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Artem Saakian Naval Air Systems Command, US Navy, Pax River, MD
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To my wife Arous, and my sons, David and Mark
RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION FUNDAMENTALS
Preface Chapter 1. Introduction
Table of Contents
A.S.Saakian
1.1. Historical overview
1.2. Classification of radio waves by frequency bands
1.3. The earth’s atmosphere and structure
1.4. Classification of radio waves by propagation mechanisms
1.5. Interferences in RF transmission links
References
Problems
Chapter 2. Basics of electromagnetic waves theory
2.1. Electromagnetic process
2.1.1. Maxwell’s equations of electrodynamics
2.1.2. Boundary conditions of electrodynamics
2.1.3. Timeharmonic electromagnetic process. Classification of media by
conductivity
2.2. Free propagation of uniform plane radio waves
2.2.1. Uniform plane wave in lossless medium
2.2.2. Uniform plane wave in lossy medium 2.2.2.a. Lowloss dielectric medium
2.2.2.b. Highloss conducting medium
2.3. Polarization of the radio waves
2.4. Reflection and refraction of plane radio wave from the boundary of two media
2.4.1. Normal incidence on a plane boundary of two media
2.4.2. Oblique incidence of vertically polarized radio wave 2.4.2.a. Radio wave incident from sparse medium onto the border with dense medium
i
2.4.2.b. Radio wave incident from dense medium onto the border with sparse medium
2.4.3. Oblique incidence of horizontally polarized radio wave 2.4.3.a. Radio wave incident from sparse medium onto the border with dense medium 2.4.3.b. Radio wave incident from dense medium onto the border with sparse medium
2.4.4. Reflection of the radio wave with arbitrary polarization
2.4.5. Power reflection and transmission
2.4.6. Reflection of the radio wave from the boundary of nonideal dielectric medium
2.5. Radiation from infinitesimal electric current source. Spherical waves
2.6. Spatial area significant for radio waves propagation
2.6.1. Principle of HuygensKirchhoff
2.6.2. Fresnel zones
2.6.3. Knifeedge diffraction
2.6.4. Practical applications of the Fresnel zones concept 2.6.4.a. Ringshaped antenna directors 2.6.4.b. Ringsegment diffractors as passive repeaters for radiorelay links 2.6.4.b. Effective area of the radio wave reflection from the flat boundary
References
Problems
Appendix1
Appendix2
Appendix3
Appendix4
Chapter 3. Basics of antennas for RF radio links
3.1. Basic parameters of antennas
3.1.1. Radiation pattern and directivity
3.1.2. Radiation resistance and loss resistance. Antenna gain and efficiency factor
3.1.3. Antenna effective length and effective area of the aperture
3.2. General relations in radio wave propagation theory
ii
References
Problems
Chapter 4. Impact of the earth surface on propagation of ground waves
4.1. Propagation between antennas elevated above the earth surface. Ray trace approach
4.1.1. Flat earth approximation case study
4.1.2. Propagation over the spherical earth surface
4.1.2.1. Evaluation of the distance to reflection point
4.1.2.2. Divergence of energy of the radio wave while reflecting from the
convex earth surface
4.1.3. Specifics of the propagation over the rough and hilly terrains
4.1.4. Optimal path clearance and choice of the antennas elevations
4.1.5. Propagation prediction models in urban, suburban and rural areas
4.1.5.1. Empirical models 4.1.5.1a. The OkumuraHata model 4.1.5.1b. Other empirical models
4.1.5.2. Physical models
4.1.5.2a. NonLOS (LineOfSight) paths 4.1.5.2b. LOS paths
4.2. Propagation between groundbased antennas over the flat earth
4.2.1. Antennas over the infinite, perfect ground plane
4.2.2. Leontovich approximate boundary conditions and structure of radio waves
near the earth’s surface
4.2.3. Propagation over the real homogeneous flat earth
4.2.4. Propagation along the real inhomogeneous flat earth. Coastal refraction
4.3. Asymptotic diffraction theory of propagation over the spherical earth surface
4.3.1. Basic concepts
4.3.2. Propagation between groundbased antennas
4.3.3. Propagation between elevated antennas
4.3.4. Specifics of propagation estimates in penumbra zone
References
Problems
Appendix5
iii
Appendix6
Chapter 5. Atmospheric effects in radio waves propagation
5.1. Dielectric permittivity and conductivity of the ionized gas
5.2. Regular refraction of the radio waves in atmosphere
5.3. Standard atmosphere and tropospheric refraction
5.4. Reflection and refraction of the sky waves in ionosphere
5.5. The impact of earth’s magnetic field on propagation of the radio waves in ionosphere
5.5.1. Longitudinal propagation of the radio wave
5.5.2. Transverse propagation of the radio wave
5.5.3. Propagation of the radio wave arbitrary oriented relative to the earth’s
magnetic field
5.5.4. Reflection and refraction of radio waves in magnetoactive ionosphere
5.6. Overthehorizon propagation of the radio waves by tropospheric scatterings
mechanism. Secondary tropospheric radio links
5.6.1. Analytical approaches in description of the random tropospheric scatterings
5.6.2. Physical interpretation of tropospheric scatterings
5.6.3. Effective scattering crosssection of the turbulent troposphere
5.6.4. Statistical models of tropospheric turbulences
5.6.4.1. Gaussian model
5.6.4.2. KolmogorovObukhov model
5.6.5. Propagation factor on secondary tropospheric radio links
5.6.6. The specifics of the secondary tropospheric radio links performance
5.6.6.1. Antennas gain effect on link performance
5.6.6.2. Signal level fluctuations at the receiving point (fading)
5.6.6.3. Limitations to signal transmission bandwidth
5.7. Attenuation of the radio waves in atmosphere
5.7.1. Attenuations in troposphere
5.7.2. Attenuations in ionosphere
References
Problems
Appendix7
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Chapter 6. Receiving of the radio waves: Basic outlines
6.1. Multiplicative interferences (signal fades)
6.1.1. Fluctuation processes and stability of radio links
6.1.2. Fast fading statistical distributions 6.1.2a. TwoRay random interference 6.1.2b. Random interference of the large number of independent wavelets 6.1.2c. Further generalization of the fast fading statistics
6.1.3. Slow fading statistical distribution 6.1.3a. Normal (Gaussian) distribution of the random variable
6.1.3b. Lognormal distribution of the random variable
6.1.4. Combined distribution of fast and slow fades. Signal stability in longterm
observations
6.2. Additive interferences (noises)
6.2.1. Internal noises of one, and twoport networks. Noise figure
6.2.2. Noise figure and noise temperature of the cascaded twoport networks
6.2.3. Noise figure of the passive twoport networks
6.2.4. Antenna noise temperature
6.2.5. Receiver sensitivity and signal threshold definition
6.2.6. Environmental (external) noise 6.2.6a. Atmospheric noise 6.2.6b. Thermal noise of the earth’s surface 6.5.6c. Cosmic noise
6.3. Methods of improvement of the radio waves reception performance
6.3.1. Noisesuppressing modems in analog CWsystems
6.3.2. Use of spreadspectrum discrete signals
6.3.3. Diversity reception technique
References Problems List of Symbols List of Abbreviations Index
v
PREFACE
The main goal of this text is to satisfy the growing demand in propagation study materials that may be used by a proper audience of students and specialists. The core materials of the proposed text are developed based on lecture notes that have been offered by author for the graduate students at Patuxent Graduate Center of Florida Institute of Technology. The materials included into the text are extended beyond the needs of the singlesemester course and may be used for continuous selfstudy. Main objective of this text is to support senior level undergraduate and graduate EEstudents by introduction of the basic principles of electromagnetic waves propagation of radio frequencies (RF) in real conditions relevant, but not limited to communications and radar systems. It is also to emphasize the primary role of the antennatoantenna propagation path in overall performance of those systems. Some of the practicing engineers who need quick references to the basics of propagation mechanisms and principles of the engineering estimates and designs may use this text in their everyday routine. It may be useful not just for the students and specialists in the area of radar and communication technologies, but also for the students, scientists, and engineers of the adjacent areas of science and engineering / technology such as antenna engineering, astrophysics, geomagnetism, aeronomy, etc.
Chapter1 is an introductory chapter, which outlines the definitions and classifications that are commonly used and are adopted by international organizations such as IEEE and ITU. A brief survey of the structure of the earth's atmosphere is considered in this chapter in support of atmospheric propagation phenomena that are covered in chapter5.
Chapter2 covers the basics of electromagnetic waves theory with the emphasis on those, which are specific for the RF propagation, such as polarization of radio waves, their reflections and transmission at the interface of two mediums, as well as diffraction on the knifeedge obstacles. As a subject of the special interest the Fresnel's zones are analyzed based on HuygensKirchhoff's principles of electromagnetics. This is to clarify the concept of ray forming, i.e. the concept of the spatial area actively involved in canalization of energy of the radio waves. Some engineering applications are presented in this chapter to demonstrate the variety of application of that concept.
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Chapter3 is a brief journey to the basic antenna parameters that is needed to evaluate and analyze antennatoantenna propagation path. The endchapter section presents the main relations, such as Friis formula, link budget equation etc., as well as introduces propagation factor, which is a most important measure of the impact of the real conditions on propagation of the radio waves. Those main relations are of importance to evaluate the radar equation, as well as for the radio links power budget analysis in communication systems.
Chapter4 is devoted to propagation of the ground radio waves, i.e. the waves that propagate in vicinity of the Earth's surface, being affected by that interface. It appears to be methodically reasonable not to involve any atmospheric effects into consideration within the scope of this chapter, in order not to confuse the reader by mixing ground effects and atmospheric effects. The methods of propagation factor calculations are first considered here for the flatearth approximation, based on Leontovich’s boundary conditions with further extension for the cases of convexity of the Earth’s ground. Propagation features over the inhomogeneous paths are presented within Mandelshtam’s “takeofflanding” concept that is qualitative, rather that quantitative: it allows reader better understand the behavior of the waves that propagate along “mixed” type paths. Some quantitative estimates are given to support the engineering estimates. The coastal refraction effect is analyzed as a particular case along with numerical estimates discussed. As a particular case of the propagation in mixed, rough terrains the propagation in urban, suburban and rural areas is considered in subsection 4.1.5. Last section of the chapter is concluded by introduction of the asymptotic diffraction theory (V.A. Fock) – theory of diffraction of radio waves over the spherical Earth’s surface. Engineering approaches for the practical applications are demonstrated by using sample examples.
Chapter5 is dedicated to the effects of the atmosphere on propagation of the radio waves. Smooth refraction in troposphere and reflections from the ionospheric layers are analyzed in conjunction with the regular inhomogeneties of the refraction index in those atmospheric regions. Scattering of the radio waves of UHF and higher frequency bands from the random variations of the tropospheric refraction index (from air turbulences) are considered here by using the principles of statistical radiophysics. The results are brought to the level of engineering applications and design of the overthehorizon troposcatter communication links.
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Despite the troposcatter radiolinks are not widely used nowadays, though the understanding of the physical mechanisms of the scatterings in troposphere may become a background for the understanding of scattering phenomenon in general, so there’s no need to discuss them one byone for other scatterings such as from ionospheric meteor trails, raindrops, etc. The chapter is concluded by analysis of absorptions in atmosphere. Both, absorptions in tropospheric gases and hydrometeors, as well as in ionospheric layers are introduced to support signal attenuation estimates on variety of RF radio links.
Chapter6, the last chapter, that is devoted to the reception of radio waves, which is of the high importance for the radar and communications systems design. Two types of interferences, namely multiplicative (fading) and additive (noise) are analyzed in conjunction with the signalto noise ratio (SNR) and communication stability. Statistical distributions of fast and slow fades are considered, as well as a combined distribution that is to predict a longterm stability of the communication system's performance. This analysis results in engineering method for power margin calculation, which is to insure that the objective of the communication stability is met. Two components of the additive noise are considered: internal noise (receiver noise) and external noise (environmental noise) that is received from the surrounding areas. The sensitivity of receiver is discussed in order to define a threshold of the received signal level. The chapter is concluded by the section that outlines the basic methods of improvement of the radio waves reception performance: (1) the use of noiseresistive signals, such as analog FM, (2) the use of the spreadspectrum signals, (3) the diversity reception technique. The main goal of this chapter is to build the “bridge” between RFsystem structure and the propagation conditions and mechanisms, i.e. to show a direct “coupling” between them.
The scope of the book includes a wide variety of aspects of radiophysics; therefore the proposed text may not pretend to cover all details of the subject, but rather to encourage a creative approach amongst the students. A background in mathematics and electromagnetics that is required in engineering and physics curriculums is assumed. Some of the unique mathematical techniques and evaluations are either incorporated within proper chapters, or presented separately in appendixes. Appendix1 provides some useful mathematical relations as well as notations adopted for the complex quantities.
