,%,4,%*1")(+,%5335"75"3("24CF5"75"8%3%65")(+"
74"G4(+,T"D+*QF:"
"

!@$"
#b<!\H<PO<J]
0 25 50 75 100
0

'UB9ORF;A9:!<:G9bI:<!\ RiR]
$D+4

-2000 $D+S
$D+Z
-4000
$D+.
-6000
$D+8

-8000
"
Figure IV-B-13 : Déformation linéique horizontale (µm/m) à 20°C pour les différents BPR
"

%& Influence de superplastifiant


"
H5" +5,(+7" 75" )+%85" 6(48F" )(+" 39(7N4B(1," (C^15" W" 41" (33*1=5C51," 75" 3(" )?(85" 758"
7F2*+C(,%*18"7*C%1F5")(+"35"+5,+(%,"6?%C%G45"5,"W"41"+5,(+7"7(18"3(",+(18%,%*1"retrait chimique
– retrait d’autodessiccation:"-*CC5"3("6*1,+(6,%*1"H5"-?(,53%5+"("415"(C)3%,475")348"F35BF5"
G45"65335"74"+5,+(%,"79(4,*7588%66(,%*1a"35"+5,(+7"75")+%85"%174%,"415"(4=C51,(,%*1"=3*D(35"74"
+5,+(%,"517*=^15"(4"N5415">=5"Yd%=4+5"LƒRPR!@"5,"d%=4+5"LƒRPR!E&:""
"
#b<!\H<PO<J]
0 25 50 75 100
0
'UB9ORF;A9:!<:G9bI:<!\ RiR]

$D+4

-2000 $D+S

-4000 $D+.

-6000
"
Figure IV-B-14 : Influence de l’adjuvant sur le retrait linéique horizontal (BPR1, BPR2 et BPR3)
"

!@@"
#b<!\H<PO<J]
0 25 50 75 100
0

'UB9ORF;A9:!<:G9bI:<!\ RiR] -2000

$D+Z
-4000

-6000 $D+8

-8000
"
Figure IV-B-15 : Influence de l’adjuvant sur le retrait linéique horizontal (BPR4 et BPR5)
"

%%& Influence du quartz


"
H(")+F85165"75"G4(+,T"D+*QF"(66F3^+5"35")+*658848"79?Q7+(,(,%*1"5,"(,,F145"7*16"395225,"
+5,(+7(,54+"75"39(7N4B(1,"84+"3(")+%85"74"DF,*1:"V(+"(%3354+8a"3(")+F85165"75"G4(+,T"D+*QF"(884+5"
)+*D(D35C51,"41"C5%3354+"(++(1=5C51,"=+(143(%+5"5,"415"+F*+=(1%8(,%*1"74"+F85(4")*+54U"75"3("
C(,+%65" 6%C51,(%+5"0" 3(" 7%8,+%D4,%*1" )*+(35" F,(1," 3941" 758" )(+(C^,+58" C(N54+8" 6*1,+‚3(1,"
39FB*34,%*1" 75" 39?4C%7%,F" +53(,%B5" %1,5+15a" 39(77%,%*1" *),%C%8F5" 75" G4(+,T" D+*QF" )*4+" 3("
+F746,%*1"758"7F2*+C(,%*18"517*=^158"758"PV'"1F6588%,5+(%,"758"F,4758"6*C)3FC51,(%+58"(2%1"
75"6*12%+C5+"358"+F843,(,8"*D,5148:"_15",+*%8%^C5"5U)3%6(,%*1"(4"+5,+(%,"517*=^15")348"2(%D35"
74" PV'@" 58," 8*1" C*7435" 79…*41=" )348" F35BF"0" 8*4C%8" W" 415" 7F)+588%*1" 6()%33(%+5" %1,5+15"
%751,%G45a"65"DF,*1"85"7F2*+C5+("C*%18"G45"358"(4,+58"PV'"Yd%=4+5"LƒRPR!;&:"
"

#b<!\H<PO<J]
0 25 50 75 100
0
'UB9ORF;A9:!<:G9bI:<!\ RiR]

-2000

$D+Z
-4000
$D+.

-6000
"
Figure IV-B-16 : Influence du quartz broyé sur le retrait linéique horizontal

!@E"
"
H5"](D35(4"LƒRPR#"+F6()%,435"358"7F2*+C(,%*18"51+5=%8,+F58"W"!SS"?")*4+"6?(G45"PV':"
H58"B(354+8"*D,51458"8*1,")+*6?58"75"653358"+())*+,F58")(+"](T(s("5,"\%Q(T(s("Y„"LRX&:"-58"
75+1%5+8" *1," C584+F" 41" +5,+(%," 75" #ESS" {C.C" W" !" N*4+a" )*4+" 415" )>,5" 6%C51,(%+5" 75" +())*+,"
<.-"y"Sa!I:" H(" 7F2*+C(,%*1" C584+F5" )*4+" 1*8" PV'"W"!"N*4+"YK#q"W"MSq"75"3("7F2*+C(,%*1"
2%1(35a"W"!SS?&a"B(+%5"51,+5"MSS"{C.C"YPV'!&"5,"E$SS"{C.C"YPV'E&:"/6?(6?%1=5+"5,"(3:"Y„LR
X&"*1,"C584+F"415"7F2*+C(,%*1"517*=^15"75"!ESS"{C.C"W"#K"N*4+8")*4+"41"PV'"75"+())*+,"
<.-"y"Sa#:""

O4" 6*4+8" 75" 65,,5" F,475a" 1*48" (B*18" +F(3%8F" 758" C584+58" 75" 7F2*+C(,%*18" 3%1F%G458"
B5+,%6(358" 84+" ,*4,58" 358" 2*+C43(,%*18" Yd%=4+5" LƒRPR!I&:" Z1" +5C(+G45" G45" 358" +F843,(,8" 75"
C584+5" 74" +5,+(%," 8*1," ,+^8" 8518%D358" W" 3(" 7%+56,%*1" 75" 3(" C584+5:" <1" 5225,a" )*4+" ,*4,58" 358"
2*+C43(,%*18"F,47%F58"YC%8"W")(+,"35"PV'E&a""358"7F2*+C(,%*18"B5+,%6(358"8*1,"84)F+%54+58"(4U"
7F2*+C(,%*18" ?*+%T*1,(358" Y](D35(4" LƒRPR#&:" -5,,5" 7%22F+5165" 51,+5" 358" 754U" CF,?*758"
)*4++(%,"895U)3%G45+")(+"3("7F2*+C(,%*1"3(,F+(35"75"3(")(+,%5"%12F+%54+5"75"3("C(16?5,,5"B5+,%6(35"
745"W"3("8F7%C51,(,%*1"75"3(")?(85"8*3%75:"-5,"5225,"58,")348"%C)*+,(1,")*4+"358"2*+C43(,%*18"
8(18"G4(+,Ta")*4+"358G453358"35"+5,+(%,"B5+,%6(3")54,"(,,5%17+5"754U"2*%8"35"+5,+(%,"?*+%T*1,(3:"<1"
5225,a"51"(D85165"74"G4(+,Ta"35"C(,F+%(4"58,")348"234%75:"P*4(8b5+"tP*4(8b5+u#SSIv"("G4(1,%2%F"
65,"5225,"51"C584+(1,"3("7518%,F"W"7%22F+51,58"?(4,54+8"75"39F6?(1,%33*1:"
"

#b<\H<PO<J]
0 20 40 60 80 100
0
'UB9ORF;A9:!<:G9bI:<!\RiR]

-1000
$D+4
-2000
-3000
-4000 $D+Z
$D+S
-5000
$D+8
-6000
$D+.
-7000
-8000
"
Figure IV-B-17 : Déformation linéique verticale (µm/m) à 20°C pour les différents BPR
"

!@;"
"
<6?(1,%33*18" PV'!" PV'#" PV'$" PV'@" PV'E"
XF2*+C(,%*1"?*+%T*1,(35" !!SS" #ESS" @ESS" $ISS" ;#SS"
XF2*+C(,%*1"B5+,%6(35" !KSS" E!SS" I#SS" ESSS" E$SS"
](D35(4"LƒRPR#" : Déformation endogène horizontale et verticale (µm/m) à 20°C pour les
différents BPR après 100 heures

%%%&Corrélation entre déformation linéique et taux d’adjuvant


"
H("d%=4+5"LƒRPR!K"C*1,+5"39FB*34,%*1"758"7F2*+C(,%*18"3%1F%G458"51"2*16,%*1"74",(4U"
79(7N4B(1,:"Z1"+5C(+G45"415"(4=C51,(,%*1"75"@SS"q"74"+5,+(%,"3%1F%G45"?*+%T*1,(3"5,"B5+,%6(3"
G4(17" 35" ,(4U" 79(7N4B(1," )(885" 75" SaE" q" YPV'!&" W" !aK" q" YPV'$&:" A*48" (B*18" *D,514" 415"
+53(,%*1"3%1F(%+5a"(B56"41"6*522%6%51,"75"6*++F3(,%*1")+*6?5"75"!a"51,+5"3("7F2*+C(,%*1"5,"35",(4U"
79(7N4B(1,:"
"

8000
'UB9ORF;A9:!EA:UAYP<!\oRiR]!

y = 3984,1x + 323,19
7000
R2 = 0,94
6000
5000
4000
Vertical
Horizontal
3000
y = 2641,9x - 229,38
2000
R2 = 0,99
1000
0
0 0,5 1 1,5 2
"FP=!GfFG?PdF:;!\j]
"
Figure IV-B-18 : Evolution du retrait endogène linéique (µm/m) en fonction du taux
d’adjuvant (%).
"

*_Q$QSQ@!! +<;OFA;!<R^k@HU!

H("d%=4+5"LƒRPR#!"C*1,+5"758"6*4+D58",Q)58"75"+5,+(%,"5C)k6?F"7(18"758"6*17%,%*18"
%8*,?5+C58:"H58"588(%8"*1,"F,F"+F(3%8F8"84+"E"N*4+8:""
O" )(+,%+" 75" 658" 6*4+D58a" %3" 58," )*88%D35" 7958,%C5+" 39FB*34,%*1" 75" 3(" 6*1,+(%1,5" C(U%C(35" 85"
7FB53*))(1,"7(18"358"7%22F+51,8"PV'a"6*11(%88(1,"3("+%=%7%,F"75"3("C(,+%65"6%C51,(%+5a"65335"75"

!@I"
39(115(4" (%18%" G45" 3(" =F*CF,+%5" 74" 8Q8,^C5" 5U)F+%C51,(3" t[*88(%1u#SS$v" 5," tV5+,4Fu#SSKv:"
H58"6*4+D58"75"6*1,+(%1,5"C(U%C(35"8*1,"+5)+F851,F58"84+"3("d%=4+5"LƒRPR!M:"
-?(G45"6*4+D5"58,"6(+(6,F+%8F5")(+"754U")?(858"0"415")+5C%^+5a"*e"3("7F2*+C(,%*1"58,"
2(%D35a"5,"415"754U%^C5")?(85a"*e"3("7F2*+C(,%*1"58,"(66F3F+F5:"-5,,5")?(85"58,"84%B%5"79415"
FB*34,%*1"7F6F3F+F5"75"3("7F2*+C(,%*1:"H("74+F5"75"6?(G45")?(85"7F)517"75"3("6*C)*8%,%*1"75"
6?(G45"PV':"
"
O" 395U65),%*1" 74" PV'Ea" 39(4=C51,(,%*1" 74" 7*8(=5" 51" 84)5+)3(8,%2%(1," %174%,"
8Q8,FC(,%G45C51,"41"(33*1=5C51,"75"3(")F+%*75"7*+C(1,5:"-5"+F843,(,"58,"51"(66*+7"(B56"358"
6*4+D58" 75" C%6+*6(3*+%CF,+%5" %8*,?5+C5"0" 358" 7F2*+C(,%*18" 5C)k6?F58" 6*CC51651," W" 85"
7FB53*))5+" (4" D*4," 75" #;?a" $I?a" E@?" 5," E#?" )*4+" 35" PV'!a" PV'#a" PV'$" 5," 35" PV'@a"
+58)56,%B5C51,:" -58" B(354+8" 6*++58)*1751," D%51" (4" ,5C)8" 79())(+%,%*1" 74" )%6" 75" 234U" 75"
6?(354+" 79?Q7+(,(,%*1" Y](D35(4" LƒRPR!&:" V*4+" 35" PV'Ea" 3(" )F+%*75" 7*+C(1,5" m"CF6(1%G45"n"
58,"D5(46*4)")348"6*4+,5"G45"65335"*D85+BF5"84+"3("6*4+D5"75"C%6+*6(3*+%CF,+%5"0"65"+F843,(,a"
)+*D(D35C51,"3%F"(4"+5,+(%,"517*=^15"5,"(4"C*7435"79…*41="F35BF8"75"65"CF3(1=5a"1F6588%,5"
79FB51,453358"%1B58,%=(,%*18"6*C)3FC51,(%+58:""
"
L3"58,"%C)*+,(1,"75"1*,5+"G45"35"7*8(=5"51"84)5+)3(8,%2%(1,"5,"3(")+F85165"74"G4(+,T"D+*QF"15"
C*7%2%51,")(8"8%=1%2%6(,%B5C51,"35"+5,+(%,"5C)k6?F"2%1(3"758"E"PV'"F,47%F8:"L3"2(4,"(488%"1*,5+"
G49(46415" 2%884+5" 19(" F,F" *D85+BF5" (4" ,5+C5" 75" 3(" )F+%*75" 79%1B58,%=(,%*1:" <1" 5225,a" 358"
6*1,+(%1,58"C(U%C(358"7(18"358"7%22F+51,8"PV'"15"7F)(8851,"N(C(%8"358"#aE"\V(a"(3*+8"G45"3("
+F8%8,(165"51",+(6,%*1"(4"N5415">=5"758"7%22F+51,8"PV'"7F)(885"65,,5"B(354+:"

15 2,5
$D+4
79:;OFA:;<J!RF=ARFE<J!\)DF]
'UB9ORF;A9:!c!EfF::<FP!\RRiR]

0 $D+8
$D+S
$D+Z
-15 1,5
$D+.
-30 $D+4
$D+S $D+Z
-45 0,5
$D+.
$D+8
-60

-75 -0,5
0 24 48 72 96 120 0 24 48 72 96 120
#b<!\H]
#b<!\H]

Figure IV-B-19 : Déformation à l’anneau (µm/m) et contrainte maximale (MPa) des différents BPR
"

!@K"
"

