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SCIENTIFIC REPORTS

imposed strains – Part I: Modelling

D. Pettersson and S. Thelandersson

Div. Structural Engineering, Lund University, Sweden

Paper received: January 11, 2000; Paper accepted: May 19, 2000

A B S T R A C T R É S U M É

In the present paper, a technique for the modelling of Cette publication présente une modélisation du développe-

crack development in reinforced concrete structures ment des fissures dans les constructions en béton armé soumis à

exposed to imposed deformations is described. In a sec- des déformations. Dans une deuxième publication, des études

ond paper, parametric studies are performed for a wall paramétriques sont réalisées sur un mur encastré à la base.

fully restrained at the base. The objective of this research L’objectif de ce travail est de permettre à l’ingénieur de mieux

is to improve the control of cracking in engineering contrôler le développement des fissures.

design. Un modèle bi-dimensionnel aux éléments finis à quatre nœuds

A two-dimensional Finite Element model with four- est utilisé pour simuler le comportement du béton. Les efforts

node elements is used to simulate concrete. Closing internes de fermeture des fissures sont modélisés par des éléments de

forces in cracks are modelled with spring elements. The raideur. Ceux-ci sont déterminés par la relation contrainte d’adhé-

spring stiffness is estimated from bond stress – slip rela- rence - glissement pour l’armature et pour le ramollissement en trac-

tions for reinforcement and tension softening of con- tion du béton. Le cisaillement de l’armature est également inclus

crete. Yield of reinforcement is also included in the dans le modèle. Un changement de température simule le charge-

model. Temperature change is used as load and the cal- ment, et les calculs sont réalisés par étapes, en contrôlant l’écarte-

culations are performed stepwise with opening of nodes ment des nœuds et l’ajout d’éléments de raideur.

and implementation of spring elements. Il est démontré que le ramollissement en traction du béton

It is shown that tensile softening of concrete can be peut être négligé, mais l’existence de multiples fissures doit être

neglected but multiple cracking must be considered in prise en compte dans l’analyse. La progression des fissures dans la

the calculations. The progression of cracking in the construction est simulée dans l’analyse. Les résultats présentés

structure is simulated in the analysis. Results are given in illustrent le développement des fissures en fonction de l’augmenta-

terms of development of crack width with increasing tion de la température. La largeur des fissures atteint une valeur

temperature load. The crack widths approach an upper maximale pour des températures élevées. Le modèle proposé peut

limit for large temperature loading. The proposed model également être adapté à d’autres structures et d’autres modes de

can also be adapted to other structures and restraints. contrainte.

necessary to create a new crack, see e.g. Jaccoud [1] and

Control of cracking of concrete structures is impor- CEB [2]. Cracking due to imposed deformations was

tant in engineering design, but often treated in a rather studied with a one-dimensional model by Reinhardt [3]

crude way. This is especially valid for structures exposed and Nagy [4].

to imposed deformations. Reinforcement is used to limit For other types of structures and boundary condi-

the crack width by creating several narrow cracks instead tions, the approach in [1] and [2] will probably lead to an

of a few wide-open cracks, but it does not prevent crack- overestimation of minimum reinforcement and thereby

ing. The required amount of reinforcement to limit the more expensive structures with decreased functionality.

crack width is normally based on the concept of a con- Crack spacing and crack widths from imposed deforma-

crete bar fixed in both ends where the capacity of the tions in concrete walls fully restrained at the base were

Editorial Note

Prof. Sven Thelandersson is a RILEM Senior Member.

1359-5997/01 © RILEM 7

Materials and Structures/Matériaux et Constructions, Vol. 34, January-February 2001

e.g. dealt with in ACI Commitee 207 [5], Rostásy [6], concrete outside cracking zones is assumed to behave lin-

Kheder et al. [7] and Iványi [8]. Stoffers [9] indicated that early elastic. The behaviour in the vicinity of cracks is gov-

the restraint at the base has a crack distribution effect erned by tensile softening/cracking of concrete and closing

also for non-reinforced walls. This effect gives that rein- forces imposed by reinforcement crossing the crack. Both

forcement ratios lower than minimum reinforcement these effects are modelled by springs in element bound-

also will limit the crack widths. Iványi [8] also showed aries, with stiffnesses estimated from simplified considera-

that the minimum reinforcement can be reduced for tions of fracture mechanics and bond - slip behaviour of

base restrained walls. Harrison [10] showed the inf lu- reinforcement, respectively.

ence of the restraint for walls and some other structures.