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The numerous of the calculation examples are to support better understanding of the core materials of the text. The end chapter problems may become highly supportive for the study process. The problems solution manual is available for teachers / instructors from Artech House to support the teaching process. This text may be used in senior elective or entrylevel graduate courses.
The list of symbols contains only generalized notations for the quantities (e.g., _{f} for frequency)
in base or derived units. Subscripts are used within the text to denote specific application of the
particular notation (e.g.,
f
c
for critical frequency of the ionospheric plasma in Hz); for the
multiple and fractional quantities within the text the units are indicated in symbols by the proper
subscripts (e.g.,
f
c
,
MHz
for the ionospheric plasma frequency in MHz).
First, second, third, etc. derivatives are notated with prime, double prime and triple prime respectively. Complex numbers and complex vectors are notated with the dot above the symbol.
Now, I wish to express my deepest gratitude to my reviewers, especially to Dr. D.K. Barton whose valuable comments and recommendations helped improve the text significantly. I’d like to thank Prof. V.E. Arustamyan from State Engineering University of Armenia for his revision and constructive criticism of very first draft of the manuscript in Armenian, as well as Ms. Svetlana Avanian for help with typing. I’d also like to express my appreciation to Ms. Catherine Wood for her help with grammatical and syntax corrections of most of the chapters. I’m also thankful to my colleague, Mr. Frederick Werrell for his review of chapter3, as well as to my students for critical remarks during and after the classroom teststudies. My appreciation is forwarded to Mr. Norm Chlosta, Director of Patuxent Graduate Center of Florida Institute of Technology for his support and for providing me the opportunities to test the course with smart audience of graduate students. Finally I’d like to express my thankfulness to my wife Arous:
without her understanding, patience, and support this work would not be possible.
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Artem Saakian December, 2010
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 HISTORICAL OVERVIEW
Utilization of radio waves for communication purposes debuted in 1895, when the Italianborn American engineer G.M. Marconi and the Russian physicist A.S. Popov independently introduced the first wireless transmission of telegraph signals through the
earth’s atmosphere.
without the support of the then traditional wire guiding line first used by Marconi in 1844 for his wire telegraphy efforts. Instead, a sparkgap was implemented as a transmitting source for the electromagnetic radiation, and a coherer was utilized as a reception device. It is difficult to overestimate the importance of that invention for human society, and for the advancements it heralded for wireless communications. However, that invention might not have been possible without prior theoretical hypotheses of the existence of free propagating electromagnetic waves; which were made in 1864 by the Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist J. C. Maxwell.
This initial effort was particularly notable, as it was conducted
Maxwell’s greatest merit was a theoretical prediction of the displacement currents in dielectrics and vacuums, which had generalized the concept of current continuity in Ampere's law [1]. The fundamental equations of electromagnetism (known as Maxwell's equations) were later updated to achieve complete and symmetric form by the introduction of magnetic currents. The introduction of displacement electric and magnetic currents in dielectrics, and in free space, made possible the comprehension of the nature of electromagnetic waves capable of propagating for long distances independent of any physical guidance such as wires, waveguides, etc. Those electromagnetic waves are identified as radio waves, when relative to scientific and commercial applications. Experimental verification of the existence of electromagnetic waves was achieved by H. Hertz in the 1880's, when he demonstrated a "propagation" of the spark from a transmitting Leyden jar to the terminals of remote receiving antenna. The revolutionary role of Maxwell's equations, which are based on experimental investigations of M. Faraday and A.M. Ampere, is hard to overemphasize for the immense progress they have allowed science, engineering, and associated technologies.
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Soon after Marconi's and Popov's experiments with the transmission of telegraph signals over the distance of several miles in 1895, Marconi was able to greatly extend the range of propagation from the UK to Canada, over the Atlantic Ocean, in December 1901. This accomplishment was made possible by the use of a sinusoidal carrier, a resonant LCfilter at the receiver's input, and a vertical grounded radiator (antenna), which thereby demonstrated the advantage of vertical polarization for the frequency ranges of tens and hundreds of kilohertz. The immense success of Marconi’s longrange signal transmission motivated engineers and research scientists to find a reasonable explanation for existence of propagation mechanisms [2]. Ionospheric propagation is a mechanism that was initially assumed to be overall predominant. It was introduced in 1902 after A.E. Kennelly, in the U.S., and O.Heaviside, in the U.K., postulated the existence of the ionized region in the upper atmosphere, which seemed to reflect the radio waves and thereby support their long range propagation. The second mechanism of propagation was based on the assumption of the existence of surface waves, which may occur only at the interface of two mediums, such as the boundary of atmosphere and earth's ground. A detailed theoretical analysis of surface propagation waves was conducted by the German physicist A. Sommerfeld in 1909, an analysis that was based on Maxwell's equations. A specific approach for the solution near the flat boundary of two ideal mediums was achieved, and was repeated ten years later by H. Weyl in a more explicit form. It was shown, that two propagating modes are existent: (1) A regular TEM mode of a spherical phase front that is specific to free space propagation; and for this mode the field strength is in inverse proportion to propagation distance; (2) A surface mode of a cylindrical phase front, which is tightly bound to the interface of two mediums, and which may exist only in the vicinity of that interface, whose field strength is in inverse proportion to the square root of the propagation distance. For moderate and large distances the second component becomes predominant. In the late 1930s the conceptualization of surface waves, relevant to the real earth's ground constants, was further developed by J. Zenneck and K.A. Norton. The third mechanism of propagation was based on the assumption of the diffraction of radio waves around the earth surface. These assumptions were proposed by several mathematicians and scientists prior to and during World War I, and were first presented by G.N. Watson in 1919 in the form of estimates of the field at the receiving
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point for the ideal conductive earth surface, as an attempt of direct solution of Maxwell's equations. Later, in 1937, VanDerPol and Bremmer adopted Watson's approach to demonstrate arbitrary ground constants. Based on those developments, C.R. Burrows created an engineering approach that allowed representation of the results in a form that was more convenient for the applications. Directly following World WarII, in 194546, Soviet physicists V.A. Fock and M.A. Leontovich introduced a Maxwell's equations solution in parabolic form relevant to the diffraction problem. The complete theory was developed by taking into account the properties of the earth ground in a wide frequency range. It was broadly used, until quite recently, for the overthehorizon propagation analysis (diffracted field analysis) of radio waves associated with frequencies up to tens of megahertz. Both surface wave and diffracted wave approaches result in a single conclusion:
The lower a radio wave's frequency, the more favorable the propagation conditions are. Prior to and after World WarII, the need to further increase the volume of transmitted information within a single communication link, as well as the need to advance radar system performance motivated an increase in carrier frequencies. Thereby higher and higher frequencies were employed for the support of communication and radar systems designs, along with newly developed antenna radiating systems and advanced Radio Frequency (RF) components, together providing increased performance and effectiveness. Radio waves implementing frequencies of hundreds of MHz and up were considered to be employed. For those higher frequency ranges, propagation analysis is based most substantially on geometric optical approaches. The first empirical expression for the intensity of the current induced in a remote receiving antenna for distances within LineofSight (LOS) was developed by L.W. Austin in 1911, in the U.S. That expression was fairly close to the formula developed analytically, in the former USSR, by B.A. Vvedensky in the late 1920s. Vvedensky’s formula was based on a raytracing (geometrical optics) approach. For higher frequency bands the atmospheric effects became considerable, and had to be taken into account. Thus, after World War II a significant amount of attention was focused on issues such as attenuation in atmospheric gases, as well as refraction, reflection, and scatter of radio waves in the lower and upper atmosphere. One of those effects, namely the tropospheric scatter of microwaves by atmospheric turbulence, was discovered in the late 1940s and was later theoretically validated by H.G. Booker and W.E. Gordon in 1950. Some limited military
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and commercial applications of the tropospheric scattering effect take place currently, in nominated troposcatter radiolinks within the U.S. and several European countries. A new era of ionospheric propagation research and investigation initiated after the launch of the first satellite ("Sputnik"), by the USSR in 1957, to the earth's orbit. This culminated in our current large network of specialized ionospheric groundbased radars, sounding stations (ionosondes), and satellite systems worldwide which allow obtainment
of a complete set of data for longterm predictions of the status of ionospheric layers.
Those predictions are widely used for the radio links design and for deployment in HF and higher frequency bands, which are directly affected by the ionosphere. In modern times, the radio wave propagation theory and applications still remain as subjects of extremely high interest to the science and engineering technological world, and are in consistently in further development and expansion via numerous worldwide programs.
1.2 CLASSIFICATION OF RADIO WAVES BY
FREQUENCY BANDS
Radio Wave is defined by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) as “An electromagnetic wave of radio frequency” [3]. Each particular radio frequency belongs to the radio spectrum, which is a wide range of frequencies from several Hertz up to 3 THz. The entire radio spectrum is divided into frequency bands,
shown in Table 1.1, that are based on decimal division. This standard classification is accepted by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), which is comprised of 189 membercountries.
A selection of applications pertinent to the radio waves used in engineering, science and
technological efforts includes, but is not limited to:
Wireless communication systems, including satellite communication systems and wireless local area networks (WLAN)
Radar systems
Telemetry, radioremote control, and radionavigation
8
Adhering to ITUR ^{1} recommendations, the range for each frequency band extends from 0.3x10 ^{N} to 3x10 ^{N} Hz ^{2} , where N is a band number given in the first column of Table 1.1. There are many subdivisions within each band, reliant upon allocations to services and the inhabitant worldwide regions [4, 5]. Terminology noted in the last two columns of Table 1.1 is commonly used, but not officially accepted.
A subdivision of Microwave Bands, shown in Table 1.2, is widely used in radar and
satellite applications [6]. Both, the upper and the lower limits of the radio spectrum are outlined conventionally, and rely entirely on progressions made in science and technology. For instance, until the mid1930’s radiocommunications designs were based on technologies that allowed only utilization of frequencies lower than 100 MHz, as that represented the upper limit of radio frequencies at that time. In the 1930s and 1940s, overarching progress in the design of a new generation of the radar systems invoked a claim of involving higher frequencies. Invention of multiple new types of devices, including magnetrons, klystrons, travelingwave tubes, and other technologies,
allowed the expansion of the upper limit of radio frequencies to approximately 10 GHz and higher. In the mid 50s to early 60s when the new generation of quantum electronic devices, such as MASERs, were developed by C.H. Townes, (USA), N.G. Basov, and A.M. Prokhorov (USSR), they were based on achievements in quantum radio spectroscopy. Further broadening of the upper limit of radio frequencies became possible not just by including CMW, MMW and SMMW, but by also instituting coherent optical waves to develop Lasers. Implementation of these “new” types of devices made possible the amplification and generation of coherent radiations even in an optical domain, and thereby traditional radio technologies and principles became applicable to the optical frequency domain as well. Optical waves that are used for wireless information transmission and processing are sometimes called optical radio waves [7].
Table 1.3 shows the classification of optical waves by frequency bands, which is considered as a nonofficial classification, and is widely used by specialists in different areas of engineering and science. In tandem with other items contributing to expansion
of the lower limit of the radio spectrum, there are also rationales of expansion based on
the needs of global military communication services and navigation, as well as scientific research categories such as geophysics, atmosphere science, and radio astronomy.
^{1} The Radio Communications section of the ITU
^{2} Conventionally the upper limit is included into the band, and the lower limit is excluded.
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Table 1.1
Number, N 
Acronym 
Wave 
Acronym 