*_Q$QSQG!! S-.!#:FEWJ<!@O9AJU<!
"
X(18"65")(+(=+()?5a"*1")+F851,5"358"+F843,(,8"84+"358"6%1F,%G458"74"+5,+(%,"6?%C%G45"5,"
517*=^15a" 3%D+5" 5," 5C)k6?F" (%18%" G45" 3(" 6%1F,%G45" 79?Q7+(,(,%*1" (2%1" 75" 2(%+5" 415" (1(3Q85"
6*C)(+(,%B5"758"7%22F+51,58"7F2*+C(,%*18"6*++58)*17(1,58"W"39FB*34,%*1")?Q8%6*R6?%C%G458"74"
C(,F+%(4"5,"(%18%"8("8,+46,4+(,%*1:"
O2%1"75")*4B*%+"35"+5)+F851,5+"84+"3("CkC5"6*4+D5a"1*48"(B*18"2(%,"35"6?*%U"75",+(65+"
3("6*1,+(%1,5"C(U%C(35"74"+5,+(%,"5C)k6?F:"
H("d%=4+5"LƒRPR#S"+5)+F851,5"658"7%22F+51,8")(+(C^,+58"6+*%8F8")*4+"35"PV'!0"
H5"+5,+(%,"6?%C%G45"t!S#"CC$.="75"6%C51,v""
H5"+5,+(%,"B*34C%G45"tRv"
H5"+5,+(%,"5C)k6?F"Y6*1,+(%1,5"C(U%C(35"t\V(v&"
H5"234U"75"6?(354+"79?Q7+(,(,%*1"tC‡.="75"6%C51,v"
"
2,0 0,2
/EP=!G<!@HFE<PO
1,8 +<;OFA;!<R^k@HU 0,18

+<;OFA;!@HARAYP<!<;!d9EPRAYP<
1,6 0,16
<;!O<;OFA;!<R^k@HU

1,4 0,14
/EP=!G<!@HFE<PO

1,2 0,12
+<;OFA;!@HARAYP<
1,0 0,1

0,8 0,08

0,6 0,06

0,4 +<;OFA;!d9EPRAYP< 0,04

0,2 0,02

0,0 0
0 12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 108 120
#b<!\H<PO<J]
"
Figure IV-B-20 : Cinétiques des déformations et de flux de chaleur d’hydratation du BPR1
"
A*48" )*4B*18" 6*18,(,5+" G49W" #;?a" 35" 234U" 75" 6?(354+" 79?Q7+(,(,%*1" (,,5%1," 8*1"
C(U%C4C:" -958," W" 65" C*C51," 3W" G45" 358" 7F2*+C(,%*18" 5C)k6?F58" 6*CC51651," W" 85"
7FB53*))5+:" O4" CkC5" C*C51," 358" 6*4+D58" +5)+F851,(,%B58" 74" +5,+(%," 6?%C%G45" 5," 517*=^15"
,+(18%,51,"7941"+F=%C5"W"41"(4,+5"51"")(88(1,")(+"41")*%1,"79%1235U%*1:"H5")%6",?5+C%G45"(,,5%1,a"

!@M"
+523^,5" 3(" 2*+,5" (6,%B%,F" 6?%C%G45" 7F6+%B(1," (%18%" 3(" )F+%*75" 75" )+%85a" (4" 6*4+8" 75" 3(G45335" 35"
C(,F+%(4" 6*CC5165" W" 74+6%+" 5," 7FB53*))5+" 415" +%=%7%,F" G4%" 34%" )5+C5," 75" 89*))*85+" (4U"
7F2*+C(,%*18:"
"
H58"CkC58"6*18,(,(,%*18"8*1,"B(3(D358")*4+"41"PV'"(B56"G4(+,T"D+*QF"YPV'@&a"D%51"
G45"358")*%1,8"79%1235U%*1"15"6*++58)*1751,")(8"B+(%C51,"(4")%6",?5+C%G45"Yd%=4+5"LƒRPR#!&:"
<1" 5225,a" 3(" )+F85165" 74" G4(+,T" )*4++(%," 6?(1=5+" 35" CF6(1%8C5" 75" 8,+46,4+(,%*1" 74" C(,F+%(4a"
CkC5" 51" (D85165" 7941" ,+(%,5C51," ,?5+C%G45:" -5)517(1,a" 358" 7F2*+C(,%*18" 5C)k6?F58"
6*CC51651,"W"85"7FB53*))5+"(4"C*C51,"75"3("2*+,5"(6,%B%,F"6?%C%G45"6(+(6,F+%8F5")(+"35")%6"
,?5+C%G45:"
"
1,8 0,2

1,6 0,18

+<;OFA;!@HARAYP<!<;!d9EPRAYP<
1,4 0,16
+<;OFA;!<R^k@HU
<;!O<;OFA;!<R^k@HU

0,14
/EP=!G<!@HFE<PO

1,2
/EP=!G<!@HFE<PO 0,12
1,0
+<;OFA;!@HARAYP< 0,1
0,8
0,08
0,6
0,06
+<;OFA;!d9EPRAYP<
0,4 0,04
0,2 0,02

0,0 0
0 12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 108 120
#b<!\H<PO<J]
"
Figure IV-B-21 : Cinétiques des déformations et de flux de chaleur d’hydratation du BPR4
"
"
"

*_Q7! .-!DO9^OAU;UJ!c!E9:b!;<OR<!G<J!$D+!
"
O" 39%884" 75" 354+" 6(+(6,F+%8(,%*1" (4" N5415" >=5" Y?Q7+(,(,%*1" 5," +5,+(%,&a" 358" C(,F+%(4U"
F,47%F8"*1,"F,F"6(+(6,F+%8F8"W"3*1=",5+C5"74")*%1,"75"B45"CF6(1%G45a"5,"74+(D%3%,F:"X(18"65,,5"
856,%*1a" *1" )+F851,5+(" 358" +F843,(,8" *D,5148" 84+" 358" 7%22F+51,8" PV'" F,47%F8" G4%" 85+*1," ,*48"
+(885CD3F8"7(18"35"](D35(4"LƒR-R#."

!ES"
"

*_Q7Q4! DO9^OAU;UJ!RU@F:AYP<J!
"
O2%1" 79F,47%5+" 39FB*34,%*1" 74" 6*C)*+,5C51," CF6(1%G45" 758" PV'" 51" 2*16,%*1" 74"
,5C)8a"758"588(%8"75"6*C)+588%*1a"75"C*7435"79…*41="*1,"F,F"52256,4F8:"X(18"65"G4%"84%,a"*1"
)+F851,5+("6?(G45")(+(C^,+5a"G49*1"(1(3Q85+("51"C5,,(1,"39(6651,"84+"395225,"75"39(7N4B(1,"5,"3("
84D8,%,4,%*1")(+,%5335"75"3("24CF5"75"8%3%65")(+"74"G4(+,T"D+*QF:"
"

*_Q7Q4QF!! +UJAJ;F:@<!

%& Résistance en compression

o <225,"74"7*8(=5"51"84)5+)3(8,%2%(1,"
"
H58" d%=4+5" LƒR-R!" 5," d%=4+5" LƒR-R#" )+F851,51," 39FB*34,%*1" 75" 3(" +F8%8,(165" W" 3("
6*C)+588%*1" 51" 2*16,%*1" 75" 3(" ,5154+" 51" 84)5+)3(8,%2%(1," )*4+" 358" 7%22F+51,8" PV':" H58"
F6?F(1658" 75" C584+5" 8*1," Ia" !@" 5," #K" N*4+8:" Z1" 6*18,(,5" G45" )348" 3(" G4(1,%,F" 74"
84)5+)3(8,%2%(1,"58,"%C)*+,(1,5")348"3("+F8%8,(165"W"3("6*C)+588%*1"58,"2(%D35:"
"
"
180
+UJAJ;F:@<!<:!@9R^O<JJA9:p!+@!\)DF]

160

140

120

100

80

60 BPR1
40 BPR2
20
BPR3
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
#b<!\?9POJ]
"
Figure IV-C-1 : Evolution de la résistance en compression des BPR1, BPR2 et BPR3
"
"

!E!"
200

180

+UJAJ;F:@<!<:!@9R^O<JJA9:p!+@!
160

140

120
\)DF] 100

80

60

40 BPR4
20
BPR5
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
" #b<!\?9POJ]
Figure IV-C-2 : Evolution de la résistance en compression des BPR4 et BPR5
"
<1" 5225,a" 39(N*4," 75" 39(7N4B(1," 51=517+5" 41" F7%2%65" =+(143(%+5" )348" *+7*11F" 5," )348"
6*C)(6,a"65"G4%"2(B*+%85"415"C5%3354+5"7%8,+%D4,%*1"758"?Q7+(,58"(4"85%1"758"=+(%18"75"8(D35:"
-56%" 5C)k6?5+(%," 358" )?F1*C^158" 75" +%=%7%2%6(,%*1" 5," 75" B5++*4%33(=5" )(+" 6*1,(6," 75" =+(%18"
8*3%758:" H9(7N4B(1," )*4++(%," N*45+" (488%" 35" +‚35" 7941" 34D+%2%(1," (4,*4+" 75" 65+,(%158" )(+,%64358"
8*3%758"1*1"(,,5%1,58")(+"358"?Q7+(,58:"
"
o <225,"74"}4(+,T"
"
H(" d%=4+5" LƒR-R$" C*1,+5" 39FB*34,%*1" 75" 3(" +F8%8,(165" 51" 6*C)+588%*1" )*4+" 754U"
2*+C43(,%*18a"7*1,"39415"6*1,%51,"74"G4(+,T"YPV'@&:"Z1"6*18,(,5"G45"3("84D8,%,4,%*1"75"24CF5"
75"8%3%65")(+"74"G4(+,T"(CF3%*+5"8%=1%2%6(,%B5C51,"3("+F8%8,(165"51"6*C)+588%*1"7^8"35"85),%^C5"
N*4+:"O"!@"5,"#K"N*4+8a"3("+F8%8,(165"(4=C51,5"75"#S"5,"#Eqa"+58)56,%B5C51,:""
"
200
+UJAJ;F:@<!<:!@9R^O<JJA9:p!+@!\)DF]

180

160

140

120

100

80

60

40 BPR3
20 BPR4
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
#b<!\?9POJ]
"
Figure IV-C-3 : Evolution de la résistance en compression des BPR
"

!E#"
-*CC5" 39(7N4B(1,a" 35" G4(+,T" )*4++(%," N*45+" 41" +‚35" 7(18" 3(" +%=%7%2%6(,%*1" 5," 35"
B5++*4%33(=5"75"3("C(,+%65:"<1"5225,a"5,"74"2(%,"75"8(",(%335"Y8%,4F5"51,+5"3("24CF5"75"8%3%65"5,"35"
6%C51,&a"35"G4(+,T")5+C5,"79(884+5+"415"6*1,%14%,F"=+(143(%+5"5,"(CF3%*+5"35"6*1,(6,"51,+5"358"
7%22F+51,58")(+,%64358"8*3%758:"-56%"7%C%145+(%,"3(")*+*8%,F"74"C(,F+%(4"5,"(4=C51,5+(%,"(%18%"8("
+F8%8,(165"51"6*C)+588%*1:"
"
H58" B(354+8" 75" +F8%8,(165" 51" 6*C)+588%*1" *D,51458" Y!ES" W" !IE" \V(&a" W" #K" N*4+8a"
6*++58)*1751,"W"653358"+())*+,F58"7(18"3("3%,,F+(,4+5:"<1"5225,a"'%6?(+7"5,"-?5Q+5TQ"Y„"LR<R!&"
*1,"*D,514"415"+F8%8,(165"G4%"B(+%5"51,+5"!#E"5,"!IS"\V(")*4+"41"PV'"#SS"75"+())*+,"<.-"y"
Sa!E:"V*4+"41"+())*+,"<.-"75"Sa#a"/6?(6?%1=5+"5,"(3:"Y„"LR<R!&"*1,"C584+F"415"+F8%8,(165"W"3("
6*C)+588%*1" 75" !@K" 5," 75" !I!" \V(" )*4+" 758" PV'" W" D(85" 75" 6%C51," (B56" 5," 8(18" 3(%,%5+a"
+58)56,%B5C51,:"
"
<1"#SSIa"…(6%T%"Y„"LR<R!&"("*D,514"758"+F8%8,(1658"8%C%3(%+58"Y!#E"W"!KE"\V(&a")*4+"
758"PV'"75"+())*+,"<.-"y"Sa!$"5,"8(18",+(%,5C51,",?5+C%G45:"
"
o <225,"75"395U,+48%*1"
"
X4"2(%,"75"3("7%22%643,F"75"3("C%85"51")3(65"75"39F6?(1,%33*1"7(18"35"C*435a"358"588(%8"75"
6*C)+588%*1"*1,"F,F"52256,4F8"84+"758"F)+*4B5,,58"@"U"@"U"@"6C"Yd%=4+5"LƒR-R@&:""
"
"

Y(&" YD&"
Figure IV-C-4 : Moule (a) et éprouvettes (b) pour essai de compression après extrusion
"
"
"

!E$"
H(" d%=4+5" LƒR-RE" C*1,+5" 3(" +F8%8,(165" 51" 6*C)+588%*1" (B(1," 5," ()+^8" 5U,+48%*1" 758"
PV'"Y5U,+47(D358&:""
"
Z1"1*,5a"6*1,+(%+5C51,"W"65"G49*1"(,,517(%,a"G45"3("+F8%8,(165"51"6*C)+588%*1"758"PV'"
7%C%145" ()+^8" 5U,+48%*1a" C%8" W" )(+," 35" PV'#:" -56%" )*4++(%," k,+5" (,,+%D4F" (4U" )+*D3^C58" 75"
C%85"51")3(65"+516*1,+F8:"<1"5225,a"5,"74"2(%,"75"3(",(%335"74"+F85+B*%+a"*1"F,(%,"*D3%=F"795U,+475+"
)348%54+8"2*%8"(2%1"75"+5C)3%+"35"C*435:"O%18%"35"C(,F+%(4"5U,+47F"15")+F851,5")(8"358"CkC58"
)+*)+%F,F8"+?F*3*=%G458"75"7F)(+,"Y3("B%86*8%,F"74"C(,F+%(4"6?(1=5&:"
"
O)+^8"5U,+48%*1a"6?(G45"5U,+47(,"58,"+F64)F+F")4%8",(88F"C(145335C51,"7(18"35"C*435a"
65"G4%")*4++(%,"14%+5"W"39?*C*=F1F%,F"74"C(,F+%(4:""
"
180
+UJAJ;F:@<<:!@9R^O<JJA9:p!+@!\)DF]

175
Après extrusion
170

165

160

155

150

145

140

135
BPR1 BPR2 BPR4 BPR5
"
Figure IV-C-5 : Evolution de la résistance en compression avant et après extrusion des BPR
"

%%& Résistance en traction

O2%1" 75" 7F,5+C%15+" 3(" +F8%8,(165" 51" ,+(6,%*1" 758" PV'a" 1*48" (B*18" +F(3%8F" 415" 8F+%5"
79588(%8" 75" 235U%*1" $" )*%1,8:" H58" F6?F(1658" 75" C584+5" 8*1," Ia" !@" 5," #K" N*4+8:" H58" +F843,(,8"
*D,5148"W"#K"N*4+8"8*1,"+F6()%,43F8"7(18"35"](D35(4"LƒR-R!:"A*48"(B*18"B4"(4"6?()%,+5"#"Y„"LLR
<R#&:" G45" 3(" +F8%8,(165" *D,5145" 1958," )(8" 3(" +F8%8,(165" +F5335" 51" ,+(6,%*1:" _1" 6*522%6%51,""
C%1*+(1,a"75"Sa;a"58,"())3%G4F"(2%1"75"+5,+*4B5+"3("D*115"+F8%8,(165:"
"