For further studies of crack widths and crack spacing,

improved methods are needed that can be used for dif- 2.2 Characterisation of spring properties

ferent structures and boundary conditions.

In development of crack calculation methods the The present model is based on the following concep-

focus must be on the cracking behaviour. Fracture tual behaviour. The cracking process starts when the

mechanics deals with the fracture process and softening tensile stress exceeds the tensile strength of the concrete.

of concrete in a single crack, see e.g. Karihaloo [11]. The Upon further deformation, the concrete exhibits soften-

closing forces in cracks mainly originate from the rein- ing, i.e. gradual decrease in tensile stress until an open

forcement crossing the crack, and are affected by the crack is formed, see e.g. Karihaloo [11]. At the same

bond of the reinforcement in the vicinity of the crack. time, reinforcement bars crossing the crack will be suc-

Tests of bond stress – slip relations were performed e.g. cessively activated so that the whole force is carried by

by Magnusson [12] and Bigaj [13], and are also reported reinforcement once the crack is fully open. In the soft-

in Concrete Manual [14]. Modellings of bond have been ening phase, load is carried by both concrete and rein-

done e.g. by Bigaj [13] and Lundgren [15]. For crack cal- forcement, and both effects are modelled by equivalent

culations in realistic structures modelling of the bond springs. When the crack is fully open, only the spring

behaviour must be simplified. representing reinforcement is active.

The studied cracks arise from a combination of

imposed deformations and restraint. CEB [16] deals with Concrete softening

imposed deformations in form of thermal effects. Crack Tension softening of concrete is assumed localised to

risks in fully restrained walls have been studied e.g. by the fracture crack plane and is described by a linearly

Emborg [17], and for walls and slabs with varying decreasing relation between stress σ and fictitious crack

restraint conditions by Pettersson [18, 19]. Crack devel- opening w. For this case, the fracture energy Gf is the area

opment in walls as field observations has been studied by under the σ-w curve. A characteristic length ch, which can

many e.g. Kheder et al. [7]. be seen as a material parameter, is defined as (see e.g. [11]):

The present paper is the first in a series of two. The G f Ec

research is part of a project with the aim to develop lch = (1)

improved methods for estimation of crack widths and fct2

crack spacing in reinforced concrete structures exposed where fct is the tensile strength and Ec is the elastic mod-

to imposed deformations. The cracking process in a wall, ulus of concrete. In the softening phase, the relation

fully restrained at the bottom, is analysed with the help between stress change ∆σ and change in crack width,

of a two-dimensional Finite Element model. Tension ∆w, is:

softening of concrete and yield of reinforcement are ∆σ = kc ∆w w < wo (2)

considered. The effect of reinforcement on crack width

under decreasing temperature is studied. The method where the incremental distributed (negative) stiffness of

can be applied to other structures and boundary condi- the concrete, kc [N/m3], during softening and the width

tions, and in the second paper parametric studies will be wo of the crack when it opens (when σ becomes zero), can

performed with the purpose to improve control of be expressed in terms of the material properties as:

cracking in practical design.