Band 
Frequency Band Name by ITUR 
Frequency 
Descriptive 

Range, Hz 
length 
Name 

in Meters 

Extremely Low 
< 3x10 ^{3} 
> 10 ^{5} 

 
Frequency 
ELF 
 
 

4 
Very Low 
VLF 
(3 to 30)x10 ^{3} 
10 ^{4} to 10 ^{5} 
Miriameter 
 

Frequency 
Waves 

Low 
(30 to 
10 ^{3} to 10 ^{4} 

5 
Frequency 
LF 
300)x10 ^{3} 
Kilometer Waves 
 

Medium 
Hectometer 

6 
Frequency 
MF 
(0.3 to 3)x10 ^{6} 
10 ^{2} to 10 ^{3} 
Waves 
 

7 
High 
HF 
(3 to 30) x 
10 to 10 ^{2} 
Decameter 
 

Frequency 
10 
^{6} 
Waves 

Very High 
(30 to 

8 
Frequency 
VHF 
300)x10 ^{6} 
1 to 10 
Meter Waves 
MW 

9 
Ultra High 
UHF 
(0.3 to 3)x10 ^{9} 
10 ^{}^{1} to 1 
Decimeter 
DMW 

Microwaves * 
Frequency 
Waves* 

10 
Super High 
SHF 
(3 to 30)x10 ^{9} 
10 ^{}^{2} to 10 ^{}^{1} 
Centimeter 
CMW 

Frequency 
Waves* 

Extremely High 
(30 to 
10 ^{}^{3} to 10 ^{}^{2} 
Millimeter Waves 

11 
Frequency 
EHF 
300)x10 ^{9} 
* 
MMW 

(0.3 to 
10 ^{}^{4} to 10 ^{}^{3} 
SubMillimeter 

12 
 
 
3)x10 ^{1}^{2} 
Waves * 
SMMW 

Table 1.2 

Band Name 
L 
S 
C 
X 
Ku 

Frequency Range, GHz 
1  2 
2  4 
4  8 
8 – 12 
12 – 18 

Band Name 
K 
Ka 
V 
W 
mm band 

Frequency Range, GHz 
18 – 27 
27– 40 
40 – 75 
75  110 
110  300 
10
Table 1.3
Optical Band name
Wavelength in
Atmosphere,
in meters
Frequency Range, in Hz
Far Infrared (IR) Band
2x10 ^{}^{5} to 10 ^{}^{4}
(3 to 15)x10 ^{1}^{2}
Medium IR Band
1.5x10 ^{}^{6} to 2x10 ^{}^{5}
(15 to 200)x10 ^{1}^{2}
Near IR Band
7x10 ^{}^{7} to 1.5x10 ^{}^{6}
2x10 ^{1}^{4} to 4.3x10 ^{1}^{4}
Visible Light
4x10 ^{}^{7} to 7x10 ^{}^{7}
4.3x10 ^{1}^{4} to 7.3x10 ^{1}^{4}
Ultraviolet Rays
10 ^{}^{8} to 4x10 ^{}^{7}
7.5x10 ^{1}^{4} to 3x10 ^{1}^{6}
1.3 THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE AND STRUCTURE
The real earth’s atmosphere has a complex structure, which may significantly impact radio wave propagation, causing such effects as smooth refraction, scatter and energy absorption of the radio wave. Variations of the electromagnetic parameters of the atmospheric air are highly dependent on its gaseous composition, pressure, humidity and ionization. The vertical profile ^{1} of distribution of the main composites of atmospheric air is shown in Figure 1.1.
^{1} The graph of the elevation dependence of any parameter of the atmosphere is called a "vertical profile" of that particular parameter. Another example of vertical profiles is free electrons' distribution, which is shown in Figure 1.2, or elevation dependence of the tropospheric air refraction index (refractivity) which is shown in Figure 5.4.
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Figure 1.1 Diagram of the gaseous composition of atmospheric air (by percentage).
• As one may notice from the diagram, for heights of up to approximately 90 km, the gaseous composition of the atmosphere is homogeneous as a result of the continuous mixture caused by ascending, descending and horizontal air streams that permanently exist in that area. At that range of height, the atmospheric air is composed of about 78 percent molecular nitrogen and about 20 to 21 percent molecular oxygen, despite the fact that they have different molecular weights. The remainder is a mix of carbon dioxide, argon, ozone, and other gases. This atmospheric area of homogeneous distribution of gases is conventionally divided into two regions, the troposphere and the stratosphere. The troposphere is the lowest portion of the earth's atmosphere. It contains approximately 80 percent of the atmosphere's mass, and 99 percent of its water vapor and aerosols. The average ceiling of the troposphere is approximately 17 km in its middle latitudes. It is deeper in tropical regions (up to 20 km more), and is shallower near the earth’s poles (about 7 km in summer, and an indistinct measurement in the winter). The remaining portion of the homogeneous atmospheric area is known as stratosphere. One of the specific features of the troposphere, which distinguishes these two regions, is a rapid decrease of the concentration of water vapors reliant on elevation. In fact, the humidity level is highly dependent on weather conditions. The main characteristics of the troposphere are air pressure,
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usually measured in millibars, the absolute temperature, measured in kelvins, and absolute humidity, also measured in millibars. Based on numerous observations and collaborative measurements carried out worldwide in 1925 the International Commission for Aeronavigation introduced the “International Standard Atmosphere”, which was later renamed, and is called now the Standard Troposphere. It represents a hypothetical troposphere with characteristics that are averaged from the measurements to portray all locations and seasonal influences. Those characteristics are noted below [7]:
• A sealevel air pressure of 1013 millibars
• A constant vertical gradient of the air pressure of negative 120 millibars per kilometer
• A sealevel temperature of 290 K
• A constant vertical gradient of the air temperature equal negative 5.5 K per kilometer
• Relative humidity of 60 percent, which is assumed to remain elevation independent. The average vertical profile of the temperature is:
Here
T
0
= 290
T(h)= T − 5.5⋅ h
_{0}
.
(1.1)
K and elevation _{h} in kilometers. (1.1) may be understood based on the
following rationale: the tropospheric air is transparent to solar thermal radiation; thereby it does not cumulate the heat directly from solar radiation. The bulk of that thermal radiation penetrates through the troposphere freely and reaches the earth's surface, where it is absorbed. The air layers adjacent to the earth’s surface become heated due to heat transfer and air convection processes. The higher the elevation, the less is the effect of these processes, resulting in linear decay of the temperature given by expression (1.1). A similar linear vertical profile is specific for averaged tropospheric air pressure ^{1} . As noted later in chapter 5, from the viewpoint of atmospheric propagation problems analysis, the most important parameter is the dielectric permittivity of the atmospheric
^{1} As noticed from numerous observations, for the altitudes higher than 10 km the linearity of the vertical profile of mean temperature and air pressure becomes significantly destroyed. However, the atmospheric air at those high altitudes is extremely sparse; therefore those distortions do not play a significant role in propagation mechanisms specifically on radar and communication paths.
13
air. It closely relates to the refraction index, defined as: _{n} _{=} _{ε} . The mean value of
tropospheric air refraction index, being tightened to atmospheric air characteristics, appears as a smooth, linearly decaying function of elevation (see section 5.3). At the same time a large number of globally noted experiments and measurements, undertaken over many decades, have demonstrated existence of seasonal and random fluctuations of atmospheric air in all atmospheric regions. In the troposphere the main mechanism of their generation is stipulated by the horizontal and vertical movements of air masses. Under proper conditions those movements become turbulent, i.e. the air masses of different refraction indexes are mixed randomly in space and time resulting in random spacetime fluctuations of the refraction index. These turbulent movements may be observed in the visible region of the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation in multiple ways to include the twinkling of stars, the wavering appearance of objects seen over the earth's surface that is heated by sun, and the conversion trails left by the exhaust gases of aircraft jet engines. The same processes take place in radio frequency bands, and all of these examples demonstrate that the air in the troposphere is present in a random, erratic flow. The stratosphere does not alter the propagation of radio waves significantly, as it is the atmospheric region containing fairly constant gaseous, whose composition is of a very low density. The Ionosphere is the upper part of the earth’s atmosphere which extends from 60 kilometers upwards. At these elevations the atmospheric air becomes ionized, i.e. the neutral atoms and molecules split into positively charged ions and free electrons. This state of matter is called plasma. Regarding the latest data obtained from the ionospheric research, the upper border of the ionosphere is above 20,000 km. Ionization of atmospheric air is caused by intensive radiation flow, emanating from the outer space that is sometimes referred to as cosmic rays. Cosmic rays are the intensive flow of a variety of elementary particles and photons ^{1} composed of a wide range of energies. A major contribution to the total intensity of those radiation comes from the sun. Physics courses will teach that in order to ionize the gas cloud, (i.e. to tear off an electron from
^{1} Acting as “the envelopes” of electromagnetic waves, photons are often considered as particles, due to some properties that are specific to the elementary particles. For instance, these particles are able to eject the electrons from the atom's boundary by bombarding them, or bouncing them from each other like the balls in billiard game.
14
an atom or a molecule) a quantum of energy greater than a work function,
W
e
is to be
applied. This amount of energy must be expended to break the bond between electron and atom (or electron and molecule), relative to each particular type of atom (or molecule), and may be acquired from the composite parts of cosmic ray, i.e. from this radiation that comes from outer space. Forms of this radiation may include:
• Elementary particles (protons, neutrons, electrons etc.), or
• Photons of electromagnetic character, such as ultraviolet, Xrays and
_{γ} _{−} radiation.
Hence, two types of ionization are to be distinguished: (1) StrikeIonization, caused by particles, and (2) PhotoIonization, caused by photons. For photoionization the energy carried by photon must be greater than, or equal to the work function, i.e.
h f
≥
W
e
,
(1.3)
where: h =
photon. The maximum wavelength (threshold wavelength) of the radiation, which is able to cause the ionization, may be found from (1.3) as
6.626 10
⋅
− 34
J ⋅ s
is a Planck's constant, and _{f} is the frequency of the
λ
_{≤} λ
max
_{=}
ch
W e , min
,
(1.4)
_{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} c
=
3 ⋅ 10
8
m / s
is the speed of light in free space ^{1} , and W
e, min
represents the
minimal energy in joules that a single particle or photon in a cosmic ray may have. That portion of energy may also be expressed in electronvolts (eV), if the relation
1
J =
1.6 ⋅ 10 ^{−}
19 eV is applied. Among the composite gases of atmospheric air, nitrogen
oxide has lowest value of the work function, W
e
=
W
e , min
=
1.48
⋅
10 ^{−}
18 J . Thus the
maximum wavelength of radiation that is able to ionize this gas is found from (1.4) as
λ
max
^{=}
0.134 µ
. From (1.4) one also may realize that only the ultraviolet radiation, as
well as the radiation of the shorter wavelengths such as Xrays and _{γ} _{−} radiation, are
able to cause the ionization of atmospheric air. From numerous observations and
^{1} Note that the ionization process itself does not depend on the intensity of radiation, but instead on the wavelength of the ionizing radiation.
15
measurements it has been concluded, that the photoionization in the real atmosphere is
caused by radiation in the range of wavelengths from 0.03 to 0.14 _{µ}_{m}_{.}
The ionization degree of atmospheric air may be expressed by the number of free electrons per unit volume (predominating per cubic centimeter), which is known as the
concentration of electrons (or plasma concentration),
N
e
. An experimental graph of the
vertical profile of ionospheric plasma concentration is shown in Figure 1.2.
Figure 1.2 Vertical profile of plasma concentration in the real ionosphere