!E@"
"
<6?(1,%33*1" PV'!" PV'#" PV'$" PV'@" PV'E"
<88(%"75"235U%*1"$")*%1,8"8(18"6*522%6%51," !Ma#" !Ka;" !Ka;" ##a$" #Sa;"
<88(%"75"235U%*1"$")*%1,8"(B56"6*522%6%51,"75"Sa;" !!aE" !!a#" !!a#" !$a@" !#a@"
Tableau IV-C-1 : Résistance en traction (MPa) des différents BPR à 28 jours"
"
H("d%=4+5"LƒR-R;"C*1,+5"358"+F843,(,8"*D,5148")(+"39588(%"75"235U%*1"$")*%1,8"(2256,F"74"
6*522%6%51,""C%1*+(1,")*4+"358"7%22F+51,58"2*+C43(,%*18"F,47%F58:"
"
16
+UJAJ;F:@<!<:!;OF@;A9:p!+;!\)DF]

14

12

10

6
BPR1
4 BPR2
BPR3
2 BPR4
BPR5
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
#b<!\?9POJ]
Figure IV-C-6 : Evolution de la résistance en traction des BPR
"
-*CC5")*4+"3("+F8%8,(165"51"6*C)+588%*1a"358"CkC58"6*16348%*18")54B51,"k,+5",%+F58"
G4(1," W" 395225," 75" 39(7N4B(1," 5," 74" G4(+,T:" <1" 6*C)(+(1," 358" B(354+8" W" #K" N*4+8" 758" PV'$" 5,"
PV'@a" *1" )54," 1*,5+" 39(CF3%*+(,%*1" ())*+,F5" )(+" 3(" 84D8,%,4,%*1" 75" 24CF5" 75" 8%3%65" )(+" 74"
G4(+,T"D+*QF:""
"
" V*4+"6?(G45"6*C)*8%,%*1a"1*48"(B*18"+F(3%8F"41"588(%"75",+(6,%*1")(+"2517(=5"Yd%=4+5"
LƒR-RI&a" W" #K" N*4+8a" (2%1" 75" 6*C)(+5+" 358" +F8%8,(1658" W" 653358" 75" ,+(6,%*1" )(+" 235U%*1:" H("
+F8%8,(165"*D,5145")(+"2517(=5"58,"3(")348"+5)+F851,(,%B5"5,"4,%3%8F5"7(18"3("3%,,F+(,4+5"74"2(%,"75"
8(" 8%C)3%6%,F:" X5" )348" 65," 588(%a" )(+" +())*+," W" 39588(%" 75" 235U%*1" ,+*%8" )*%1,8a" 58," 35" C*%18"
)5+,4+DF")(+"3("T*15"51"6*C)+588%*1:"-5335R6%"+5)+F851,5"3("C*%,%F"75"39F)+*4B5,,5"7(18"35"6(8"
7941"588(%"75"235U%*1"(3*+8"G45"65,,5"T*15"58,"1F=3%=5(D35"YT*15"51"6*1,(6,"(B56"35")3(,5(4"75"
6?(+=5C51,&"7(18"35"6(8"7941"588(%"75",+(6,%*1")(+"2517(=5:"
"
H("d%=4+5" LƒR-RK" )+F851,5" 415" 6*C)(+(%8*1"758"+F8%8,(1658"51",+(6,%*1"*D,51458")(+"
358"754U"588(%8:""

!EE"
"
H58" B(354+8" 75" ,+(6,%*1" )(+" 2517(=5" *D,51458" 8*1," )+*6?58" 75" 653358" +())*+,F58" )(+"
H(2(+=5"tH(2(+=5u#SS$v"Y„"LLR<R#R("&:"<1"5225,"415"+F8%8,(165"51",+(6,%*1"7%+56,5"75"E"W"K"("F,F"
C584+F5"84+"41"C(,F+%(4"X46,(3"2%D+F:"
"
8

7
+UJAJ;F:@<!<:!;OF@;A9:p!+;!\)DF]

0
BPR1 BPR2 BPR3 BPR4 BPR5
"
Figure IV-C-7 : Résistance en traction par fendage des BPR à 28 jours
"
"
14

12
+UJAJ;F:@<!<:!;OF@;A9:p!+;!\)DF]

10

0
BPR1 BPR2 BPR3 BPR4 BPR5
"
Figure IV-C-8 : Comparaison de la résistance en traction obtenue par fendage (plein) et
par flexion (pointillé) des BPR à 28 jours
"

!E;"
"

*_Q7Q4Q>!! )9GPE<!GVL9P:b!

H("d%=4+5"LƒR-RM")+F851,5"35"C*7435"79…*41="W"7%22F+51,58"F6?F(1658"758"7%22F+51,8"
PV'"F,47%F8:"Z1"+5C(+G45"G45")*4+"358"PV'"W"2(%D35",5154+"51"(7N4B(1,"YPV'!"5,"PV'#&a"35"
C*7435"79…*41="15"6?(1=5"G4(8%C51,")(8"51,+5"I"5,"#K"N*4+8:"-56%")*4++(%,"k,+5"(,,+%D4F"W"3("
2(%D35" %12345165" 74" 84)5+)3(8,%2%(1," 84+" 39?Q7+(,(,%*1:" -5)517(1,a" W" 2*+," 7*8(=5" 51" (7N4B(1,a"
39?Q7+(,(,%*1"58,"+5,(+7F5"Y„"LƒRPR!R("&"&:"X9*e"39FB*34,%*1"75"3("8,+46,4+(,%*1"74"C(,F+%(4"5,"
(%18%"8*1"C*7435"79…*41=:"<1,+5"!@"5,"#K"N*4+8a"65"75+1%5+"(4=C51,5"75"M"qa#E"q"5,"75"!;"q"
)*4+"35"PV'$a"PV'@"5,"PV'Ea"+58)56,%B5C51,:"
"
H9%12345165" 74" G4(+,T" 84+" 35" C*7435" 79…*41=a" 85CD35" FB%751,5" 74" 2(%," 75"
39(CF3%*+(,%*1"G49%3"())*+,5"W"3("+F8%8,(165"CF6(1%G45"51"C43,%)3%(1,"358"6*1,(6,8"8*3%758"5,"51"
*),%C%8(1," 39F,51745" =+(143(%+5:" <1" 5225,a" 35" G4(+,T" )5+C5," 75" 6*CD35+" 358" %1,5+8,%658" 3(%88F8"
3%D+58"51,+5"358"=+(%18"75"8(D35"51"(4=C51,(1,"3("6*115U%*1"%1,5+R)(+,%64358:"
"
"
80

70

60
)9GPE<!GfL9P:b!\0DF]

50

40

30 BPR1
BPR2
20
BPR3
10 BPR4
BPR5
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
#b<!\?9POJ]
Figure IV-C-9 : Evolution du module d’Young en fonction du temps
"
"
H5"](D35(4"LƒR-R# "+F6()%,435"395185CD35"758"+F843,(,8"CF6(1%G458"(B(1,"5,"()+^8"5U,+48%*1:"
"
"

!EI"
"
'F8%8,(165"
'F8%8,(165"51"
\*7435"79…*41=" 51",+(6,%*1"
'F8%8,(165"51"6*C)+588%*1a"'6" ,+(6,%*1")(+"
" 7Q1(C%G45a"<7Q1" )(+"
Y\V(&" 235U%*1a"',"
Y\V(&" 2517(=5a"
Y\V(&"
',"Y\V(&"
!@" #KN"(B(1," #KN"()+^8"
" I"N" I"N" !@"N" #K"N" I"N" !@"N" #K"N" #K"N"
N" 5U,+48%*1" 5U,+48%*1
PV'!" !!E" !$;" !EE" !ES" E$SSS EESSS E@SSS IaM !Sa!" !!aE" ;a$"
PV'#" !!S" !$S" !ES" !ES" E;SSS EKSSS EMSSS M" MaI" !!a#" Ia!"
PV'$" !!E" !#E" !@S" R" EESSS EESSS ;SSSS M" Ma@" !!a#" ;aI"
PV'@" !#S" !ES" !IE" !;E" E#SSS EESSS ;MSSS Ka; !SaK" !$a@" Ia;"
PV'E" !#S" !@E" !IS" !;S" EESSS E;SSS ;ESSS M" !!a#" !#a@" ;a;"
](D35(4"LƒR-R#"0"Récapitulatif des propriétés mécaniques des différents BPR"

*_Q7QS! .-S-!'POF>AEA;U!

H58")+*)+%F,F8"75",+(1825+,"758"C(,F+%(4U"6%C51,(%+58a"6*17%,%*11F58"51")(+,%5")(+"354+"
C%6+*8,+46,4+5a" +F=%8851," 3(" )F+511%,F" 758" 8,+46,4+58" (+CF58" B%8RWRB%8" 79415" C43,%,475" 75"
)(,?*3*=%58a"1*,(CC51,"3("6*++*8%*1"758"(6%5+8:"H(")F1F,+(,%*1"758"(=51,8"(=+588%28"8952256,45"
)+%16%)(35C51," )(+" ,+(18)*+," B%(" 3(" )*+*8%,F" 75" 3(" C(,+%65" 6%C51,(%+5:" H(" 7%C%14,%*1" 75" 3("
)*+*8%,F" )*4++(%," (%18%" (CF3%*+5+" 358" )+*)+%F,F8" W" 3*1=" ,5+C5a" 1*,(CC51," 75" ,+(1825+,a" 758"
*4B+(=58" 51" DF,*1" (+CF:" H5" +())*+," <.-" 58," 3941" 758" )(+(C^,+58" 63F8"0" 8(" 7%C%14,%*1"
51=517+5+(%,"415"D(%885"75"3(")*+*8%,F"74"DF,*1"5,"(CF3%*+5+(%,"(%18%"8("+F8%8,(165"CF6(1%G45"5,"
858")+*)+%F,F8"75",+(1825+,:"H94,%3%8(,%*1"75"3("24CF5"75"8%3%65"(%18%"G45"35"G4(+,T"D+*QF")*4++(%,"
(CF3%*+5+" 658" )+*)+%F,F8:" X(18" 35" 6(7+5" 75" 65,,5" F,475" *1" C*1,+5+(" 39%12345165" 75" 658"
)(+(C^,+58" 75" 2*+C43(,%*1" 84+" 358" 7%22F+51,8" %17%6(,54+8" 75" 74+(D%3%,F"0" 3(" )*+*8%,Fa" 3("
)5+CF(D%3%,F"(4"=(T"5,"3("7%2248%*1"758"%*18"6?3*+5:"

*_Q7QSQF!! D9O9JA;U!

%& Porosité à l’eau

V*4+" 7F,5+C%15+" 3(" )*+*8%,F" (66588%D35" W" 395(4" 7941" DF,*1a" 65" 75+1%5+" 58," 8F6?Fa" )4%8"
8(,4+F" Y„"LLRdR#&" 853*1" 3(" )+*6F74+5" Od'<\RC*7%2%F5" YtOdV-ROd'<\u!MMIva"
tP51"d+(Nu#SSMv&:" H9588(%" 58," +F(3%8F" 84+" 758" 7%8G458" 75" E" 6C" 79F)(%8854+" 5," !!" 6C" 75"

!EK"
7%(C^,+5a"()+^8"(B*%+"C584+F"354+8")5+CF(D%3%,F8"(4"=(T"5,"(B(1,"3("C584+5"74"6*522%6%51,"75"
C%=+(,%*1"(4U"%*18"6?3*+5"
"
H5" ](D35(4" LƒR-R$a" +F84C5" 358" )*+*8%,F8" (66588%D358" W" 395(4a" 15(4" Yq&a" 75" 7%22F+51,8" PV'"
C(,4+58a"7F,5+C%1F58"()+^8"$"C*%8"75"6*185+B(,%*1"7(18"395(4:"
"
Bétons PV'!" PV'#" PV'$" PV'@" PV'E"
neau (%) SaK#" SaM@" !aS$" !a;!" !a#S"
Tableau IV-C-3 : Porosité accessible à l’eau de différents BPR"
"
H(")*+*8%,F"W"395(4"758"PV'"F,47%F8"58,",+^8"2(%D35:"H58"B(354+8"*D,51458"8*1,")+*6?58"
75" 653358" )+F851,F58" 7(18" 75" )+F6F751,58" F,4758"Y„" LRdR!&0" )(+" 5U5C)35a" '58)3517%1*" 5,"
V5,%,N5(1"t'58)3517%1*u#SS$v"%17%G451,"758"B(354+8"75")*+*8%,F"W"395(4"6*C)+%858"51,+5"!aE"5,"
Eq" )*4+" 758" DF,*18" W" 43,+(" ?(4,58" )5+2*+C(1658" YP_[V&:" 'F65CC51,a" ](2+(*4%"
t](2+(*4%u#SSMv"("*D,514"415")*+*8%,F"W"395(4"75";a!q")*4+"41"PV'"75"+())*+,"<.-"75"Sa#I:"
H(2(+=5" tH(2(+=5u#SS$v" (" +())*+,F" 415" )*+*8%,F" W" 395(4" 75" !aM" q" )*4+" 41" C(,F+%(4" X46,(3:"
-5)517(1,a"358"F6(+,8"75")*+*8%,F"*D85+BF8"51,+5"358"7%22F+51,8"PV'"15"8*1,")(8"8422%8(CC51,"
8%=1%2%6(,%28" )*4+" 6*1634+5" 84+" 41" G4536*1G45" 5225," 74" 7*8(=5" 51" 84)5+)3(8,%2%(1," *4" 75" 3("
)+F85165"75"G4(+,T:""
"
O2%1" 75" C*1,+5+" 358" )5+2*+C(1658" )?Q8%G458a" 1*,(CC51," 3(" 2(%D35" )*+*8%,Fa" 75" 65,,5"
1*4B5335"=F1F+(,%*1"75"DF,*18a"415"F,475"6*C)(+(,%B5"("F,F"52256,4F5:"H58"B(354+8"75")*+*8%,F"
(66588%D35" W" 395(4" 758" PV'" F,47%F8" *1," F,F" 6*C)(+F58" W" 653358" 7941" DF,*1" *+7%1(%+5" YPZ&" 5,"
7941"DF,*1"W"?(4,5")5+2*+C(165"YP[V&a"W"D(85"75"24CF5"75"8%3%65"7*1,"358"+())*+,8"<.-"8*1,"
75"Sa@M"5,"Sa$Ka"+58)56,%B5C51,:"-58"754U"75+1%5+8"*1,"7FNW"2(%,"39*DN5,"79415"F,475"(4"6*4+8"75"
3(" ,?^85" 75" XN5+D%" tXN5+D%u#SSIv" 5," 7(18" 35" 6(7+5" 74" )+*N5," 1(,%*1(3" P[V#SSS"
t'(?(+%1(%B*u#SSSv:"
"
H("d%=4+5"LƒR-R!S"C*1,+5"G49415"7%C%14,%*1"74"+())*+,"<.-"75"Sa@M"W"Sa!;"5,"75"Sa$K"
W"Sa!;"51,+(p15"415"6?4,5"75")*+*8%,F"75""!S"W"K"2*%8a"+58)56,%B5C51,:"