Ec

kc = (3)

2 ⋅ lch

2. MODELLING OF CRACK DEVELOPMENT

Closing effects of reinforcement

2.1 General The closing force of a reinforcement bar crossing a

crack is represented in the model by a linear spring with

The purpose here is to study crack development in stiffness Kr [force/unit length], connecting the opposite

realistic concrete structures and to find a method good faces of the crack. A linear bond stress-slip relation for

enough to estimate the crack widths and crack spacing one reinforcement bar is used to calculate the displace-

without studying the cracking process in detail. Therefore, ment u(0) of the bar relative to concrete at the crack

the strategy employed here is to find a model, which is faces. The spring stiffness Kr is then given by the relation

simple, but yet can describe the cracking process with suf- between the force in the bar and the slip 2⋅u(0), for the

ficient accuracy for the stated purpose. In the model, the two faces of the crack. This stiffness can then be trans-

8

Pettersson, Thelandersson

ness corresponding to a stress level equal to 0.8⋅bond

strength. The bond stiffness kb depends on test set up,

concrete quality and diameter. From test results pre-

sented in [12-14], kb can be estimated to 60 GPa/m for

ribbed bars with Φ = 12 mm. For bars with larger diame-

ter the value of kb is somewhat lower.

Fig. 1 – Boundary conditions for a reinforcement bar between In the tests, the reinforcement bars are normally con-

two cracks.

fined. For less confined bars in realistic structures the

curves are expected to develop in a similar way but with

formed into a distributed stiffness kr [N/m3] representing lower bond strength, which means that the same kb may

all bars crossing the crack. be used. In reality the action of reinforcement in con-

A general theoretical solution for the displacement crete is distributed along the bar a certain distance from

u(x) along a bar supported by linear, axially distributed the crack. In the FE-model with springs this action is

springs was first given by Volkersen [20]. Fig. 1 shows a described by a concentrated force in the finite element

bar between two cracks with spacing ‘2a’, and the corre- node in the crack. This simplification leads to an error in

sponding linear model. With the boundary conditions the local stress field, but will have negligible effect on

N(0) = P and u(a) = 0, the following solution is obtained: the global behaviour of the structure.

With kb = 60 GPa/m and Φ = 12mm Equation (5)

()

ux = P

λEs A Φ

[

cosh λx ⋅ tanh λa − sinh λx ] (4) gives λ ≈ 10 m-1. For λa ≥ 1.5 we have tanh λa ≈ 1. For a

12-mm bar this is valid when the crack spacing ‘2a’ is

where: larger than 0.3 m. This means that Kr is independent of ‘a’

except for highly reinforced structures which are highly

kb π ⋅ Φ

λ= (5) stressed so that the minimum crack distance becomes very

EsA Φ small. In the calculations, the spring stiffness K r in

and: Equation (6) was evaluated assuming tanh λa = 1, for the

P = the force in the bar crossing the crack [N] whole cracking process.

ES = elastic modulus for the steel [Pa] The modelling of bond behaviour used here is sim-

AΦ = cross section area for a bar with diameter Φ [m2] plified and associated with some uncertainty. The effect

kb = the distributed bond-slip stiffness along the bar, of bond properties on the cracking behaviour will there-

defined as the ratio between bond stress and slip fore be investigated in more detail in the second part of

[Pa/m]. the paper.

Equations (4) and (5) are then used to express the

spring stiffness Kr in the crack for one bar: Total spring stiffness

The average stress in the crack as function of the

Kr = P = λEs A Φ = k b π ⋅ Φ ⋅ Es A Φ

(6) crack width is illustrated in Fig. 3. The behaviour is gov-

()

2⋅u 0 2 tanh λa 2 tanh λa

erned by Equations (3) and (7). The average stress σy

The distributed spring stiffness in the crack from over the cross section at yield of reinforcement is σy =

reinforcement is given by fstρ. A minimum reinforcement ratio ρmin (= fct/fst ) can

be derived from the criteria of not exceeding the yield

K rρ

kr = K r n = (7) strength of the reinforcement at the onset of a crack.

AΦ

where:

n = number of bars per 1 m2 [m-2]

ρ = reinforcement ratio (As/Ac) [-].

Bond stress – slip tests with short embedment lengths

can be assumed to describe the local bond behaviour in

bars. A typical bond stress – slip relation from tests is

shown in Fig. 2. In the present context only the stiffness

Fig. 2 –

Bond stress

- slip rela-

tion from

tests, with

linearized Fig. 3 – Average stress in the crack as function of the crack width

stiffness kb. for reinforced concrete. The influences of changes in fct, fst and ρ

are indicated.