The ionization of atmospheric air starts from the height of about 60 km on upwards. It is shown analytically [7] that for the hypothetical homogeneous gaseous composition of the atmosphere and for the exponential model of the vertical profile of air pressure, the singlelayered vertical profile of the plasma concentration will be obtained when the ionizing radiation is monochromatic. However, in real conditions for a complex structure of air composition, as well as for the complex mixture of ionizing radiation (multiparticle and multiphoton cosmic rays), the vertical profile of the ionospheric plasma concentration becomes multilayered (stratified) as shown in Figure 1.2. As may be noted from that figure, four layers exist during the day: Dlayer (60 to 90 km), Elayer (90 to 120 km), F _{1} layer (180 to 230 km), and F _{2} layer (230 km and up). A sporadic E _{S} layer of fairly high plasma concentration may appear and disappear randomly. Starting from elevations of about 400 km and higher, there is no stratification, but only a smooth decrease of the concentration of ionospheric plasma.
16
Aside from ionization, there are also recombination processes, where randomly roaming free electrons may collide with positively charged atoms and molecules, resulting in the recovery of neutral particles. It thereby becomes plain, that the rate of the recombination process is as great as the number of free electrons and positive charged particles, i.e. as great as the corresponding plasma concentration. Consider a limited spatial volume of initially neutral atmospheric air is being ionized. Then, after ionization is complete, ( i.e. plasma is generated) the considered volume will remain neutral overall, due to the number of generated negative free electrons remaining equivalent to the number of positively charged atoms, or to the molecules with an equal amount of total charge. Initially, when ionizing radiation is applied to neutral gas, the rate of generation of charged particles is nearly constant, causing an increase of plasma concentration. When plasma concentration increases, after a certain period of time a balance between ionization and dissociation will be achieved, so far as the rate of
recombination is proportional to the ionospheric plasma concentration
N
e
. Thus, the
plasma's concentration stabilizes after the transition period ends. Typically the ionization and recombination processes are in balance at noon and at midnight; whereas during sunrise (or sunset), when the radiation coming from the sun appears (or disappears) this balance is destroyed, and smooth changes of the ionization concentration (increasing in the morning hours, and decreasing in the evening hours) may be observed. This phenomenon results in the disappearance of two layers during nighttime hours: the D layer and the F _{1} layer. Only two of the overall layers, namely the Elayer and F _{2} layer, will remain during nighttime hours, with a plasma concentration that is much less than it is during the day (Figure 1.2). Finally, it must be noted that the profile of ionospheric plasma concentration shown in that figure is simply a graph of the averaged values
of
N
e
. In reality, there are random fluctuations of
N
e
around each point of the graph,
similar to those occurring in a refraction coefficient of troposphere. There are several
factors, which cause the fluctuations of
N
e
:
o 
Random fluctuations of intensity of the ionizing radiation emanating from outer space 
o 
Turbulent movements, caused by horizontal and vertical drafts of the ionospheric plasma 
17
o Fast invasion of micrometeors and cosmic dust, acting as an additional source of the ionization, causing highly ionized and randomly distributed prolonged paths of ionizations
o Magnetohydrodynamic waves originated by the influence of the earth's magnetic field in the presence of mobile masses of ionized air. These random fluctuations of ionospheric plasma concentration result in random scatterings (not reflections) of t radio waves, which are most intensively observed in HF and VHF bands.
1.4 CLASSIFICATION OF RADIO WAVES BY PROPAGATION MECHANISMS
Two types of radio waves propagation are: (1) guided propagation, and (2) free (unguided) propagation. Free (unguided) propagation of radio waves occurs between corresponding antennas in the earth’s atmosphere, underwater, or in free space ^{1} ; in contrast to guided propagation which occurs in manmade guiding systems, such as wirelines, coaxial cables, waveguides, and optical fibers. However, only free propagating radio waves are subjects for detailed consideration in this textbook. The following terms are introduced for classification of radio waves by propagation mechanisms between transmitting and receiving antennas:
1.
A direct radio wave (or simply “direct wave”) is a radio wave that propagates from
a transmitting to a receiving point over “an unobstructed ray path” [3], i.e. over
the trajectory that is either a straight line, or close to one. One example of a direct radio wave is a radio wave that propagates via an earthtospace (uplink),
spacetospace, or spacetoearth (downlink) path of a satellite communication system (see Figure 1.3a).
^{1} Free space is defined as "Space that is free of obstructions and that is characterized by the constitutive parameters of a vacuum" [3].
18
Figure 1.3. A). Direct radio wave, b). Reflected radio wave, c). Scattered radio wave, d). Diffracted radio wave
A reflected radio wave (or a reflected wave) is a wave that travels to the receiving point
via a reflection from a boundary of two media, where the boundary of a size that is much larger than a wavelength and is relatively close to the flat surface ^{1} . The examples portray radio waves traveling to the receiving point via reflections are: the reflections from the earth's surface or via structures such as landscapes, metallic bodies placed into orbits, etc. Near ideal reflection occurs via the ionized layers in ionosphere, when the radio wave of low frequencies (up to 30 MHz) propagates between corresponding points
A and B, as shown in Figure1.3b.
3. A scattered (or secondary) radio wave is one that appears when the scatterings take place during propagation. Scatterings may be observed when the radio wave stochastically reflects from a rough, random surface with the average size of the roughness comparable or less than the wavelength, or during propagation of the radio
wave through a medium which contains randomly shaped and/or spacetimedistributed irregularities. Typically these volumetric scatterings are observable when the dimensions
of scatterers (or random globules) are comparable or less than the wavelength itself.
^{1} The IEEE standard definition [3] is as follows: “For two media, separated by a planar interface, that part of the incident wave that is returned to the first medium.”
19
Each globule then plays the role of a secondary (virtual) radiator of the random origin. A superposition of the multitude of secondary waves that arrive to the receiving point B produce the resultant field. Radio waves scattered from the smallscale irregularities of the refractive index of tropospheric air may be considered as an example of a secondary radio wave (Figure 1.3c). These random irregularities exist in the lower portion of the atmosphere, or the troposphere (even in clear atmospheric air), as turbulences caused by the horizontal and vertical movements of atmospheric air masses. The random volumes of the irregularities of atmospheric air are able to scatter the microwaves effectively within wide range of angles. That effect is the main mechanism of longrange propagation of DMW and CMW, which are able to propagate over the horizon for distances of many hundreds of kilometers. This phenomenon is known as far (overthe horizon) tropospheric scatter propagation of microwaves, or as troposcatter propagation. The scatter propagation caused by the irregularities of ionization in the ionosphere is another example of propagation by the mechanism of secondary radio waves. Those irregularities are mainly generated by smallscale particles (micrometeors) and dust coming from outer space. These particles contain highly ionized footprints with an average length of several meters. Therefore the phenomenon of scatter propagation through the irregularities of the ionosphere takes place mainly with radio waves within the VHF frequency band. Note, that both micro meteors and space dust are present in the ionosphere permanently, so these types of secondary waves may be observed all day long, regardless of the season. 4. A diffracted radio wave (or simply a diffracted wave) is defined as “an electromagnetic wave that has been modified by an obstacle or spatial inhomogeneity in the medium by means other than a reflection or refraction” ^{1} [3]. As known from the college physics course, any material body placed across a propagation path may be considered as an obstacle only if its linear dimensions are comparable or greater than the wavelength. Otherwise the wave will spill over that material body (i.e. will diffract on it) and will easily arrive at the observation point placed behind the obstacle. For a rough estimate of propagation distance one may take into account that the diffraction will take place when
h ≤ λ
, where _{h} is shown in Figure 1.3d. The following approximate geometrical
^{1} Later we will use the term “refraction” to identify the bending of the propagation path in the stratified troposphere, or ionosphere, and the term “refracted wave” to identify the wave that penetrates from one medium into the second through their interface.
20
relations may be written based on an expansion of the cos Θ into Taylor's series for
small Θ angles. In fact, for real conditions the propagation distances are much smaller
than the earth’s radius: _{a} _{=} _{6}_{3}_{7}_{0} km. Thus
Θ
2
≈
a
1
−
1
2
Θ ^{2} a
=
8
1
Θ
h
=
a
−
a
cos
−
2
4
, 
(1.5) 
(1.6) 
where
represents a geocentral angle between corresponding points A and B, and r indicates a curvilinear distance (arc) between those points. Taking into account the formula _{h} _{≤} _{λ} ,
as well as (1.5) and (1.6) one may define a maximum distance of the propagation of a diffracted wave as
Θ = r / a
r
≈
(1.7)
or, by expressing r in kilometers and λ in meters, we may obtain
r kilometers
≈ 7
(1.8)
The expression (1.8) portrays a rough estimate of the limits of propagation distances through diffraction mechanism, for radio waves of differing frequency bands. From expression (1.8) it may be noted that the greater the wavelength and the longer the propagation distance, the easier the diffraction can occur. This mechanism creates more favorable conditions for the propagation of the radio waves at frequencies less than 30 kHz, at which the propagation distances may reach up to 1000 km. On the other hand, for higher frequencies such as HF, the diffraction mechanism of propagation may not be considered as an essential propagation mechanism as the maximum distances of HF propagation, caused by the diffraction, become almost equal or even less than the Line OfSight (LOS) ^{1} distance, while the real observations portray the distances as much greater than as noted from (1.8). The set of terms, “direct”, “reflected”, “scattered”, and “diffracted” relate to the mechanisms specifying how the radio wave arrives the observation (receiving) point.
^{1} “LineofSight” is a term that is common to the propagation paths in frequency ranges VHF and higher. The higher a frequency, the closer propagation properties are to those of the optical waves.
21
Now we present another set of terms, which allow the classification of radio waves based on spatial area that the propagation paths are traveling through:
1. A sky wave (or ionospheric wave) is “…a radio wave that propagates obliquely toward, and is then returned from the ionosphere”. [3].This type of radio wave is localized in the spatial region between the ionosphere and the earth’s surface, and is shown in Figure 1.3b. It is thereby evident that it may also be called a reflected wave, if we intend to specify the mechanism of propagation. Note, that the long range propagation distances of HF radio waves are stimulated by the mechanism of subsequent reflections of sky waves from the ionosphere and the earth's surface. These results in propagation distances of thousands of kilometers (see Figure 1.4).