!EM"
"

12
D9O9JA;U!F@@<JJA>E<!c!Ef<FPp!:<FP!\j]

10

8
&i7hTpZ2

6
&i7hTp.2

4
&i7!h!Tp4C
&i7qTpS8

0
$6 $MD $1MD $D+Z $D+8 $D+. $D+S $D+4
"
Figure IV-C-10: Porosité à l’eau des BO, BHP [Djerbi_2007], BUHP [Respledino_2003] et
des BPR de cette étude"
"
-5,,5"7%C%14,%*1"75"3(")*+*8%,F")*4++(%,"k,+5"5U)3%G4F5")(+"39(++(1=5C51,"758"=+(%18"75"
6%C51,a" G4%" 58," 6(+(6,F+%8F" )(+" 358" 2*+658" 79%1,5+(6,%*1" 51,+5" =+(%18" 5," 35" +())*+," <.-"
tZ33%B%5+u#SSKv:"<1"5225,a"3("7%C%14,%*1"74"+())*+,"<.-"51=517+5"41"+())+*6?5C51,"758"=+(%18"
5," (%18%" 358" 58)(658" W" 6*CD35+" )(+" 358" ?Q7+(,58" 8*1," +F74%,8a" 79*e" 358" 2(%D358" B(354+8" 75" 3("
)*+*8%,F"758"PV':"
_15"754U%^C5"?Q)*,?^85")*4++(%,"k,+5"(B(16F5")*4+"5U)3%G45+"358"B(354+8",+^8"2(%D358"
75" )*+*8%,F:" <1" 5225,a" P51" d+(N" tP51"d+(Nu#SSMv" (" 8*435BF" 35" )+*D3^C5" 79(7FG4(,%*1" 75" 3("
)+*6F74+5" OdV-ROd'<\" tOdV-ROd'<\u!MMIv" )*4+" 3(" 8(,4+(,%*1" 758" F6?(1,%33*18:" -5"
75+1%5+"("*),F"W"415"(4,+5"CF,?*75a"OdV-ROd'<\"C*7%2%F5"tP51"d+(Nu#SSMva"51")+*3*1=5(1,"
358"74+F58"75"8(,4+(,%*1"W"B%75"5,"(B56"3("8*34,%*1"75"858"F6?(1,%33*18:"H58")+*)+%F,F8")?Q8%G458"
758"C(,F+%(4U"F,(%51,"7%22F+51,58a"853*1"3("CF,?*75"4,%3%8F5:"
<12%1a"X(18"35"6(8"75"DF,*18"W",+^8"2(%D35"+())*+,"<.-a"3(")+F85165"79415"=+(175"G4(1,%,F"75"
6%C51,"(1?Q7+5")*4++(%,"2(4885+"3("C584+5"75"3(")*+*8%,F"W"395(4")(+"65,,5"CF,?*75a"74"2(%,"75"
39?Q7+(,(,%*1"74"6%C51,"(1?Q7+5"+58,(1,"74+(1,"3("8(,4+(,%*1"74"C(,F+%(4:"
X(18" 35" 6(7+5" 75" 1*,+5" F,475a" *1" (" 4,%3%8F" 3(" )+*6F74+5" Od'<\RC*7%2%F5" G4%" )(+(%88(%,"
8(,%82(%8(1,5")*4+"758"DF,*18"7*1,"35"+())*+,"<.-"58,"75"Sa@K"tP51"d+(Nu#SSMv:"<,(1,"7*11Fa"35"
2(%D35" +())*+," <.-" 75" 1*8" DF,*18a" 35" ,5C)8" 75" 8(,4+(,%*1" 75" 39F6?(1,%33*1" )*4++(%," k,+5"

!;S"
%18422%8(1,:"X58"588(%8"75")*+*8%,F"(4"C5+64+5"*4"W"39?F3%4C")*4++(%51,"k,+5"%1,F+588(1,8")*4+"
5U)3*+5+"3(")*+*8%,F"74"C(,F+%(4:"
"

%%& Porosité au mercure


"
H(" )*+*8%CF,+%5" )(+" %1N56,%*1" 75" C5+64+5" 6*18,%,45" 3l41" 758" )+%16%)(4U" *4,%38"
7l%1B58,%=(,%*1" 75" 3(" 8,+46,4+5" )*+5485" 758" C(,F+%(4U" 6%C51,(%+58:" -5,,5" ,56?1%G45" 75"
3(D*+(,*%+5")5+C5,"79FB(345+"3(")*+*8%,F"7941"F6?(1,%33*1"51"(66F7(1,"W"8("7%8,+%D4,%*1")*+(35"
CkC5"8%"5335")54,"k,+5"6+%,%G4(D35")*4+"65",Q)5"75"DF,*18:"
"
H(" d%=4+5" LƒR-R!!" C*1,+5" 39FB*34,%*1" 74" B*34C5" 5C)3%" 75" C5+64+5" 51" 2*16,%*1" 75"
7%(C^,+5"758")*+58:"V*4+",*48"358"PV'a",+*%8")(3%5+8"8*1,"%751,%2%F8"5,"3%C%,F8")(+"358"7%(C^,+58"
$R@S"1Ca"@SRISSS"1C"5,"ISSSR$SSSSS"1C:"H58")*+58"7*1,"35"7%(C^,+5"58,"%12F+%54+"W"$"1Ca"65"
G4%"6*++58)*17"W"415")+588%*1"79%1N56,%*1"75""@!@"\V(a"15"8*1,")(8"(66588%D358"(4"C5+64+5:""

0.04
BPR1
0.035 BPR2
BPR3
_9EPR<!<R^EA!\R%ib]

0.03 BPR4
BPR5
0.025

0.02

0.015

0.01

0.005

0
1.E+06 1.E+05 1.E+04 1.E+03 1.E+02 1.E+01 1.E+00
'AFRI;O<!G<J!^9O<J!\:R]
"
Figure IV-C-11 : Intrusion du mercure
"
Z1"+5C(+G45"G45"358"B*34C58"75")*+58"8*1,")348"%C)*+,(1,8")*4+"358"PV'$"5,"Ea"65"G4%"
85",+(74%,")(+"758"=+(1758"B(354+8"75")*+*8%,F",*,(35a"1"Yq&"Y](D35(4"LƒR-R@&:"
"

!;!"
"
Bétons PV'!" PV'#" PV'$" PV'@" PV'E"
nHg (%) EaK;" Ea$I" Ka@#" @aEM" KaEI"
Tableau IV-C-4 : Porosité au mercure des BPR"
"
-*CC5" 3(" )*+*8%,F" W" 395(4a" 3(" )*+*8%,F" (4" C5+64+5" 758" PV'" 58," 2(%D35:" H58" B(354+8"
*D,51458"8*1,",+^8")+*6?58"75"653358"%17%G4F58"7(18"3("3%,,F+(,4+5"Y„"LRdR!&:"<1"5225,"-?5Q+5TQ"
5,"(3:"t-?5Q+5TQu!MMEv"*1,"C584+F"415")*+*8%,F"75"Iq")*4+"41"PV'"75"+())*+,"<.H"75"Sa!#:"
\(,,5" t\(,,5u!MMMv" %17%G45" 758" B(354+8" 75" )*+*8%,F" 51,+5" ;" 5," Iq" )*4+" 758" PV'" 7*1," 358"
+())*+,8" <.-" 8*1," 75" Sa!K"g" Sa#!" 5," Sa#@:" -58"PV'" *1," 84D%" 41" ,+(%,5C51," ,?5+C%G45" W" MSo-"
)517(1,"#@?"W"39(%+"?4C%75")4%8")517(1,"#@?"W"39(%+"856:"
"
O" 39%8845" 79415" F,475" C51F5" 84+" 39%12345165" 74" 8(D35" 5," 75" 24CF5" 75" 8%3%65" 84+" 3(" )*+*8%,Fa"
X53(=+(B5"5,"(3:"tX53(=+(B5u!MMIva"tX53(=+(B5u!MMKv"*1,"C584+F"415")*+*8%,F"(4"C5+64+5"75"
@"W"KaEq:"-5,,5"B(354+"58,"(488%")+*6?5"75"65335"*D,5145")(+"-?(++*1"t-?(++*1u#SSKv"g")*4+"
41"PV'"75"+())*+,"<.-"y"Sa!EIa"()+^8"415"64+5"?4C%75:"
X(18" 3(" )+F851,5" F,475a" 6*C),5" ,514" 758" 7*8(=58" %751,%G458" 51" 6%C51," 5," 51" 5(4" 758"
PV'" 5," 75" 3(" +F(6,%B%,F" 2(%D35" *4" 14335" 74" G4(+,T" D+*QF" Y)(8" 75" ,+(%,5C51," ,?5+C%G45&a" 3("
7%22F+5165"75")*+*8%,F"51,+5"358"7%22F+51,8"DF,*18"F,47%F8")54,"k,+5")+%16%)(35C51,"(,,+%D4F5"(4"
7*8(=5" B(+%(D35" 51" (7N4B(1,a" W" 3(" +F(6,%B%,F" 75" 3(" 24CF5" 75" 8%3%65" W" 3*1=" ,5+C5" 5," W" 8("
84D8,%,4,%*1")(+"74"G4(+,T"D+*QF:"
"
H5"84)5+)3(8,%2%(1,"4,%3%8F"58,"41"?(4,"+F746,54+"795(4a"7*1,"395225,"15"85CD35")(8",+^8"
8%=1%2%6(,%2" )*4+" 41" 7*8(=5" 75" !q:" X9*e" 358" B(354+8" )+*6?58" 758" )*+*8%,F8" 75" PV'!" 5," 74"
PV'#:"-5,"5225,"58,"8%=1%2%6(,%2")*4+"35"PV'$"5,"35"PV'E"5,"85",+(74%,")(+"415"(4=C51,(,%*1"75"
3(")*+*8%,F",*,(35"758"DF,*18")*4+"758"7*8(=58"51"(7N4B(1,"75"!aK"5,"#qa"+58)56,%B5C51,:"
-*1,+(%+5C51," W" 39(7N4B(1,a" 35" G4(+,T" 85CD35" 7%C%145+" 3(" )*+*8%,F"0" 51" 5225,a" 3(" )*+*8%,F" 74"
PV'@"58,""#"2*%8"C*%18"G45"65335"74"PV'$:"-5,"5225,"DF1F2%G45"74"G4(+,T"W"3*1=",5+C5"58,"3%F"
W"8("2(%D35"*4"1*1"+F(6,%B%,F"Y2%15"%15+,5&"0"3(",*,(3%,F"75"395(4"(78*+DF5"W"3("84+2(65"758"=+(%18"
85+("7%8)*1%D35")*4+"39?Q7+(,(,%*1"74"6%C51,:"-56%"(4=C51,5"3("G4(1,%,F"79?Q7+(,58"2*+CF8"5,"
7%C%145"35"B*34C5"75")*+58"758"?Q7+(,58"Yd%=4+5"LƒR-R!#&:"-53("85",+(74%+(%,")(+"415"D(%885"
75"3(")*+*8%,F",*,(35"75"39F6?(1,%33*1:"O%18%a"3("2(%D35"*4"1*1"+F(6,%B%,F"74"G4(+,T"85CD35")348"
DF1F2%G45"G45"3("+F(6,%B%,F"W"3*1=",5+C5"75"3("24CF5"75"8%3%65:""
"

!;#"
H("d%=4+5"LƒR-R!#")+F851,5"3("7%8,+%D4,%*1"758")*+58"75"6?(G45"PV':"H9(334+5"=F1F+(35"
75"65,,5"7%8,+%D4,%*1a"8%C%3(%+5")*4+",*48"358"PV'"F,47%F8a"58,"51"(66*+7"(B56"3("3%,,F+(,4+5"Y„"LR
dR!&0" -s%+T51" 5," (3:" t-s%+T51u#SSKv" *1," *D,514" 415" (334+5" )(+5%335" )*4+" 41" PV'" 75" +())*+,"
<.-"y"Sa##"5,"8(18",+(%,5C51,",?5+C%G45:"H5"=+(17"B*34C5"75")*+58"7F,56,F"58,"8%,4F"W""!S"
1C:"X(18"1*,+5"6(8a"35")%6"B(+%5"51,+5"!S"1C"YPV'@&"5,"$S"1C"YPV'!a"PV'#a"PV'$"5,"PV'E&:"
-58" B(354+8" 8*1," )+*6?58" 74" )%6" *D,514" )(+" H*4b%3%" 5," (3:" tH*4b%3%u!MMMva" G4%" 58," 75" #S" 1C"
)*4+"41"P_[V"2%D+F"75"+())*+,"<.-"75"Sa#"Y„"LRdR!&:"
"
"""

0.06

0.05
G_iGE9b'!\RE!-:RQ4!-bQ4]

0.04 $D+8
$D+.

0.03 $D+Z

0.02

$D+4 $D+S
0.01

0
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000
'AFRI;O<!G<J!^9O<J!\:R]
"
Figure IV-C-12 : Distribution des pores des différents BPR
"
-5,,5"2%=4+5"C5,"51"FB%75165"395225,"74"7*8(=5"51"(7N4B(1,"5,"39(N*4,"74"G4(+,Ta"G49*1"
(B(%,"7FNW"5U)3%G4F"=3*D(35C51,"51"(1(3Q8(1,"358"B(354+8"75")*+*8%,F",*,(35"758"7%22F+51,8"PV':"
<1" 5225," 39(N*4," 74" 84)5+)3(8,%2%(1," 85CD35" )34,‚," (4=C51,5+" 35" B*34C5" ,*,(3" 758" )*+58" 8(18"
C*7%2%5+" 354+" 7%(C^,+5"0" 35" )%6" 58," ,*4N*4+8" 8%,4F" W" $S" 1C:" -5)517(1,a" 39(N*4," 74" G4(+,T"
7%C%145"35"7%(C^,+5"758")*+58"758"?Q7+(,58"Y!S"(4"3%54"75"$S"1C&"(%18%"G45"354+"B*34C5:"-5,"
5225," 74" G4(+,Ta" *1" 39(B(%," (,,+%D4F" W" 395(4" 7%8)*1%D35" )*4+" 2*+C5+" )348" 79?Q7+(,58:" -53("
)*4++(%,"k,+5"6*12%+CF")(+"415"6*C)(+(%8*1"75"7%8,+%D4,%*18"758")*+58"758"DF,*18"W"7%22F+51,8"
+())*+,8"<.-"tX53(=+(B5u!MMIv:"
"

!;$"
H("d%=4+5"LƒR-R!$")+F851,5"3("7%8,+%D4,%*1"758")*+58"758"7%22F+51,8"PV'"F,47%F8"(%18%"
G45"653358"7941"DF,*1"*+7%1(%+5"Y<.-"y"Sa@M&"5,"7941"DF,*1"?(4,5")5+2*+C(165"Y<.-"y"S"a$K&"
tXN5+D%u#SSIv:" H95225," 74" +())*+," <.-" )(+(p," ,+^8" 8%=1%2%6(,%2"0" 35" )%6a" 8%,4F" W" !S" 1C" )*4+" 35"
PV'@" 5," W" $S" 1C" )*4+" 358" (4,+58" PV'a" 58," 8%,4F" W" @S" 1C" 5," IS" 1C" )*4+" 35" P[V" 5," 35" PZa"
+58)56,%B5C51,:"

0.06

0.05 $MD
G_iGE9b'!\RE!-:RQ4!-bQ4]

0.04 $D+8
$D+.