9

Materials and Structures/Matériaux et Constructions, Vol. 34, January-February 2001

ES = 200 GPa (E-modulus)

The concrete structure is modelled with plane finite fst = 600 MPa (tensile strength)

elements where the concrete is regarded as linear elastic. kb = 60 GPa/m (bond stiffness).

The cracking behaviour is modelled with non-linear

springs introduced in the nodes. The properties of the

springs have been described above. Two different 3.2 FE-model

approaches have been used in the analysis, an incremental

solution and a total method giving stepwise valid solutions. The FE-program ANSYS, version 5.4 was used for

The primary principle for the incremental method is the calculations [21]. The concrete structure is simulated

linear solutions of incremental changes in the system, with two-dimensional plane four-node elements, assum-

with updating of spring properties after each step, taking ing plane stress. The elements are chosen quadratic with

into account both softening of concrete and closing side length 0.1 m. The structure is fixed at the bottom

forces of the reinforcement crossing the crack. The and the symmetry of the structure is used to limit the

results from each step are superimposed to obtain the size of the problem. The predefined infinitely stiff spring

final solution. elements change status to simulate cracking.

In the stepwise valid solution method, the softening The number of temperature load steps is adapted to

of concrete is neglected and springs describing the effect cover a reasonable span of temperature decrease. The

of reinforcement are introduced successively. After each shape of the temperature change is regarded as a reason-

modification, the system is analysed and the range of able simplification with respect to outer temperature

validity of each solution is determined. The result is that changes and the influence from the ground.

the behaviour of the structure (including crack widths)

during the cracking process can be simulated, assuming

that softening of concrete can be neglected. 4. A STRUCTURE WITH A SINGLE CRACK

The Finite Element program can be set up to do this

automatically in a rather simple way, by introducing non- A crack predestined to the symmetry line of the struc-

linear spring elements in both x- and y-directions in all ture is studied with the purpose to compare the incre-

nodes from the outset. The properties of the springs will mental method and the method with stepwise valid solu-

change during the process from practically infinite stiff- tions. All calculations give that cracking first appears about

ness (before cracking) to a finite stiffness representing the 300 mm above the base where the temperature profile

closing force of reinforcement in the open crack and to a changes from linear to uniform, see Fig. 4. The crack then

prescribed force in the spring representing yield in the develops upward, but also a bit downward. The position

reinforcement. The cracking criterion is based on the of maximum crack width then moves upward, sometimes

magnitude of the force in the spring elements instead of all the way to the top of the structure.

element or node stresses, which also means that cracks Fig. 5 shows two curves for temperature change as

can only be created at element boundaries. function of maximum crack width for a high reinforce-

By comparing the two methods, it will be shown ment ratio, ρ = 0.020. Tension softening is influencing

below that it is reasonable to disregard the effect of soft- the incremental solution at smaller crack widths and

ening, for the present purpose. thereafter the curves are almost identical. Generally the

effect of softening is not significant. Calculations show

that the inf luence of softening further decreases with

3. THE STUDIED STRUCTURE decreasing reinforcement ratio ρ. The explanation for

this is that softening is only active in cracks with a width

3.1 Input data smaller than wo ≈ 0.1 mm. Softening is described with

the material parameter Gf. It is shown e.g. in Hillerborg

Fig. 4 shows the geometry for the studied structure

and the load in principle, given as a temperature decrease

in the wall relative to the base. The input material prop-

erties are representative for normal reinforcement and

hardened concrete. The effect of reinforcement in cracks

is described according to section 2.2 with tanh λa = 1.

Calculations are performed for reinforcement ratios, ρ,

from 0.001 to 0.020.

Concrete:

Ec = 32 GPa (E-modulus)

fct = 3.5 MPa (tensile strength)

ch = 0.4 m (characteristic length)

α = 10·10-6 K-1 (coefficient of thermal expansion). Fig. 4 – Geometry and temperature loading for the studied structure.

10

Pettersson, Thelandersson

Fig. 7 – Order of

cracking for

incremental

method (in the

symmetric half

of the struc-

ture).