Figure 1.4. Illustration of the ionospheric propagation mechanism of the HF radio waves
2. A ground wave is a radio wave that propagates “From a source in the vicinity of the surface of the earth, i.e. a wave that would exist in the vicinity of the earth's surface in the absence of the ionosphere” [3]. Two ground wave modes may be considered as independently existing:
A surface wave is a nonTEM mode that propagates along the earth’s surface and is guided by the airground boundary; this type of wave is specific to radio waves generated by “so called” lowelevated antennas ^{1}
^{1} Antenna elevation above the earth’s surface that is close to, or less than a wavelength
22
A space wave is a superposition of direct and groundreflected TEM waves in the vicinity of the earth’s surface; this type of wave is specific to radio waves generated by so called highelevated antennas ^{1} , mainly in frequency ranges of VHF and higher. Per above definitions, one may conclude that the contribution of each component into the ground wave depends strictly on the radiating antenna height above the earth's ground surface. For an antenna with an elevation of several or more wavelengths above ground level (highelevated antenna) the space wave component of the ground wave is predominant. Otherwise, for a lowelevated antenna, i.e. for an antenna with an elevation that is comparable or less than the wavelength, the surface wave component will become predominant. These issues will be discussed further in chapter 4.
1.5 INTERFERENCES IN RF TRANSMISSION LINKS
The quality of information transmission, via a radio transmission link between corresponding points, as well as the quality of radar performance, is highly impacted by the presence of disturbances to the desired signal’s reception path. The term interference is commonly used in communications engineering practices to manifest those disturbances of a desired signal. Meanwhile, in physics and in electromagnetic theory the same term is used to convey the superposition of the considered electromagnetic wave intermingling with other electromagnetic wave(s): either of different origin, or of the same origin, but arriving at the observation point from different propagation directions. In this section we will amplify the first meaning of the term interference. However, the second meaning will be examined in the following chapters. Interferences typically destructively impact the content of information received, vs. the information actually transmitted. Considered as destructive random processes, which
^{1} Antenna elevation above the earth’s surface that is greater than several wavelengths. In order to be considered as a highelevated antenna, the feeding line must be nonradiating.
23
occur in the receiving mode, these interferences may come into view in two different forms:
• They may be in the form of random fluctuations of the parameters of the desired signal. For instance, when a monochromatic signal ^{1} passes through the propagation path, then both the amplitude and the phase of the signal will randomly fluctuate. The rate of these random fluctuations is much less than the rate of the oscillations of the signal’ carrier; as typically the quasiperiod of random fluctuations is hundreds of milliseconds and up. Thereby, the fluctuations may be simply interpreted as multiplications of the amplitude of the signal by slow random variable(s). This is similar to passing the signal through a linear twoport network with a randomly fluctuating transmission coefficient, where the input signal and voltage (or current) is multiplied by the transformation coefficient of a random character to determine the output. Hence, this type of interference is referred to as multiplicative interference, or simply signal’s fading. This form of interference is originated in the propagation medium, i.e. along the propagation path.
• Another form of interference appears in both the propagation medium and in conjunction with the receiver (including a receiving antenna). It occurs independently and simultaneously with the desired signal, superimposing (overlaying) to the desired signal, and is therefore known as additive interference, or in simple terms: noise. In contrast with fading, this type of interference may be specific to an extremely wide spectrum, affecting all applicable RF frequency bands
Based on the above definitions, the output signal of the receiver may be written in time domain as
~ s (t)= κ(t)⋅ s(t)+ n(t)
.
(1.9)
Here _{s} _{(}_{t}_{)} notes the desired signal, _{κ}_{(}_{t}_{)} is the multiplicative interference, and _{n}_{(}_{t}_{)}
represents the additive interference. Both, _{κ}_{(}_{t}_{)} and _{n}_{(}_{t}_{)} indicate random processes.
^{1} To present a strict approach, the quasimonochromatic signals are to be discussed, simply because any information carrying, modulated signal is never purely monochromatic. However, in practice, RF signals that are transmitted through propagation paths are narrowbanded in most cases, thus they may be considered as monochromatic for analytical purposes.
24
To present an example of multiplicative interference, the fading of the voice volume of an HFbroadcast audio signal may be considered. Another example is the “deep fades” encountered with a receiving antenna output signal, which is indicated by secondary troposcatter associated with overthehorizon microwave radio links. Two types of multiplicative interference, the slow and fast fading of signal level ^{1} , are presented in the classification chart shown in Figure 1.5. Additionally, a display of seasonal variations of
a received signal is included (conventionally), to indicate a multiplicative interference. The uniform hum of an HFbroadcasting receiver’s audio output may be considered as an example of additive interference(s) which permanently exists, regardless of the existence of a desired signal within a broadcasting channel.
In Figure 1.5 below, the reader will find clarifications for the classification of additive interference types (noise(s)). Beneath Figure 1.5, interference / noise types are defined
in greater detail.
Figure 1.5 The classification of interferences associated with RF links
^{1} Occasionally the seasonal variations of signal levels may also be considered as an example of multiplicative interference. However, they may be excluded if the preknown character of those variations is accounted for.
25
1. Receiver noise (or internal noise): A noise type that appears in different areas of the predetection (linear) section of receivers including antennas, feeders, RF and IF amplifiers, filters, etc. The nature of inner noise is stipulated by several physical phenomenons to include:
Random thermal movements of free electrons in resistors, conducting wires, antennas, and associated elements: The longterm averaged summation of vector velocities for electrons is zero. Therefore, if no outer forces are applied, there is no draft of the electron cloud within the circuit. For shorttime periods, the chaotic motions of electrons result in “jumps” (short pulses) of current/voltage; and the overlay of a large number of these short and overlapping pulses emanates as a steady hum, which is known as thermal noise. The spectrum of thermal noise covers the entire RF range, and the higher the temperature, the more intensive are the movements are and bigger the power spectral density of thermal noise. However, thermal noise may exist even without a current flowing through the associated element
The discrete character of associated particles, i.e. electrons or vacancies, when flowing through an active electronic component, such as a diode, transistor, running wave tube, etc. may cause a random sequence of splashes within the current contained in the circuits. This phenomenon is known as shot effect. However, it will not occur if the current is sufficiently large, as the natural averaging effect of a larger current will flatten off the fluctuations of the current. It is only for small currents flowing through a component that the shot effect becomes significant. This is particularly specific to the first conducive stage of RF signal amplifiers (typically placed right at the receiving antenna output, i.e. before the feed line associated with receiver). 2. External noise: This noise type usually penetrates into the receiver from the propagation medium. The three types of external noises are described as follows:
• Manmade noise: Examples of manmade noise include the noise generated by the ignition system of automobiles, powerful electric motors, power transmission lines, and high power distribution equipment as well as by other residential and commercial systems. In these cases, electromagnetic energy will be radiated into our frequency bands of interest
26
• Atmospheric noise, which is generated by two sources, and therefore may appear within two types:
Lightening discharges within the troposphere, and
A steady noise background, generated by collisions between atoms and
molecules within the tropospheric air layer. The spectral density of the first type of atmospheric noise will typically be concentrated in the lower part of the RF spectrum; i.e. in a frequency range extending up to 30 MHz. For higher frequencies (i.e. VHF, UHF and higher) the intensities of this first type of noise may be ignored, as they are no comparable to the effects of the second type of noise. The second type of noise is characterized by “noise spectral power density”, which increases in direct proportion to the square of the frequency, and therefore, reigns significantly within the microwave frequency bands.
• Cosmic noise signifies the RF radiation emanating along the observation direction border(s) of outer space. The intensity of cosmic noise is reliant upon the location of where the receiving antenna is directed / aimed. Note that the ionosphere is impenetrable by radio waves with frequencies of less than 30 MHz, so this type of noise is applicable only to radio links at operating frequencies higher than VHF; most typically of those whose receiving antenna(s) is directed skywards ( i.e. for satellite downlinks). The RF thermal radiations of the earth's surface may also be considered as cosmic relative to these radio links. Numerous radioastrophysical observations have indicated that the most intense cosmic noise comes either from the sun, or the center of our associated galaxy i.e. the Milky Way, and/or from several other constellations within the universe. Additional details about interferences, and their estimates, may be found in chapter 6.
REFERENCES
[1] Maxwell, J.C., “A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field,” Proc. Roy. Soc., London, Vol. 13, 1864, pp. 531536 [2] Burrows, C.R., “The History of Radio Wave Propagation Up to the End of WWI,” Proceedings of the IRE, Vol. 50, 1962
27
[3] IEEE Standard Definitions of Terms for Radio Wave Propagation. Std 2111997 [4] Withers, D., Radio Spectrum Management, IEE Telecommunication Series 45, 1999 [5] Derek, M.K., Ah Yo, and Emrick, R., “Frequency Bands for Military and Commercial Applications,” Ch.2 in Antenna Engineering Handbook, 4th Ed. McGrawHill Co., 2007 [6] IEEE Standard 5212002 (Revision of IEEE Standard 5211984), IEEE Standard Letter Designations for RadarFrequency Bands, 2002 [7] Dolukhanov, M. P., Propagation of Radio Waves, Moscow, USSR: Mir Publishers,
1971
PROBLEMS
P1.1 Create a chronological timeline and place all the historical events described in section 1.1 into it. Use that timeline to indicate other events you have found from your own educational and/or professional career to archive the history of radio wave propagation theory and practice.
P1.2. Convert the following freespace wavelengths into frequencies and oscillation periods utilizing scientific notations and proper engineering prefixes if applicable: 300 km, 1m, 0.5 µm. Determine which frequency bands they are associated with:
Answer
Wavelength 
Frequency 
Periods of Oscillation 