0.03 $D+Z
$6

0.02

$D+4 $D+S
0.01

0
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000
'AFRI;O<!G<J!^9O<J!\:R]
"
Figure IV-C-13 : Distribution de la taille des pores d’un BO, un BHP [Djerbi_2007] et des
BPR de cette étude.

Z1"1*,5"(488%"G45"3(")*+*8%CF,+%5"(4"C5+64+5"15"+FB^35")(8"75")*+58"75"=+(17"7%(C^,+5"
)*4+" 358" PV'a" 65" G4%" 58," (,,+%D4F" (4U" (4+F*358" 75" ,+(18%,%*1" 7(18" 358" 6(8" 758" (4,+58" DF,*18"
Y84+,*4,"35"PZ&:"X(18"1*,+5"6(8a"*1")54,"%C(=%15+"G45"3("7F23*643(,%*1"758"=+(%18"Y)(+"(N*4,"
79(7N4B(1,&"2(B*+%85"3("2*+C(,%*1"79415"8,+46,4+5"75185:"-5,"5225,"DF1F2%G45"58,"+512*+6F")(+"
394,%3%8(,%*1"75"24CF5"75"8%3%65"5,"74"G4(+,T"D+*QF:"
"
d%1(35C51,a"358"2(%D358"B(354+8"75"3(")*+*8%,F"(4"C5+64+5a"G4%"8*1,"+53(,%B5C51,"F35BF58"
)(+"+())*+,"W"653358"C584+F58"W"395(4a"1*48"3(%885"1*48"%1,5++*=5+"84+"0"
R 3("2%(D%3%,F"75"3(")+*6F74+5"Od'<\RC*7%2%F5")*4+"FB(345+"3(")*+*8%,F"W"395(4"758"PV':"
R 3("C584+5"75"3(")*+*8%,F")(+"395(4")*4+"658",Q)58"75"DF,*18""
"

!;@"
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)5,%,8")*+58"Yˆ"$"1C&"6(+"3(")+588%*1"C(U%C(35"())3%G4F5"58,"3%C%,F5"(3*+8"G45",*48"358")*+58"
8*1,"51")+%16%)5"(66588%D358"W"395(4:"
"

*_Q7QSQ>!! DFOFRI;O<J!G<!;OF:JB<O;!

%& Perméabilité à l’azote


"
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F)+*4B5,,5:"H5"7%8G45"651,+(3"58,"5174%,"75"754U"6*46?58"75"+F8%15"F)*UQa")4%8"+56,%2%Fa"(B(1,"
79k,+5"8F6?F"N48G49W"C(885"6*18,(1,5:""
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-5)517(1,a"41"F,4B(=5"W",5C)F+(,4+5"F35BF5")*4++(%,"51=517+5+"415"C*7%2%6(,%*1"758"?Q7+(,58"
tP(+*=?53RP*41Qu!MM@va" 75" 3(" )*+*8%,F" 75" 39F6?(1,%33*1" tJ(33Fu#SS!v" 5," (%18%" 75" 8("
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X(18"35"6(7+5"75"1*8",+(B(4Ua"3(",5C)F+(,4+5"75"8F6?(=5"6?*%8%5"58,"75"KSo-:"-5,"F,4B(=5"1*48"
)5+C5,"75"+(66*4+6%+"3("74+F5"75"8F6?(=5",*4,"51"FB%,(1,"79517*CC(=5+"358"F6?(1,%33*18:"
"
H(")5+CF(D%3%,F"%1,+%18^G45"58,"FB(34F5"853*1"3(")+*6F74+5"7F6+%,5")+F6F75CC51,"Y„"LLR
dR@RD"&:""
"
H("d%=4+5"LƒR-R!@a"C*1,+5"39FB*34,%*1"75"3(")5+CF(D%3%,F"())(+51,5"51"2*16,%*1"75"39%1B5+85"
75"3(")+588%*1"C*Q5115")*4+"35"PV'!a"35"PV'#"5,"35"PV'$:""
"
H58" 7%22F+51,58" B(354+8" 75" )5+CF(D%3%,F" %1,+%18^G45" Y~ƒ&a" 7F,5+C%1F58" )(+" +F=+588%*1"
3%1F(%+5a"8*1,"+F84CF58"7(18"35"](D35(4"LƒR-RE:""
""

!;E"
"
Bétons PV'!" PV'#" PV'$" PV'@" PV'E"
KV (10-19 m2) $aIE" !a;#" #aE;" R" R"
Tableau IV-C-5 : Perméabilité au gaz des BPR"
"

1.8E-18
BPR1 y = 3.15E-13x + 1.62E-19
D<ORUF>AEA;U!F^^FO<:;<p!r#!\R ]

1.6E-18
S

R2 = 0.99
BPR2 -13
y = 2.52E x + 3.75E
-19
1.4E-18 2
BPR3 R = 0.98
1.2E-18

1.0E-18

8.0E-19 -14
y = 7.52E x + 2.56E
-19

2
6.0E-19 R =1

4.0E-19

2.0E-19

0.0E+00
0.0E+00 1.0E-06 2.0E-06 3.0E-06 4.0E-06 5.0E-06
Q4
4iDR!\)DF ]
"
Figure IV-C-14 : Perméabilité apparente en fonction de l’inverse de la pression moyenne.
"
H58"6*522%6%51,8"75")5+CF(D%3%,F"(4"=(T"758"DF,*18"PV'@"5,"PV'E"85"8*1,"+FBF3F8",+*)"
2(%D358")*4+"k,+5"C584+(D358"(B56"35")5+CF(C^,+5"-5CD4+5(4:""
H58"B(354+8"*D,51458"8*1,"84)F+%54+58a",*4,"51"+58,(1,"6*C)(+(D358a"W"653358"+())*+,F58"
)(+"'58)3517%1*"5,"V5,%,N5(1"t'58)3517%1*u#SS$va"G4%")+F851,51,"415")5+CF(D%3%,F"W"39*UQ=^15"
758" P_[V" %12F+%54+5" W" !SR!M" C#" 5," )(+" H(2(+=5" tH(2(+=5u#SS$v:" '*4U" 5," (3:" YX(18"
t\(,,5u!MMMv&" %17%G451," 415" )5+CF(D%3%,F" W" 39(%+" 75" #aE" U" !SR!K" C#" )*4+" 41" PV'" 8(18"
,+(%,5C51,",?5+C%G45"Y„"LRdR#R("&:""
"
H58" F6(+,8" 51,+5" 358" )5+CF(D%3%,F8" C584+F58" 15" 8*1," )(8" (885T" 8%=1%2%6(,%28" )*4+" 1*48"
)5+C5,,+5"75"6*1634+5"84+"41"5225,")(+,%643%5+"74"7*8(=5"51"84)5+)3(8,%2%(1,"*4"75"3(")+F85165"
74"G4(+,T"D+*QF:""
"

!;;"
O2%1" 75" C*1,+5+" 358" )5+2*+C(1658" 758" PV'a" 354+8" )5+CF(D%3%,F8" %1,+%18^G458" *1," F,F"
+5)+F851,F58"(B56"653358"758"DF,*18"*+7%1(%+58"5,"758"DF,*18"75"?(4,5")5+2*+C(165:""
H("d%=4+5" LƒR-R!E" C*1,+5" G45" 3(" 7%C%14,%*1" 74" +())*+,"<.-"75"Sa@M"YPZ&"5,"Sa$K"YP[V&"W"
Sa!;" 51=517+5" 415" 6?4,5" 75" 3(" )5+CF(D%3%,F" %1,+%18^G45" (4" =(T" 75" " M;" 5," #I" 2*%8a"
+58)56,%B5C51,:" -53(" 58," 7h" W" 3(" 7%C%14,%*1" 75" 3(" 6*1,%14%,F" 74" +F85(4" )*+54U" 5," 7*16" W" 3("
+F746,%*1" 75" 3(" )*+*8%,F" *4B5+,5" 74" DF,*1:" H58" (4+F*358" 75" ,+(18%,%*1" YW" 6(485" 758" =+*8"
=+(143(,8&" 7(18" 35" DF,*1" *+7%1(%+5" 5," 35" DF,*1" 75" ?(4,5" )5+2*+C(165" )*4++(%51," k,+5" (488%" W"
39*+%=%15"7941",+(1825+,"84))3FC51,(%+5"74"=(T:""
"
D<ORUF>AEA;U!A:;OA:JIYP<!FP!bFep!r_!\RS]

2.5E-17

2E-17

1.5E-17
&i7!h!TpZ2

1E-17

5E-18
&i7!h!Tp.X

&i7!h!Tp4C

0
$6 $MD $D+4 $D+. $D+S
"
Figure IV-C-15 : Perméabilité intrinsèque au gaz d’un BO, BHP [Djerbi_2007] et des BPR
de cette étude.
"

%%& Diffusion des ions chlore (migration en régime stationnaire)


"
O" 39%8845" 75" 39588(%" 75" )5+CF(D%3%,Fa" 358" F6?(1,%33*18" *1," F,F" 8(,4+F8" W" 39(%75" 79415"
8*34,%*1" D(8%G45" Y„" LLRdR#:&" 853*1" 3(" )+*6F74+5" Od'<\RC*7%2%F5" tP51"d+(Nu#SSMv:" H54+8"
6*522%6%51,8"52256,%28"75"C%=+(,%*1"YX5C%=&"*1,"F,F"FB(34F8"853*1"3(")+*6F74+5"OdV-ROd'<\"
tOdV-ROd'<\u!MMIv:""
"

!;I"
H(" d%=4+5" LƒR-R!;" )+F851,5" 39FB*34,%*1" 75" 3(" 6*1651,+(,%*1" 64C43F5" 758" %*18" 6?3*+5"
7(18" 35" 6*C)(+,%C51," (B(3" 51" 2*16,%*1" 74" ,5C)8" )*4+" 358" 7%22F+51,8" PV'" F,47%F8" W" 39%8845"
79415")F+%*75"79%1B58,%=(,%*1"75"IS"N*4+8:"
"
1.8
79:@<:;OF;A9:!@PRPEU<!<:!5F7E!

KTTT!c!.TTTTT!:R ZT!c!KTTT!:R .!c!ZT!:R


1.6
1.4
1.2
1
\biE]

0.8
BPR1
0.6 BPR2
0.4 BPR3
BPR4
0.2
BPR5
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000
"<R^J!\H<PO<J]
"
Figure IV-C-16 : Evolution de la concentration cumulée des ions chlore en fonction du temps.
"
-?(G45"6*4+D5"58,"6(+(6,F+%8F5")(+"G4(,+5")(3%5+8"0"
R H5")+5C%5+")(3%5+a"7F6+%,"415"FB*34,%*1",+^8"2(%D35"75"3("6*1651,+(,%*1"75"6?3*+4+58:"
-5")(3%5+"89F,517"84+"@KS"?54+58:"
R H5"754U%^C5")(3%5+a"6*CC5165"W"@KS"?"5,"85",5+C%15"W"!S@S"?:"L3"58,"6(+(6,F+%8F")(+"
415"7%2248%*1")348"+()%75"75"6?3*+4+58"7(18"35"C(,F+%(4:"
R H5" ,+*%8%^C5" )(3%5+a" 75" !S@S" ?" W" !$#S" ?a" 7F6+%," 415" 7%2248%*1" ,+^8" +()%75" 758"
6?3*+4+58"7(18"39F6?(1,%33*1:"
R H5" G4(,+%^C5" )(3%5+a" G49*1" G4(3%2%5" 74" +F=%C5" )5+C(151,a" C*1,+5" 415" B%,5885" 75"
)F1F,+(,%*1"C*%18"+()%75:"
"
A*48" )518*18" G45" 658" 6*4+D58" 15" 7F6+%B51," )(8" 85435C51," 35" 234U" 75" 6?3*+4+58"
,+(B5+8(1,"39F6?(1,%33*1"8*48"6?(C)"F356,+%G45a"C(%8"(488%")(+"(D8*+),%*1"6()%33(%+5"74"2(%,"G45"
39F6?(1,%33*1"1958,")(8"6*C)3^,5C51,"8(,4+F"(4"3(165C51,"75"39588(%"Y„"LƒR-R#R("&:"X9*ea"415"
7%86*1,%14%,F"234%75"2(B*+%8(1,"3(")F1F,+(,%*1"758"6?3*+4+58")(+"(D8*+),%*1"6()%33(%+5:"<1"5225,a"
8%"*1"(1(3Q85"N48,5"358",+*%8")+5C%5+8")(3%5+8a"*1"+5,+*4B5"39(334+5"75"3("6*4+D5"75")*+*8%CF,+%5"