Fig. 8 –

Temperature

loading - maxi-

Fig. 5 – Temperature change - maximum crack width, calculated mum crack

with the two methods. width curves in

principal for

structures with

one and several

cracks.

immediately after cracking for the second node from the

bottom in the symmetry line, here given for two

reinforcement ratios

∆T (°C) wmax (mm)

ρ = 0.005 (1 crack) 13.07 1.39.10-3

multiple cracking 13.34 0.88.10-3

ρ = 0.005 (1 crack) 13.09 1.16.10-3

Fig. 6 – Temperature change - maximum crack width, stepwise multiple cracking 13.24 0.77.10-3

valid solutions.

[22] that larger structures become more brittle and cracking. The short length of the cracks and small dis-

thereby the influence of softening decreases. The con- tances between them implies that the initial cracking

clusion is that softening can be neglected so that the sim- zone near the base can be regarded as a softening zone

pler method with stepwise valid solutions can be with more or less uniform softening.

employed especially for lower reinforcement ratios. Fig. 8 shows in principle the difference between the

Fig. 6 shows curves for different reinforcement ratios case when only one crack is allowed and the case with

ρ obtained with this method. Yield of reinforcement is multiple cracking. Table 1 gives, for two different values

shown as a descending of the linearly growing parts of of ρ, a comparison of the maximum crack widths imme-

the curves. A study of the stresses outside the symmetry diately after cracking for the second node from the bot-

line indicates stresses exceeding the tensile strength of tom in the symmetry line. It is seen that the crack is

the concrete. Thus, modelling which allows cracking formed at a higher temperature change for multiple

only in the symmetry line is not sufficient to estimate cracking and that the crack width becomes smaller. The

crack widths in the structure. arrow in Fig. 8 also illustrates this. The first crack in the

structure appears for ∆T = 12.8°C.

5.2 The method with stepwise valid solutions

5.1 The incremental method

This method is more convenient to use, but tension

Fig. 7 shows the order of cracking calculated with the softening of concrete has to be neglected. As indicated it

incremental method with the possibility of multiple is possible to neglect tension softening for one crack and

cracking implemented. The first crack (1) arises in the especially for lower reinforcement ratios. The influence

same position as for one crack. Vertical cracks are then of softening will be higher for structures with multiple

created with small distances from the symmetry line and cracking, because the crack width is spread out to several

outwards on the same level above the base. Cracks are cracks. As lower reinforcement ratios are of interest the

formed to about halfway to the end of the structure method is still regarded as sufficiently accurate.

before the second node in the symmetry line (X) is The order of cracking in structures for the method

11

Materials and Structures/Matériaux et Constructions, Vol. 34, January-February 2001

Fig. 9 – Order of

cracking for

stepwise valid

solutions (in the

symmetric half

of the struc-

ture).

first eight cracks. This order of cracking is in good agree-

ment with cracking observed in tests. The first crack will

arise in the symmetry line as for the previous cases. The Fig. 10 – Temperature change - maximum crack width, for dif-

ferent number of cracks.

second crack appears approximately in the middle of the

symmetric half of the structure. The next two cracks arise

in the fourth points of the structure. Then, four cracks

arise between the existing cracks. The first cracks are

developed to the full height before the next crack starts to

develop. Some variation of the order may arise for the later

cracks with varying reinforcement ratios.

Analyses were performed where the number of

cracks was artificially limited. Fig. 10 shows the maxi-

mum crack width as function of the temperature change

for different maximum number of cracks in the symmet-

ric half of the structure for ρ = 0.005. As is indicated in

the figure the number of cracks is very important for the

maximum crack width. Without restrictions on the

number of cracks the FE-calculations give that the num-

ber of cracks is limited to eight for temperature changes

up to 40°C. This gives a crack spacing of about 0.5 m, Fig. 11 – Temperature change - maximum crack width, for the

eight different cracks.

which is reasonable. For highly reinforced structures

with high temperature changes minimum crack spacing

may have to be imposed by restrictions in the program. For reinforcement ratios of 0.005 and higher the