300 km = 
3 ⋅10 
5 
m 
1000 Hz = 1 kHz (ELF) 
10 ^{−} 3 
s = 1 ms 

1 m 
3 ⋅10 
8 
Hz = 300 MHz (VHF) 
3.33 
⋅ 10 ^{−} 
9 
s = 3.33 ns 

0.5 
µ = 5 10 ^{−} ⋅ 
7 
m 
6 ⋅10 
14 Hz = 600 THz (visible light) 
1.67 
⋅ 10 ^{−} 
15 
s = 1.67 fs 
28
P1.3. Use expression (1.4) to calculate the ionizing radiation wavelengths (
λ max
thresholds) for the following componentgases of the atmospheric air, when the
ionization work functions
W
e
are given in electronvolts (eV):
Nitrogen oxide – 9.25
Atomic oxygen – 13.61
Molecular hydrogen – 15.42
Atomic hydrogen – 13.6
Answer: 0.134µ, 0.09131 µ, 0.0806 µ, 0.09135 µ P1.4. Based on the answer from Problem P.1.3, and the information from Table 1.3, assess whether or not ultraviolet radiation is able to ionize molecular hydrogen. (The answer is YES or NO; provide the numerical validation of your answer.)
P1.5. Determine the correct information to include, and populate the table below based on the material addressed in expression (1.8). Show the results for the wavelength limits provided for each frequency band. The following statement, "The greater the length of the radio wave, the bigger is the propagation range" may be concluded from this table. Would that statement prove true or false for all propagation cases? Explain your answer. Table P1.1
Maximum propagation
r
km
Band
Wavelength, _{λ} in meters
distances,
of radio waves,
in kilometers
LF
10 ^{3}  10 ^{4} 10 ^{2}  10 ^{3}
MF
HF
10