!;K"
Yd%=4+5" LƒR-R!!&:" H5" )+5C%5+" )(3%5+" )*4++(%," k,+5" 6*18%7F+F" 6*CC5" 3(" 8(,4+(,%*1" 75" 3("
)+5C%^+5"2(C%335"758")*+58"7*1,"35"7%(C^,+5"B(+%5"75"ISSS"W"$SSSSS"1C:"H5"754U%^C5")(3%5+"
85+(%,"(%18%"3("8(,4+(,%*1"758")*+58"75"7%(C^,+5"@S"W"ISSS"1C"0"358"7%(C^,+58"8*1,")348")5,%,8a"
65" G4%" %174%," 415" 7F)+588%*1" 6()%33(%+5" )348" %C)*+,(1,5" 79*e" 3(" 7%2248%*1" )348" +()%75" 75"
6?3*+4+58"7(18"39F6?(1,%33*1:"H5",+*%8%^C5")(3%5+"7F6+%,"3("8(,4+(,%*1"758")*+58"358")348"2(%D358"
Y$"W"@S"1C&a"79*e"3(")348"=+(175"B%,5885"75")F1F,+(,%*1"758"6?3*+4+58:"
H5" G4(,+%^C5" )(3%5+" 85+(%," 7*16" 35" +F=%C5" 8,(,%*11(%+5" 75" 6?(G45" 6*4+D5:" -56%" 1*48"
)5+C5,,+("75"7F,5+C%15+"35"6*522%6%51,"75"C%=+(,%*1"52256,%2a"X5C%=a"75"6?(G45"DF,*1"Y„"LLRdRER6"
&"Y](D35(4"LƒR-R;&:""
"
Bétons PV'!" PV'#" PV'$" PV'@" PV'E"
Demig (10-13 m2/s) !aS@K" !a!$$" !a$K!" SaKK$" !aSK$"
Tableau IV-C-6 : Coefficients de migration des différents BPR"
"
H58" B(354+8" 75" 6*522%6%51,8" 75" C%=+(,%*1" 758" %*18" 6?3*+5" 758" 7%22F+51,8" PV'" 8*1,"
%12F+%54+58a" ,*4," 51" +58,(1," 6*C)(+(D358" W" 653358" +())*+,F58" )(+" X53(=+(B5" 5," (3:"
t#MEIuX53(=+(B5u!MMIva"t#MIEuX53(=+(B5u!MMKv"G4%")+F851,51,"758"6*522%6%51,8"75"7%2248%*1"
758" %*18" 6?3*+5" 75" !S" W" !K" U" !SR!@" C#.8a" )*4+" 758" DF,*18" 75" +())*+," <.-" y" Sa#E:" H58"
6*522%6%51,8"75"7%2248%*1"75",+%,%4C"8*1,"75"!!"W";$"U"!SR!@"C#.8""
"
H58"6*522%6%51,8"75"7%2248%*1"C584+F8"8*1,"84)F+%54+8"W"654U"+())*+,F8")(+"'*4U"5,"(3:"
Y7(18"t\(,,5u!MMMv&a"ƒ5+15,"5,"(3:"tƒ5+15,u#SS#v"5,"'58)3517%1*"5,"(3:"t'58)3517%1*u#SS$v"Y„"
LRdR#R6"&a"G4%"%17%G451,"41"6*522%6%51,"75"7%2248%*1"758"%*18"6?3*+5"75"#"U"!SR!@"C#.8:"X9(4,+58"
(4,54+8"*1,"C584+F"758"6*522%6%51,8"75"7%2248%*1"%12F+%54+8"W"1*8"6*522%6%51,8"Y„"LRdR#R6"&:"<1"
5225,a"P*4+75,,5"Y7(18"t\(,,5u!MMMv&"("C584+F"41"6*522%6%51,"75"7%2248%*1"75",+%,%4C"75"E"U"!SR
!@
"C#.8:"\(,,5"t\(,,5u!MMMva"51"4,%3%8(1,"(488%"74",+%,%4Ca"("*D,514"758"6*522%6%51,8"75"!a!"W"
#a!"U"!SR!@"C#.8:"H58"PV'"F,47%F8")(+"658"754U"75+1%5+8a"75"+())*+,"<.-"B(+%(1,"75"Sa!K"W"Sa#@a"
*1,"F,F")+F(3(D35C51,",+(%,F8"Y,?5+C%G45C51,&:"
"
H(2(+=5"tH(2(+=5u#SS$v"("+())*+,F"41"6*522%6%51,"75"7%2248%*1"75",+%,%4C"75"!a!;"U"!SR
!@"
C#.8:"'F65CC51,a"](2+(*4%"t](2+(*4%u#SSMv"("C584+F"41"6*522%6%51,"75"7%2248%*1"758"%*18"
6?3*+5"75"!aI"U"!SR!@"C#.8")*4+"41"PV'"75"+())*+,"<.-"75"Sa#IY„"LRdR#R6"&:"
"
H58"B(354+8"75"6*522%6%51,8"75"7%2248%*1"758"%*18"6?3*+5a"C584+F8"7(18"35"6(7+5"75"65,,5"
F,475a" 8*1," ,+^8" )+*6?58" Y35" )348" =+(17" F6(+," 58," 75" SaE" U" !SR!$" C#.8&:" AF(1C*%18a" 415"

!;M"
6*C)(+(%8*1")*4++(%,"k,+5"2(%,5"(2%1"75"6*1634+5"84+"41"FB51,453"5225,"79(7N4B(1,a"75"24CF5"75"
8%3%65"*4"74"G4(+,T:"
H9(7N4B(1,"85CD35"(4=C51,5+"35"6*522%6%51,"75"7%2248%*1:"-5,"5225,"("F,F"(488%"*D85+BF"84+"3("
)*+*8%,F:" <1" (4=C51,(1," 3(" )*+*8%,F" ,*,(35" 75" 39F6?(1,%33*1a" 39%1,5+6*115U%*1" 758" )*+58"
(4=C51,5a"65"G4%"6+F5"758"6?5C%18")+F2F+51,%538")*4+"3("7%2248%*1"758"%*18"6?3*+5:"
X5"CkC5"35"G4(+,TaG4%"51"7%C%14(1,"3(")*+*8%,F"758"PV'a"85=C51,5"358"6?5C%18"75",+(1825+,"5,"
5C)k6?5"(%18%"3("7%2248%*1"758"%*18"6?3*+5:"X9*e"3("2(%D35"B(354+"75"X5C%="74"PV'@:"
"
Z1" )54," (%18%" 6*1634+5" G45" 358" PV'" )+F851,51," 758" )5+2*+C(1658" )?Q8%G458" Y2(%D358"
)*+*8%,F8&" G4%" 354+8" 6*12^+51," 415" C5%3354+5" +F8%8,(165" (4U" (=51,8" (=+588%28a" 1*,(CC51," 358"
%*18"6?3*+5"0"354+"2(%D35"+())*+,"<.-"354+")5+C5,"79(B*%+"415")*+*8%,F"85=C51,F5"G4%"5C)k6?5"
3(")F1F,+(,%*1"75"658"(=51,8:"_15"6*C)(+(%8*1"75"658"DF,*18"(4U"DF,*18"*+7%1(%+58"*4"75"?(4,5"
)5+2*+C(165"1*48")5+C5,,+("75"C5,,+5"51"FB%75165"65,"5225,:"
"
H(" d%=4+5" LƒR-R!I" )+F851,5" 35" 234U" 75" 6?3*+4+58" ,+(B5+8(1,"0" 41" DF,*1" *+7%1(%+5" 75"
+())*+," <.-" y" Sa@Ma" 41" DF,*1" ?(4,5" )5+2*+C(165" 75" +())*+," <.-" y" Sa$K" tXN5+D%u#SSIv" 5," 35"
PV'@:"L3"58,"%C)*+,(1,"75"1*,5+"G49(4",5+C5"75"65,,5")F+%*75"79%1B58,%=(,%*1"Y;ES"?54+58&a"35"
+F=%C5")5+C(151,"("F,F"(,,5%1,")*4+"35"PZ"Y#@S"?54+58&"5,"35"P[V"YESS"?54+58&:"-534%"74"PV'"
58,"(,,5%1,"W";#"N*4+8:""
"

3
79:@<:;OF;A9:!@PRPEU<!<:!5F7E!

2.5
$6

2
\biE]

1.5

1
$MD

0.5 $D+

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
"<R^J!\H<PO<J]
"
Figure IV-C-17 : Flux de chlorures traversant un BO, un BHP [Djerbi_2007] et le BPR4.
"

!IS"
Z1"+5C(+G45"G49(4"D*4,"75"$KS"?54+58"35"234U"75"6?3*+4+58"7(18"35"PV'"58,"@"5,"#K"
2*%8" C*%18" %C)*+,(1," G45" 6534%" 7(18" 35" P[V" 5," 35" PZa" +58)56,%B5C51,:" -53(" 5U)3%G45"
39%12345165" 74" +())*+," <.-" 5," 84+,*4," 75" 3(" 2+(6,%*1" B*34C%G45" Y,+^8" 2(%D35" 7(18" 35" 6(8" 758"
PV'&:" <1" 5225,a" 35" 6*522%6%51," 75" 7%2248%*1" (4=C51,5" (4" 1%B5(4" 758" (4+F*358" 75" ,+(18%,%*1"
CkC5" 8%" *1" )54," )5185+" W" 415" FB51,45335" 6*C)518(,%*1" )(+" 39(4=C51,(,%*1" 75" ,*+,4*8%,F"
*66(8%*11F5")(+"358"=+(143(,8:"
"
H(" d%=4+5" LƒR-R!K" %3348,+5" D%51" 65" )(+(C^,+5"0" 35" 6*522%6%51," 75" 7%2248%*1" 758" %*18"
6?3*+5"7(18"358"PV'"58,""!I"2*%8"5,""#aE"2*%8"C*%18"%C)*+,(1,"G45"6534%"74"DF,*1"*+7%1(%+5"5,"
74"DF,*1"?(4,5")5+2*+C(165a"+58)56,%B5C51,:"
-58" B(354+8" 2(%D358" 75" 234U" 5," 75" 6*522%6%51," 75" 7%2248%*1" 758" %*18" 6?3*+5" )*4++(%51,"
(488%"k,+5"(,,+%D4F5"W"415"2*+,5"%1,5+(6,%*1"51,+5"3("8*34,%*1"8(3%15"YA(-3&"5,"35"6%C51,"(1?Q7+5a"
)+F851,"51"=+(175"G4(1,%,F"7(18"358"PV':"
"

20
&i7!h!TpZ2
18
16
'<RAb!\4TQ4.!=!RSiJ]

14
12
10
8
6
4 &i7!h!Tp.X &i7!h!Tp4C
2
0
$6 $MD $D+. $D+S $D+8 $D+4 $D+Z
"
Figure IV-C-18 : Coefficient de migration des ions chlore d’un BO, un BHP [Djerbi_2007]
et des BPR de cette étude.
"
H5" ,(D35(4" ](D35(4" LƒR-RI" " +F6()%,435" 358" )+*)+%F,F8" W" 3*1=" ,5+C5" 75" ,*48" 358" PV'"
F,47%F8:" A*48" )*4B*18" (%18%" +5C(+G45+" 358" )5+2*+C(1658" CF6(1%G458" 5," 75" 74+(D%3%,F" 74"
PV'@:"-56%"C5,"51"FB%75165"395225,"DF1F2%G45"74"G4(+,T"51"7%C%14(1,"3(")*+*8%,F"74"C(,F+%(4"
5,"51"(CF3%*+(1,"858")+*)+%F,F8"CF6(1%G458"5,"75"74+(D%3%,F:""

!I!"
"
"

PF,*1" PV'!" PV'#" PV'$" PV'@" PV'E"


'6#KN"Y\V(&" !EE" !ES" !@S" !IE" !IS"
<7Q1#KN"Y\V(&" E@SSS" EMSSS" ;SSSS" ;MSSS" ;ESSS"
',#KN"Y\V(&" ;a$" Ia!" ;aI" Ia;" ;a;"
15(4"Yq&" SaK#" SaM@" !aS$" !a;!" !a#S"
1[="Yq&" EaK;" Ea$I" Ka@#" @aEM" KaEI"
~ƒ"YU"!SR!M"C#&" $aIE" !a;#" #aE;" R" R"
X5C%="YU"!SR!$"C#.8&" !aS@K" !a!$$" !a$K!" SaKK$" !aSK$"
Tableau IV-C-7 : Propriétés à long terme des BPR étudiés
"
Z4,+5"358")+*)+%F,F8"W"3*1=",5+C5a"1*48"+())53*18"G45"35"G4(+,T")5+C5,"79(CF3%*+5+"358"
)+*)+%F,F8"+?F*3*=%G458""2(B*+(D358"W"415"C5%3354+5"C%85"51")3(65"74"C(,F+%(4")(+"5U,+48%*1:"

"

79:@EPJA9:!

-5" 6?()%,+5" (" )*+,F" 84+" 39F,475" 75" 395U,+47(D%3%,F" 758" DF,*18" 75" )*47+58" +F(6,%B58:" H58"
)+*)+%F,F8"W"6*4+,"5,"W"3*1=",5+C5"758"7%22F+51,8"PV'"F,47%F8"*1,"F,F"7F,5+C%1F58"51"C5,,(1,"
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)?(858"("F,F"5184%,5"B(3%7F5")(+"758"(1(3Q858"'%5,B537"Y„"LLRPR!RD"&:"A*48"7%864,*18"7(18"65,,5"
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t-?5Q+5TQu!MMEv"0"35"75=+F"79?Q7+(,(,%*1"B(+%5"51,+5"@S"5,";Sq:"X(18"41"7%22+(6,*=+(CC5"75"
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6%C51,"%1%,%(3a"79*e"3("1F6588%,F"79415"D*115"6(+(6,F+%8(,%*1"74"6%C51,"(1?Q7+5"4,%3%8F"Y„"LLLR
OR!&:"X(18"358"6%1G"PV'a"*1"+5,+*4B5",*48"358")%68"74"6%C51,"(1?Q7+5a"8(42"654U"74"=Q)85:"Z1"
1*,5"F=(35C51,"39())(+%,%*1"75"1*4B53358"+(%58"75"2(%D35"%1,518%,Fa"G49%3"89(=%,"79%751,%2%5+:"
"
40 000

35 000

30 000

25 000

20 000
nb. coups

15 000
Fl> l7.#l7Z#/
> 4ST Fl>
Fl>
7Z#/ Fl>

10 000
Fl@
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b!!TS4
b!!TST

Fl>
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5 000
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F

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0
m4 mS m. mZ m8
-5 000
10 20 30 40
2 Co (°) 50 60 70 80
"
Figure V-A-1 : Diffractogramme du BPR1 (rouge) comparé à celui du ciment anhydre initial
(noir). Les raies fortes (rouges) non labellisées sont celles du quartz.
"

_Q#QS! *G<:;ABA@F;A9:!G<J!^HFJ<J!F:HWGO<J!<;!HWGOF;U<J!

H("d%=4+5"ƒROR#"84)5+)*85"358"7%22+(6,*=+(CC58"758"6%1G"PV'"5,"74"6%C51,"(1?Q7+5"
%1%,%(3"7(18"358"+F=%*18"#-*"y"!S"R"!Eo"Y(&a"#-*"y"!K"R"#!aEo"YD&"5,"#-*"y"$$aE""R"@!o"Y6&:"H("
+(%5"74"=Q)85"S#S"7%8)(+(p,"6*C)3^,5C51,"7(18",*48"358"PV'"g"51"+5B(16?5a"415"+(%5"75"2(%D35"
%1,518%,F"5,"41")54"F3(+=%5"())(+(p,"W"#-*"y"!SaEEo"d%=4+5"ƒROR#"(&:"-5,,5"+(%5"58,"3("+(%5"3("
)348" 2*+,5" 75" 395,,+%1=%,5" Y]/O&a" 6*C)*8F" )+*74%," )(+" 39?Q7+(,(,%*1" 758" (34C%1(,58" (B56" 35"
=Q)85"Y6?():"La"<G"!:;:(&:""
"
"

!I;"
"

Ciment anhydre

<;;OA:bA;<
2400 BPR1
BPR2
BPR3
BPR4
BPR5

b!!TST
2000

7Z#/
coups
\F]!

