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1 Viscosity ................................................................................................................ 2

## 1.2.2 Degree Engler ........................................................................................... 4

2 Viscometer ............................................................................................................. 5

## 2.7 References ...................................................................................................... 10

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1 Viscosity

Viscosity is a measure of a fluid's resistance to flow. It describes the internal friction of a moving
fluid. A fluidity large viscosity resists motion because its molecular makeup gives it a lot of
internal friction. A fluid with low viscosity flows easily because its molecular makeup results in
very little friction when it is in motion.
Imagine a Styrofoam cup with a hole in the bottom. If I then pour honey into the cup I will find
that the cup drains very slowly. That is because honey's viscosity is large compared to other
liquids' viscosities. If I fill the same cup with water, for example, the cup will drain much more
quickly. Another thing you should know is that the viscosity of liquids decreases with increase
in temperature while for gases, it increases with increase in temperature.[1]
1.1 Types of Viscosity and Coefficients of Viscosity
Newton's law of viscosity, given above, is a constitutive equation (like Hooke's law, Fick's law, Ohm's

law). It is not a fundamental law of nature but an approximation that holds in some materials and fails

in others. Non-Newtonian fluids exhibit a more complicated relationship between shear stress and

velocity gradient than simple linearity. Thus there exist a number of forms of viscosity:

• Newtonian: fluids, such as water and most gases which have a constant viscosity.

## • Shear thickening: viscosity increases with the rate of shear.

• Shear thinning: viscosity decreases with the rate of shear. Shear thinning liquids are very

## commonly, but misleadingly, described as thixotropic.

• Thixotropic: materials which become less viscous over time when shaken, agitated, or otherwise

stressed.

• Rheopectic: materials which become more viscous over time when shaken, agitated, or otherwise

stressed.

• A Bingham plastic is a material that behaves as a solid at low stresses but flows as a viscous fluid

at high stresses.

• A magnetorheological fluid is a type of "smart fluid" which, when subjected to a magnetic field,

greatly increases its apparent viscosity, to the point of becoming a viscoelastic solid.

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Figure.1 Shows Viscosity, the slope of each line, varies among
materials

## 1.1.1 Kinematic Viscosity

Kinematic viscosity is the ratio of absolute (or dynamic) viscosity to density a quantity in which no

force is involved. Kinematic viscosity can be obtained by dividing the absolute viscosity of a fluid

## dynamic viscosity (N s/m2) ρ = density

(kg/m3)

In the SI-system the theoretical unit of kinematic viscosity is m2/s - or the commonly used Stoke (St)

where

## 1 St (Stokes) = 10-4 m2/s = 1 cm2/s

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1.1.2 Bulk Viscosity
When a compressible fluid is compressed or expanded evenly, without shear, it may still exhibit a
form of internal friction that resists its flow. These forces are related to the rate of compression or
expansion by a factor called the volume viscosity, bulk viscosity or second viscosity.
The bulk viscosity is important only when the fluid is being rapidly compressed or expanded, such
as in sound and shock waves. Bulk viscosity explains the loss of energy in those waves, as described
by Stokes' law of sound attenuation.[2]
1.2 Other Viscosity Units
Following are the some viscosity

## 1.2.1 Saybolt Universal Seconds (or SUS, SSU)

Saybolt Universal Seconds (or SUS) is an alternative unit for measuring viscosity. The efflux time is
Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS) required for 60 milliliters of a petroleum product to flow through
the calibrated orifice of a Saybolt Universal viscometer - under a carefully controlled temperature
and as prescribed by test method ASTM D. This method has largely been replaced by the kinematic
viscosity method. Saybolt Universal Seconds is also called the SSU number (Seconds Saybolt
Universal) or SSF number (Saybolt Seconds Furol).

νSSU = B μ / SG

= B νcentiStokes
Where
νSSU = kinematic viscosity (SSU)
B = 4.632 for temperature 100 oF (37.8 oC)
B = 4.664 for temperature 210oF (98.9 oC) μ
= dynamic or absolute viscosity (cP)
νcentiStokes = kinematic viscosity (centistokes)

## 1.2.2 Degree Engler

Degree Engler is used in Great Britain as a scale to measure kinematic viscosity. Unlike the Saybolt
and Redwood scales, the Engler scale is based on comparing the flow of the substance being tested
to the flow of another substance - water. Viscosity in Engler degrees is the ratio of the time of a flow
of 200 cubic centimeters of the fluid whose viscosity is being measured to the time of flow of 200
cubic centimeters of water at the same temperature (usually 20oC but sometimes 50oC or 100oC) in a
standardized Engler viscosity meter.[2]

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2 Viscometer
Viscosity is a material's resistance to flow under an applied stress, expressed as shear stress divided
by shear rate.
Viscometers are instruments used to measure viscosity. Since viscosity cannot be measured directly,
viscometers are instead used to measure an experimental parameter that is related to viscosity in a
known manner. Although there are many different kinds of viscometers, this module will focus on
the three most common types.