10 ^{2}
P1.6. What are the advantages of the increase in carrying frequencies supporting communication systems and radars? Additionally, how may that increase change radio link designs? Explain in your own words.
P1.7. While listening to an AM broadcast (particularly in the HFband), how may one identify the presence of multiplicative interference (fading), and additive interference (noise), and distinguish them from one another? Explain your answer in your own words.
29
CHAPTER 2. BASICS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES THEORY
2.1 ELECTROMAGNETIC PROCESS
2.1.1 MAXSWELL'S EQUATIONS OF ELECTRODYNAMICS ^{1}
Dynamic electromagnetic process is considered a unity of two processes, identified as timevarying electric and magnetic. Analytically, the unification of these processes is expressed by a system of Maxwell's equations, as follows:
∂ t
∇ ⋅ D = ρ
tot
_{∇} _{⋅} _{B} _{=} _{0}
(Ampere's law) 
(2.1) 
(Faraday's law) 
(2.2) 
(Gauss' law) 
(2.3) 
(Law of Continuity of Magnetic Field Lines) 
(2.4) 
In this system of equations, _{E} and _{H} represent electric and magnetic field strengths
respectively, whereas _{D} and _{B} represent electric and magnetic induction vectors (or electric and magnetic flux density vectors) for particular points of space. These vectors
are further coupled by constitutive parameters of medium _{ε} ,
ε
0
, _{µ} , and
µ
0
.
D
=
ε ε E
0
, and B
=
µ
0
µ H .
(2.5)
Here absolute dielectric permittivity and absolute magnetic permeability of free space (vacuum) are
^{1} The term "Electrodynamics" is utilized here to describe the area of "Electromagnetism" relative to timevarying electromagnetic processes, in contrast to "Electrostatics" and "Magnetostatics" which are to represent to areas of study relevant to timeconstant electric and magnetic fields, respectively.
30
ε
0
=
1
36
π
10 − 9
F/m, and
µ
0
=
4 π ⋅
10 ^{−}
7 H/m
(2.6)
respectively, whereas _{ε} and _{µ} signify relative dielectric permittivity (dielectric constant)
and relative magnetic permeability (magnetic constant) specific to the particular medium. All media herein are categorized based on _{ε} and _{µ} as follows:
1). Constant and parametric media presenting time dependence 2). Homogeneous and inhomogeneous media presenting spatial dependence 3). Specific character such as isotropic (for scalar _{ε} and/or _{µ} ), and anisotropic (for
tensor _{ε} and/or _{µ} ), media
4). Linear, if _{ε} and/or _{µ} are field intensity independent, and nonlinear, otherwise.
If the relations in equations (2.5) are taken into account, then equations (2.1) and (2.2) may be rewritten as:
∇ × H
∇ ×
E
_{=} ε ε
0
= −µ
0
, 
(2.1a) 
(2.2a) 
Per expressions (2.1a), (2.2a), and (2.3), one may realize that electric and magnetic field
vectors _{E} and _{H} interrelate and are coupled to the volumetric total conducting electric
current
J
tot
and volumetric total electric charge
ρ
tot
. They both (
J
tot
and
ρ
tot
) are
defined by the presence of the same electric charges (electrons, ions) that are able to move freely within the considered spatial area ^{1} . Therefore, it is not surprising that they are coupled by the law of current continuity:
∇ ⋅
J
= −
∂
ρ
tot
∂ t
.
(2.7)
The movements of free electric charges may be stipulated either by external force, or by internal electromagnetic field, once it's generated so far by the externally forced movements of charges. Thus, the total conducting current and charge may be presented as sums:
J
tot
=
J
Ext
ρ tot
= ρ
Ext
+ 
J 
(2.8) 
+ ρ 
(2.9) 
^{1} Here defined in contrast to the bonded charges, such as those bonded to the crystalline lattice of solid matter.
31
Here
J
Ext
and
ρ
Ext
represent the components of the current and charge that are
stipulated by external source(s), and _{J} and _{ρ} induced by the electromagnetic field
within the medium that contains free moving charges. It’s well known, that Coulomb's force, applied to the charged particle, is in direct proportion to the amount of charge and
the electric field intensity. Therefore current _{J} is expected to be in direct proportion to the electric field as well:
_{J}
_{=} _{σ} _{E}
(Ohm's Law in differential form)
(2.10)
The coefficient _{σ} is called a conductivity of the medium, and is proportional to the concentration of free charges (i.e. proportional to volumetric density of free electric charge) in considering point of space. If equations (2.8) and (2.10) are substituted, then (2.1) may be rewritten as:
∇ × H
= ε ε
0
∂ E
∂ t
+
σ
E
+
J
Ext
.
(2.1b)
The physical meaning of the first term, in right hand side, translates to a volumetric current density that exists in space, regardless of the existence of free charges, i.e. it is stipulated in dielectric medium (or vacuum) by the time variations of the electric field. This term is conventionally known as a volumetric displacement electric current, or
displacement electric current volumetric density,
By analogy, the right hand side term in equation (2.2) is known as a displacement magnetic current volumetric density. The importance of these two displacement currents is difficult to overestimate. Indeed, only these currents are accountable for keeping the electromagnetic process running, as they permit continuous energy exchange between electric and magnetic fields within the united electromagnetic process. The balance of energy interchange within the spatial area containing the electromagnetic process may be assessed as follows:
First we multiply both sides of equations (2.1b) and (2.2) by _{E} and _{H} respectively, and subtract equation (2.1b) from equation (2.2). Next, we will refer to identity (A1.2.4.2), given in Appendix1, which may be applied to the left hand side to result in the following equation:
J dis
.
H ⋅(∇ × E )− E ⋅(∇ × H )= ∇ ⋅(E × H )
(2.11)
Now use the transforms that are applied to the right hand side:
32
−
E
σ
⋅
J
Ext
E
2
−
=
E
⋅
J
Ext
.
(2.12)
Here, the expression in parenthesis represents the energy per unit volume (volume density of energy) cumulated by electric and magnetic fields respectively. The second term represents the power loss per unit volume, due to finite conductivity of the medium. The higher the conductivity of medium, the greater is the rate of collisions of charge carrying free particles within the crystalline lattice, and therefore the rate of transformation of energy of the electric field into heat is increased. The last term in equation (2.12) represents solely the power of the external source implemented into the electromagnetic field. Now we may integrate both, right and left hand sides, presented by the equations (2.11)
and (2.12) respectively within the volume _{V} that contains an external source
J Ext
.
Here
∫
V
W
m
[
∇ ⋅
(
E
×
H
)]
dV
=
= −
∂
∫
V
µ µ
0
H
2
∂ t
2
dV +
∫
V
= (1/ 2)
∫
V
µ µ
0
2
H dV
and
ε ε
0
E
2
2
dV
−
∫
V
σ
2
E dV
W
e
= (1/ 2)
∫
V
ε ε
0
2
E dV
−
∫
V
E
⋅
J
Ext
dV
.
denote total energies
(2.13)
cumulated within volume V by magnetic and electric fields,
P
L
=
∫
V
σ
2
E dV
denotes the
total thermal loss of power of the electromagnetic field within volume _{V}_{,} and
P
Ext
= −
∫
V
E
⋅
J
Ext
dV  the total power given to the electromagnetic field by the external
source ^{1} . The identity (A1.2.2.2), given in Appendix1 that is known as Gauss theorem, may be applied to the left hand side of equation (2.13), namely as:
∫
V
[
∇ ⋅
(
×
E H
)]
dV
=
∫
S
(
)
E
×
H
d S ,
(2.14)
^{1} The negative sign indicates a power that is inserted into the electromagnetic field, in contrast to the positive power that is subtracted from the field.
33
Here the volume integral is replaced by the integration along the closed surface S, which
surrounds volume V. Note that _{d} _{S} illustrates a vector surface element directed outward
of the volume, normally to the surface at the considering point. Therefore, equation (2.13) may finally be rewritten as:
P Ext
=
∂
∂ t
(
W m
+
W
e
)
+
P
L
+
∫
S
(
E
×
H
)
⋅
d S
.
(2.15)
This is a mathematical formulation of the balance of energy of the electromagnetic field known as Poynting theorem: the amount of power given to the electromagnetic field by the external power source within a limited spatial area:
• Is partially consumed to increase the energy stored by electric and magnetic fields in that spatial area
• Is partially dissipated within the volume as a thermal power loss
• Partially flows away from the volume as a radiated power
The surface integral in the right hand side of equation (2.15) allows introduction of a vector of power flow density known as Poynting vector, which shows the amount of power passed through the unit surface that is placed orthogonal ^{1} to the direction of flow in a particular point of space.
_{Π} _{=} _{E} _{×} _{H} ,
(2.16)
It may be seen from (2.16) that the unit for the Poynting vector, i.e. for the unit for the
power flow density (magnitude of vector _{Π} ) is: (V/m)·(A/m)=W/m ^{2} . Figure 2.1 shows the transformations between timevarying electric and magnetic fields, within the electromagnetic process, as it follows from Maxwell's Equations.
^{1} If the unit surface is not orthogonal to vector _{Π} from (2.16), then a scalar product is appropriate.
Namely in equation (2.15), the arbitrary oriented elementary surface _{d}_{S} is represented by the
surface element vector _{d}_{S} , so the scalar product _{Π} _{⋅} _{d}_{S} represents an infinitesimal amount of
power that flows through that element.
34
Figure 2.1. Sketch of the main constituents of the electromagnetic process
The external source of electric current
time variant magnetic field, at any arbitrary point A, appears as a source of displacement
J Ext
generates the initial magnetic field _{H} . The
electric current
µ µ
0
∂ H
∂ t
, which forces the generation of the electric field _{E} .
Consequently, a time varying electric field _{E} , at the point B, appears as a source of
displacement magnetic current
ε ε
0
∂ E
∂ t
that initiates the secondary magnetic field _{H} ′ ,
and so on. This process may remain infinitely long in time, if there are no losses in considering spatial area, i.e. if the conductivity of the medium is equal to zero.
2.1.2. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS OF ELECTRODYNAMICS
Maxwell's Equations noted in (2.1) – (2.4) represent differential equations in partial derivatives. In a spatial area free of sources, the electromagnetic field is to be considered standalone, as an independently existing form of matter. The first two Maxwell’s equations are utilized here to describe the interrelations between electric and magnetic fields, and may be rewritten as:
35
∇ × H
∇ ×
E
= ε ε
0
= −µ
0
∂ t
µ
∂ H
∂ t
,
(2.17)
(2.18)
Here _{J} depicts a conducting current from Ohm's Law, defined by equation (2.10). (2.17)  (2.18) is a system of two first order linear equations with two unknowns being
depicted as _{E} and _{H} . As evident in collegiate mathematics, a general solution of the system contains arbitrary (undefined) integration constants, creating a multivalued (ambiguous) solution. For real conditions, when configuration of boundaries between mediums is known, the initial conditions may be set up to calculate those integration constants. In electrodynamics applications, the initial conditions are conventionally called boundary conditions, because they represent the act of "bonding" (restraining) the values of electric and magnetic fields to those boundaries. In other words, these boundary conditions allow transformation of a general solution of Maxwell's equations into a particular solution that is specific for the given configuration of the boundaries in which the electromagnetic field is being defined. That particular solution is known as a boundary value problem. For more consistency we will now consider those conditions in detail. First, we take volume integrals of equations (2.3) and (2.4) within a volume _{V}_{:}
∫
V
∫
V
(
∇⋅
(∇⋅
D
)
dV
B
)
dV
=
=
∫
S
∫
S
D
⋅
dS
=
∫
V
B
⋅
dS
= 0
ρ tot
,
dV , 
(2.20) 
(2.21) 
Within these equations, the divergence theorem is utilized (see (A.2.2.2) in Appendix A). Here S denotes a closed surface representing the boundary of the volume V. The vector
surface element _{d} _{S} is always directed outbound to volume V. This volume
encompasses a part of the boundary between two mediums via constitutive parameters
(
ε , µ , σ
1
1
1
) and (
ε
2
, µ , σ
2
2
) as shown in Figure 2.2.
36
Figure 2.2. Integration area in (2.20) and (2.21) integrals
Additionally, n indicates a unit vector normal to boundary of mediums and directed from medium2 towards medium1.
As _{D} and _{B} vectors are specific to any particular point of space, then we may choose to minimize volume V enough to allow uniformity of the field distribution within that
volume as well as on its boundary. Taking that fact into account we may write the following expression
D
⋅
d S
= (
D
1
⋅
n
)
dS
=
D
n1
dS
for the top base of cylinder, and
D
⋅
d S
= −(
D
2
⋅
n
)
dS
= −
D
n2
(2.20a) 