1600

1200

10 11 12 13 14 15
2 Co (°)
"
Ciment anhydre

^9O;EF:GA;<
2000
BPR1
BPR2
1800
BPR3
BPR4
<;;OA:bA;<

1600 BPR5
coups

\>]! 1400
F

"
1200

1000

800
18,0 18,5 19,0 19,5 20,0 20,5 21,0 21,5
2 Co (°) "
8800
Fl>

ciment anhydre
8000 BPR1
Fl>

BPR2
7200
BPR3
Fl@

6400 BPR4

5600
BPR5
Fl>
coups

4800
\@]!
4000
^9O;EF:GA;<

3200
7Z#/

2400
F

1600
>

800

34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41
2 Co (°) "
Figure V-A-2 : Diffractogrammes des cinq BPR comparés à celui du ciment anhydre

!II"
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*D85+B5"F=(35C51,"84+"358"d%=4+5"ƒROR#"("5,"6"415"3F=^+5"7%C%14,%*1"758"+(%58"74"-@Od:"Z1"
)54," 7*16" 6*1634+5" G45" 35" =Q)85" (" +F(=%" (B56" 39(34C%1(,5" -@Od" Y+())53*18" 3(" G4(8%R
%15U%8,5165"75"-$O"7(18"35"6%C51,"%1%,%(3a"+51B*%"Y](D35(4"LLLROR$&"3*+8"75"39?Q7+(,(,%*1")*4+"
2*+C5+"75"395,,+%1=%,5:"
-*165+1(1," 39?Q7+(,(,%*1" 758" 8%3%6(,58a" *1" *D85+B5" 358" +(%58" 6(+(6,F+%8,%G458" 75" 3("
)*+,3(17%,5a"W"#-*"y"#SaMo"5,"W"#-*"y"$MaKo"Yd%=4+5"ƒROR#"D"5,"6&a")348"%1,51858"7(18"358"PV'"
G45"7(18"35"6%C51,"(1?Q7+5"%1%,%(3:"<1"+5B(16?5a"*1"15"7F,56,5")(8"3("+(%5"6(+(6,F+%8,%G45"758"
-/["Y8,+46,4+5",*D5+C*+%,5a"Y„"LROR@RD""5,"LROR@R6"&"W"7"y"!!"Y#-*"y"MaSKo&"0"3("d%=4+5"ƒR
OR$" 84)5+)*85" 358" 7%22+(6,*=+(CC58" 758" PV'!a" PV'@" 5," PV'E" 51+5=%8,+F8" (4U" D(8" (1=358:"
-58"*D85+B(,%*18"6*165+1(1,"358"-/["5,"3(")*+,3(17%,5"8*1,"51"(66*+7"(B56"653358"75"-?5Q+5TQ"
5,"(3:"

BPR1
BPR4
BPR5
3000
<;;OA:bA;<
coups

2500

2000

1500
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
2 Co (°) "

Figure V-A-3 : Diffractogrammes des BPR1, BPR4 et BPR5 aux bas angles
"
H(" d%=4+5" ƒROR@" 84)5+)*85" 358" 7%22+(6,*=+(CC58" 758" 6%1G" PV'" 7(18" 3(" +F=%*1"
6(+(6,F+%8,%G45"74"63%1b5+:"H9F6?(1,%33*1"75"PV'E"58,"7%22F+51,"758"@")+F6F751,8"0""
R 358"+(%58")+%16%)(358"Y(wD&"8*1,"D5(46*4)")348"2%158a"5,"
R 39%1,518%,F"75"3("+(%5"%8*3F5"75"3("DF3%,5"YD&"W"$;a#o"("6*18%7F+(D35C51,"6?4,F:""
"

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Y2(%D35C51,&" G45" )(+" 3(" ,5154+" 51" 84)5+)3(8,%2%(1,a" #q" 7(18" 35" PV'E" 6*1,+5" !aKq" 7(18" 35"
PV'@:"Z1"6*18,(,5"G45"35"D+4%,"75"2*17"(4U"D(8"(1=358a"6(+(6,F+%8,%G45"758")*3QC^+58a"58,"41"
)54")348"2*+,"7(18"35"PV'E"Yd%=4+5"ƒROR@&:""

BPR1
Fl@
4000

Fl>
BPR2

Fl>
3500 BPR3
BPR4

Fl>
3000 BPR5

2500
coups

^9O;EF:GA;<
2000

7Z#/
F

1500
>

1000

500
34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41
2 Co (°) "
Figure V-A-4 : Diffractogrammes des cinq BPR dans la fenêtre 2Co = 33,5 – 41°.
"
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5,"656%"7(18"35"D4,"75"B(3%75+"1*,+5"%751,%2%6(,%*1"75")?(858"5,"75"6*C)(+5+"358",5154+8"+53(,%B58"
758")?(858"6+%8,(33%158:"O"1*,+5"6*11(%88(165a"%3"195U%8,5"W"65"N*4+"G45",+^8")54"79(1(3Q858"75"
65",Q)5"())3%G4F58"(4U"PV':"<1"5225,a"658"F,4758"*1,",+^8"B%,5"F,F"3%C%,F58")(+"35"C(1G45"75"
6*11(%88(165" 8,+46,4+(35" 75" 39(3%,5" t\(18*4,+5u!MM;v:" <1" 1*48" ())4Q(1," W" )+F851," 84+" 358"
,+(B(4U")*8,F+%54+8"C51F8"84+"35")*3QC*+)?%8C5"75"39(3%,5a"%3"58,")*88%D35"75"C%54U"%751,%2%5+"
5,"C*7F3%85+"3("8,+46,4+5"75"39(3%,5"7(18"35"6%C51,"75"7F)(+,"Y„"LLRPR!RD"5,"LLLROR!&a"5,"7*16"75"
,51,5+"75"1*4B5(4"%6%"758"(1(3Q858"'%5,B537"84+"358"PV':""
A*48"(B*18")+*6F7F"6*CC5"84%,")*4+"6?(641"758"6%1G"7%22+(6,*=+(CC58"75"PV':"H("
6*1,+%D4,%*1" 758" )?(858" (C*+)?58" Y24CF58" 75" 8%3%65" 5," -/[&" 89(N*4,5" (4" D+4%," 75" 2*17"
)4+5C51,"5U)F+%C51,(3:"H5"D+4%,"75"2*17"58,"C*7F3%8F")(+"415"2*16,%*1")*3Q1*C%(35a"6*CC5"
7(18" 35" 6(8" 74" 6%C51," (1?Q7+5:" V*4+" 358" )?(858" 6+%8,(33%158a" *1" (N*4,5" (4U" 85)," )?(858"
6+%8,(33%158"7FNW")+%858"51"6*C),5")*4+"39(1(3Q85"74"6%C51,"Y](D35(4"LLLROR@](D35(4"LLLROR@"0"
Structures cristallographiques des phases présentes dans le ciment utilisé&a"358"754U")?(858"
84))3FC51,(%+58" )+*)+58" (4U" PV'a" 358" )?(858" RG4(+,T" 5," 395,,+%1=%,5" Y+?*CD*F7+%G45a"

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Y](D35(4"LRORE&:"H58"(N48,5C51,8"7%B5+=51,"51"2*+c(1,"3(")+F85165"75"6(36%,5"5,"75"=Q)85a"65"
G4%" C*1,+5" G45" 358" 754U" )?(858" *1," 6*C)3^,5C51," 7%8)(+4:" ]*4,58" 358" (4,+58" )?(858"
6+%8,(33%158" 8*1," D%51" C*7F3%8F58a" 65" G4%" B(3%75" 1*,+5" %751,%2%6(,%*1" 75" )?(858a" 5," (4R753W" 3("
)*88%D%3%,F"79())3%G45+"39(1(3Q85"'%5,B537")*4+"3("6(+(6,F+%8(,%*1"758"PV':"H(",5154+"51"DF3%,5"
58,"W")54")+^8"3("CkC5"3*+8G49*1")(885"74"PV'!"(4"PV'@a")4%8"5335"7%C%145"2*+,5C51,"7(18"
35" PV'E:" H(" d%=4+5" ƒRORE" %3348,+5" 39(N48,5C51," '%5,B537" 7(18" 35" 6(8" 74" PV'@:" X(18" 358"
F6?(1,%33*18"*e"*1"("84D8,%,4F"415"2+(6,%*1"75"3("24CF5"75"8%3%65")(+"74"G4(+,T"D+*QF"YPV'@R
E&a" *1" *D85+B5" 7*16" D%51" 415" 7%C%14,%*1" 75" 3(" ,5154+" 51" DF3%,5" G4(17" 35" 7*8(=5" 51"
84)5+)3(8,%2%(1,"7F)(885"!aK"q:""
"
coups

2Co (deg.)
"
"
Figure V-A-5 : Ajustement par la méthode de Rietveld du diffractogramme du BPR4. Les
diffractogrammes observé et calculé sont respectivement représentés en traits bleu et rouge.
La courbe grise est la courbe différence entre le diffractogramme observé et calculé. Les
contributions des diverses réflexions de Bragg sont de haut en bas : l’alite M1, la bélite
, le
C3A, le C4AF, portlandite, quartz et ettringite.

_Q#Q.! 79:@EPJA9:!

<1" 6*16348%*1a" 39(1(3Q85" )(+" X'i" C5," 51" FB%75165" G45" 3(" )>,5" 758" 6%1G" PV'" 58,"
6(+(6,F+%8F5")(+"0

!KS"
R 415"2*+,5",5154+"51"63%1b5+a"
R 3(")+F85165"75"754U"?Q7+(,58"6+%8,(33%18a"51"2(%D35"G4(1,%,F"0"395,,+%1=%,5a"2*+CF5")(+"
+F(6,%*1"74"-@Od"(B56"35"=Q)85"3*+8"75"39?Q7+(,(,%*1a"5,"3(")*+,3(17%,5:"
"
" H5"PV'Ea"W"CkC5",5154+"51"24CF5"75"8%3%65"5,"G4(+,T"D+*QF"G45"35"PV'@a"C(%8"W")348"
2*+,5",5154+"51"84)5+)3(8,%2%(1,"Y#q"6*1,+5"!aKq&a"15"6*1,%51,")348"G45",+^8")54"75"DF3%,5:"
"
"

_Q$! 7FOF@;UOAJF;A9:!RA@O9J;OP@;POFE<!G<J!$D+!:9:!
<=;OPGUJ!\)&$]!
"
H58" 6%1G" F6?(1,%33*18" ,*48" >=F8" 75" )348" 75" ,+*%8" C*%8" *1," F,F" (1(3Q8F8" (4" \<P" 84+"
856,%*1" )*3%5a" 51" 84%B(1," +%=*4+5485C51," 35" )+*,*6*35" 7F6+%," (4" 6?()%,+5" #" Y„" LLRPR#&:" -58"
(1(3Q858"*1,")(+2*%8"F,F"6*C)3F,F58")(+"758"*D85+B(,%*18"84+"2+(6,4+58:"A*48"7%864,*18"79(D*+7"
75" 3(" C%6+*8,+46,4+5" 758" PV'" 8(18" (N*4," 75" G4(+,T" D+*QF" YPV'!R$&a" 51" 3*6(3%8(1," 358" )?(858"
%751,%2%F58")(+"X'i:"V4%8a"1*48"7%864,5+*18"75"3("C%6+*8,+46,4+5"758"PV'"(B56"G4(+,T"D+*QF"
YPV'@"5,"E&:""
"
H58" 856,%*18" )*3%58" 358" )348" +F488%58" *1," F,F" *D,51458" )*4+" 358" PV'@" 5," PV'Ea" 1*48"
)5+C5,,(1," (3*+8" 75" 2(%+5" 758" %C(=58" 75" D*115" +F8*34,%*1" W" 39F6?5335" 1(1*CF,+%G45:" -958,"
)*4+G4*%" 1*48" )+F851,5+*18" 3(" C%6+*8,+46,4+5" 758" -/[" 7(18" 3(" )(+,%5" 6*18(6+F5" W" 658" 754U"
F6?(1,%33*18"Y„"ƒRPR#R6"&:"
"
Z1" +())5335" G45" 35" 6*1,+(8,5" 758" %C(=58" 51" F356,+*18" 856*17(%+58" )+*B%51," 7941"
6*1,+(8,5",*)*=+()?%G45a",(17%8"G45"35"6*1,+(8,5"758"%C(=58"51"F356,+*18"+F,+*7%2248F8")+*B%51,"
7941"6*1,+(8,5"6?%C%G45:""
"

_Q$Q4! $D+!JF:J!F?9P;!G<!YPFO;e!>O9WU!

H(" d%=4+5" ƒRPR!" C*1,+5" 84+" 35" 6(8" 74" PV'!" 754U" C%6+*=+()?%58" 51" F356,+*18"
856*17(%+58a" +5)+F851,(,%B58" 74" C(,F+%(4" W" 2(%D35" =+*88%885C51,:" H58" %C(=58" C*1,+51," 358"
=+(%18" 75" 8(D35a" =F1F+(35C51," 75" 2*+C5" (1=43(%+5" 5," )(+2*%8" (++*17%5a" D%51" 7%8)5+8F8" 7(18" 3("

!K!"
)>,5:"H5"PV'!"58,"6534%"G4%"6*1,%51,"35")348"75"D43358"79(%+"74"2(%,"75"8(")348"2(%D35",5154+"51"
84)5+)3(8,%2%(1,"YSaEq&:""
"

\F] G X 35 \>] G X 100


Figure V-B-1 : Micrographies (électrons secondaires) à faible grossissement du BPR1
(section polie) grains de sable, pâte et bulles d’air
"
H(""d%=4+5"ƒRPR#"("58,"651,+F5"84+"415"T*15"75")>,5"74"PV'!"(4"D*+7"7941"=+(%1"75"
8(D35:"H9%C(=5"58,"%6%"*D,5145"51"F356,+*18"+F,+*7%2248F8"Y6*1,+(8,5"6?%C%G45&:"H58"=+(%18"75"
8(D35"())(+(%8851,"51"=+%8"8*CD+5a"3("24CF5"75"8%3%65"Yd/&"51"=+%8"C*Q51a"5,"35"63%1b5+"+F8%7453"
Y(1?Q7+5&"51"6*1,+(8,5")348"D+%33(1,:"H(")>,5"58,",+^8"75185:"<335"6*1,%51,"D5(46*4)"75"63%1b5+"
5," 75" 24CF58" 75" 8%3%65" D%51" 7%8)5+8F8" )(+" 395225," 74" )*3Q6(+D*UQ3(,5:" Z1" 19*D85+B5" )(8" 75"
6+%8,(4U"75"=Q)85a"51"(66*+7"(B56"358"6*16348%*18")+F6F751,58"75"X'i:""
" O" 3(" 84%,5" 74" D+*Q(=5" 74" 6%C51," %1%,%(3a" 358" =+(%18" 75" 63%1b5+" +58,51," 8*%," 8*48" 354+" 2*+C5"
)*3QC%1F+(3%G45"8*%,"85"7F6*C)*851,"Y)(+"2+(6,4+5"(4"1%B5(4"758"N*%1,8"75"=+(%1&"51"=+(%18"C*1*)?(8F8"
79(3%,5a" DF3%,5" 5," 79(34C%1(,5" t/6+%B515+u#SS@v:" H58" d%=4+5" ƒRPR#" (" 5," D" C5,,51," 51" FB%75165" 41"
CF3(1=5"75"=+(%18")*3QC%1F+(3%G458"5,"75"=+(%18"C*1*)?(8F8"79(3%,5"*4"DF3%,5:"H58"=+(%18"79(3%,5"8*1,"
D%51"+56*11(%88(D358")(+"354+"2(6%^8")34,‚,")*3Q=*1(3"Y#SR@S"{C&a"358"=+(%18"75"DF3%,5")(+"354+"2*+C5"
(++*17%5"Y!SR#S"{C&"5,"3(")?(85"79(34C%1(,58"Y%6%"58851,%5335C51,"-@Od&"(B56"41"(==3*CF+(,"75"2%18"
6+%8,(4U" 75" G453G458" C%6+*18:" H(" ,(%335" 758" 6+%8,(4U" 79(3%,5" 58," %6%" ,Q)%G45" 758" (3%,58" 75" 2*+C5"
)*3QC*+)?%G45"\!a"6*12*+CFC51,"W"3("2*+,5",5154+"51"/Z$"74"63%1b5+"5,"W"39(1(3Q85")(+"X'i"Y„"LLLR
O&a"75")348"=+(1758",(%3358"G45"358"6+%8,(4U"\$"t\(b%u!MK#v:""
"
d%=4+5" ƒRPR#" D" 58," 651,+F5" 84+" 41" =+(%1" )*3QC%1F+(3%G45a" (B56" 41" =+(%1" 79(3%,5a" 41"
=+(%1"75"DF3%,5"5,"3(")?(85"%1,5+8,%,%5335"74"63%1b5+a"%6%",+^8"+%6?5"51"-@Od:"H58"6*1,+(8,58"758"
754U" 8%3%6(,58" 8*1," (885T" )+*6?58"g" 51" +5B(16?5" 39(34C%1(,5" -@Oda" +%6?5" 51" 25+a" +588*+," 51"
6*1,+(8,5")348"D+%33(1,:""
"