## 2.1 Types of viscometer

Following are the some types of viscometer which is used to determine the viscosity.

## 2.2 Capillary Viscometers

In a capillary viscometer, a liquid is drained or forced through a fine-bore tube, and the viscosity is
determined from the measured flow rate, applied pressure, and tube dimensions.

## Figure 2. Shows Capillary Viscometer

To determine viscosity, the time for a given volume of fluid to travel a distance through the capillary
tube (either due to gravity or a driving force) is measured. Capillary viscometers are calibrated with
standard fluids of known viscosities. The viscosity of a fluid can be computed by multiplying the
time required for flow by a calibration constant. Capillary viscometers are used to measure the
viscosity of a wide range of diverse fluids. Common examples include petroleum products,
lubricants, adhesives, and sealants. Different models of capillary viscometers are used to measure

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specific types of fluids, such as opaque viscometers for darker fluids, or high-viscosity viscometers
for fluids with particularly high viscosities.

## 2.3 Rotational Viscometers

Rotation of the inner cylinder generates shear on the fluid, causing the fluid to flow within the
viscometer. The torque required to produce a given angular velocity, or the angular velocity resulting
from a given torque, are measures of the viscosity of the fluid.

Figure3.ShowsRotational
Viscometers

## 2.4 Falling Ball Viscometers

Falling ball viscometers determine the viscosity of a Newtonian fluid by measuring the velocity of a
ball moving through the fluid. A lower fluid viscosity results in less resistance to flow, which
corresponds to a faster velocity of the moving object.
A falling ball viscometer is shown below. The fluid is placed in a container, such as a graduated
cylinder. The motion of a ball, bubble, plate, needle, or rod through the fluid is monitored. The
velocity of the moving object is then used to calculate the viscosity of the fluid. Falling body

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viscometers are commonly used for low-viscosity substances in the pharmaceutical , food, chemical
and mineral oil industries. Specific examples include liquid hydrocarbons, sugar solutions, solvents,
and polymer solutions. Quality control of a milk processing system such as the one shown below
would rely on such viscosity measurements.

## 2.5 Oscillating piston viscometer

Sometimes referred to as electromagnetic viscometer or EMV viscometer, was invented at
Cambridge Viscosity (Formally Cambridge Applied Systems) in 1986. The sensor comprises a
measurement chamber and magnetically influenced piston. Measurements are taken whereby a
sample is first introduced into the thermally controlled measurement chamber where the piston
resides. Electronics drive the piston into oscillatory motion within the measurement chamber with a
controlled magnetic field. A shear stress is imposed on the liquid (or gas) due to the piston travel and
the viscosity is determined by measuring the travel time of the piston. Oscillating piston meter suited

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for viscous fluid (paint, resin, ink). They are used oil metering where turn down is not critical. They
can be used in the automatic liquid batching system. They are ideal for food and beverage application
(honey, chocolate).

## 2.6 Saybolt Viscometer

Efflux cup viscometers are most commonly used for fieldwork to measure the viscosity of oils,
syrups, varnish, paints and Bitumen emulsions. The testing procedure is quite similar to the
capillarytube viscometers where efflux time of a specified volume of fluid is measured through fixed
orifice at the bottom of a cup to represent the viscosity of the fluid. Since the viscosity of Newtonian
liquid

## Figure 6. Shows Saybolt Viscometer

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are independent of dimensions of viscometer used, it is possible to convert the efflux times to
kinematic viscosities by conversion charts or by formulas suggested by the equipment manufacturers.
When t < 100 secs, v = 0.226t - 195/t Centistokes When
t >100 secs,
v = 0.220t - 135/t Centistokes

The viscosity determinations should be conducted in a room free from drafts and rapid changes in
temperature the highest degree of accuracy.[3][4]

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2.7 References
1. Keith (1971). Mechanics (Third ed.). Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-07392-7.
2. Raymond A. Serway (1996). Physics for Scientists & Engineers (4th ed.). Saunders College
Publishing. ISBN 0-03-005932-1.

3. Kamrich, Jr., Peter, and Clifford K. Schoff. "Rheological Measurements" Kirk-Othmer Concise
Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology . 4th ed. Vol. 2. Hoboken, NJ:
WileyInterscience, 1999. 1760-764. Print.

4. Wilkes, James O. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers . Upper Saddle River, NJ:
PrenticeHall PTR., 1999. Print.

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