dS 
(2.20b) 
for the bottom base of cylinder, wherein
field inductions vectors and their normal components of the first and second media respectively. These vectors and their components are considered to be constant along the top and bottom surfaces ∆S, as mentioned above. Hence, the left hand side of
D
1
,
D
n1
and
D
2
,
D
n2
represent the electric
equation (2.20) indicating the _{D} vector flow through the closed surface may be rewritten as:
∫
S
D ⋅ dS =
[(
D
1
− D
2
)
⋅ n
]
∆S =
(
D
n
1
−
D
n
2
)
∆S + Ξ
D
.
(2.22)
Here the first term in the right hand side shows a _{D} vector flow through both bases of
the cylinder, and
is evident, that if we shrink the cylinder vertically towards the boundary of media, i.e.
take _{∆}_{h} _{→} _{0} , then
Ξ
D represents a flow through the side surface of the cylinder. Hence it
Ξ
D
will disappear.
37
The right hand side of expression (2.20) represents a total charge enclosed within the
volume _{V}_{.} If
ρ tot
is considered as a volumetric charge density, then obviously for
_{∆}_{h} _{→} _{0} the right hand side of expression (2.20) will also disappear. However, for a wide range of electromagnetic problems, free charge is allocated within a tiny layer directly atop the boundary surface of two media. With that, it is appropriate to consider a surface
charge
atop the boundary ^{1} . Thus, the right hand side of equation (2.20) may be represented as
ρ
S
that is distributed in a minute layer of infinitesimal thickness per unit surface
ρ
S
∆
S , and finally that expression may be transformed into the following equation:
(
D
1
− D
2
)
⋅n = D
n
1
− D
n
2
= ρ
S
.
(2.23)
Similarly expression (2.21) may be transformed into the following:
(
B
1
−
B
2
)
⋅
n
=
B
n
1
−
B
n
2
=
0
.
(2.24)
Equations (2.23) and (2.24) represent boundary conditions for the components of electric and magnetic fields that are normal to the boundary of two mediums. As one may conclude, the normal component of the magnetic field flux density consistently remains continuous across the boundary between mediums, whereas the normal components of the electric field flux density may have a discontinuity if a free surface charge exists on the boundary, i.e. exists within infinitesimal layer that surrounds the boundary of two media. Now, the boundary conditions may be evaluated for the tangential components of the electric and magnetic fields if (2.17) and (2.18) are integrated within a surface _{S} (ABCD)
residing across the boundary and orthogonal to them as shown in Figure 2.3.
^{1} Such charges do not exist in nature, thus this solution simply represents a mathematical
abstraction.
38
Figure 2.3. Integration area in surface integrals (2.25) and (2.26)
∫
S
∫
(
∇×
(
∇×
)
H
⋅
d S
)
E
⋅
d S
J 
⋅ 
d S 

, 
(2.25) (2.26) 
displays a surface vectorelement that is directed orthogonal to the
surface ABCD, with
0 as a unit vector orthogonal to that surface. Now we apply the
s
Stoke’s theorem (see (A1.2.2.1) from the Appendix1) to the left hand side of the equation (2.25):
∫
(
∇×
H
)
⋅
d S
=
∫
H
⋅
d S .
S Contour ABCD
(2.27)
It is apparent from Figure 2.3 that the integration path along the rectangular contour ABCD may be expressed as:
∫
H
⋅
d S
=
H
1
⋅
AB
+
H
2
⋅
CD
Contour ABCD
+
Int
,
(2.28)
Where Int represents a lineintegral along sides BC and DA of height _{∆}_{h} . That integral
will disappear for the vanishing height of the rectangle, i.e. for _{∆}_{h} _{→} _{0} . If the following
three unit crossorthogonal vectors
s
0
, _{n} , and
l
0
are positioned as it is shown in Figure
2.3, then the vectors _{A}_{B} and _{C}_{D} may be replaced by
_{A}_{B} _{=} _{l}
0
_{⋅} _{∆}_{L} _{=}
(s
0
× n)⋅ ∆L
CD = − l
0
∆L = −(s
0
transformations as:
× n)∆L
. Then, expression (2.28) may be rewritten after simple
, and
39
lim
∆
h
→ 0
∫
H
⋅
d S
=
[
Contour ABCD
=
[ n ×
(
H
1
H
1
s
0
)]
×
⋅
(
n
s
0
⋅(
− H
2
)−
⋅(
H
2
s
0
×
n
∆L
)
.
)
] ∆
L
=
(2.29)
The first term in the right hand side of (2.25) will vanish to zero when _{∆}_{h} _{→} _{0} , as well as
will a second term, except in the case when the conducting current _{J} has a surface instead of spatial, distribution (i.e. flows into a layer of infinitesimal thickness along the
boundary of mediums as shown in Figure 2.3). Hence if
conducting current, then the second term in the right hand side of formula (2.25) may be
replaced by the flow of
J
S
represents a surface
J
S
through the line segment MN as shown:
∫
J
S
MN
⋅
(s
0
⋅
dL)
=
(J
S
⋅
s
0
)
∆
L
.
(2.30)
Making (2.29) and (2.30) equal will result in:
[n × (H
1
− H
2
)] = J
S
,
or, in scalar form:
H
1τ
− H
2τ
= J
S
.
(2.31)
(2.31a)
The above procedure may be repeated for expression (2.26), and will result in:
[
n ×
(
E
1
− E
2
)]
=
0
,
or, in scalar form:
E
1
τ
−
E
2
τ
= 0
.
(2.32)
(2.32a)
Physical meaning of equations (2.31) and (2.32) is defined as follows: Tangential components of the electric and magnetic field strengths remain continuous across the boundary of two mediums, unless there exists surface current flowing on the boundary that results in a jump of the tangential component of the magnetic field strength. That jump is equal to the value of that surface current density. In some of applications in antennas and microwave theory a boundary with perfect electric conductor (PEC) is of interest, and is identified for its infinite conductivity, i.e. for
_{σ} _{=} _{∞} . Based on expression (2.1a), for the spatial areas free of sources (
becomes evident that the electric field must be assumed to be equal to zero due to the
J
ext
= 0)
, it
fact that the induced conducting current _{σ} _{E} may not be infinitely large. The absence of
the electric field results in the absence of the magnetic field, thereby indicating an absence of the entire electromagnetic process within the PEC medium. Hence, the
40
boundary conditions (2.23) (2.24), (2.31), and (2.32) may be rewritten for the PEC boundary via the following formulations:
E ⋅ n = E
=
ρ
S
n .
ε ε
0
H
⋅
n
=
H
n
= 0
.
n × H = J
n × E = 0
S
,
,
or
or
H
τ
E
τ
= J
S
= 0
(2.33)
(2.34)
(2.35)
(2.36)
From formulas (2.33) through (2.36) one may conclude, that the tangential component of the electric field and the normal component of the magnetic field on the boundary of PEC are always equal to zero, i.e. the electric fieldlines are always perpendicular to the PEC boundary, whereas the magnetic fieldlines are always tangential to it.

Example 2.1 The slope angle of electric field lines changes when passing from one medium into
another as shown in Figure E.2.1. Find the angle
and there are no surface charges distributed along the boundary of those media.
α
2
if
ε
1 =
5
,
ε
2
=
1 , angle
α 1 = 60
0
,
Figure E.2.1. Sketch of the electric field lines on the border of two media
•
tan
α
1
=
E τ
1
E n 1
,
• Based on (2.32a)
E
1τ
tan
= E
α
2
=
^{E} τ
2
E n 2
2τ
. Thus,
.
E
n
1
41
tanα
1
= E
n
2
tanα
2
.
Solution
• Based on (2.23) for
ρ
S
= 0
we may assume:
ε E
1
n1
= ε
2
E
n 2
. By substitution into
the previous expression we may derive finally:
α
2
= tan
−
1
11.3
0
.
(Answer)

2.1.3. TIMEHARMONIC ELECTROMAGNETIC PROCESS. CLASSIFICATION OF MEDIA BY CONDUCTIVITY
If time variations of electric and magnetic fields in dynamic electromagnetic processes are assumed to be harmonic (sinusoidal), which is of predominant interest in science and technology, then significant simplifications in Maxwell's Equations may be achieved by applying a complex variables analysis. If, for example, timeharmonic oscillations of
the electric field are presented analytically as E cos(ωt + ϕ) , then transformation into
complex form E exp[i (ωt + ϕ)] allows representation as follows ^{1} :
E cos(ω t + ϕ ) = Re{E exp[i (ω t + ϕ]}= Re{E exp[iω t] exp[iϕ]}.
_{(}_{2}_{.}_{3}_{7}_{)}
The most attractive feature of complex analysis is the fact that time derivatives (or time integrals) may simply be replaced by multiplication (or division) by the factor _{i}_{ω} , which
transforms differential equation into algebraic. Indeed
∂ t
exp[ (ω + ϕ)]}= ω{ exp[ (ω
i
t
i
E
i
t
+ ϕ)]}
.
(2.38)
Even a timeharmonic multiplier, exp( i ω t) may be cancelled out of Maxwell's
equations. Maxwell's equations are written now not for the timevarying electric and magnetic fields but for their vectorphasors, such as:
E = x
0
E
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