!K#"
\F] G X 1300 BPR1 \>] G X 2000 BPR1

Figure V-B-2 : Micrographies (électrons rétrodiffusés) de la pâte de BPR1 (section polie) :


(a) sable et pâte. On voit dans la pâte un grain de clinker résiduel (silicate+C4AF), des grains
de silicate en gris clair, des fumées de silice (FS) en gris moyen et les CSH en gris sombre;
(b) grain polyminéralique contenant un grain d’alite, un grain de bélite et l’aluminate C4AF.
"
H(" d%=4+5" ƒRPR$" %3348,+5" 39(8)56," ,Q)%G45" 75" 3(" )>,5" 758" PV'!R$" B45" 51" 2+(6,4+5:" H("
d%=4+5" ƒRPR$" (" )*%1,5" 84+" 41" 6+%8,(3" 79(3%,5" \!" ,+^8" )54" ?Q7+(,F:" H58" 6+%8,(4U" 79(3%,5" *1,"
8*4B51,"3(")(+,%643(+%,F"79(B*%+"65,,5"84+2(65",Q)%G45"51"m"C(+6?58"79586(3%5+"na"6*18FG45165"
74"D+*Q(=5"75"39(3%,5"C*1*63%1%G45"t\(b(+u#SSKv:""
V(+" (%3354+8a" *1" +5,+*4B5" 75" 2(c*1" )348" )*16,45335" G453G458" 6+%8,(4U" 75" C%6+*63%15"
Yd%=4+5"ƒRPR$"D&a")?(85"%751,%2%F5")(+"X'i"3*+8"75"39(1(3Q85"74"8(D35"Y„"LLLROR#R6"&:"Z1"358"
7%8,%1=45"758"6+%8,(4U"79(3%,5")(+"354+"2*+C5"8*4B51,",+^8"(33*1=F5"5,"354+"84+2(65",+^8"3%885:"
"

\F] G X 4500 \>]!G X 10000


Figure V-B-3 : Micrographie (électrons secondaires) d’une pâte de BPR3 âgée de 2 mois
(fracture) : (a) grain d’alite M1 et fumées de silice (FS) très peu hydratés ; (b) grain de
microcline
"

!K$"
" H58"24CF58"75"8%3%65"+58,51,")(+2(%,5C51,"(++*17%58"Y„"LLLROR#R("&a"65"G4%"C*1,+5"G45"
358"24CF58"75"8%3%65"8*1,"?Q7+(,F58"85435C51,"51"84+2(65"Yd%=4+5"ƒRPR#"5,"d%=4+5"ƒRPR@&:"-53("
%17%G45" G49%3" 19Q" (" )(8" *4" ,+^8" )54" 75" +F(6,%*1" )*4TT*3(1%G45" 7(18" 1*8" F6?(1,%33*18:" H("
+F(6,%*1" )*4TT*3(1%G45" 58," 6*1145" )*4+" k,+5" (885T" ,(+7%B5" 7(18" 358" PV'" tO%,6%1u#SS!va"
6*1,+(%+5C51,"W"3("+F(6,%*1"+()%75"5,"%C)*+,(1,5"758"1(1*8%3%658"%1,+*74%,58"75+1%^+5C51,"7(18"
75"1*4B5(4U"DF,*18"tO%4u#SS;va"t…5u#SSIv:"
"

\F] G X 5000 \>]!G X 45000


Figure V-B-4 0" Micrographies (électrons secondaires) d’une pâte de BPR3 âgée de 2 mois
(fracture) : Fumées de silice peu hydratées
"

" H58" 6+%8,(4U" 795,,+%1=%,5" *1," )*16,45335C51," F,F" *D85+BF8" 8*48" 3(" 2*+C5" 75" )5,%,58"
(%=4%3358:"H58"6+%8,(4U"75")*+,3(17%,5"*1,"F,F"7%22%6%358"W"3*6(3%85+a"65"G4%"3(%885"84))*85+"G49%38"
8*1,"75")5,%,5",(%335"7(18"1*8"F6?(1,%33*18:""
"

_Q$QS! $D+!Fd<@!F?9P;!G<!YPFO;e!>O9WU!

" X(18"3("84%,5a"1*48"1*48"6*1651,+*18"84+"358"F6?(1,%33*18"75"PV'@"5,"PV'E"6*1,51(1,"
74"G4(+,T"D+*QFa"%751,%2%F8"6*CC5"358"C5%3354+8")*4+"395U,+48%*1:"H58"F6?(1,%33*18"75"PV'@"5,"
PV'E" 85" 8*1," 7FNW" 6*C)*+,F8" ,+^8" 7%22F+5CC51," 8*48" 35" 2(%865(4" 79F356,+*18:" X(18"
39F6?(1,%33*1" 75" PV'Ea" 358" 5225,8" 75" 6?(+=5" F,(%51," ,538" (4" 1%B5(4" 758" =+(%18" 75" 8(D35" G49%3"
19F,(%," )(8" )*88%D35" 79*D85+B5+" 39F6?(1,%33*1:" A*48" (B*18" 7h" CF,(33%85+" 415" 1*4B5335" 2*%8"
39F6?(1,%33*1:""
"

!K@"
_Q$QSQF!! S-S-4-!%9@FEAJF;A9:!GP!YPFO;e!>O9WU!

" A*48"(B*18"(3*+8"6*18,(,F"G45"3("+F)(+,%,%*1"74"G4(+,T"D+*QF"58,",+^8"7%22F+51,5"7(18"358"
754U"F6?(1,%33*18:"X(18"35"PV'@a"35"G4(+,T"D+*QF"85"+F)(+,%,"75"2(c*1"(885T"?*C*=^15"7(18"
,*4,5" 3(" )>,5" 75" PV'"Yd%=4+5" ƒRPR@" (RD&g" 51" +5B(16?5" 7(18" 35" PV'Ea" 35" G4(+,T" D+*QF"
89(66+*6?5"8*4B51,"(4U"=+(%18"75"8(D35a"7*11(1,"3%54"W"415"+F)(+,%,%*1")348"?F,F+*=^15"Yd%=4+5"
ƒRPR@"6R7&:"H5"G4(+,"D+*QF"())(+(p,"51"6*1,+(8,5"D+%33(1,"84+"358"C%6+*=+()?%58:""
" H58" )*%1,F8" 79(1(3Q858" <X/" +FB^351," 8Q8,FC(,%G45C51," 415" 2*+,5" ,5154+" 51" A(" YA(wa"
6*1,+5R%*1" 74" )*3Q6(+D*UQ3(,5&" (4" 1%B5(4" 74" G4(+,T" D+*QF" 5," 74" 8(D35:" H(" 2*+,5" ,5154+" 51"
84)5+)3(8,%2%(1," 7(18" 35" PV'E" C*7%2%5" 65+,(%15C51," 358" 2*+658" F356,+*8,(,%G458" 51" N54" W"
39*+%=%15"74"2*+,"5225,"75"6?(+=5"*D85+BF"tV3(,53u#SSEv:"
"

\F]!G X 30 BPR4! \>]!G X 100!!!!!BPR4!

\@]!G X 35 BPR5! \G]!G X 100!!!!!BPR5!


Figure V-B-5 : Micrographies (électrons secondaires) des BPR4 et BPR5 (sections polies) :
(a-b) BPR4 : quartz broyé réparti de façon homogène, (c-d) BPR5 : quartz broyé accroché
aux grains de sable
"
"

!KE"
"

_Q$QSQ>!! S-S-S-!"<:<PO!<:!>UEA;<!

" X(18"39F6?(1,%33*1"75"PV'Ea"%3"58,",+^8"7%22%6%35"75",+*4B5+"358"=+(%18"75"DF3%,5a"65"G4%"
6*12%+C5" 3(" 2*+,5" 7%C%14,%*1" 75" ,5154+" 51" DF3%,5" C%85" 51" FB%75165" )+F6F75CC51," )(+" X'i:"
X(18"35"PV'Ea"*1",+*4B5"758"=+(%18")*3QC%1F+(3%G458"6*18,%,4F8"58851,%5335C51,"79(3%,5"5,"75"
-@Od"5,"758"=+(%18"C*1*)?(8F8"79(3%,5"Yd%=4+5"ƒRPR;"D&a"6*1,+(%+5C51,"(4"PV'@"7(18"35G453"
*1",+*4B5"516*+5"75"3("DF3%,5"6*CC5"7(18"358",+*%8")+5C%5+8"PV'"Yd%=4+5"ƒRPR;"(&:""
"

\F]!G X 2200 BPR4! \>]!G X 1500!!!!!BPR5!


Figure V-B-6 : Micrographies (électrons rétrodiffusés) des BPR4 et BPR5 (sections polies) :
(a) BPR4 : clinker résiduel contenant encore de la bélite, (b) BPR5 : clinker résiduel ne
contenant plus beaucoup de bélite
"
"

_Q$QSQ@!! S-S-.-!)A@O9J;OP@;PO<!G<J!7(M!

" H(" d%=4+5" ƒRPRI" %3348,+5" 3(" C%6+*8,+46,4+5" 758" -/[" 7(18" 358" PV'@" 5," PV'Ea" 51"
F356,+*18" 856*17(%+58" Y(&" 5," 51" F356,+*18" +F,+*7%2248F8" YD&:" A*48" (B*18" +F(3%8F" 758" 8F+%58" 75"
)*%1,F8"<X/"(2%1"7958,%C5+"358"+())*+,8"-./"758"-/[:"X(18"358"6%C51,8a"35"B*34C5"75"3(")*%+5"
79%1,5+(6,%*1"58,",Q)%G45C51,"75"39*+7+5"75"!"W"#"{$:"L3"2(4,"7*16"k,+5")+4751,"84+"358"(1(3Q858"
758"*DN5,8"75")5,%,5",(%335a"5,"7*16"51")(+,%643%5+"84+"358"-/["1(1*CF,+%G458:"/*48"6*1,+‚35"75"
65,,5"+F85+B5a"358"+())*+,8"-./"B(+%51,"%6%"51,+5"Sa@"5,"!a!:""
"

!K;"
\F]!G X 100 000! \>]!G X 100 000!
Figure V-B-7 : Micrographies sur BPR4 des CSH (a) électrons secondaires (contraste
topographique) (b) électrons rétrodiffusés (contraste chimique)
" "

_Q$Q.! 'AJ@PJJA9:!

" L3" 58," %1,F+588(1," 75" 6+*%85+" 658" *D85+B(,%*18" C%6+*8,+46,4+(358" (B56" 358" C*74358"
79…*41=" 5," +F8%8,(1658" CF6(1%G458" ,+*4BF8" 84+" 658" CkC58" PV'" Y6?()" Lƒ&:" H58" )>,58" 758"
PV'!RPV'$"*1,"41"C*7435"79…*41="7FNW"(885T"F35BF"YE@"W";S"SSS"\V(&"74"2(%,"75"3("2*+,5"
,5154+" 51" =+(%18" (1?Q7+58" Y8%3%6(,58" 5," (34C%1(,58&" W" 2*+," C*7435" 79…*41=" Y<-$/" y" !!I"SSS"
\V("6*1,+5"<-/["y"#S"SSS"\V(&"7(18"3(")>,5"Yd%=4+5"LRPR@&:"-958,"35")+%16%)5"CkC5"758"PV'"
Y„" LRPR#R2" &:" H(" d%=4+5" ƒRPRK" C*1,+5" 79(%3354+8" D%51" G45" 358" 2+(6,4+58" 6*1,*4+151," 35" )348"
8*4B51,"358"=+(%18"79(1?Q7+58:"H5"C*7435"79…*41="75"3(")>,5"58,"B*%8%1"75"6534%"74"8(D35:"
"

"
G X 2200
Figure V-B-8 : Micrographie (électrons secondaires) d’une pâte de BPR2 (section polie) :
fractures qui contournent les grains anhydres
"

!KI"
" Z1"("*D85+BF"G45"35"C*7435"79…*41="58,"516*+5"(66+4"7(18"35"6(8"758"PV'@"5,"PV'Ea"
51")(88(1,")(+"41"*),%C4C"75";M"ESS"\V("7(18"35"PV'@"6*1,+5";E"$SS"\V("7(18"35"PV'E:"
H("85435"7%22F+5165"51,+5"35"PV'$"5,"35"PV'@"58,"39(N*4,"75"G4(+,T"D+*QF:"Z1")54,"5U)3%G45+"
39(4=C51,(,%*1"74"C*7435"79…*41="7(18"35"PV'@")(+"39(77%,%*1"75"G4(+,T"D+*QF"75"C*7435"
79…*41=")348"2*+,"G45"6534%"758"-/[:""
" V*4+"5U)3%G45+"3("7%C%14,%*1"74"C*7435"79…*41="7(18"35"PV'E"Y75"CkC5",5154+"51"
G4(+,"D+*QF&a"*1")54,"2(%+5"W"65"8,(75"754U"?Q)*,?^858"0"
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mesure des déplacements linéiques de nos éprouvettes (retrait linéique) en
exploitant le principe d’auto-induction. La tête du capteur ‘partie sensible’ comporte
une bobine excitée en fréquence produisant un champ électromagnétique. Ce champ
est modifié par la présence (approche ou éloignement) d'un objet métallique,
changeant ainsi l'impédance de la bobine. Cet objet métallique est ici la pastille en
acier au bord de l’éprouvette. Un tel capteur est composé d’un fil enroulé
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d’un noyau vide (d%=4+5"OR#R"M.).

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!
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#S@"
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#SE"
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#S;"
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