The maximum crack width wmax may be located in influence of element size is small. For a reinforcement

any of the cracks and may also change position with ratio of 0.001 and side length 0.1 m, the crack width will

increasing temperature change. Fig. 11 shows the maxi- be overestimated with almost 20% compared to calcula-

mum crack width for each of the eight cracks for the case tions with smaller element. Elements with side length

with free cracking. The curves can be assembled to the 0.1m have been used to limit the size of the calculations,

curve for free cracking shown in Fig. 10. even though smaller element would have given a bit

As is shown, the different cracks develop towards more reliable results. The results from the calculations

almost the same crack width. The maximum crack shall not be interpreted in absolute terms, but will give a

width sometimes decreases with increasing temperature good estimation of crack widths and can be used for

change. The reason for that is that a new crack has been parametric studies.

formed and this leads to partial closing of the cracks in

the vicinity.

The order of cracking is given by Fig. 9 and cracks of 6. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

higher order starts at a higher temperature change. Note

the big difference in the starting temperature between A simplified FE-method to calculate crack widths and

the fourth and fifth cracks, which is explained by the crack distributions in reinforced concrete structures is pro-

cracking order. posed. Closing forces in cracks are modelled with spring

For multiple cracking the side length of the plane elements. The spring stiffness is estimated from bond stress

elements in the FE-model affects the crack widths. – slip relations for reinforcement and tension softening of

Larger elements give restrictions for the crack develop- concrete. Yield of reinforcement is also included in the

ment. This implies a bit larger crack widths for larger model. Temperature change is used as load and the calcula-

elements (see Fig. 10). This effect is small for higher tions are performed stepwise with opening of nodes and

reinforcement ratios. For lower reinforcement ratios the implementation of spring elements.

effect is increasing due to increased extent of yielding of Results are given as maximum crack widths as func-

reinforcement. tion of temperature change. It is shown that reinforce-

12

Pettersson, Thelandersson

cracking must be considered in the model to include the

crack distribution effect of the restraint at the base. [1] Jaccoud, J. P., ‘Minimum reinforcement for control of cracking in

Crack development for multiple cracking gives reason- concrete structures’, Thèse No 666. (École Polytechnique

Fédérale de Lausanne, 1987) (only available in French).

able crack spacing and crack widths approach an upper [2] Favre, R., (Chairman), ‘Design manual on cracking and deforma-

limit for high levels of temperature load. tions’, Bulletin d’information No. 158-E (CEB, Lausanne, 1985).

The errors related to simplifications in the modelling [3] Reinhardt, H. W., ‘Imposed deformation and cracking’, IABSE

are of minor influence. Most important for the results of Report 62 (Zurich, 1991). 101-110.

the calculations are reasonable input values. The used side [4] Nagy, A., ‘Cracking in reinforced concrete structures due to

imposed deformations’, Doctoral Thesis, TVBK-1012, (Lund

length for the plane element in the FE-model will give an Institute of Technology, Sweden, 1997).

overestimation of the crack width for lower reinforcement [5] ACI 207.2R-73, ‘Effect of restraint, volume change and rein-

ratios, but the results are still reasonably accurate. forcement on cracking of massive concrete’, (American Concrete

Imposed deformation originating from shrinkage in Institute, 1973).

the concrete is different from temperature action. In the [6] Rostásy, F. S. and Henning, W., ‘Restraint in reinforced walls on

foundations’, Beton- und Stahlbetonbau 84 (8), (9) (1989) 208-214,

model used here, with the action of reinforcement 232-237 (only available in German).

described by springs in cracks no distinction can be [7] Kheder, G. F., Al-Rawi, R. S. and Al-Dhahi, J. K., ‘A study of

made between imposed strain from temperature and the behaviour of volume change cracking in base restrained con-

shrinkage. crete walls’, Mater. Struct. 27 (171) (1994) 383-392.

In the case of shrinkage, additional restraint is [8] Iványi, G., ‘Remarks to minimum reinforcement area in walls’,

Beton- und Stahlbetonbau 90 (11) (1995) 283-289 (only available in

imposed on the concrete by the reinforcement, which German).

does not shrink. The onset of cracking due to shrinkage [9] Stoffers, H., ‘Cracking due to shrinkage and temperature variation

will occur somewhat earlier (at lower value of the in walls’, Heron 23 (3) (1978) 5-68.

imposed strain) than for temperature loading. The [10] Harrison, T. A., ‘Early-age thermal crack control in concrete’,

restraint from reinforcement in the case of shrinkage is CIRIA Report 91, Revised edition. (London, 1992).

[11] Karihaloo, L. B., ‘Fracture mechanics and structural concrete’,

imposed continuously along the structure in the same (Longman Scientific & Technical, England, 1995).

way as restraint acting on the side of the structure. This [12] Magnusson, J., ‘Bond and Anchorage of Deformed Bars in

means that the reinforcement will be more efficient in High-Strength Concrete’, Licentiate Thesis, Publication 97:1,

terms of crack distribution when the imposed strain (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, 1997).

originates from shrinkage. On the other hand the stress [13] Bigaj, A. and den Uijl, J., ‘Tension stiffening Simulation with

Confinement Based Bond Model’, in ‘Progress in concrete

in the reinforcement will be somewhat lower in the case research’, (Delft University of Technology, Netherlands, 1997)

of shrinkage since a moderate compressive stress is pre- 77-86.

sent in the reinforcement before cracking [23]. This [14] ‘Concrete Manual, Material, 2nd edition’, (Svensk Byggtjänst,

means that the closing effect in cracks by the reinforce- Stockholm, 1994) (only available in Swedish).

ment is somewhat smaller. In general, the crack widths [15] Lundgren, K., ‘Three-dimensional modelling of bond in rein-

forced concrete’, Doctoral Thesis, Publication 99:1. (Chalmers

should usually be about the same for shrinkage and for University of Technology, Sweden, 1999).

temperature action, although the cracking behaviour can [16] Falkner, H., (Chairman), ‘Thermal effects in concrete struc-

be slightly different. tures’, Bulletin d’information No. 167. (CEB, Lausanne, 1985).

The extreme case with a structure completely [17] Emborg, M., ‘Thermal stresses in concrete structures at early

restrained at the ends (and not at the sides) was studied ages’, Doctoral Thesis, 1989:73 D. (Luleå University of

Technology, Sweden, 1990).

by Thelandersson et al. [23]. For this particular case, the [18] Pettersson, D., ‘Restraint stresses due to uniform thermal action

crack width is slightly higher for shrinkage than for tem- in walls and floor of concrete on a frictional surface’, Report

perature action, but the difference is small for normal TVBK-7051 (Lund Institute of Technology, Sweden, 1996).

reinforcement ratios. For other types of restraint the dif- [19] Pettersson, D., ‘Stresses in Concrete Structures from Ground

ference can be expected to be even smaller [23]. Restraint’, Licentiate Thesis, Report TVBK-1014 (Lund

Institute of Technology, Sweden, 1998).

Finally, the given method is simple enough to make it [20] Volkersen, O., ‘Distribution of forces in rivet joints under ten-

possible to perform parametric studies to evaluate the effect sile loading’, Luftfahrtforschung 35 (1938) 41-47 (only available in

of reinforcement to limit cracking due to imposed defor- German).

mations. Another advantage of the method is that it can be [21] ‘ANSYS User’s Manual Revision 5.4’, (Canonsburg,

adapted to different structures and boundary conditions. USA,1997).

[22] Hillerborg, A., ‘Application of fracture mechanics to concrete’,

Report TVBM-3030 (Lund Institute of Technology, Sweden,

1988).

ACKNOWLEDGMENT [23] Thelandersson, S., Alemo, J. and Nagy, A., ‘Cracking of con-

crete structures due to imposed strains with regard to design of

Elforsk AB – the Swedish Electr ical Utilities reinforcement’, Mater. Struct. 31 (1998) 442-450.

Research and Development Company, financially sup-

ported this work.

13

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